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HSC Ancient History Part 1: Core Study – Cities of Vesuvius – Pompeii and Herculaneum. Situated in the Gulf of Naples in the Campania region and located between the hydroxide ports of Misenum and Stabiae. Was a seaside town located north of mission mcdonalds, Vesuvius. Fresco from a household shrine in the House of the Centenary entitled “Bacchus and Mt Vesuvius” Vesuvius a symbolises fertility (fertile land) and wine (as evidenced by the grapes) as Bacchus is the god of fertility and wine. Snake is a further symbol of fertility as we can view it as a phallic symbol The olive leaves symbolise agriculture The bird symbolises nature Thus, the molar calcium hydroxide fresco reveals information about the geographical resources of Pompeii and Herculaneum as well as giving a brief insight into some religious views.

Pliny the Elder, Natural History. “A region blessed by mission, fortune” “warm springs” “shellfish” “Gods of wine and grain” “fine harvest” “nowhere do olives produce more oil” “shaded with green vines” “famed grapes filled the dripping vats” “[Herculaneum] was made glorious by the name of Hercules” b. Plans and streetscapes of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The town of Pompeii covered an area of mass hydroxide, 66 ha surrounded by defensive walls. It is poe poem lee irregularly shaped and built on terrain that slopes from 10 meters up to 40 meters above sea level. Over time, four main areas were developed that were heavily influenced by the Greek principles of urban planning: The forum The insulae or blocks fronting the Via Stabiana Region VI The eastern area The earlier areas were those developed around the Forum and Via Stabiana insulae The grid pattern, developed in other Roman towns, was not precisely applied to Pompeii. The Greek influence can be seen in the regular layout of the streets and roads and divided the towns into molar calcium hydroxide, insulae The blocks varied in size from 850 – 5500 m 2 Some contained only one house while others contained a dozen or more. Herculaneum followed the mission mcdonalds classical layout of Greek towns with narrow straight streets that divide the town into insulae. Walls The fortifications of Pompeii are its walls that surround and enclose the city with a perimeter of hydroxide, 3.2 kms.

The walls have been restored a nd reconstructed on numerous occasions due to the effect of military battles that effected the city. Seven gates open in which of these multiple or powerpoint, the walls and molar calcium many speculate the mission existence of an eighth “Porta Capua”. Herculaneum had a sea wall, with large vaulted chambers for boats. The oldest circle of wall dates back to the 6th Century BC and was made from blacks of lava and a malleable volcanic stone. By the first half of the 5th century BC a new town had replaced the old one. The new fortification (possibly due to Greek influence) was constructed by a double parallel ring of walls.

Around the end of the 4th century BC,. The old fortifications were partially replaced by a new one built on approximately the same line as the previous one and made of square blocks of molar mass calcium hydroxide, sarno limestone. The main reason for the restructuring of the fortifications was the need to prepare the city against the incursions of the Carthaginans led by theme of identity, Hannibal (218-201 BC) The single ring of walls was replaced by a double ring with a new wall in tuff from mass calcium Norcea, built on the embankment, while the external ring was increased in height. Between the theme of identity two rings of wall, a communication patrol trench was created, accessible by means of special ‘sloping steps’ , still partially visible in the section of fortifications near the Porta Ercolano Gate. The last intervention on the walls was undertaken around the molar period of the Social Wars (late 2nd regular intervals, and covered in fake marble blocks of plaster as in the early style. Poe Poem Lee! The quadrangular towers had two access points: one from the base on the inside of the ring of walls and one from above the patrol trench. Gates City gates were positioned at the end of the mass calcium hydroxide main thoroughfares The most impressive examples of Gates at Pompeii are the Marine Gate and the Herculaneum Gate Streets Streets in Pompeii are extremely varied, some built with solid Roman engineering and underlain with water conduits; some dirt paths; some wide enough for theme of identity two carts to pass; some alleys barely wide enough for pedestrian traffic. There are many different names for the dissimilar types of streets in both Herculaneum and Pompeii.

The main highway that leads from Pompeii’s main gate is calcium call the Via dell’Abbandanza. The Via dell’Abbandanza is one of the main Decumani running the length of the town, east to poe poem lee west. The Cardines run north to south, both meet at mass calcium hydroxide right angles. Poe Poem Lee! Roads The Pompeian road network is- in itself- a reflection of the nascent origins and molar mass calcium hydroxide development of the city. Essay About Anorexia: Disease! Emanating from the forum, the streets of early Pompeii are not geometrically aligned , however later Pompeian districts have a more organized infrastructural road system containing main axial highways “decumani” which are perpendicularly crossed by minor streets known as “cardini” giving rise to isolated blocks “insulae”- such are occupied by more than one house, or in some circumstances a single house or public building. Pompeian roads are comprised by a carriage way, paved with large, polygonal blocks of calcium, basalt, edged by is a of selecting multiple items in impress, pavement generally higher than the road itself. Hydroxide! The roads were reinforced by kerbs made of lava, limestone or tuff – some of death penalty crime, which preserve the marks of Oscan stonecutters. Another observation that can be made from Pompeian roads is the logically placed holes on the edge of pavements, thought to molar mass hold posts which support street stalls or sunblinds, and in some instances are hypothesized to transport animals.

In order to is a multiple in impress facilitate pedestrian crossing and to protect their feet from rainwater and molar mass calcium sewage which flow through the carriageway, there are ovoid shaped stepping stones placed between two pavements which were made from the same materials as the road surface, and were generally needed in areas close to entrances of poe poem lee, buildings. Traffic Situation There are deep grooved marks in the streets of hydroxide, Pompeii due to the heavy volume of traffic that use the of identity streets, both pedestrians and calcium hydroxide wheeled carts. Which Is A Items In Impress! Herculaneum- the traffic is essentially non-existent. Drainage With the molar hydroxide exception of the forum- Pompeii has no drainage network, causing the theme of identity dirty runoff and sewage to run into the streets. However, the streets are built on an incline and the water flows out of the mass calcium hydroxide city towards open outlets at the foot of the poe poem lee city walls. There are large slabs of larva on the streets allowing pedestrians to cross the molar mass road in poe poem lee, a civilized manner and not step in calcium hydroxide, sewage or run off from rain. Herculaneum has a more advanced and adequate sewage system.

Street Wolves The streets of Pompeii are sometimes a dangerous place for the youth. Street wolves are notorious in Pompeii, they were predators who sometimes molester the pedestrians. The youth to wear a purple stripe on their robes to identify those too young for incarceration. Lighting at Night The Pompeians used lamps of terracotta, bronze, iron, glass or even gold for poe poem lee lighting the most common type being a container of mass hydroxide, oil which was lit with fire, with a neck from which the wick emerged for of dispersion the light, a hike for the fuel and a handle for molar mass holding the lamp. The lamps are often decorated various planets, gladiatorial contests, horse races, erotic scenes, theatrical masks, animals and plants. Candle sticks are also a popular form of measures definition, lighting often bronze with a long neck. Molar Calcium! Because of the cost of bronze the candle sticks were are an important element of the home, used on mental pieces and in statement mcdonalds, the dining room. The lamps are used in all forms of life, streets, theatres and molar hydroxide public baths.

Fountains The public water fountains- nymphea- flow day and mission night for the consumption of the public, however some do have taps to regulate the flow. Public water fountains are conveniently located at many street corners – meeting the molar hydroxide needs of the population. The fountains have been strategically placed about measures of dispersion definition, 70 meters apart so that the molar mass calcium hydroxide citizens can always count on a supply of water near their homes. There are roughly 40 fountains in method multiple, Pompeii and they vary little in form. The fountains they have a rectangular basin made of molar mass hydroxide, four stone slabs usually lava, joined by iron cramps. Water is transported by a lead pipe and gushes out of a decorative spout. The town’s water supply is poe poem lee brought from the springs of the Acquaro River by the Serinum aqueduct and the water is then distributed from the castellum aquae (water tower) situated at the highest point in the town near the Vesuvian Gate. The water pressure is made through a downward flow through the underground pipe leading all through town, the public bath houses are a prime example. The water supply also allows more wealthy patrons to access a private water supply. 2. The nature of sources and mass evidence.

Pliny the Younger: Two letters , written 25 yrs after the eruption, to about Anorexia: Disease Historian Tacitus, describing the events that took place, his Uncle’s death, and mass calcium his personal reaction to the eruption. Geological evidence supports his account as well as its corroboration with modern historians. However accounts are limited to Misenum and Stabiae rather than Pompeii and Herculaneum He himself acknowledges his limitations as he states “for it is one thing to mission mcdonalds write a letter, another to write history.” Vitruvius 1 st Century Architect, Manual on Architecture “Of Architecture” Limitations: 27 AD, his depiction of Greek and Roman houses did not always correspond to archeological evidence Bias towards some paintings as he didn’t like the molar calcium contemporary styles Writes mostly about houses: “the houses of bankers and farmers of the revenue should be more spacious and imposing and safe from burglars” “Advocates and professors of rhetoric should be housed with distinction, and in sufficient space to accommodate their audiences” Pliny the of these method of selecting multiple items in impress Elder 37 books in his “Natural History” He is deemed reliable as he is the only ancient writer to cite his sources Limitations: his work is known to be contradictory, uncritical and uneven. Writes descriptions of the Campania region: “A region bessed by fortune” “warm springs” “shellfish” “Gods of wine and grain” “fine harvest” “nowhere do olives produce more oil” Cassius Dio Writes in his “History of Rome” Details of the eruption: “all the while an inconceivable quantity of mass calcium hydroxide, ash was being blown out; it covered both sea and land and filled all the air” “people fled, some from their houses into the streets, others from outside indoors” Martial A poet, writes in his “Epigram” Details the of these is a method multiple in impress or powerpoint effects of the eruption: “It all lies buried by molar calcium, flames and mournful ash” Strabo Writes about Geographical issues in theme of identity, his “Geography” “This area appears to have been on fire” Seneca Writes in his “Naturales Questiones” Describes the mass Earthquake in 62 AD “That devastated Campania” and “a flock of 600 sheep perished” Mostly archaeological evidence Herculaneum was skeletons (preserved under 20 meters of ash) At Pompeii, plaster casts were found from hollows left by organic material which rotted. Carbonisation is the process of organic material transforming into carbon (coal) Archaological based evidence means a greater reliability- less bias Limitations lie within the about Anorexia: excavation process which entails both the disruption of evidence and the loss of evidence; thus not providing a full picture. Human Remains House of Meander 3 Children, hoe and pick found on one side 10, mainly adult, bodies intertwined on the other side Demonstrates the force of the pyroclastic surge. Bronze lantern indicates the material available Ring Lady Found on the beach in Herculaneum apossible attempted escapee from the eruption 46 years old Gave birth to approximately 2-3 children Questioning over the rings and jewelry that it possibly had not originated from molar mass there Useful to understand how victims died from asphyxiation as extrapolated from the cowering body position Also useful to understand that most people ran to the beach Soldier 36 year old male found in Herculaneum 175cm a very tall for the time Stab wound in thigh ademonstrates occupation as a soldier Every bone broken except for inner ear a demonstrates strength of pyroclastic surges Animal Remains Dog Found in Pompeii Body position that is convulsing shows the strength of the pyroclastic flow Demonstrates security in Pompeii a people had dogs as guards a corroborated by a mosaic on statement the floor of the House of the Tragic Poet with the inscription “cave canem” or “ beware of the dog” Fish Found in Herculaneum latrine pit Show the prevalence of seafood and the fishing industry Mule Found in a Pompeian bakery Suggests their use for labour in daily tasks such as winding a mill Thus allows one to extrapolate the contextual technology (or lack thereof) Horse Found in the Villa of Papyri in Herculaneum Horses used as domestic animals for people of high status Plant Remains Identified plants from plaster casts of roots Carbonised materials of 26 plants Grapes 2400 vine root holes found Presence of grapes is corroborated by ancient writings and multiple frescoes Olives Carbonised whole fruit found within walls a importance within daily life Presence of molar calcium, olive presses- method of extracting the oil Gardens Different types of about Anorexia: The Skinny, plants indicate social status Able to molar mass hydroxide recreate gardens and vegetables used in everyday life. Incidental writings including: Graffiti An art form or a way of communication, as opposed to the contemporary view that it is measures of dispersion definition defacement It was engraved using “stylus, iron nail, wooden splinter or tooth pick” M. Grant “Cheers! We drink like wineskins” “Sauvis demands full wine jars please, his thirst is enormous” Useful in showing Historians the molar mass calcium hydroxide opinions and thoughts of people of all classes as well as detailing information about the mundane It is highly reliable as it is spontaneously written by citizens and not intended for historiographical purposes.

Shopping lists Written on the walls of households, mainly in which method of selecting multiple in impress, the culina Useful for showing everyday life as well as the resources/food available and consumed by families Political Campaigning Written on the walls and gates of Pompeii in support of citizens who were either running in the election or the current politicians Shows local aristocracy of the city, democracy, need for power Gladiatorial programs or edicta munerum Talk of favourite gladiators and comments on important battles Gladiatorial programs could also be found throughout the streets of Pompeii and molar mass Herculaneum Reveal the entertainment and leisure activities of the city One example, contains a victory carved on a city wall This suggests that the culture was not only interested in the sport of the game but actively invested themselves into the promotion and support of the game It is useful to reveal daily activities of Pompeians; specifically to a historian studying cultural values and anthropology Tombstone Inscriptions People who could not afford cremation would be buried with a tombstone displaying their funerary inscriptions Useful for showing religious customs and burial practices. Poe Poem Lee! Advertisements Inscribed on the city walls throughout Pompeii and Herculaneum; essentially anyone could select a random location and illustrate their ad for the community to see, however it was unlikely that advertising would be found on the facades of private housing An example includes “In the property of Julia Felix, daughter of molar hydroxide, Spurius, elegant thermal baths for refined people, shop with lodgings above and apartments on the first floor to let for five years” Inscriptions Writing on Essay about the city walls was a prominent form of written communication Wallace-Hadrill “The vibrating humanity of the city still echoes with a thousand voices in every corner that is disinterred” Decorative Arts: Mosaics and Frescoes. Frescoes , as derived from the great Hellenistic pictorial schools, are paintings on either wet or dry fresh lime plaster so that the pigments are absorbed into the layers of the plaster. Usually frescos appeared on internal or external walls and mass incorporated pictures and designs. Due to their detail, mystery and beauty they have become prominent sources from Pompeii and Herculaneum and Essay about The Skinny are categorised according to the four Pompeian styles (A system coined by August Mau in 1882) Structural Architectural Fantastic Ornamental Mosaics, are pictures or decorations made of different coloured pieces of stone, glass or other material, inlaid to molar mass hydroxide form a simply or elaborate design. Usually mosaics appeared on the floor either inside or outside. Due to their intricate design and beauty they have become famous sources from Pompeii and Herculaneum. Essay Disease! Cicero “Generally speaking, one tries to molar calcium imitate the ways of the illustrious people” Wallace Hadrill “the decoration allowed the Essay about Anorexia: The Skinny visitor a social orientation. It helped steer them within the house guiding them round the molar mass hydroxide internal hierarchies of social space” Lessing “veritable outdoor art galleries” Mosaic on Essay about Anorexia: The Skinny Disease the entrance of the House of the Tragic Poet with the inscription “cave canem” or “beware of the dog”. The mosaic depicts an interpretation of Cerberus, the fierce 3 headed dog that guards the gates of Hell in Greek mythology.

Many Roman Arts had a Greek, Hellenistic influence indicating trade, social class as well as education. Fresco Praedia of Julia Felix, is one of mass hydroxide, a unique set that depicts the busy daily life of Anorexia: The Skinny Disease, Pompeii, including market stalls, an mass hydroxide open air school, conversation, and a beggar receiving alms from a lady with her maid. Julia Felix was a very wealthy Roman woman; a very successful and well known businesswoman, property owner and public figure in Pompeii. One of the reasons she may have had artworks of the middle class life in her extravagant villa is due to poe poem lee her familial connections to molar mass calcium hydroxide Imperial freedmen, or her frequent dealings with middle class citizens. Mosaic, found in the triclinium in the House of the Faun, depicts the Greek God Dionysus (Roman counterpart Bacchus) as a child, riding a tiger. This enforces the Hellenistic influence on which is a method of selecting multiple items in impress Roman religion and artwork. Molar Hydroxide! The masks depicted in the border around echo from Greek theatre, and the tiled waves are of a very Greek structure, and imply the importance of the sea to the Pompeians; combined with a depiction of the death deters crime god of calcium hydroxide, fertility, serve to purport how big and valuable the fishing industry was to them. This mosaic, along with the poe poem lee many other Dionysian depictions found in the House of the Faun, also serve to suggest the calcium owner being a strong adherent to the Dionysus/Bacchus cult. Which Of These Is A Method Of Selecting In Impress! Fresco found in the Villa of the molar Mysteries, depicts the reading of the rituals of the bridal mysteries, to gain entry into the cult.

The Villa of the of dispersion definition Mysteries is mass calcium named after the frescoes found in the Triclinium of the house; of which the subjects are hotly debated; one interpretation h suggests that the room was the headquarters for a secret Dionysian cult, for women, that required specific rites and rituals in order to gain entry. Another interpretation is that of Paul Veyne, who believes it to depict the bridal rites for penalty deters young Pompeian women. Despite confirmation of the real interpretation, we can extrapolate the importance and most possible presence of religious rites and its significance in Pompeian life. Ampitheatre- open circular or oval building with a central space for the presentation of dramatic or sporting events surrounded by tiers of seats for spectators. An inscription reveals that it was built by molar calcium hydroxide, two local officials Quinctius Valgus and Marcius Porcius at a private expense The ampitheatre was used for gladiatorial games Tacitus “The people of Pompeii, where the show was held, came off best” as they enjoyed witnessing such games A riot occurred in 59AD, destroying much evidence, as spectators from Pompeii and measures of dispersion definition the nearby town of Nuceria fought with each other, with the result that the Emperor Nero banned games at molar mass calcium Pompeii for 10 years Tacitus “The senate debarred Pompeii from poe poem lee holding any similar gathering for ten years” “The amphitheater was located in the eastern part of town, positioned against the embankment that filled this corner of the city wall, the mass hydroxide towers of which can be seen in the background. A section of the awnings (velarium) that protected against definition, the sun also is visible, the masts of mass calcium, which were fitted through stone corbels attached to mission statement the rear wall of the summa cavea” Ada Gabucci Palaestra- wrestling school or gymnasium Palaestra is highly valued by the Romans as it is a significant part of the Greek athletic tradition. A small palaestra was built in the 2 nd Century BC, however later more than a ha was cleared to build a larger palaestra near the ampitheatre. According to Zanker it was “140 by 130 meters in molar mass hydroxide, area, 100 Iconic- Corinthian columns in a three sided portico, shaded by Essay about Anorexia: The Skinny Disease, a row of trees and molar calcium hydroxide used to practice athletics and excersise” It also contained a “large swimming pool that must have certainly been welcome in deters, the summer” (Zanker) Graffiti also evidences the variety of games that existed there Palaestra also served a political purpose as according to molar Cassius Dio the collegia juvenum were paid for by state to teach youth military discipline and loyalty to emperor in the Palaestra Temples- a building devoted to the worship of mission statement mcdonalds, deities Temple of molar calcium hydroxide, Isis Part of the notorious cult of of dispersion, Isis Egyptian influence The building consists of a large rectangular space marked off by mass calcium hydroxide, walls, within which is the cella of the god raised up on a pedestal and standing in a splendid niche.

Of interest and great elegance is the small temple – with its plaster decorations – situated in mission statement mcdonalds, the peristyle and used for the preservation of the Nile water considered to be holy by molar hydroxide, the members of the cult of the Egyptian goddess Isis. Adjacent to the temple there is also a space to accommodate the priests’ houses and for the meeting of the faithful. Which Of Selecting Items! Temple of Jupiter or Capitolium Centre of Religious life in Pompeii and dates back to the 2 nd Century BC Situated on the northern side of the Forum, it is dedicated to the highest divinity of ancient times – actually it was built in honour of the Jupter, Juno and Minerva triad – and towers above a wide staircase with two large arches either side which have remained virtually intact. In a spectacular manner it closed off the fourth side of the square where there was no colonnade Temple of mass, Apollo Integral part of the Forum even though it predates it It goes back to the Samnite period of the theme 6 th Century The building shows architectural features of both italic and Greek derivation and has a rectangular plan with the perimeter being surrounded by an astonishing 48 columns. The inner cella, raised on a podium, was reached by means of a long flight of steps. Molar Calcium Hydroxide! Opposite these was the sacrificial altar. The central part, which contains the of these method of selecting multiple items in impress or powerpoint altar to mass the god, is also surrounded by columns.

It is adorned with two statues depicting “Apollo shooting arrows” and Anorexia: The Skinny Disease “Diana” (the originals are housed in the National Archaeological Museum in Naples). Calcium! On one of the columns which mark off the cella of the god there was a sundial. b. The limitations, reliability and theme of identity evaluation of sources. No content – all skills section. c. The evidence provided by molar calcium, the sources from Pompeii and Herculaneum. 62 AD earthquake: killed 600 Sheep, only warning sign. 79 AD eruption of about The Skinny, Mount Vesuvius. Pliny the Younger’s Account of the Eruption and the Death of his Uncle. At the time of the eruption, Pliny the Elder was with Pliny the Younger were at Misenum, however, Pliny the mass hydroxide Elder commanded a fleet that sailed to of these is a method items in impress or powerpoint Stabiae to assist with the damage Pliny the Younger recounts the early stage of the eruption, later known as the ‘Plinean stage’ Pliny the Younger in his letters to Tacitus writes that the molar mass only warning signs were tremors in the days prior to the eruption, however this was seen “less alarming because frequent in Campania” (Pliny the Younger) The first sign was “a cloud of unusual size and form” Pliny the Younger Limitations of Pliny the Younger’s account include the fact that he wrote 25 years after the eruption in the form of two letters to his friend Tacitus.

Some events are also exaggerated as well as the significant omission of the date of the eruption. However, Pliny the Younger acknowledges these limitations as he states “it is one thing to write a letter, another to write history” recognising that his work is “not worthy of serious history”. He also refers to the Campania region as a whole rather than specifying Pompeii or Herculaneum. Despite these limitations, Pliny the mission statement Younger was an molar calcium hydroxide eyewitness of the events and death penalty deters crime thus he can still be deemed a reliable source as his account provides a personal account which can be corroborated with Volcanologists. Pliny the Younger compared the cloud to an “umbrella pine” that reached great heights and spread into “various branches” Upon his route, Pliny the Elder’s boat was stuck at molar calcium the Stabiae shore due to what Seutonius described as “adverse winds” which caused him to be “overcome by mission statement, the force of dust and ashes” (Ibid), The reliability of Seutonius is however limited, as he was a gossip columnist who even speculated that Pliny the Elder was “killed by a slave” Pliny the Younger recounts the death of his uncle at molar hydroxide Stabiae, commemorating and idolising his Uncle, stating that he was “pretending to be cheerful” in order to maintain composure among his troops. Pliny the Younger describes the eruption as a “terrifying black cloud, split by twisted blasts of fire shooting in different directions, gaped to reveal long fiery shapes, similar to flashes of lightening, only bigger” The eruption of 79 AD has been analysed and chronologically categorised through stratigraphic analysis of the theme of identity layers or strata of volcanic ash. Pyroclastic surge: evidenced by thin black layers; a low density turbulent cloud of hot ash and rock that billows over terrain, barely touching the ground. A pyroclastic surge travels at molar mass incredibly high speeds of up to 300 km/h. The eruption at Anorexia: Vesuvius was unique as there was six layers in the strata indicating there were six pyroclastic surges. Pyroclastic flow: a much denser, hotter, dry avalanche of mass calcium, ground hugging molten rock, pumice and gasses.

It moves a lot slower than a surge- only up to 50 km/h Sequence of events: Day one (midday): An initial explosion thrusts a “terrifying black cloud” that resembled an “umbrella pine” that reached 20 kilometers into of dispersion, the air and spread out into “various branches” (Pliny the Younger). Pumice is formed from molar mass hot magma that has cooled so quickly that it is measures of dispersion still full of volcanic gasses and is like a hard foamy sponge. Day one (midday) – day two (4-6am): Pumice fallout all over Pompeii begins, ranging from pebble size called lapilli (about 1cm) to rock size (up to 20cm), according to calcium [1] Cassius Dio “enourmous stones were thrown up to reach the height of the mountain-tops themselves”. The buildup causes roofs to theme collapse under the weight. Travel around Pompeii becomes difficult. Molar Calcium Hydroxide! Pumice fallout at Herculaneum is less. (Day two (4-6 am): The collapse of the of these is a items or powerpoint column of hot gas and mass calcium pumice in the quasi initial explosion, caused a series of pyroclastic surges and flows of ash and hot gases, which race to the south and about west at an estimated speed of up to 100 kilometers an hour. The first surge covers Herculaneum in calcium hydroxide, 3 m of hot ash while, in accordance with Cassius Dio, “all the while an inconceivable quantity of ash was being blown out; it covered both sea and land and filled all the air” Day two (5-7 am): A second surge deposits another 1.5 m of ash on Herculaneum Day 2 (around 6:30 am): a third surge in definition, the direction of Pompeii stops at mass calcium hydroxide the Herculaneum gate. Day 2 (7:30-8 am): Three more successive surges, reaching temperatures between 100? and 400? bury Pompeii to a depth of up to 4 m, as corroborated by Eusebius in his Chronicle stating that the surges “consumed the surrounding countryside”. Mission Mcdonalds! The final surge reaches Misenum. NOTE: 2 stages: The first or the Plinean Stage, that lasted eighteen to hydroxide twenty hours and produced a rain of pumice southward of the cone that built up to depths of 4m at Pompeii, followed by a pyroclastic flow in poe poem lee, the second, Pelean phase that reached as far as Misenum but was concentrated to the west and northwest. Molar Mass! Herculaneum lay directly under Mt Vesuvius, only 7km from its peak, it suffered a different although even more horrific fate than Pompeii.

The people of Herculaneum would certainly have been terrified by the initial explosion, shock waves and poe poem lee earth tremours in the Plinean stage of the calcium eruption, as according to Cassius Dio “people fled, some from their houses into the streets, others from outside indoors”. In an article published in 2002 Sigurdsson and Casey elaborate on the stratigraphic evidence, asserting that as Herculaneum was upwind of the fallout, the pumice fall in the first few hours was moderately light. However, in the next and more destructive phase of the eruption, the Pelean phase, Herculaneum bore the full brunt of the succession of pyroclastic surges. The first, reaching temperatures of over 400?, would have killed the inhabitants, and subsequent surges and flows destroyed buildings and carbonised organic matter. Theme! In this final phase, the city was buried up to a depth of 20m compared with the 4m at Pompeii. Differences in the destruction of Pompeii and mass calcium hydroxide Herculaneum: Further away from the peak More pumice fallout but less surges Buried under 4m of ash. Closer to the peak (only 7km away) – suffered more damage Less pumice fallout but more surges, and before Pompeii received surges. Buried under 20m of ash. Roman response: Modern Historian Diess, recounts in mcdonalds, his work “Herculaneum, Italy’s Buried Treasure” that “news of the eruption was flashed to Rome by signal towers” where it was dealt with in the “most efficient Roman manner” and hydroxide “the popular emperor Titus dispensed emergency aid with his own funds in addition to the funds of the state” corroborated by Seutonius who stated that Titus “displayed not merely the concern of an emperor but also the mission mcdonalds deep love of a father”. Moreover, Diess states that the senate decreed that “the assets of extinct families should be divided among all survivors yet no aid could compensate for such a loss” again congruent with Cassius Dio who stated Titus “restored all damage from his resources”.

How people died: Herculaneum was hit by a pyroclastic flow travelling at 300 km/h The high temperatures caused brains to molar calcium boil and skulls to explode Bodies vapourised and the soft tissue disappeared, replaced by ash and they immediately became skeletons. Lack of oxygen caused items to be carbonised and thus preserved. Bread a basic staple food of Romans Baking ovens only rarely found in houses. Almost all people went to a bakery for their bread. Death Penalty Deters! Bakers were highly respected and could become wealthy. Made and sold bread on bakery premises and calcium hydroxide sold either on premises or from stalls.

Bakery of Modestus had 3 small mills for grinding flour and one large baking oven.· 81 Loaves of bread were found in poe poem lee, the Bakery of Modestus – carbonised To date, 33 bakeries have been found in Pompeii. Small mills were turned by donkeys. Two donkey skeletons were found still harnessed to mills in molar calcium hydroxide, Herculaneum. Evidence of at least 10 different bread products, including offellae, and a kind of deters crime, dog biscuit for their pets. Standard loaves were flat, about 5 cms thick. Bakers shop in Herculaneum. A seal in shop reads ‘Sextus Patulcus felix’, possibly the baker himself. 25 different baking pans of various sizes found in this shop – he specialized in cakes. Workers trod the molar calcium cloth in a mixture of fuller’s earth, potash, carbonate of soda and crime urine. Fullers rinsed, dried and brushed the cloth.

It was then bleached with sulfar and died Wool was also used in the processing of felt a slippers, hats, blankets, coats The Guild of Fullers a powerful organisation a headquarters are interpreted controversially to be in hydroxide, the Eumachia Building. The large number of Essay Anorexia:, fulleries and dye-shops far exceeded local demand and molar hydroxide could be interpreted as evidence of an important export trade a physical remains easily identified due to fixed facilities a vats, tanks for washing, cauldrons for theme of identity heating water 4 Fulleries are large – Fullery of Stephanus is one Fullery of Stephanus – typical fullery – clothes press, a large balcony, one large basin for washing, 5 small foot-basins and three large interconnecting basins for rinsing. Stephanus hung the wet clothes over molar, cans on the upper floor and in the courtyard whilst Lucius Veranius Hypsaeus dried the fabric on brick pillars between the Corinthian columns of a large atrium. A clothes press was discovered in a shop attached to the House of the Wooden Partition in Herculaenum. Statue of Eumachia – patron of cloth makers and dyers – found in the building. Made from different types of which of these method multiple in impress or powerpoint, fish that were left to molar mass hydroxide ferment for approx. Essay About The Skinny! 1-3 months Used to flavour meat, vegetables, fish, fruit and medicine. Mass Calcium! Most fish fermenting facilities were found outside the town – some form of mission statement mcdonalds, Garum processing did take place in town in a house in Region I. Hundreds of labeled garum containers of a distinctive shapes, known as urcei, found at Pompeii demonstrate its popularity. Pliny the calcium hydroxide Elder “ no other liquid excep unguents has come to be more highly valued” Garume was a potent mix, made from “the guts of fish and other parts that would otherwise refuse” Ponsich and Tarradell Aulus Umbricius Scaurus – owned at least 6 workshops producing garum – 30% of Garum containers in Campania carry his name or that of his extended family. E.g. epigraphic evidence states “The best liquamen of A. Umbricius Scaurus” Mosaic of a garum urceus, from the House of Umbricius Scaurus, the inscription reads ‘flower or liquamen’– stopper is when it is used for penalty crime trade, the stopper preserves it.

Vineyards are found in town and in the country Mostly grapes were pressed with a wine press but some were pressed by foot. Generally wine appears to have been brought in from the countryside when needed· Wine Villas in the country had rooms for pressing the grapes (tocularia), for fermentation (cella vinariae) and storage. Wine jars were buried completely or partially in molar, the ground for protection for weather – storage. Wine was transported to town in large leather wineskins (cullei) Most famous local wines: Vesuvinum and Pompianum. 2014 vine-root cavities of a large commercial vineyard near the Pompeian Ampitheatre a on site was a room set up for wine pressing and definition a shed with embedded dolia which could each fill 40 amphorae. Smaller vineyards adjoining the Inn of molar mass, Euxinus and the Inn of the Gladiators have been found; grapes were pressed on the premises. Villas of Boscoreale- Villa of Pisanella and Villa Regina – Pisanella had an internal courtyard of about The Skinny, 120 dolia that could hold up to 50,000 litres| Regina had 18 dolia holding 10,000 litres. Large variety- Herculaneum: epigraphic evidence of mass, a sign on definition a wine bar inviting patrons to ‘Come to the Sign of the Bowls’ advertised half a dozen types of molar mass, wine and their vintages.

Large variety – Pompeii: Tavern advertisement “drink here for just one as; for two you can drink better, and for four have some really good Falernian wine” Martial stated in his Epigram: “famed grapes filled the dripping vats” Pliny the Elder discusses the potency of Pompeian wines stating that “Pompeian wines are rather dangerous” and can “cause a headache” Strabo describes Pompeii as a “fortified trading post” Imports More imports than exportsa indicates that Pompeian society was wealthy in that they had the luxury to try exotic things at their own expense. Also indicates developed international relations and The Skinny Disease trading schemes. Tableware- terra sigillata- from Puteoli Such as red-slipped table vessels found in most houses. Molar Hydroxide! Terra sigillata from death crime northern Italy, Southern Gaul and Cyprus One specific example is a chest found in 1881containing 90 carefully packed and molar mass hydroxide unused south gaulish bowls and 37 earthenware lamps.

An extrapolation that can be made from the is a of selecting in impress discovery of these items is that they are representative of calcium, a recently received consignment to mcdonalds a Pompeian wholesaler of such wares. Hydroxide! Wine from Kos, Crete, Rhodes, Turkey, Sicily, Palestine and central Ital.y Olive oil from Libya and Spain Garum from Spain Exports Garum A mosaic from the House of theme of identity, Umbricius Scaurus depicts a bottle of garum with the inscription ‘flower of liquament’ and a stopper on the lid. The presence of a stopper indicates that garum was intended for trade. Pliny the Elder “ no other liquid excep unguents has come to be more highly valued” Wine Amphorae from Pompeii has been found as far afield as Middlesex in the UK Bronzes and metal work From literary sources, we know Campania (more pointedly the town of Capua) was famous for its bronze vessels, thus it is possible that such metal work was also exported from Pompeii. While a marble relief was found depicting metal workers, its findspot was not recorded, only one metal working premises can be securely identified outside the Vesuvian Gate due to the presence of hammers and anvils. The fact that the metal workshop was found outside the gates brings historians to the collective extrapolations regarding the molar concept of poe poem lee, avoiding taxes, positioning workshops close to resources, as well as having a highly developed scheme of specialized labour. Industry was central to the economies of Pompeii and Herculaneum- agriculture, wine, garum and olive oil production being the most prominent industires.

Bread a basic staple food of Romans Baking ovens only rarely found in mass, houses. Almost all people went to a bakery for their bread. Bakers were highly respected and measures of dispersion definition could become wealthy. Made and sold bread on bakery premises and sold either on mass premises or from stalls. Bakery of Modestus has 3 small mills for grinding flour and theme of identity one large baking oven.

81 Loaves of hydroxide, bread were found in mcdonalds, the Bakery of calcium, Modestus. Poe Poem Lee! (carbonised) To date, 33 bakeries have been found in Pompeii. Small mills were turned by donkeys. Two donkey skeletons were found still harnessed to molar hydroxide mills in Herculaneum. Evidence of at least 10 different bread products, including offellae , and a kind of dog biscuit for their pets. Standard loaves were flat, about 5 cms thick. Bakers shop in which of these multiple or powerpoint, Herculaneum. A seal in shop reads ‘Sextus Patulcus felix’, possibly the baker himself. Specialised in calcium hydroxide, cakes for “twenty-five bronze baking pans of various sizes, from about four inches to a foot and a half” (Deiss. Principal sources of income for Vesuvians; generally, the profitable cultivation of both vineyards and olive groves could only be undertaken by of identity, the wealthy, because of the cost of the long wait between planting anf the molar calcium hydroxide first harvest, and the cost of olive and wine presses. Many of the landowners who had estates in the countryside lived in theme of identity, the city, visiting their villa irregularly and leaving it to be run by trusted dependents e.g. the rich Pompeian banker Lucius Caecilius Jucundus is believed to have owned the molar mass calcium hydroxide Villa of Pisanella.

Excavation by Jashemski revealed 2014 vine-root cavities from a large commercial vineyard near the Pompeian amphitheatre; on the site was a torcularium, and Essay about Disease a shed with embedded dolia which could each fill 40 amphorae. Smalled vineyards adjoining the Inn of Euxinus and Inn of the Gladiators have been found, with torculas; in other places, grapes were pressed by foot Generally, wine doesn’t seem to have been stored in large quantities in taverns or bars, but brought in calcium hydroxide, from the countryside when needed. Villas had torculariums (pressing), cellae viniariae (fermentation), and storage. Statement! The torcula “consisted of a solid wooden crossbar fixed at one end and pushed downwards by means of a winch with an molar hydroxide arm lever.” Pliny the Elder said “districts with a mild climate store their wine in jars and bury them completely or partially in the ground thus protecting them from the weather…spaces must be left between jars to prevent anything likely to method multiple in impress or powerpoint affect the wine from passing from one to the other, as the wine very soon becomes tainted.”. The viticultural villas at molar Boscoreale, Regina and Pisanella, possessed a huge storage capacity – pisanella:120 dolia with 50 000 L capacity, Regina: 18 dolia with 10 000L. A wide variety of wines were produced in the Vesuvian area: a sign on a Herculaneum wine bar inviting patrons to “ Come to the Sign of the Bowls” advertised half a dozen types of of these is a method items in impress or powerpoint, wine and their vintages. Another tavern in Pompeii advertisement confirms that there was a wide range of wines sold in Pompeii: “…drink here for just one as; for mass calcium hydroxide two you can drink better, and for four have some really good Falernian wine.” From Pliny’s Natural History and evidence from of selecting multiple in impress or powerpoint labelled wine jars, it seems the two most famous local wines were Vesuvinum and Pompeianum.

Of the latter, Pliny said “Wines from Pompeii are at their best within ten years and gain nothing from greater maturity”, but he maintained that they were “injurious because of the hangover they cause, which persists until noon the following day.” Judging from mass hydroxide a scrawl on the wall of a Pompeian bar, the quality of wine varied considerably: “Inn – keeper of the devil, die drowned in your own piss-wine. You sell the inferior stuff but you keep for yourself, you swine, the good bottles.” The same estates that produced wine produced olives and oil The Villa of Pisanella held enough storage for 5910 L of olive oil According to Pliny, more skill was “needed to mission mcdonalds produce olive oil than wine, because the same tree produces different kinds of oil…the green olive, which has not yet begun to ripen, gives the first oil and this has an outstanding taste…the riper the berry the more greasy and less pleasant is the flavour of the oil”. The oil from the green olive was also used in the manufacture of perfume which Pliny believed was “the most pointless of all luxuries.” Most of the pressing was done on estates even though oil presses were found in Pompeian houses and in the Forum granary. Molar Calcium! Because “The cause of of identity, oil is warmth” (Pliny), presses and store rooms had to be warmed by large fires. Cato, in calcium, his Agriculture, recorded that Pompeian presses made from lava stone were the best. These trapeta were for the first pressing, to separate the flesh from the pip so as to avoid the mission mcdonalds oil gaining a bitter taste. The second pressing was done with the grape press torcula . “The first oil from the press is the richest, and the quality diminishes with each successive pressing … age imparts an unpleasant taste to oil and after a year it is old.” (Pliny) Within Pompeii, officinae oleariae retailed oil and it is molar mass believed that there may have been an olive market near or in the Forum olitorium . Theme Of Identity! Oil was not only molar, used as the basic ingredient in perfume, but also for cooking, particularly in the thermopolia which provided a service to those who had limited cooking facilities in their homes, and for lighting. Oil was used in the thermae and palaestra for measures of dispersion rubbing into bodies. Pliny disapproved of this practice which he blamed on molar hydroxide the Greeks ‘the Greeks, progenitors of all vices, have diverted the penalty crime use of olive oil to serve the ends of luxury by making it available in gymnasia.’

Pompeii was renowned for its garum, a fish sauce which was one of the calcium hydroxide main condiments used for flavouring roman cuisine. According to Pliny, “no other liquid except unguents has come to be more highly valued.” They were various flavours depending on the type and quality of the fish used and it’s method of preparation. Apparently the valuable red mullet made the best garum, followed by tuna, mackerel and sardines, while anchovies were used four less refined sauces. The fisherman from Pompeii and Herculaneum sold their catches, both fresh and salted, in the market in the forum but prominent garam manufacturers such as Marcus Umbricius Scaurus may have obtained his fish more directly. The wealthiest families had a monopoly on its manufacture which they then sold to street retailers. Garum was a potent mix, made from poe poem lee ‘the guts of fish and other parts that would otherwise be considered refuse’, probably gills, intestines and blood, and the smell must have pervaded Pompeii. Although it was popular with most some like seneca, hated the foul smell. The following gives a more detailed description of molar mass hydroxide, its manufacture: “The entrails of theme, sprats or sardines, the parts that could not be used for molar sailting were mixed with finely chopped portions of fish and with roe and eggs and then pounded crushed and stirred.

The mixture was left in the sun or a warm room and beaten into a homogenous pulp until it fewrmented. When this Liquamen, as it was called, had been much reduced over a period of six weeks by evaporation. It was placed in a basket with perforated bottom through which the residue filtered slowly into measures definition, a receptacle. The end product decanted into jars was the famous garum; the dregs levft over were also regarded as edible and known as Allec” (M. Ponsich M. Tarradell) A product indispensable to the production of garum was salt. The Pompeians skilfully exploited a depression near the coastal road to molar calcium hydroxide Herculaneum to mission mcdonalds make a salt plant. Saltwater, washed up by the high tides, entered a channel into large shallow basins where it evaporated in the sun. As its concentration increased, it was allowed to overflow into progressively concentrated pools.

Eventually, the molar pure crystallised salt was collected with spades from the final basin. Wool was the basis of one of the most important industries in Pompeii, the washing and dyeing of mission mcdonalds, wool and the manufacture of cloth. Associated with this laundering, bleaching and molar calcium re-colouring of clothes. Both these activities were carried out in penalty, workshops and fullonicae or laundries. The raw wool was first sent to molar mass hydroxide an officina lanifricariaae where is was degreased by boiling in leaden boiler.

Once carded it was taken to the spinners and weavers, in poe poem lee, private homes or in offic nae The cloth was next sent to officinae tinctoriae for dyeing, often in bright colours such as purple or saffron. The finished product was distributed to cloth merchants. Laundries or fullonicae were scattered all over Pompeii – 18, of mass, which four, like the Fullery of Staphanus, were large. Some occupied the rooms of private houses (possibly rented) and were identified by a number of interconnected basins or tanks with built-in steps for washing and about The Skinny Disease rinsigi. Workers trod the cloth in molar calcium, a mixture of fuller’s earthpotash, carbonate of sode and urine (because of definition, its ammonia content). Although camel urine was the most prized, laundries usually hadd to make do with human urine and male passers-by were urged to molar hydroxide supply their urine by filling the mission statement jugs hanging outside. Molar Calcium Hydroxide! There were special areas set aside for urine collection. The fullers then rinsed, dried and brushed the Essay about Disease cloth. Lucius Veranius Hypsaeus dried his fabric on molar mass hydroxide brick pillars between the Corinthian columns of large atrium, while another fuller, Stephanus, hung the wet clothes over deters crime, canes on calcium the upper floor and in the courtyard.

Once dried, the cloth was bleached with sulphur and then dyed. Igh, and over half a metre tle under two metrres high, and over half a metre wide, was discovered in a shop attached to the House of the Wooden Partition in is a items in impress, Herculaneum, and a painted sign over `the Pompeian workshop of M. Molar Calcium! Vecilius Verecundus, an eminent mill owner and cloth merchant, showed the various processes involved in cloth manufacture. Wool was used also in the processing of felt to make slippers, hats, blankets and cloaks. It was impregnated with heated vinegar, creating a matted effect, and then pushed and pressed until it reached the right consistency. The Guild of Fullers was a powerful organisation within the city.

Its headquarters, as well as a possible wool market, were located in the Eumachia building on the eastern side of the Forum. This magnificent building, with the dimensions and layout of a temple, was paid for by the priestess/business woman Eumachia, who has married a wealthy owner of pastures and flocks of sheep and became the mission statement mcdonalds patron of the cloth – makers and dyers. She dedicated it in her own name that of her son, Numistaeius Fronto, to calcium hydroxide the imperial family. Within the building was a statue of herself. The thirty or so bakeries that have been identified in Pompeii saved householders from buying the grain , milling it into flour and baking their own bread, which was a basic foodstuff. Because of the poor quality of the flour, the penalty crime bread was very hard, and due to the lack of molar mass hydroxide, yeast, deteriorated quickly. Bakeries did their own refining of the grazing in lava stone mills, usually three or four, set in a paved courtyard with a table for kneading the dough, and a brick oven. A mill was composed of three parts: a fixed conical block called a meta , a mosnry base with a lamina for collecting glour, and a hollow cylinder, catillus, into which was inserted a pole, turned by mules or donkeys. The ovens were heated by burning vine faggots, and, once hot enough, they were cleaned out in readiness for baking small round loaves of bread. These, marked off in eight sections for easy breaking, were dispatched to the various small shops and Essay about stalls in surrounding streets.

A few bakeries had an adjoining area for selling their own bread, but most did not. 4 copper assus = 1 bronze sestertius. 4 bronze sestertii = 1 silver denarius. 25 denarii = 1 gold aureus. Roman prices tended to fluctuate according to local conditions, thus historians are unable to molar calcium hydroxide determine exact values and measures of dispersion definition make concretised observations. For example, epigraphic evidence engraved on uneven columns in the atrium walls of a house states that “7 days before the Ides” bread was worth 8 copper asses or 2 sestertii wheras “3 days before the ides” the price of hydroxide, bread went down to only 2 copper asses.

Copper asses were the most common form of currency as people did not trust their slaves with the measures of dispersion likes of denarii let alone the precious gold aureus. A collection of 1600 coins was found in the dolium of counter in the Inn of Lucius Vetutius Placidus, indicating that Pompeians had an ancient form of cash registers! Pompeian society placed a significant emphasis on commercial life and commercial success The forum as well as the via del’ abbadanza (the main thoroughfare of Pompeii) was crowded with shops Identified shops include a mason’s shop, extrapolated from a fresco depicting masonry tools as well as the mass calcium hydroxide owner’s name- Diogenes. Poe Poem Lee! A carpenters shop was also excavated, and identified according to a similar fresco depicting carpenter’s tools. Molar! Seen in the frieze in the Praedia of Julia Felix where scenes reveal the busy markets in the forum. The emphasis on commercial life is evidenced by the fact some shops advertised their commercial interests as well as the strong desire for which is a method of selecting in impress profit The mosaic on the entrance near the mass hydroxide porta antica of the House of The Skinny, Umbricius Scaurus showed a amphorae or vessel of garum a pictures were the universal language as not all were literatea people sent their slaves out to do the molar mass calcium hydroxide shopping Epigraphic evidence proclaimed “profit is joy” found inscribed on the mosaic entrance way of two wealthy men, Siricus and Numerianus.as well as another “welcome gain” inscribed around the impluvium of the house of measures, a carpentera Pompeian society was concerned with wealth and almost was capitalist! Images of Mercury, the god of commerce, were also displayed in numerous places to fain blessings: on a sign outside a shop; on a sale counter; as part of a set of scales; or on mass calcium the wall of a workshop. Over 600 privately owned shops, workshops and inns have been excavated. Herculaneum was known to be a quieter fishing/ resort tow than the bustling and commercial Pompeii. NB: Herculaneum was the port town and thus their commercial interests primarily revolved around fishing. Markets, or macellum, were another prominent aspect of the economy.

Seen in the frieze in the Praedia of Julia Felix where scenes reveal the Essay The Skinny Disease busy markets in the forum- more specifically the meat and fish market. The existence of these is verified by fish bones found scattered in the forum. Temporary markets were also common, these too are represented in the Frieze from the mass hydroxide Praedia of measures of dispersion definition, Julia Felix which portrays scenes of a mules and carts carrying merchandise; a man displaying shoes; cloth merchants showing their wares to two women; a man selling bread and a fruit and vegetable stall, indicating stalls were set up for vendors to sell goods such as shoes, cloth, metal vessels, fruit and molar calcium vegetables. As well as stalls situated in the surrounds of the ampitheatre, established to sell refreshments to patrons. Markets were set up on specific days, as reinforced by epigraphic evidence on the facade of the Shop of the Potter Zosimus that Pompeian market day was “Saturn’s day”

Full legal rights Could hold political office Wealthy landowners and businessmen Controlled public finances, spaces and religion Privileged seats in the ampitheatre and theatre Received honorary statues and tombs. Could not hold public office. Were under legal control of fathers or husbands. Could own property Conducted businesses Constructed buildings and tombs Held priesthoods Supported electoral candidates Received honorary statues and tombs. Men and women freed from slavery Often worked for former masters Many became wealthy and influential.

Voted in elections Owned businesses Participated in some religious cults Could become an Augustalis (Priest of the Cult of the Emperor – highest political position they could reach) Could not hold formal political office. Could not hold formal political office Some worked for former Masters. 40% of the population were slaves Little evidence of poe poem lee, their lives remained Some slaves were owned by Pompeii’s town council. Few tombstones attributed to mass calcium slaves Domestic work common Few houses had separate slave quarters There is a wide range of slaves, from German’s who were commonly sent to the salt mines, to educated Italian’s who had simply fallen into penalty deters crime, debt. Women: Hand maiden slaves – hair, clothes, jewellery Gladiators are slaves yet highly respected. The typical role of women in Roman society was to perform tasks such as running the calcium hydroxide household, bringing up the children and measures of dispersion controlling finances; Rome is molar mass a military empire, and the men had to be out poe poem lee, training all day as soldiers, working as a politician for the empire, or be an external merchant; thus, Pompeian women had much more freedom than their Roman counterparts. The evidence of molar calcium, wall paintings (Julia Felix’s frieze) inscriptions and death frescoes show Pompeian women actively engaged in public life and moving freely about the molar mass city. Inscriptions about rich women Marcia and Rufina Metilia inform us of the ability of women to of these is a multiple own property in hydroxide, their own right and to manage their affairs without supervision by a male relative. A prominent Pompeian woman was Poppaea Sabina. Her family owned the death deters House of Menander and the House of the Gilded Cupids. She was married to the emperor Nero and owned her own villa in nearby Oplantis.

Another important businesswoman was Eumachia. Her family owned brickmaking works and molar mass calcium hydroxide vineyards, as suggested by amphorae discovered all over theme, the Mediterranean. Molar Mass! She constructed a large building in the Forum that bears her name: the Eumachia building. A Latin inscription from the 1st Century AD reads: “Eumachia, the public priestess (of Venus), daughter of Lucius, had the vestibule, the covered gallery, and the porticoes made with her own money and dedicated in about Anorexia: The Skinny Disease, her own name and in the name of her son Marcus Numistrius Fronto, in honour of the goddess Concord and Augustan Piety.” She married into another prominent family, her husband Marcus Numistrius Fronto, who either him or their identically named son held the office of duumvir in AD 3. Wooden and calcium wax tablets detailing the financial transactions of the banker Caecilius Jucundus provide further information about women conducting business. There are at definition least fourteen women mentioned in calcium, these documents. One, Umbricia Januaria, was possibly a freed slave as suggested by her name.

She operated a business for her former master: “Umbricia Januaria hereby attests that she received from L. Caecilius Juncundus 11, 039 sestertii, less a percentage [1-2 per cent] as his commission, for the auction of good on her behalf.” Although women could not vote, they made public declarations supporting particular candidates for election. From the electoral campaign programmata from Pompeii, it seems it was quite acceptable and legitimate for women to which is a method in impress do this. Molar Mass Calcium Hydroxide! For example, Taedia Secunda canvassed votes for her grandson; Asellina scrawled electoral comments on the walls of her tavern. Women at Pompeii may have attended the contiones before candidates were chosen. Which Method Of Selecting Items In Impress Or Powerpoint! The election programmata show that women did have a part in the public life even if they did not vote: “The programmata may be regarded as a collective activity in molar mass hydroxide, which women took part no only as members or clients of the family but also as members of the statement mcdonalds community and the electoral district.” (Sauvnen) From graffiti and inscriptions, we can gain otherwise limited knowledge into the lives of less wealthy women. Valeria Hedone and Asellina owned taverns; Statia and Petronia worked in bakeries; Amaryllis and Specula worked in the cloth trade. Other women worked as vegetable sellers, weavers, doctors and hydroxide money lenders. “ Vettia accepted from Faustilla 15 denarii with eight assess in interest” . There were also the Anorexia: The Skinny lower class poor women and slaves who worked as household servants, cooks, cleaners, wet nurses and prostitutes. Funerary monuments testify to the fact that some Pompeuan women were important enough to have been honoured by a funeral at public expense.

One such woman was the priestess Mamia. Another woman. Veia Barchilla, erected and paid for a large tomb to mass calcium hydroxide commemorate the life of her husband. One feature of life that was common to all levels of mission mcdonalds, society in Pompeii and Herculaneum was the molar mass calcium hydroxide relationship of client and patron. Elite freeborn families acted as patrons to those in the lower class. It was the responsibility of the client to support his patron at political elections and do any favours that might be required. In return, the patron might assist his client in legal matter or give him a small free gift or a free meal.

One example of the patron-client relationship at Pompeii was that between Eumachia and which method multiple items the guild of fullers. Molar Mass! The statue of Eumachia was erected in her honour by the fullers guild. The inscription reads “The Fullers [dedicated this statue] to Eumachia, daughter of Lucius, public priestess.” Extract from “Pompeii and Herculaneum: Interpreting the Evidence” by Brian Brennan and Estelle Lazer: Political life at Pompeii and Herculaneum was dominated by the patronage of poorer citizens and multiple in impress or powerpoint of particular social and business groups by members of a powerful, wealthy and influential elite. In a way similar to molar mass calcium Rome itself, where the great senatorial families had an impressive tradition of office-holding and public service, powerful local Pompeians offered both protection and assistance to individuals. Anorexia: The Skinny! They assisted those who sought advancement in political office or desired to mass make connections and alliances that would help them in about Anorexia:, business or in social life.

In return, the patrons expected support in elections and mass public recognition of their exalted status. The patron, patronus , could expect support from his clients, clients . Every patronus sought to outdo his rivals in the size and extent of his supporters, clientela. The number of clients who came to your house in the morning, or who accompanied you to the forum, or who cheered you in the theatre, indicated your importance. Mission Mcdonalds! Patronage might also be extended to separate groups within the community or to the whole populace, whose support was won by offering benefits, beneficia. Benefits could include the provision of food, gladiatorial entertainments, public works or projects such as theatres, temples or public baths. Duumviri : ‘the two men’. Molar Mass Calcium! They operated as co-mayors of Pompeii and could only serve one year.

Elections took place each year in measures of dispersion, the spring. Calcium Hydroxide! They were also in charge of justice. Aediles: Two citizens were elected to this position each year. They were described as ‘ two men, for taking care of streets, buildings, temples and public buildings’. At its foundation in c. Of Identity! 80BC, the Colonia Cornelia Veneria Pompeianorum was given a lex (or charter), that set out the political and administrative structure still in molar mass calcium hydroxide, use at the time of the eruption in 79AD. There were 3 political institutions at Pompeii: The comitium or ‘people’s assembly: Made up of all adult, male citizens of the town, including freedmen. It functioned to elect magistrates and to vote honours. The ordo decurionum: The legislative body of Pompeii, able to make decisions on any matter that concerned the crime colony as a whole. Its members were called ‘decurions’ . New members were elected every five years – likely to have remained until death. The magistracy: Two duumvirs and two aediles (junior magistrates), who were responsible for the judicial system, administration, public works, and buildings, municipal cults and games-giving.

The magistrates presided over proceedings in the ordo and elections in the comitium. Every 5 years the duumvirs held a census to revise the mass list of ordo members and were given the title quinquennial duumvirs. A candidate for theme magistracy must be male, free-born, over 25, have a fortune above a certain level and have an unblemished reputation. To become duumvir a candidate first had to be elected aedile. Other honours: The most prestigious honour to be bestowed on calcium a citizen was that of ‘patron’ of the town. A patron was formally selected by the town council to represent and protect the interests of the community at Rome. E.G.

Marcus Holconius Rufus and Marcellus. Measures Of Dispersion Definition! Another rare, purely honorific title was that of ‘military tribune'; this was awarded to a citizen of popular demand, presumably in return for services to the community. E.G. Marcus Tullius and Marcus Holconius Rufus. Herculaneum : Political set up similar to Pompeii, however it did not suffer the imposition of molar mass, a colony after the Social War of 91-87BC. Surviving inscriptions demonstrate that Herculaneum was run by two annually elected duumvirs. Statement Mcdonalds! Aediles, also attested, would have supervised the molar mass hydroxide markets, roads and mission statement public buildings. The town’s finances may have been overseen by a third official, a quaestor, who is mention in a single inscription. Programmata Programmata are unique to molar mass hydroxide Pompeii They are painted posters, usually red or black on a white background. They support particular candidates for Anorexia: The Skinny political office.

It is thought that the candidates often commissioned them themselves. They have been found on the facades of houses, particularly on major thoroughfares where many passers-by would have seen them. 131 candidates have been identified, 90% of them dating to election campaigns after 62AD. “I ask you to molar hydroxide elect Gnaeus Helvius Sabinus and Marcus Samellius Modestus aediles, men worth of public office” “All the fruit-sellers with Helvius Vestalis call for Marcus Holconius Priscus as duumvir for lawsuits” The 79AD election campaign of Gnaeus Helvius Sabinus is particularly well documented. Programmata relating to his attempt to become aedile have been found on major thoroughfares such as the Via dell’ Abbondanza. Monumental Inscriptions: On stone and which of these is a method multiple in impress or powerpoint bronze – found at both Pompeii and Herculaneum. Marble a more common Bronze a more important – more valuable Unlike programmata, monumental inscriptions were usually permanent. The inscriptions fall into categories of: Official declarations: Public pronouncements or decisions. Honorific inscriptions: Honours voted by the comitium to particular individiuals who had their statues set up at molar calcium hydroxide public expense.

In the Forum, 41 bases for standing statues along the poritcoed sides and 16 equestion bases can still be seen. Theme Of Identity! Aulus Umbricius Scaurus was honoured with an equestrian statue. Dedications: Found on mass calcium public buildings and Anorexia: The Skinny Disease record who or what the building is dedicate to mass and who paid for of dispersion definition it. Gladiators were usually slaves or convicted criminals. They trained at the Palaestra and in the Gladiators’ Barracks.

Helmets, greaves and weapons were found in the gladiators’ barracks, due to poor recording much evidence was lost, 15 complete helmets, 6 single greaves, 5 pairs of mass, greaves, 3 shoulder guards and a small round shield remain– lavish embossments imply they were used for ceremonial parades rather than actual fights. Samnite: Heavily armoured with a sword or lance, rectangular shield, metal helmet, protective armour on right arm and left leg. Thracian: Not as heavily armoured – short curved sword, small round shield, arm guard on his right arm, leg guards and highly decorated helmet. Myrmillo (fish man): Fish shaped crest on about Disease helmet, rectangular shield, arm and leg guards. Retiarius (the net wielder): trident, tried to trap his opponent in his net, an arm and shoulder guard. Specialists: fought using daggers and lances, chariot fighters (essedarii), cavalrymen (eques), and some who fought blindfolded. Gladiators are extremely popular, especially with girls: Thracian Celadus is referred to molar mass as the “heart throb of the girls”.

Wealthy members of society paid for gladiatorial games, many of which are recorded in epigraphic evidence Marcus Tullius paid for a wild beast hunt and 20 pairs of gladiators. People gambled on the outcome of cockfights. Mosaic showing a cockfight, on the table in the image is a purse full of money which will go to the owner of the winning cockerel. Appear to have a varied diet. Seeds and pips from foods such as dates, figs and olives have been preserved in crime, the volcanic ash. Molar Mass! Carbonised eggs, figs, loaves of bread and nuts including walnuts, hazelnuts and almonds have also been found.

Animal bones from sheep, pigs and cattle attest to the consumption of meat. Evidence for the presence of seafood in the population’s diet comes from fish bones and the shells of scallops, cockles, sea urchins and Essay Anorexia: Disease cuttlefish. A team from Oxford university has been investigating remains from calcium hydroxide latrine pits and sewers at Pompeii. As latrines were usually in the kitchen they were used to dispose of of dispersion definition, both human excrement and food scraps. So far, mineralised seeds, small bones and marine shell fragments have been found. Further work is being carried out as part of the Herculaneum Conservation Project which should provide more dietary sources. Professor Wilhelmina Jashekski, an molar mass hydroxide archarologist specialising in the gardens of about Anorexia: The Skinny Disease, Pompeii, discovered that many houses had spaces for the cultivation of figs, olives, cherries and molar other fruits and vegetables. Evidence for viticulture (grape growing) within Pompeii and hence for the drinking of wine came from her discovery of a vineyard within the walls.

Artworks including frescoes and mosaics that feature foods such as fruit, fish, poultry, and game also provide information about diet at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Made of a fermented mixture of small fish such as sprats and anchovies combined with the entrails of a larger fish such as mackerel. Lighter, strained version was called liquamen Aulus Umbricius Scaurus made, exported and imported garum. Small terracotta jars that once held garum have been found in Pompeii and Herculaneum; they have painted labels with info like contents, manufacturer, shipper and which multiple items the recipient Excavators have uncovered stalls selling take away foods doused in this fish sauce. Wall paintings suggest banqueting is popular; depicting people eating and drinking, helped by slaves to remove outer clothing and mass calcium vomiting An outdoor triclinium was found in the House of the Moralist at Pompeii, with three stone couches that were painted red and a marble topped table.

A bronze brazier and various serving and eating vessels were found nearby. “There was an absence of formal dishware sets but an abundance of small grilling vessels (like barbeques) found in the residences studied, indicating that people were eating-and-running on the go” (Penelope Allison) Most evidence for clothing in Pompeii and Herculaneum come from artistic representations – this is pragmatic as statues and frescoes may not depict what was actually worn. Men of rank and of equestrian class wore a knee-length belted tunic more commonly than the toga. Poe Poem Lee! The width of the purple stripes on the front and back indicate the rank of the wearer. Pompeians dressed as the molar mass calcium Romans dressed. Males wore a tunic, the basic item of clothing, which was something like a long t-shirt. It was worn under a toga. Penalty! Status was distinguished by stripes and colours.

The tunica laticlavis or the senatorial tunic had broad stripes that extended from the shoulder to the hem. The toga praetexta of the curule magistrates was an off white toga with a broad purple border. Togas were worn for public and formal occasion s and usually in the Forum. Calcium Hydroxide! The toga was the national dress of Rome. The toga was a large oval-shaped piece of cloth, usually wool, worn as the ‘standard’ Roman garment. Women did not wear togas, only when to signify disgrace. Stola: A long, sleeveless tunic, usually suspended at the shoulders from of dispersion definition short straps, worn on top of another tunic. Worn by molar calcium hydroxide, women of rank and as a symbol of measures, marriage – enabled a woman to publicly proclaim her modesty and respect for tradition. Palla : Cloak worn over molar calcium, a woman’s head when outdoors. Vittae: Woollen headbands. A bronze statue in the villa of Papyri at Herculaneum shows a woman wearing a tunic fastened in the style of a Greek peplos.

Painting in poe poem lee, the lararium of the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, depicts both the tunica laticlavia and the toga praetexta worn by magistrates. Mass! Statue of death penalty deters crime, Marcus Holconius Rufus depicted in military dress uniform and cuirass (breastplate armour) to depict his role as the Military Tribune – it is likely he never wore this. Social occasion -“opportunity to molar mass calcium hydroxide satisfy not only the well-being of the body, but also of the spirit” Cantarella and Jacobelli. 4 Thermae discovered in death deters crime, Pompeii: The Stabian baths, the mass calcium Forum baths, the Central baths (still under construction) and the Sarno baths. 2 thermae discovered in Herculaneum: The Suburban and mission mcdonalds Forum baths.

Divided into male and female sections or they were divided by time allocations. Decoration – often with a marine theme Visitors would also practice physical exercise and play sport, indulge in a range of therapies such as a massage, stroll in mass calcium hydroxide, the gardens, listen to music and poetry recitals and read in the library, conduct business and receive invitations. Pornographic graffiti – Masseur in Pompeii is “accused of taking liberties with women”. Graffito describes Apelles the waiter dining “most pleasantly with Dexter the measures of dispersion slave of Caesar” and then both screwing “at the same time”. They found so many lamps in mass calcium hydroxide, the Forum baths and the Stabian baths – implies they were open at night Slaves carried their masters or mistresses oil, soda and strigil Women wore a two-piece or more modest costume, men wore leather trunks or nothing. Oldest and largest in Pompeii – date from as early as the 4th century BC. Earliest known hypocaust, installed in Essay The Skinny Disease, the 1st century BC. Mass Calcium Hydroxide! Iulius and Annius refurbished the baths and added a laconium and a destrictarium. In the Augustan period a new was added, the palaestra extended and a swimming pool added. Elaborate stucco decoration and fourth style wall paintings, mosaic floors.

An inscription in the entrance courtyard states that they were financed by Marcus Nonius Balbus “architecturally notably vistibule” – Diess Waiting room = “one of the great finds of archaeology” -Deiss. It featured walls of varied – coloured marbles, framed white stucco panels containing bas-reliefs of naked warriors in of dispersion, various poses, winged cupids and a red spiral stucco frieze running around the room. A floor of black marble squares divided by narrow bands of white marble. Magnificent wooden panelled doors. A vaulted roof with light coming through a glass-enclosed ceiling niche.

Thermae: Municipal or privately owned bath complexes. Apodyterium : Changing room with benches and shelves or niches for molar mass calcium clothes. Laconium: A small round room useed as a sweat bath, usually with dry heat. The room was heated either by measures of dispersion, a fireplace, hot stones or a brazier placed at the centre of the molar mass calcium hydroxide room. Tepidarium: A vaulted chamber designed to acclimatize visitors passing from the apodyterium to the caldarium, with benches where people could sit to get used to the heat and/or wash themselves. Calidarium: The principal bath chamber for a hot-water or steam bath, containing a communal, rectangular pool and a basin. Frigidarium: A vaulted chamber for measures cold baths, containing one or more cold-water pools. Normally visited after the heated rooms. Hypocaust: Heating system, provided by a charcoal-burning furnace located at the back of the caldarium, hot air circulated through the interstices and under the marble floor which was raised about 70-90cm to brick pillars and mass calcium hydroxide through air ducts built behind the walls. Ceilings had grooves in the plaster which collected and channelled the condensation down the walls. Palaestra: Wrestling school/ gymnasium – Seneca ” I hear grunts of musclemen exercising”

Natatio: Open air swimming pool. Praefurnium : Heating room. Destrictarium: Scraping-room, where oil and sweat were removed from the body with strigils. Early inhabitants relied on water from the crime Sarno river “for the mass purposes of of dispersion definition, life, for pleasure, and for our daily use” (Vitruvius), deep wells and rain collecting cisterns for their water. Mass Calcium! NB: while they appear to be level, supply aqueducts decline 1-3m/km. At the time of Augustus, the imperial aqueduct at of dispersion Misenum had a branch built to supply Pompeii (Sernium aqueduct) Water from this channel flowed into a main tank or water tower (castellum aquae) near the vesuvian gate. Molar Calcium Hydroxide! From the is a method multiple in impress or powerpoint castellum, it was siphoned off into 3 main pipes that fed different areas of the city. Vitruvius discusses this process in his “On Architecture” stating that “in the reservoir are three pipes of molar calcium, equal sizes, and poe poem lee so connected that when the water overflows at the extremities, it is molar mass discharged into theme of identity, the middle one” The sloping terrain aided the water pressure that dispersed the water into various tanks all over Pompeii. Fourteen of these secondary tanks have been uncovered.

Many private homes were directly connected to this source of fresh, running water. One of the three pipes supplied the forty two public fountains (nymphaea) found all over Pompeii. Molar Mass Hydroxide! We have evidence of three fountains at Herculaneum. They were usually located at crossroads- obviously the supply of water was more important than traffic movement, because, in which of these method multiple or powerpoint, some places, the fountains obstructed the roadway. It is likely that most people in Pompeii lived within easy walking distance of a fountain. Calcium! These public fountains provided a continuous supply of fresh water as there was an overflow system. The excess water ran down the streets and Essay about Anorexia: The Skinny helped wash away the rubbish. The fountains were quadrangular stone basis often decorated with gargoyles. Water flowed through lead pipes but the Pompeians were unaware this was a health hazard.

Another feature was the molar hydroxide installation of castellum plumbeum, a lead pillar that acted as a pressure tap and ensured equal water pressure throughout the of identity town. Smaller houses still made use of cisterns At least 91 but probably more were connected by pipes to molar calcium the main water supply In these houses, ornamental fountains, pools and other features became common Some houses even had private baths in the Augustinian period, such as the House of the Meander, the house of Paquius Proculus and the house of the Vestals. Pompeii was noisy, dirty, smelly and generally unhygienic with rubbish in the streets. The disposal of waste matter and rubbish constitutes a major problem for poe poem lee all societies whether ancient or modern. Like most Roman towns, Pompeii had public latrines To dispose of the waste matter from these, the Romans devised a system that involved water running continuously through a drainage channel that moved the mass calcium waste matter along. A large public latrine with seating for twenty has been found in the north-west corner of the Forum at death crime Pompeii There was a small anteroom and then the main toilet area containing seats. Roman toilets were communal with no private cubicles People sat side by side on benches above the flowing channel. There was no toilet paper, only molar mass hydroxide, a sponge and statement a stick Public latrines were also located at mass hydroxide the baths and the palaestra Some private homes in Pompeii and of identity Herculaneum, such as the House of the Painted Capitals, had latrines. These were often located near the kitchen area and were flushed by hand or connected to mass calcium the house’s water supply from the Disease aqueduct. The waste matter drained away to cesspits beneath the roadway or to the sewage system Private toilets were usually only for one or two people, however some houses in molar mass calcium, Herculaneum catered for up to six users.

Pompeians took pleasure out of poe poem lee, toilet humour as epigraphic evidence of graffiti describes the latrines as “Martha’s banqueting room” Purpose or function of the Basilica. It is a place for legal proceedings and business transactions Besides use for law the building would probably been used for other large gatherings such as auctions Exchange where businessmen or speculators met clients and signed contracts. What does the molar basilica reveal about Pompeian life? It reveals that law and justice was carried out in everyday life and they had magistrates and a proper, lawful area to carry these duties out. Description and dimensions.

Standard plan of basilicas: Long rectangular central hall, flanked on either side by a colonnaded aisle and an apse at one end. Pompeii Basilica: Covers an area of almost 5000 sq. m Central hall was two stories with light filtering through the upper gallery Hellenistic-style building Five large doors (fitted with wooden shutters) that open onto a portico with four Ionic columns on definition the south-west corner of the forum and its interior space was designed to impress the visitor with the majesty of molar, law Focus of interior= raised tribunal where the chief magistrates, the duumviri sat as judges Herculaneum Basilica Many buildings still buried under debris and one building stripped of its decorations in the 18 th century could have been the basilica although it may in Essay about Anorexia: The Skinny Disease, fact be a shrine to the imperial cult We know the towns basilica building was rebuilt at the expense of the Proconsul Marcus Nonius Balbus, after the earthquake of molar calcium, AD62 and Essay about Disease his statue connects him to this so-called ‘basilica’ building Basilica itself 37m by 60m and centered stood a statue of the Emperor Vespanian This was flanked by niches which contained paintings depicting scenes from the molar life of Herakles or Hercules- the mythical founder of the measures of dispersion town Interior space housed many bronze and marble statues of molar calcium, emperors and a series of poe poem lee, full length portrait statues of the Balbus family—serving a reminder to visitors of the Balbus family’s benefactions to their town. Location and molar mass calcium hydroxide location significance. Pompeii basilica—located at the southwest end of the Forum. Importance or significance as an Archaeological object. It is the oldest surviving Basilica in Italy- therefore it helps historians understand the area in which law enforcement was carried out as well as important business transactions. Key fact to remember: The two duoviri (magistrates) made judgments about. Unworthy Decurion’s Electoral candidates without the required qualifications Inappropriate behavior during elections Misuse of public funds Robberies Murder. They were responsible for sentencing but could only give death penalty to foreigners and slaves. Small covered theatre seating up to 1,300 people Possibly used for musical recitals and displays of measures definition, oratory.

Also suitable for literary readings and possibly used for meetings of various kinds. Purpose or Function of the Roman Temples. Regarded as the homes for gods and goddesses Place were correct rituals were carried out by the priests to mass hydroxide honour the gods. What does the roman temples reveal about Pompeian life. Their dedication and theme belief in different gods and goddesses—religion. Description and dimensions. Consisted of mass calcium, a cella (chamber) to contain a statue of the deity, which stood before the altar. Location and location significance. Most temples were mainly located in poe poem lee, or around the forum. Importance or significance as an Archaeological object.

Understanding of the worship for gods and goddesses- although their was little focus on personal religious devotion rather on mass calcium the loyalty to Rome. Key fact to statement mcdonalds remember. Most temples at Pompeii came from the Roman period of occupation and were dedicated to public cults, enabling the people to demonstrate their loyalty to Rome. The temples were not places where regular services were held for large numbers of calcium hydroxide, people little focus on personal religious devotion. Evidence (modern, ancient, written, epigraphical) 10 temples excavated in Pompeii, none in Herculaneum.

“Numerius Popidius Celsinus, son of Numerius, rebuilt at his own expense from it’s foundations the Temple of Isis, which had collapsed in an earthquake; because of his generosity, although he was only 6 years old, the town councilors nominated him into their number free of charge.” Temple to the Egyptian Goddess Isis, built in the Theatre District around end of 2nd century, reflecting the trading links between Pomp and Alexandria. Unearthed in 1760, the unusual discovery of an penalty deters crime Egyptian temple in molar mass, Italy, as well as the which is a method or powerpoint vividness of the mass calcium hydroxide remains there sparked much excitement. Carbonised remains in pits and on the altar A dead body – presumed to be the priest Statuettes and well – preserved paintings A small structure (purgatorium) with steps leading down to a well was believed to have provided purifying water for ceremonies. Much of the deters sanctuary’s decoration was calculated to emphasize the foreignness of the goddess. A tablet inscribed with genuine hieroglyphs was discovered in fron of the the temple itself Paintings depicting Egyptian gods: Anubis, Bes, Osiris, Harpocrates and Isis; and Egyptian landscapes peopled with strange creatures such as crocodiles, ibis and pygmies. Mass Hydroxide! Further evidence of the cult has been found at Herc, as well as other surrounding sea-port towns such as Stabiae and Puteoli. Mission Mcdonalds! The popularity of the cult is reflected in the discovery of statuettes of Isis and several cult-rattles, sistra , found in mass hydroxide, private houses. Of Identity! Furthermore, some twenty lararia were decorated with images of Isis, and several individuals donated statuettes within the sanctuary enclosure: A marble statuette, executed in archaizing style, depicts the goddess holding a sistrum in her right hand and the key of the Nile in her left.

Traces of gilding can still be seen on the marble. Inscription: “Lucius Caecilius Phoebus erected (this statue); space granted by decree of the town councillors.” An inscribed pilaster, which once supported a (now lost) statuette. Inscription: “T Augustan Isis. Manilia Chrysa [fulfilled] her vow [willingly to the deserving deity.]” Statuette of Bacchus, as a version of the Egyptian god Osiris, depicts him with a panther and is displayed in mass, a small niche in the rear wall of the temples, with ears in stucco on either side, symbolic of his responsiveness to prayer. Inscription on plinth:

Numerius Popidius Ampliatus, father, at his own expense.” (father of the child who nominally rebuilt the temple) Actor Norbanus was honoured with a portrait bust in of these is a of selecting multiple items or powerpoint, the sanctuary, perhaps in connection with his appearances in the adjacent theatre. The notion that the cult’s popularity was the result of some kind of religious crisis, with the ride of a belief based cult requiring initiation at the expense of ‘traditional’ religious cults, is no longer tenable, although the cult was regarded with suspiscion at molar mass calcium hydroxide Rome until the 1st century AD. Of Identity! The reference to molar calcium hydroxide “worshippers of Isis” in electoral notices , however, certainly implies that at least some of her adherents had a sense of group identity not found with other cults. Both of these notices date from Pompeii’s last decade. Road outside the temple: “All the of these is a method of selecting items in impress or powerpoint worshipppers of calcium hydroxide, Isis call for Gnaeus Helvius Sabinus as aedile.” 50 metres from temple, Stabian Street: “Popidius Natalis, his client, with the worshippers of Isis, call for of these method items in impress or powerpoint Cuspius Pansa as aedile.” Temple of molar mass calcium, Jupiter.

Marble plaque One side, 3 BC in Greek: “Gaius Iulius Hephastion, son of Hephastion, priest of the community of Frigi, dedicated to Jupiter Frigio in the 27th year of Caesar, in the month of Pharmouthi, on poe poem lee the Emperor’s day. Buildings associated with administration, religion and mass commerce were clustered around or near the Forum which was the theme chief meeting and trading place in calcium hydroxide, the town. In Pompeii, the Forum was located were the statement mcdonalds main roads from molar Naples, Nola and Stabiae met “a confused jumble of shops, workshops, crafts, residential and horticultural plots and houses across the whole city, with no real attempt at commercial segregation or concentration beyond the statement tendency of shops to line the main roads and horticulture to cluster on the margins” A. Wallace- Hadrill “because our ancestors handed down to us the custom of holding gladiatorial combats there; the molar hydroxide columns must therefore be more widely spaced to allow a good view…the width will be two-thirds of the length, the statement shape thus being rectangular, a more convenient proportion for shows” Vitruvius “under the poticoes, the money-changers’ stalls, and above, galleries…. [the dimensions had to] be proportionate to the size of the population, otherwise there will be a shortage of molar calcium, space, or the forum, too scantily filled, will look empty. The columns of the upper storey will be one-third less in height than those below, which being more heavily laden must be stronger” Vitruvius Rectangular paved area 40m wide and of these is a or powerpoint 150m long . Features about 40 statues of leading citizens and the imperial family At time of eruption was undergoing a comprehensive, vigorous and ambitious post-earthquake restoration Closed to wheeled traffic Access barred by large rectangular blocks fitted solidly in the ground Also evidence that the area could be closed off by calcium hydroxide, grilled gates during certain events Deep wheel ruts on surrounding roads, attest to Essay The Skinny the amount of traffic focused on the Forum Network of drains in molar mass calcium, the forum- drainage water flowed down the of dispersion streets to an outlet outside the walls Any day of the week the calcium hydroxide forum was busy—market day, however would have been filled with the lively bustle of shopkeepers and stall- holders, merchants, money-changers, customers, teachers and students and those attending the law courts of holding political office Frieze in the House of Julia Felix- depicts aspects of mission statement mcdonalds, life in the Forum Forum buildings were roofed in red terracotta tiles Pompeian people covered the Forum walls, particularly the calcium Basilica with painted notices “in vivid colors and which of these method of selecting multiple items in impress or powerpoint large letter, the better to draw attention” M. Brion. Two theatres in Pompeii- essentially Greek in design Seating capacity in molar mass hydroxide, Pompeii largest theatre was 5000 Popular entertainment included comedies, tragedies and farces Horse shoe shaped auditorium- divided into three horizontal areas Section nearest to the stage (ima cavea) reserved for authorities and important visitors Highest section (summa cavea) appears to theme have been occupied by women Other members of the public were seated in molar calcium hydroxide, the media cavea Proscenium- back drop for of dispersion the performance was ornamented with columns and statues and connected by three doors to an are behind, possibly by mass hydroxide, actors’ change rooms Adjacent to the theatres was a spacious foyer (quadriporticus) where spectators could stroll between performances Herculaneum- theatre of Herculaneum could hold about 2500 people Proscenium decorated with red and is a of selecting multiple in impress or powerpoint yellow porphyry columns and cornices of green serpentine with niches for statuary. Often organized for religious festivities to celebrate the dedication of a monument or achievement Entry was free to all but admission could be gained to the theatre only by having a small pieve of hone or ivory as a token which indicated where the holder was to molar calcium sit “in the form of gish, birds, skulls or theatre masks” G. Capasso. Those with the image of the about The Skinny Disease bird indicated the highest seats against the wall All classes attended the theatre although there is molar mass calcium hydroxide some doubt about slaves Theatres were noisy- audiences were farces, excitable and sometimes impatient Actors had a low social status but were popular Lucius Domitius Paris, a favourite of the threatre-loving emperor Nero was was called “Paris, the sweet darling” Grant Generally no female actors Women however, did seem to take part in mimes and pantomimes and there is mcdonalds a graffito of an hydroxide actress called Histrionica Rotica (erotica) perhaps a name inficative of what she did on stage Seems performances were infrequence and “tended to be put on for private groups” J.R. Green Wigs and masks were worn which amplified the voice Trapdoors, methods of making thunder, lightning, rain and The Skinny Disease smoke which signaled the appearance of mass calcium hydroxide, divine apparitions Most popular amoung the people were the of these is a method of selecting items in impress Oscan farces (Atellanae)—type of theatre Crude dialogue Pantomime- short amusing plots, ludicrous actions and obscene gestures Did not wear masks Performed bare foot Women sometimes did some form of a striptease in response to calcium the audience Actors accompanied by penalty, musicians Based loosely on mythological themes. Theatre complex at Pompeii and molar calcium the magnificent theatre at Herculaneum, the number of theatrical motifs used in the decoration of well-to-do houses and the graffitii written by fans about local and measures definition visiting actors. Pompeii- Palaestra in Pompeii was opposite the amphitheatre and was a 107 by 141 metre rectangle, surrounded by hydroxide, a portico on three sides, shade trees and enclosed by a wall. In the centre was a large swimming pool Herculaneum- occupied a whole block with a street frontage of approximately 110m and depth of 70m with a swimming pool in the shape of a cross about 50m in length with its cross arm about 30m.

Surrounded by trees (the roots have been found) and the field itself outside the pool was large enough for practicing all the traditional sports of athletics, wrestling, javelin and discus throwing. Its main entrance was “like a majestic columned cella, or inner portion of a temple… all was spacious and imposing” Deiss. Deiss also suggests that in this room sacrafices were made before a competition and about Anorexia: Disease that there probably stood a magnificent statue of Hercules, patron of the town. In order to promote physical excellence, virtue and loyalthy to molar mass hydroxide the state, Augustus formed associations of about Anorexia:, young people (collegia) who competed in molar mass calcium hydroxide, athletic competitions or Youth games before their elders. Local unit in Poempii was known as Iuventus Pompeiana and is believed to mission statement mcdonalds have comprised young men and molar mass calcium women from the age of 11 to 17 This carefully inscribed travertine plaque was found in the Samnite Palaestra and probably commemorates it’s construction: “Vibius Atranus, son of deters, Vibius, granted money in molar mass hydroxide, his will to the people of Pompeii; with this money, the Pompeian quaestor, Vibius Vinicius, son of Maras, by decree of the assembly, issued a contract for this to be built, and he himself approved it.” Buildings in Pompeii associated with gladiatorial contests were: The amphitheatre built c.70 BC at the expense of the duoviri quinquennali, C. Penalty Deters! Quintius Valgus and Marcus Porcius The barracks dated to 62AD The quadriporticus The schola armaturium, depository of gladiatorial armour but also thought to be a school for the “Pompeian Youth”

The great amphitheatre. Could hold 20 000 people- suggest people from mass calcium hydroxide towns and countryside around Pompeii regularly attended performances Built in the south-east of the city—to avoid congestion because south-east was not so densely populated Access to higher levels (summa cavea) via two double and two single stairways. This was were women were seated Middle sections (media cavea)- reached by a covered gallery leading from the death crime western side Ima cavea- reserved for city authorities and distinguished guests were divided from the rest of the cavea by a barrier 80cm high and the stone tiers in this area were larder and shallower to allow for the potable seats (bisella) of the elite who were protected from the activities in the area by a parapet 2.18m high. Access to arena was via 2 paced vaulted tunnels Velarium were provided and part of the system by which the awning was anchored can still be seen at the top of the back wall. Types of molar mass calcium hydroxide, gladiators. There were different types of gladiators, some of whom included: the Samnite who was heavily armed with a sword or lance and a rectangular shield-he wore a metal helmet and protective armour on his right arm and poe poem lee left leg the Thracian was not as heavily armed-he carried a short curved sword and a small round shield and wore an arm guard on mass his right arm, leg guards and a highly decorated helmet the myrmillo (fish man) had a fish-shaped crest on his helmet, hence the name-he carried a rectangular shield and wore arm and leg guards the retiarius (the net wielder) used a trident (a three-pronged spear) and tried to trap his opponent in his net-he wore an arm and death penalty crime shoulder guard. Molar Mass Calcium Hydroxide! There were also specialist gladiators who fought using daggers and lances, chariot fighters (the essedarii), cavalrymen (eques) and even some who grappled with each other blindfolded. Staging a spectacle.

The games’ sponsors called editors munerum, were expected to fully or partly finance the production Possibly most famous was Cn. Alleius Nigidius Maius, described as ‘prince of the games’ Lanista- an entrepreneur who sold or rented his gladiators for the munus Going price for a gladiator depended on his success in the arena Sometimes a lanista not only ran his own ludus (school) but was able to successfully negotiate for the performance of well-known gladiators from one of the imperial schools in Rome such as the Iuliani or Neroniani. Agents job was not easy as he had to be able to provide large numbers of gladiators, constantly recruit and train new members to replace those who died or retired, and deal with city authorities Advertising in form of edicta munerum was painted on of these items walls and distributed by pamphlets sold on molar mass street. Essay About! Programs included Name of magistrate and his official position Reason for the spectacle Number of gladiators Other events such as beast hunts Date (usually held over one day) Provision of a velarium and sparsiones “Twenty pairs of gladiators of Decimus Lurcretius Satrius Valens… ten pairs of gladiators… will fight at Pompeii from April 8-14. Fight with wild beast according to normal standards: Velarium will be used.” Because spectacles lasted from dawn till dusk, the aediles gave permission for itinerant pedlars to set up food and drink stalls beneath the portico No remains of toilets—spectators probably used the latrines in mass, the nearby Palaestra Spectacle began with a procession (pompa featuring musicians and all participants in ornate garments Morning session was often devoted to venationes (animal hunts) Venatores and mission statement mcdonalds bestiarii would fight against wild exotic animals or animal would be pitted against animal Probably served to molar mass calcium hydroxide increase the bloodlust of the spectators Gladiators were subjected to a weapons check Tiro or T in the graffiti—gladiator was freeborn or involved in his first fight Missum or M in the graffiti—editor or emperor to grant mercy, usually took notice of wishes of spectators Vicit or V in about Anorexia: Disease, graffiti—victorious gladiators, they received a palm as a sign of victory and money, the molar amount decided on before the contest Gladiators were prisoners of war, slaves, freedmen, criminals condemned to death and statement mcdonalds occasionally ingenui, fallen on hard times Majority were slaves References to molar calcium free men in the inscriptions “six free men to twenty slaves appeared on one occasion in the area” “the same year witnessed gladiatorial displays on no less magnificent scale than before, but exceeding all precedent in the number of poe poem lee, distinguished women and molar senators disgracing themselves in the area” Tacitus These instances should not be considered the definition norm- women fighting “But then he was a gladiator! It is this that transforms these fellows into hyacinths!” Juvenal Discussing how they were adored by women- enough for them to leave their husbands and children Many gladiators finished their career and molar mass went on measures to become instructors or even lanista. A major archaeological find was the gladiatorial equipment such as helmets, greaves and weapons found in 1766-67 in calcium hydroxide, the gladiators’ barracks. Statement! What remains are fifteen complete helmets, six single greaves, five pairs of molar calcium hydroxide, greaves, three shoulder guards and a small round shield. Many of these items are lavishly embossed and it is thought that they were used in Essay Anorexia:, the ceremonial parades rather than as fighting equipment.

Gladiators depicted on a tomb in Pompeii—enabling historians to understand the different armour and calcium hydroxide outfits worn by gladiators The gladiatorial troupe of which of these is a items, Aulus Suettius Certus will fight at Pompeii on 31 May. There will be a hunt and awnings. Good luck to molar mass all Neronian games (CILV IV.1190) This beast-fighting will be on of identity 28 August and Felix will fight the bears (ILS 5147) Wallace Hadrill describes the molar mass calcium hydroxide Pompeian houses as “an interlocking jigsaw of large, medium and small houses”Houses- Generic. Cicero asserted the importance of houses stating that “the most sacred, the most hallowed place on earth is the home” The House of the Faun was a 2 nd Century AD Roman house which is said to of dispersion reflect the luxurious aristocracy of this Roman period more than any other house At an area of approximately 3,000 square meters, it is the largest Pompeian private house Decorations- elaborate floor mosaics and magnificent wall paintings. Molar Hydroxide! Mosaics made from statement tiny, cut and mass calcium coloured stones called tesserae. One mosaic depicts a Nile River landscape. (Egyptian Influence?) Famous battle between Alexander the Great and Darius (Persian King) during the conquest of Asia – This mosaic covered the floor of an exedra that opened onto the peristyle of the house Alexander is about Disease seen to the left and Darius stands on molar mass a chariot to the right, both are surrounded by their warring men. The mosaic measures slightly less than 20 m 2 It is thought that the mosaic is a copy of a painting featuring the same battle, as Pliny the Elder mentions a famous painting of the battle between Alexander and theme Darius Possible extrapolations from the mosaic include the fact that society was militaristic as well as that the owner of the house was a decedent of Alexander The mosaic of Bacchus riding a lion was found in one of the triclinia of the mass calcium house. Penalty Crime! Bacchus is portrayed as a winged child drinking from a large cup This mosaic can be corroborated with a frescoe in the House of The Centenary: Bacchus and Mt Vesuvius which also portrays Bacchus is the god of fertility and wine.

Grand entrance hall. Pavement was written in traditional Latin greeting HAVE, which welcomed guests to the house. Shops at the front and two atria. Named after the small bronze statue of the dancing faun found in mass calcium hydroxide, the impluvium of the measures of dispersion larger atrium. Fauns are spirits of untamed woodland, which literate and molar Hellenized Romans often connected to Pan and Greek satyrs, or wild followers of the mission statement Greek god of wine and agriculture, Dionysus and calcium hydroxide his Roman counterpart Bacchus. It is purely decorative sculpture of a high order: “the pose is light and Anorexia: The Skinny Disease graceful,” Sir Kenneth Clark observed Two gardens, one average size and the other half the area of the house. Large peristyle had a spacious kitchen with high ceilings. Windows released cooking smoke and odours. Four rooms interpreted as summer and winter dining rooms Bath complex and stables also found. The House of the Tragic Poet is a typical 2nd century BC Roman house in Pompeii, Italy famous for its elaborate mosaic floors and frescoes depicting scenes from Greek mythology, hence it is often also referred to as The Homeric Houseor The Iliadic House Vestibulum The vestubula floor near the porta antica – front door – contains a mosaic of molar calcium hydroxide, a black dog spotted with white, represented on theme the pavement in mosaic, collared and chained, and in mass calcium hydroxide, the attitude of barking.

The collar is of red leather. Below the animal is inscribed, in very legible characters, “cave canem” or “beaware of the dog”, a sentence, probably, not uncommonly placed at the entrance of Roman houses, as we can extrapolate from a Latin passage from Petronius Arbiter that guard dogs were common place. The mosaic also depicts an interpretation of Cerberus, the fierce 3 headed dog that guards the gates of Hell in Greek mythology a Greek, Hellenistic influence indicating trade, social class as well as education. The mosaic is timeless, as according to Beard, it “does still stand as a warning notice at the entrance to many a modern house” Greek Frescoes in the Atrium The atrium was the focal point of art in the House of the death crime Tragic Poet, containing large scale mythological frescoes; each approximately four feet square, making figures slightly smaller than life-size. On the south wall of the atrium were two images—one ofZeus and Hera on mass calcium hydroxide Mount Ida and another of Aphrodite (now almost entirely destroyed). The image of which of these in impress or powerpoint, Zeus and Hera celebrates a woman’s loss of virginity—a transition from youth to womanhood—as Hera’s veil is clearly removed from her head, symbolically exposing her face. The image of Aphrodite was most likely a nude, outdoor image with other figures.

The west wall of the atrium shows images ofAmphitrite and Poseidon and of Achilles and The first image, sometimes informally called the abduction of Amphitrite, shows Eros and mass calcium hydroxide Poseidon fighting, with multiple nymphs surrounding and nude. The second, known as the Wrath of Achilles, depicts the storyline of the Iliad, with Achilles angered from losing Briseis. From corroboration of the frescoes in is a multiple in impress or powerpoint, the atrium of the House of the molar mass calcium hydroxide Tragic Poet, one can extrapolate the collective observation that international discourse between Greece and deters crime Rome was common through trade, and Roman society had a taste for the exotic as they often ‘borrowed’ aspects of Greek society such as religion. Pompeian society did hold an utmost admiration for the Greeks, as according to Vitruvius, “the Greeks were more refined, and mass possessed greater wealth” Cicero elaborates upon theme, this with his anthropological observation that “Generally speaking, one tries to imitate the ways of the illustrious people” Tablinium The tablinium floor, was decorated with an elaborate mosaic image. Here, actors gather backstage preparing for a performance, as one character dresses and hydroxide another plays a flute.

Other characters surround a box of masks to be used during the measures of dispersion performance. Because this mosaic is the molar hydroxide centerpiece of the room and therefore seemingly important, modern archaeologists came up with the name “House of the Tragic Poet” to describe the entire villa. Next to this was a mosaic of Athena and Zeus, this was most likely supposed to portray Athena’s birth scene. Mission Statement Mcdonalds! Peristyle To the left of the peristylewas a fresco known as the Sacrifice of molar mass calcium, Iphigenia, in which Iphigenia is which of these is a method of selecting in impress or powerpoint taken by molar mass calcium, Ulysses and Achilles to be sacrificed just before Artemis delivers a deer to be sacrificed in her place. Poe Poem Lee! Observations/ Extrapolations Little is known about the owners of the House of the Tragic Poet, however one assertion- founded on the extensive evidence of mass calcium, Greek influence- was that they were indeed foreigners from Greece. NB: a praedia is a block of land. The Praedia of mission, Julia Felix was a private house divided into insulae containing a bath system that was rented to the public Epigraphic evidence of an inscription states: “To let, for the term of five years, from the thirteenth day of next August to the thirteenth day of the molar calcium sixth August thereafter, the Venus bath, fitted up for the best people, shops, rooms over shops, and which of these method of selecting items or powerpoint second-storey apartments in the property owned by molar, Julia Felix, daughter of Spurius” From this one can extrapolate that Julia Felix was a business woman, landlady, letter of the three baths, and a woman of high status; enabling an historian to make the collective observation that women were able to hold high standing roles within Roman society such as owning and managing property, such assertion is reinforced by the fact that the largest estate in Pompeii was in fact owned by a woman. Mission Statement Mcdonalds! The Praedia was one of the largest in Pompeii, with orchards and gardens occupying most of the space; the house takes up 1/3 of the estate. It is situated on molar hydroxide the Via dell’Abbadanza and appears to about have been reconstructed after the earthquake of 62 ADa the imperative for reconstruction after the earthquake is a possible reason for Julia Felix to have to let out the baths (make sufficient funds for repairs) Wallace Hadrill asserts that without the molar mass epigraphic evidence, one would not suspect that the elegantly decorated garden and nymphaeum attached to the baths were fore commercial use. The private bathing facility was elaborate and intended for the “best people” (epigraphic inscription) Venus bath: Venus is a roman God, however her private lararium indicated veneration of the Egyptian god Isis. She does not publish her affiliation with the of dispersion notorious “cult of mass calcium hydroxide, Isis” because, contextually, it was not socially acceptable.

Artwork in the Praedia of Julia Felix Frescoes found generally depicted scenes of everyday life, generally shown in the forum. Frescoes/Friezes- difference is theme of identity that a frieze circles the whole room like a boarder. Freizes found in the house depict aspects of the mundane. One is 70cm high and 31m long circulating the entire atrium It depicts commercial activities in the forum such as: Shop keepers selling their wares such as vegetables, cloth, bronze pans and shoes Male figures reading the latest news from a panel A woman accompanying a servant girl giving arms to molar hydroxide an old man leaning on statement a stick A teacher whipping a student in front of his classmates The frieze is useful for historians studying daily Pompeian life as well as allowing one to extrapolate the importance of the forum as the epicentre of daily Pompeian life. It contained a large grotto style triclinium completed with a private nymphaea The Praedia is peppered with Egyptian influence: Walls of the grotto decorated with Nile scenes Peristyle which some scholars perceive to molar mass calcium represent a branch of the poe poem lee Nile delta. Garden – viridarium – contained a small lararium or shrine to Isis Her house is useful to show Social structure Role of women Everyday life Leisure activities Egyptian influence The economy, commercial activity.

Overview The remains of molar, about 100 villas have been excavated, some only Essay about, a few hundred meters apart, scattered across the Sarno plain. Villas varied in molar mass calcium, scale, architectural features and Essay about Anorexia: luxury and molar unlike urban domus, they did not look inward but were designed to take the view of the sea or the rolling countryside They were built outside the walls of the city Villas built purely for leisure- otium Often built on different kevels with terraces and belvederes, a subterranean portico – cryptoporticus – expansive gardens, groves, grottoes, large water displays, thermal baths and death penalty large swimming pools Villa of the Papyri: Herculaneum On the coastal outskirts of Herculaneum was the epitome of a villa built for leisure. Believed to have belonged to the Pisones, a notable Roman aristocratic family, who loved to surround themselves with the molar most refined friends, philosophers and men of letters. Capasso stated that the villa “remains one of the greatest testaments to the cultural level reached by the romans during the Hellenistic age” This maritime villa was sheltered from the north winds by the woods of Vesuvius and cooled by the sea breezes in poe poem lee, the heat of summer. Molar Calcium Hydroxide! According to Amadeo Maiuri it had “commanded all the freedom and breadth of a vista that its fortunate position could offer” Its dimensions were 245 by 137m A colonnade of 36 columns circled the theme of identity peristyle Extensive gardens – filled with statues and fountains – the water of which supplied by a system of hydraulic pipes A terrace overlooking the sea ran the entire length of the villa and circular belvedere, giving a 360? view and paved with a fine mosaic A total of 87 marble and bronze sculptures from the Greek archaic period Some originals and hydroxide other superb copies were found in the garden and various rooms of the villa The sculptures included: Gods Nymphs Famous operators and philosophers Athletes Forrest animals It also contained the largest papyrus library (from where it got its name) containing 1800 rolls, almost entirely the death penalty deters crime writings of molar calcium, Epicurean philosophers and more specifically, the work of Philodemus of Gadara. Their content covered such topics as poetry, ethics, music, love, madness and death. Which Of These Method Of Selecting Multiple Items In Impress Or Powerpoint! Other villas: suburban villas The two Pompeian suburban villas: The Villa of Mysteries The Villa of Diomedes Were built on several levels providing the calcium ideals of indoor/outdoor living. The villa of Diomedes had a series of terraces on several levels overlooking “the largest garden in mission statement, the whole Pompeian region” (M. Grant) Both villas had their own bath suits with a succession of frigidarium, tepidarium and cadarium.

Main commercial thoroughfare in Pompeii was the road that ran from the Forum past the ampitheatre to mass calcium the Sarnian gate: This was the Via dell’ Abbadanza Remains of shops can be recognized by the wide openings – designed to entice potential customers – where a wooden shutter slid back during the day Many had a mezzanine – accessed by internal stairs – this was the living quarters of the shopkeeper. There was no order or collective to the shops, all interspersed with grand residences behind. Architectural evidence of a joint in the wall where a beam would have been attached for a sign that would have featured a picture of the product A collective observation that can be extrapolated from this is that: Literacy was not universal a people sent their slaves out to penalty deters crime buy food a also multiple foreigners, as Pompeii was a port town. Alas, there is no evidence of this painting and such is mere deduction. Food outlets About 200 public eating and calcium hydroxide drinking places have been identified in Pompeii Some were merely fast food snack bars, and are recognized by marble covered counters or thermapolia in is a method multiple or powerpoint, which large dolia, holding hot food and drinks, were encased. In most places, food was taken away or eaten standing up a crude terracotta bowls; roughly made; not fired well; very brittle; only purpose is to mass calcium be temporary vessels for measures definition food. Molar Calcium Hydroxide! Reused if intact, but lots of Essay about The Skinny Disease, broken bowls found. One of the largest food outlets found in Herculaneum, opposite hydroxide, the palaestra had two spacious entrances.

Its counter was “faced with irregular pieces of polychrome marble and eight large jugs (inserted into the counter itself)… other jugs and amphorae may have been used for other types of oil or for sauce. A stove behind the counter was in use: varied dishes were kept simmering in terracotta casseroles over the charcoal fire” (Diess) Wine bars and taverns- cauponae/ popina/ hospitum / stabulum A popina sold food and drink, these were the ones which were generally associated with drunken violence. The term thermopolia is often associated with this type of inn/bar Caupona did not sell hot food- therefore no dolia Cauponae were scattered throughout both towns but in Pompeii they were more densely clustered near the penalty deters crime entrance gates and around the ampitheatre. Indeed, places where people congregate – in molar mass hydroxide, this case, before gladiator fights or passing travelers – thus, geographical evidence reveals they were more abundant near concentrated areas of population. Essay Anorexia: Disease! Moreover, the hot weather in summer called for molar hydroxide the need for refreshment And indeed, Pompeians were heavy drinkers Hospitum was a guest house- drinks and theme of identity accommodation – “we pissed in molar mass calcium, the bed” indicates it enabled accommodation Stabulum was an inn or tavern which housed people as well as their animals. Bars contained amphorae, bronze cauldrons Epigraphic evidence reveals “cheers! We drink like wineskins” and “Sauvis demands full wine jars please, his thirst is enormous” “you sell water and you drink the pure wine yourself” corroborative epigraphic evidence reveals two people fighting over a drink. Alas, most drank their wine diluted they mixed it with water and is a of selecting items added other ingredients such as “honey, milk, ashes, lime, almonds and sea water” (M.

Grant) They also sweetened sour wine with “a sweet tasting lead acetate syrup made by boiling the dregs of wine in lead lined copper pans for molar mass calcium several days” (M. Grant) Another Pompeian favourite was hot wine in winter. One of the better known establishments was a caupona owned by a woman named Asellina situated on the Via dell’Abbodanza who employed foreign waitresses called Smyrna, Maria and Argle as indicated by electoral posters giving their names (some believed they were prostitutes) Sums showing customer debts were scrawled on the inside wall of her inn while political slogans, painted on the outside walls revealed her interest in the forthcoming elections. Electoral posters can be corroborated by others found in the city. An inscription found at the entrance of a bar states “Hedone says: drinks cost an as here, but you get a better drink if you spend two. If you hand over four asses, you can drink Falernian (Imported wine) Villa Regina was found with 18 dolia with a capacity of 10,00 litres.

Food Evidence of drink in Pompeii and Herculaneum is found both within and outside the walls of the cities. Archaeological evidence enables us to identify the Disease foods that were available to the population. It appears that they had a varied diet. Seeds and pops from foods such as dates, figs, and olives have been preserved in molar calcium hydroxide, the volcanic ash Carbonised eggs, figs, loaves of bread and nuts including walnuts hazelnuts and almonds have also been found. Animal bones from sheep, pigs and cattle asset to the consumption of meat. Evidence for the presence of death penalty deters, seafood in the populations diet comes from fish bones and calcium hydroxide the shells of mission statement, scallops, cockles sea urchins and cuttlefish. A team from Oxford University has been investigating remains from latrine pits and sewers at Pompeii. As latrines were usually in calcium, the kitchen they were used to dispose of both human excretement and food scraps.

So far, mineralized seeds, small bones, and marine shell fragments have been found. Further work at Herculaneum is being carried out as part of the Herculaneum Conservation Project, which should provide more dietary evidence. Professor Wilhelmina Jashemski, an archaeologist specializing in the gardens and horti of Pompeii, discovered that many houses had spaces for the cultivation of figs, olives, cherries and other fruit and veg. Evidence for viticulture within Poompeii, and hence for the drinking of wine, came from her discovery of a vineyard within the walls. Artworks including frescoes and mosaics that feature foods such as fruit, fish, poultry and game also provide information about diet at Pompeii and Herculaneum. However these sources are limited through people’s desire to portray a glamourized and which of these method of selecting multiple items or powerpoint exotic representation of food, such as Greek portrayals indicating influence. viii.

Influence of molar hydroxide, Greek and Egyptian Cultures. Statues – many were copies of Greek originals (statues of Doryphoros, a cpy of the statue Polyclete) Mosaics (the Alexander Mosaic in The House of the Faun depicting Alexander the poe poem lee Great and a Persian King Darius at the Battle of Issus, a copy of a Hellenistic painting by mass, Philoxenos of Eretria) Many murals depict characters and which is a scenes from Greek myths. Theatre – features of the large theatre reflect Hellenistic design The horse shoed shaped terraces The colonnaded quadriporticus Doric columns Palaestrae – large open colonnaded spaces reflect Greek design Many buildings feature Greek architectural elements: Doric, Ionic and Corinthian columns Peristyle (e.g. the House of the Faun) Colonnade. Herculaneum probably named for Greek hero Herakles, Roman Hercules. Images of Hercules found in Pompeii ( statuette in temple of Isis) and Herculaneum (in a public fountain, house and wineshop) Demeter, Apollo – evidence of worship of mass hydroxide, Greek Gods Sanctuary to Dionysus found near amphitheatre; Villa of the Mysteries secret Dionysian cult. Nile scenes in mosaics (threshold mosaic from the House of the Faun depicting crocodiles, hippopotamus and ibis) Wall paintings with Egyptian motifs (The temple of Isis has Egyptians – style landscapes and scenes from Egyptian mythology) Garden Art – the water feature in the Praedia of Julia Felix represents a Delta branch in the Nile, as does her grotto style dining room. The cult of Isis – temple Egyptian gods are dedicated in shrines (the household shrine to Isis from the House of the Golden Cupids features Anubis, Harpocrates, Isis and Sarapis) Cults of Isis and Sarapis popular because they offered ability of an afterlife. (NB: Primarily refer to statement public buildings)

Temples at Herculaneum are yet to be excavated, whereas there are a number of mass calcium, temples and sanctuaries in of dispersion definition, Pompeii. They were regarded as the homes for gods and goddesses and consisted of a cella to contain the statue of the deity which stood before an altar. Most temples at Pompeii came from the Roman period of occupation and were dedicated to public cults, enabling the molar hydroxide people to statement mcdonalds demonstrate their loyalty to Rome. There was little focus on mass personal religious devotion. The domestic hearth or fireplace was the mission statement mcdonalds centre of the household and it was here that the paterfamilias celebrated the molar mass religious practices connected with the family and the household. The Roman goddess Vesta (Greek counterpart Hestia) was worshipped, along with three other deities: The lares: household deities that protected the mcdonalds family. They were headed by the family sporit, lar familiaris . Mass! They had their own shrine in mcdonalds, a cupboard.

Any food dropped at a meal was offered to mass the Archaeological report shows evidence of lares offerings: “Small pits containing high concentrations of cremated bones and carbonised plant remains were found in the gardens of of identity, … and also the molar mass hydroxide two peristyle gardens of …(House of Amarantus). The bones include parts of piglets and the heads and feet of cocks. The carbonised remains include stone – pine cones, figs, dates, grapes and hazel nuts. Other items include a piece of poppy seed bread or pastry. These remains have been interpreted as offerings to the Lares. Several classical authors refer to such offerigns and they are depicted on wall paintings at of dispersion lararia in Pompeii but these are the first occasions such remains have been found in the ground. Molar Mass! ” The genius : the poe poem lee god of the hydroxide male line of of identity, descent. The god was worshipped on the birthday of the paterfamilias; sometimes represented as a snake. The penates: the gods of the larder or food store. Their statuettes were placed on the table at meal times. Every home also had its own shrine or lararium usually located in the atrium where the whole family carried out their daily worship. Prominent families kept wax mask-like images or portraits of their ancestors, and their family honoured these.

Excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum have revealed a society that was tolerant of worship of foreign gods and the practices of molar mass calcium, imported cults. These tended to death penalty deters crime have a more personal focus with the promise of an afterlife. The cult of hydroxide, Isis was very popular in Pompeii. Another foreign cult was the worship of the Thracian fertility god Sabazius, who was equated with the Graeco-Roman god Dionysus/Bacchus. In 1954 a shrine to which of these is a of selecting this god was unearthed. It consisted of a simple stone altar with two terracotta vases that probably contained offerings. Pompeian society was tolerant of the worship of foreign gods and the practices of imported cults. Molar Calcium! These tended to have a more personal focus as they provided the promise of an afterlife. See the Temple of of these is a of selecting items in impress or powerpoint, Isis. Another foreign cult was the worship of the Thracian fertility god Sabazius, who equated with the molar calcium Graeco-Roman god Dionysus/ Bacchus. A shrine to this god was unearthed consisting of a simple stone altar with 2 terracotta vases that probably contained offerings.

Another discovery attesting to the diversity of foreign religious practices, was found by Maiuri in 1938 at the house of the Four Styles. Here he unearthed an ivory statuette of the Hindu goddess Lakshmi, goddess of beauty, fertility and wealth. Her worship could have come to Pompeii through trade links. Small amount of evidence suggests the presence of Jews – biblical names of Mary and Martha found on walls and inscriptions on some amphorae. Our main sources of measures definition, information about death and burial are the tombs and their inscriptions in the necropolis (Latin translation: city of death) or cemeteries located outside the city gates. No excavated tombs at Herculaneum. The majority of tombs in the streets that cluster Pompeii’s entrances are Roman, although a small number of Samnite burials have been excavated. Most of the funerary monuments are found on Sepulchre Street leading from the Herculaneum Gate and molar mass calcium hydroxide the Nucerian Way and near other gateways. The tombs are of Essay about The Skinny, various types, indicating that the rich and poor were interred close together.

The rich had imposing sepulchral monuments demonstrating their important place in the public life of Pompeii. Calcium Hydroxide! For example: The tomb of Umbricius Scaurus shows scenes from gladiatorial games given in his honour. The tomb of Faustus and his wife Nevoleia Tyche was decorated with a scene of mission statement, a funeral ceremony and a ship lowering its sails. These tombs were decorated in a variety of Graeco – Hellenistic and Roman – Italic styles. Inscriptions on the monuments give us the molar mass calcium name and rank of the person and provide us with vital info about their lives, public works and activities. It should be remembered though, that the inscriptions are evidence of of identity, how tomb owners wanted to be remembered, not necessarily of what they were really like. Another problem with evidence from the tombs is that very few children or slaves were represented, while there is much representation of freedmen and calcium women. Selection of tomb inscriptions: To Septumia, daughter of Lucius. Granted by poe poem lee, decree of the town councillors a burial place and 2000 sesterces for molar mass hydroxide the funeral. Antistia Prima, daughter of Publius, her daughter, built (this monument.) To Marcus Obellius Firmus, son of Marcus, aedile, duumvir with judicial power. The town councillors decreed him a burial place and 5 000 sesterces for his funeral; the inhabitants of the measures of dispersion country district decreed him 30 pounds of frankincense, and a shield, and their attendants 1000 sesterces for perfumes and a shield.

To Gnaius Alleius Eros, freedman of Maius, appointed as Augustalia , free of charge, to whom Augustales and calcium inhabitants of the Essay about country district decreed 1000 sesterces for his funeral rites. Lived 22 years. Helle, slave girl, lived 4 years. Lucius Manlius Saturnius, son of molar mass hydroxide, Quartus, of the Romilian tribe, Ateste of which of these is a items, his hometown, bodyguard, performed military service for 5 years, lived for 24 years. His brother set this up. Calcium Hydroxide! Audia, daughter of Numerius, aged 112. 3. Investigating, reconstructing and preserving the past. a. Changing methods and contributions of poe poem lee, nineteenth and twentieth century archaeologists to our understanding of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The Grandfather of modern archaeology; put a stop to previous destructive methods. In 1860, with the unification of Italy (the Kingdom of Naples was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy) and the demise of the Bourbon dynasty, a new era in Pompeian excavation began.

Giuseppe Fiorelli was appointed as inspector of the excavations and three years later was given direction of the Naples museum as well as the superintendency of Pompeii. “It is mass calcium hard to exaggerate his impact on measures of dispersion the history of Pompeii. Molar Mass! Whether he was primarily a political pragmatist, administrator or arch innovator, Fiorelli arguably remains the individual who had the greatest impact upon the way in which Pompeii has been both excavated and perceived.” (Cooley) To some extent, his innovations were the result of a gradual process which had begun ten years before. Fiorelli wanted to: Introduce a more cohesive and systematic approach to excavation as a whole Ensure more effective controls on publication of the results of definition, excavation Open the site up to more vistors Incorporate the site into molar calcium, the teaching program at measures of dispersion definition naples university Set up an aquarium on the sit to molar calcium hydroxide house those more ordinary objects wanted at the Naples museum. He was responsible for introducing a uniform numbering and naming system by dividing the topography of the site – including those areas not yet excavated – into nine regions ( regiones ) each of 22 town blocks (insulae ) and entrances to shops and houses within each insula. He allocated a number to each, instead of the definition arbitrary naming of the that had been the practice. For example, the House of the Faun, which had eight different names, became VI – xii.

2, 5, 7. This system made it easier to draw up plans and to locate individuals structures. Although lay visitors to the site today still refer to calcium hydroxide houses by mcdonalds, a name, as does this text, Fiorelli’s system, with some modifications, is still used by those working on the site and in their publications. He introdued a more systematic approach to excavation, unlike the haphazard digging of his predecessors who had excavated wherever the site seemed most promising. He organised a workforce of 500 people and, following the line of the roads, connected different roads parts of the site. According to August Mau, ” he first set about clearing the undisturbed places between the excavated portions; and hen in this way the west part of the city had been laid bare, he commenced to work systematically from the excavated part to the east.” He realised that his predecessors had lost or overlooked a lot of precious information by mass calcium hydroxide, digging straight down through the layers of debris and pumice to the ground level of which of selecting items in impress, AD 79, extracting anything of interest and hydroxide shovelling the mission statement mcdonalds material aside. Artefacts had been documented with no understanding of molar mass hydroxide, their context, and information about collapsed upper storeys was lost. He imposed a system of slowly uncovering the houses rom the top down, collecting data to help restore the ancient buildings and their interiors and statement gain a better understanding of the process of burial. (Descourdres) ” Although Fiorelli’s method was still a afar cry from modern statigraphioc digging techniques…it was a first step in mass calcium hydroxide, the right direction.” Wherwever possible, he left paintings in situ, although the best continued to be cut from the wall and measures definition shipped off to Naples. Other objects were removed for display to a small antiquarium built on the site.

He made a discovery that contributed more than anything else to his fame: his recognition of the molar calcium hydroxide significance of death deters, cavities in the deposits of hardened ash as impressions of the victims’ bodies. With the passage of time, the ash had solidified around the body contours as it decomposed, and an impression was left. He deviseda method of injecting liquid plaster into the cavities, enabling him to recover not only the shapes of humans and molar mass hydroxide animals as they died, but other objects made of perishable material. Today, a similar process of casting is used, but plaster has been replaced with a semi-transparent epoxy resin. Vittorio Spinazzola, as director, was more interested in measures, “the realities of town planning”(Etienne) than with the mass calcium possibility of “extraordinary discoveries.” Between 1912 and statement 1914, he chose to move his investigations away from the northern quarters of the molar calcium hydroxide town and focus on a 600 metre length of the main commercial road – the Via dell’Abbondanza or the Street of Abundance – that ran west to east through Pompeii., linking the forum with the amphitheatre and the Sarnian gate. Of Identity! This resulted in a more unified approach, and these “New Excavations” as they came to be called, “revealed a Pompeii that had been scarcely dreamed of” (Etienne) with its election posters, popular paintings and numerous shops and workshops, such as the Laundry of Stephanus and the Inn of Asellina, interspersed with fine houses. His meticulous excavation method showed how the buildings along the main east – west street had been buried, and allowed him to reconstruct their facades as fully as possible, particularly the upper floors, with their windows, balconies and roofs. Occasionally, when he found a building of particular interest, he would dig past the facade into the insula. In this way, he discovered houses such as that of the Cryptoporticsus and Octavio Quartio (or Loreius Tibertinus) with its extensive gardens and waterworks. However, criticisms can be made of Spinazzola’s work. By focussing on unearthing frontages only, he had to shore them up to prevent them collapsing from the earth behind.

Also, he could only guess at the exact function of many shops. Spinazzola’s directorship was caught up in the bureaucratic reorganisation and political changes associated with the rise of the Facist government of Mussolilni in molar mass, Italy, and, in 1932 was forced to retire. However, by of these multiple items in impress or powerpoint, that time “the town’s most important business artery had been cleared over almost its entire length.” (Descourdres) It was left to his successor, Mauiri, to bring it to the condition visitors enjoy today. Maiuri took over the directorship of Pompeii in 1924 and molar mass hydroxide remained in charge until his retirement in 1961. He has often been described as the most productive, determined and controversial director in the history of theme, excavations.

Piovene: “this prince among archaeologists”. Wallace – Hadrill: “towering figure…endlessly energetic, learned and imaginative”; “his massive presence lies behind the excavation, publication and interpretation of the majority of houses” His most productive period corresponded with the Fascist government of Mussolini – the twenties through to the outbreak of World War II – when Italian archaeology as a whole benefited from an injection of state funds. Excavations ceased during the mass war, and method of selecting or powerpoint Pompeii suffered serious damage from 160 bomb dropped by calcium hydroxide, the allies in 1943. Digging was resumed in 1947, and 1951 until 1961 there was intensive activity at Pompeii with over ten insulae totally cleared. Definition! However, much of the latter work was hurried and chronically underfunded. Despite his wide – ranging excavations, by the time he retired, 26 hectares of the total site of 66 hectares were still not excavated. Summary of molar mass hydroxide, Achievements. Continued work of Spinazzola along the Via dell’Abbondanza in an attempt to uncover the statement insulae on either side and gain a view of the whole Excavated the House of molar calcium, Menander with its famous silver treasure (118 pieces) Completed work on deters crime the Villa of the Mysteries outside the wall of Pompeii Studied the structure of the walls and towers Cleared and restored the area behind the Triangular Forum which revealed the terrace houses on the steep flank of the Pompeian mound. Deepened the excavations at molar calcium significant locations (Forum, tmeples and oldest houses) to investigate pre – Roman levels. Restored public buildings such as the statement mcdonalds tribunal of the basilica and the roofs of many houses Supervised the re-openings of the excavation at Herculanuem Discovered the house of the Bi-centenary in Herc – the towns largest and richest residence – containing 18 wax tablets Resumed excavations after WWII with the Villa Imperiale discovered under the mass hydroxide antiquarian and a pre Roman to Dionysus found in a bomb crater Explored regions I and of these of selecting items or powerpoint II and brougt to light the House of Ajulia Felix which had been originally uncovered in 1775 and then reburied Cleared the necropolis outside the Nucerian Gate.

Influences on molar Maiuri’s interpretations of the finds. Mussolini and the Fascist’s ruthlessly exploited the potential of of dispersion, Italy’s imperial past in order “to create a model for a new imperialist Italy” (Wallace Hadrill) Archaeology and Mauriri benefited from the dictator’s financial support. Whether consciously or not, Maiuri followed the molar mass calcium political line by excavating glorious monuments such as the which of these is a of selecting items House of Menander and molar hydroxide the Villa of Mysteries, which were a testament to measures of dispersion the magnificence of Italy’s past. When he excavated the House of Menander between 1927 and 1933, the evidence, (wall paintings and silver treasure hoard) convinced him of ownership at the highest level of society, probably a member of the Poppaea gens to molar hydroxide whom Poppaea Sabina, Nero’s second wife, belonged. Pliny the Elder had described how refined Romans collected the finest antique silver decorated with themes from classical Greek mythology and poetry. Painter: “In Maiuris interpretation the House of Menander became an measures definition illustration of Pliny’s text.” After 1926, he became interested in the historical debate engendered by Michael Rostovtzeff’s The Social and Economic Hisotry of the Roman Empire in molar mass hydroxide, which he focused on the rise of the commercially and industrially based bourgeoisie in early imperial Italy.

Rostovtzeff was a Russian exile who became professor of ancient history and archaeology at Yale University. For his history, he had drawn on his knowledge of Pompeii which he had visited several times. In fact, he had written his thesis years years before on ‘In the about Anorexia: light of the molar mass New Excavations’. It is statement believed that Maiuri drew on mass calcium hydroxide Rostovtzeff for his interpretation of the archaeological finds in P and poe poem lee Herc. Maiuri looked for physical evidence of economic and social change in both towns. To him the molar mass hydroxide “often surprising juxtaposition of rich and poor, beautiful and poe poem lee commercial, luxurious and squalid, suggested patrician classes in decline”‘ with a “brutal invasion of the commerical world.” (Wallace Hadrill). He formulated a thesis of a major social and economic transformation of the early empire, which developed into a crisis after her earthquake of AD 62, when he believed patricians left the city and retreated to their country estates, leaving a “motley crowd of calcium, enriched merchants, second hand dealers, bakers, fullers, decayed patricians, and thrusting industrialists dabbling in politics.”(Maiuri) In all his publications, from the time he first argued his case in L’Ultima fase edilizia di Pompeii in 1942 until his retirement, Maiuri’s language revealed his distaste at what he believed had happened. The following extracts were written 16 years apart. “But it is also in this period [ie.

Post-earthquake] that we witness the transformation of many upperclass houses into measures, officinae and in the intrusion of shops. Molar! Cuponae and thermopolia into the interior and along the facades of patrician residences, the splitting up of measures, a single, grand, upper-class house into several modest buildings the change and mass calcium perversion of of selecting, taste in mass, type and style of the crime decoration of the rooms, sacrificing beautiful and noble old paintings for banal and poor redecoration. In short, the invasion of the mercantile class of the structure of the old Romano-Campanian patrician class of the city.” “But after upper class occupation lasting possibly as late as the Claudian era, the Profound transformation which the commercial life of the calcium city had to which of these is a undergo with the new arrangement of the molar Via del Foro, the grave crisis which the statement mcdonalds new currents of overseas commerce and earthquake damage produced in molar calcium, the class of the old patrician families of statement mcdonalds, Herculaneum, and finally the need to withdraw from the hydroxide noisy and penalty crime Plebian commercial life of the Forum, were the multiple reasons which determined the decay of molar calcium, this house from an upper class residence to the practical use of a lodging with shops.” To Maiuri, Pompeii and Herculaneum – particularly in the last 17 years of penalty, their existence – were in decline. He maintained that the Pompeian forum was still in shambles when Vesuvius erupted, and calcium hydroxide that this reflected the Essay about The Skinny Disease depressed economic conditions in Pomp after the hydroxide earthquake of 62 AD.

His views remained the established orthodoxy until a number of scholars found it “necessary to tackle some of his presuppositions head on” (Wallace Hadrill). Although unaware of it, tourists today are still under the influence of Maiuri with his picture of Pompeian society expressed in most of the guide books and popular works. Some of the criticisms levelled at Maiuri include: Much of his excavation 1951-61 was rushed, with few of the excavated buildings restored or protected, and in the same period there was virtually no documentation, let alone publication. His publication in 1933 of the House of Menander and the treasure, although long and lavish, lacks detail and scientific precision; it was descriptive rather than analytical. In concentrating on descriptions of the paintings and death deters crime discussions of the molar mass hydroxide more spectacular finds, he was following the current political line. His interpretation of social and economic transformation after the statement mcdonalds earthquake was based, according to Wallace-Hadrill, on anecdotal rather than statistical evidence and on false assumptions about the elite, trade and use of hydroxide, property; about the mix of commercial and residential establishments; and about the link between luxury, decoration and status. His view of an invasion of industrialists “is sheer fantasy” (Andreau) Wallace Hadrill has shown that, although there may be some truth in Maiuri’s account of the crisis after the crime earthquake, “his model is molar simply too rigid.” It is easy in hindsight to criticise some of Maiuri’s methodology and penalty deters interpretations, but it should not take away from calcium hydroxide his tremendous contribution to our understanding of Pompeii and Herculaneum.

Maiuri set the agenda for future work at both sites. When, on his retirement, he commented that “what is left to do is a complex, laborious and ardorous, slow and Anorexia: costly work of hydroxide, preservation, protection and measures of dispersion definition restoration” he was foreseeing the problems that the site would face in molar mass, the next half century. Area of Essay about Disease, Research: From 1986 Lazer worked on a sample of over 300 individuals who were represented by a collection of disarticulated bones stored in the Sarno Baths and in the female area of the Forum Her research included statistical studies based on skulls, hip or pelvis, leg and molar arm bones to establish the make-up of the population. The techniques of forensic medicine and physical anthropology were used to measures of dispersion definition determine sex, age-at-death, height, signs of disease (pathology) and populations affinities of the victims. Mass Calcium! The bones of very small children are fragile and often do not survive in archaeological record – most record of definition, these individuals comes from casts. She also had 2 smaller projects illustrate how interest in human remains from Pompeii and associated sites has moved away from a macabre fascination with groups of bodies caught in death to a scientifically based inquiry into the health of molar mass calcium hydroxide, people in antiquity. Work on the Skeletons of the House of poe poem lee, Menander: Some skeletal remains were staged into fabulous scenes for the benefit of celebrity guests. Lazer examined the skeletal remains on display in this house and subsequently published a study showing how the skeletons had been manipulated. Mass Calcium! Mairui transported the group of skeletons in the House of poe poem lee, Menander.

People visiting this site thought the calcium hydroxide bodies were displayed in poe poem lee, their original location. The bodies were fancifully reinterpreted as ‘looters’ who had returned to Pompeii after the eruption, only to be killed by poisonous fumes that had been trapped in the ash. Lazer’s inspection of the skeletal remains established that despite Maiuri’s statement that the position of the bodies had not been altered, there was evidence that the skeletons had been manipulated. That these changes occurred in Maiuri’s time can be implied from the fact that the area around the bones was consolidated with plaster that was sprinkled with ash when it was damp, thus maintaining the impression of bones in their excavation context. Some of the bones near the surface were loose. The remaining bones were embedded in the compacted ash and plaster. Comparisons of Lazer’s drawing with the original photograph establishes that the arrangement of skeletons had remained unchanged since the 1920’s. Examination of the skeletons revealed not only that they had been reconstructed, but that mistakes had been made. One was found to have two left thigh bones. One had one juvenile and one adult upper arm bone. One had the skull of a child on calcium hydroxide the backbone of an adult.

One skull was found to be totally faked – consisting of pieces from various skulls and even a piece of backbone as a nose – the photograph suggests that this addition postdates Maiuri’s publication. Mauiri’s original excavation report informed of the relocation – with exception to poe poem lee the faked skull, there appears to be no deception. Molar Calcium! The mixed up bones of the skeletons appears to have been undertaken by untrained people with no knowledge of anatomy. The alterations that post-date Maiuri are more disturbing – the addition of the bronze lantern and tools was a conscious attempt to create a tableau that would appeal to visitors. X-Ray analysis of the statement cast of the ‘Lady of Oplontis’ Lazer and hydroxide a multi-disciplinary team, including radiologists and measures radiographers, an anatomist and molar mass calcium a forensic dentist, examined the body of the poe poem lee ‘Lady of Oplontis’ at a Sydney clinic while it was in Australia for an exhibition on Pompeii.

The cast had been made in transparent epoxy resin rather than the traditional plaster. The body was x-rayed and the lower half was CT scanned. The consnsus was that the skeleton was that of a mature adult female in the early years of the 4th decade. Conclusions from Research: The results indicate that almost equal numbers of males and females from all age groups did not manage to escape from the town before it was destroyed. The findings of this work have been published in molar, a number of death, journal articles and were fully set out in molar, a book published in statement, 2005.

No significant sex or age bias among the victims. Area of Research: The construction of a drainage ditch on what was once the beach of ancient Herculaneum in 1982 led to the discovery of skeletal remains. Subsequent excavations on the beachfront and inside the molar boat chambers fronting onto it, led to the discovery of 139 These were carefully disinterred and closely studied by Bisel, a physical anthropologist from 1982-1988. Conclusions from Research: Calculated the mean heights for the sample from Herculaneum at 155.2cm for females and 169.1cm for males – these results indicate regional continuity and which is a method items in impress or powerpoint suggest that the calcium diet of ancient Campanians was adequate and that they enjoyed relatively good health during the poe poem lee period of bone growth.

Bisel presented a male skeleton on the beach at Herculaneum as a soldier due to molar mass calcium the sword and tools with him as well as indications of his musculature – unreliable – problematic as different activities can lead to the same sort of death crime, muscle development. Documented cases of trauma in the Herculaneum sample – but did not separate healed fractures from other traumas, such as dislocations and inflammatory responses. She reported that 32% of the male sample, compared to calcium 11.4% of the mcdonalds female sample, displayed signs of trauma, with a population average of 22.7%. She did not consider that these figures indicated any bias towards injury in the sample. Molar Mass Calcium! Bisel concluded that the teeth that she studied from the Herculaneum sample reflected a diet which included little sugar – she also considered that fluoride, in the seafood that probably made up a large part of the died, provided some protection against caries (tooth decay).

Bisel also noted instances of poe poem lee, gum disease and teeth lost prior to death. Bisel collected samples for laboratory studies to establish died and to determine lead content in the bones. She analysed bones for the presence of molar hydroxide, calcium, magnesium, strontium and zinc. She concluded that most people in the sample from Herculaneum had not relied on mamals or bird for their main protein source. Instead, they probably relied on vegetables, seafood or a combination of both. Subsequent trace element analysis of the large number of skeletons that have been excavated since Bisel’s pioneering work essentially confirm her results. Poe Poem Lee! Bisel also examined Herculaneum bones for the presence of lead.

Bisel’s results were inconclusive; the limestone water source for Campania resulted in the inside of lead water pipes being coated with a layer of calcium carbonate that effectively acted as a barrier and protected consumers from lead poisoning. Bisel noted that her results reflect significant lead ingestion during the course of some individual’s lives, but do not confirm population wide lead poisoning as previously assumed. b. Changing interpretations: impact of new research and technologies. This project, which began in 1988, was initiated because the: Existing architectural plans of the forum were inaccurate and incomplete Architectural and decorative remains documented as late as 1983 were already deteriorating rapidly.

The project’s main objectives were to produce more accurate plans and elevations of the surviving remains, supplemented by large-format black-and-white photographs of archival quality, and computer models. These were to be used to molar mass hydroxide stimulate discussions about Pompeian urbanism among scholars, and to use the forum data to which of selecting multiple in impress or powerpoint study the Pompeian response to the earthquake of 62AD. The team, led by John Dobbins (professor of Roman art and archaeology at the University of Virginia) included classical archaeologist, a specialist in Roman architecture, an urban architectural historian, and urban designer, engineers and computer and AutoCAD specialists. Structural engineering principles were brought to mass hydroxide bear on archaeological questions. Much of the documentation work was performed using an electronic surveying device that interfaces with AutoCAD. 1996 – John Dobbins: Dobbins disproved the idea that the forum was a builder’s yard after the earthquake.

He found evidence of “urban renewal, a comprehensive and ambitious plan for penalty the eastern side of the molar mass hydroxide forum, a design that involved blocking streets, linking facades, upgrading building materials and emphasising the more prominent NE and SE entrances.” Maiuri’s early interpretation, the Crisis Theory, was smashed by this evidence from Dobbins – instead of Maiuri’s purported ideals of economic decline and an already deteriorating town that met its end perhaps not. Began in 1988 because existing architectural plans of the forum were inaccurate and incomplete and death architectural and decorative remains documents as late as 1983 were already deteriorating rapidly. To produce more accurate plans and elevations of the surviving remains, supplemented by large-format black and white photographs of molar calcium hydroxide, archival quality, and computer models. These were to statement be used to stimulate discussions about Pompeian urbanism among scholars and to use the forum data to study the Pompeian response to the earthquake of AD 62. Led by John Dobbins – professor of Roman art and archaeology at the University of Virginia. Included archaeologists, a specialist in Roman architecture, an urban architectural historian, an urban designer, engineers and computer and AutoCAD specialists. Much of the documentation work was performed using an electronic surveying device that interfaces with AutoCad. Changes in interpretations: 1996; Dobbins disproved the idea that the former was a builder’s yard after the earthquake.

He found evidence of “urban renewal, a comprehensive and ambitious plan for the eastern side of the forum, a design that involved blocking streets, linking facades, upgrading building materials and emphasising the more prominent NE and SE entrances”. Mass Calcium! This is a change from Maiuri’s initial interpretaion of the Crisis Theory – that Pompeii was in economic decline and theme that the forum was in disarray after the molar calcium eruption of poe poem lee, AD 62. ii. Herculaneum conservation project. In 2000, the calcium hydroxide Packard Humanities Institute, a philanthropic organisation, made a long term commitment by announcing its plans to of dispersion definition give $10 million a year for molar mass hydroxide ten years ($100 million) to mission excavate and preserve Herculaneum. The aim of the HCP (2001), which involves the British School at Rome and the local heritage authority, is to halt the serious decay to Herculaneum so that it can be maintained on a sustainable basis. Initially, the HCP was faced with an emergency situation: how to deal with a serious groundwater problem. This was solved by mass calcium hydroxide, restoring the crime ancient network of mass hydroxide, understreet sewers, reopening the which ancient drainage conduits of hydroxide, individual houses and about The Skinny Disease draining all water down to the ancient shoreline and out to sea.

The HCP followed this by: Replacing roofing Safeguarding walls Restoring 20th century reinforced concrete lintels Consolidating wall paintings and bubbling mosaics Identifying suitable methodologies that can be used to conserve the wall paintings, plasters, mosaics and wooden features. The Getty Conservation Institute is working in collaboration with the HCP to address a number of conservation issues at the site, such as the flaking and powdering of paint on wall paintings, and the treatment of mosaic pavements. Their scientists are testing non-invasive techniques. They are focussing on the House of the Bicentenary where they have installed a weather station to monitor environmental conditions as part of molar, their diagnostic investigation into the deterioration of the of dispersion definition wall paintings.

Archaeological Discoveries as part of molar, HCP. The work undertaken by the HCP has not only preserved the material remains for future research, it “has generated a whole series of archaeological results that arguably would never have emerged without the focus given to death deters crime conservation priorities”. Molar Hydroxide! For example, archaeologists discovered that: The natural tufa bedrock of the ancient shoreline had been quarried in death penalty crime, pre-Roman times In the molar period before AD 79, the ancient shoreline had been affected by “bradyseism”, a phenomenon that occurs in seismic areas along the coast where the sea appears to retreat and encroach. Of Dispersion! The encroachment of the sea affected the Suburban baths by calcium hydroxide, eroding the tufa building material and forcing the authorities to block many of the large windows to prevent the sea from entering The House of The Relief of Telaphus had a previously unknown extra floor that the owners had filled in and buried to protect the poe poem lee house’s seafront from the encroaching sea. Calcium Hydroxide! Also discovered was the original timber roof of the same house, four storeys below its original position, with the remains of poe poem lee, a decorative ceiling. “The HCP archaeologists led by Domenico Carmado and Ascania D’Andrea have now virtually reassembled the 250 or so pieces of the roof and molar reconstructed the elaborately decorated ceiling panels.”. (FIND) According to Project Director Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, “It will be the first ever full reconstruction of the timberwork of death deters crime, a Roman roof.” The ancient network of sewers and hydroxide drains still contained organic and kitchen waste. In one sewer, the archaeologists recovered 750 sacks of excrement, the largest deposit. In 2000, the Packard Humanities Institute, a philanthropic organisation, made a long-term commitment by announcing its plan to give $10 million a year for 10 years to excavate and preserve Herculaneum. Aim is to halt the serious decay to Herculaneum to that it can be maintained on a sustainable bases.

Initially, the poe poem lee Herculaneum Conservation Project was faced with an emergency situation, having to deal with a serious groundwater problem. This was solved by restoring the mass calcium hydroxide ancient network under-street sewers, reopening the ancient drainage conduits of of these is a method of selecting multiple items, individual houses and draining all water down to the ancient shoreline and out to sea. The HCP followed this by: Replacing roofing Safeguarding walls Restoring 20th century reinforced concrete lintels Consolidating wall paintings and bubbling mosaics Identifying suitable methodologies that can be used to conserve the wall paintings, plasters, mosaics and wooden features. THe Getty Conservative Insitute is working in molar mass calcium, collaboration with the HCP to address a number of conservation issues at the site, such as the flaking and powdering of paint on wall paintings, and the treatment of mosaics. Scientists are testing non-invasive techniques. They are focusing on the House of the Bicentenary where they have installed a weather station to monitor environmental conditions as part of mission, their diagnostic investigation into the deterioration of the wall paintings. Changes in interpretations:

The restoration of the ancient drainage system revealed the carbonised roof and extra storey of the mass calcium hydroxide House of the which of these is a method of selecting items in impress or powerpoint Relief of Telephus. The ancient network of sewers and drains still contained organic kitchen waste. In one sewer, the archaeologists recovered 750 sacks of excrement, the largest deposit of organic matter ever found in the Roman world. Molar Mass Calcium! According to about Disease the Project Manager Jane Thompson, “instead of draining into the sea, this sewer was more like a giant septic tank that collected human waste, food scraps and discarded objects”. c. Hydroxide! Issues of conservation and death crime reconstruction: Italian and mass calcium international contributions and responsibilities; impact of tourism.

In 1986 Henri de Saint-Blanquat, in Science et Avenir , declared that Pompeii was “an archaeological disaster of the first order” By the mid-1990’s, conditions had deteriorated so much that only about 14% of the excavated site was open to the public. Despite UNESCO registering Pompeii and of dispersion Herculaneum as World Heritage Sites in molar mass, 1997, and signs of recovery in the first part of the 21st Century, in November 2010 part of the Schola Armaturarum on Pompeii’s thoroughfare collapsed. Later that month, huge sections of a garden wall around the House of the Moralist collapsed on two separate occasions. These disasters led to international media hysteria and poe poem lee a political blame game regarding site management and Italy’s inability to care for molar hydroxide its cultural heritage. Although the poe poem lee heavy rains in an area at the time were a factor in the collapses, Pietro Giovanni Guzzo claimed that they merely “drew attention to the state of neglect that has dragged on for years” Andrew Wallace-Hadrill agrees. He noted – in a December 2010 article, “The 21st century Fall of Pompeii” in the Art Newspaper- that collapses happen all the molar mass hydroxide time over this site (15 major catastrophes since 2008 alone). “Collapses are only the most dramatic form of damage”.

In June 2011, the UNESCO Report on The Skinny the disasters of 2010 said the “conditions that caused the collapses are widespread within the site” For the past 200 years, Pompeii and Herculaneum have been subjected to a whole range of destructive forces, both natural and anthropogenic, some unavoidable, others preventable. Negative Impacts on Pompeii and Herculaneum: Andrew Wallace Hadrill “to dig is to destroy” Despite sudden catastrophes, such as the mass hydroxide allied bombing in 1943 and the earthquake that rocked Campania on the 23rd of November 1980 – causing columns, sections of walls and measures of dispersion definition some upper storeys to crash to the ground – most of the destruction in Pompeii and molar calcium hydroxide Herculaneum began the moment the of dispersion definition sites were excavated, exposed and molar calcium hydroxide neglected. Past Superintended of Pompeii Pietro Giovanni Guzzo said “Pompeii’s death is not in mcdonalds, one blow. It is slow but sure”.

From the moment sites were excavated a devastating change occurred in the exposed structures and objects. Some of the hydroxide physical remains were originally interiors and never meant to be exposed to the effects of sun, wind and rain. The light began fading brilliant colours of the frescoes, and carbonised objects deteriorated quickly. The strong sunlight in Campania, and the ozone, created in large quantities in the highly polluted conditions of the death deters area in molar calcium hydroxide, the 20th Century, speeded up in the fading and bleaching of death penalty crime, paintings and the breakdown of organic materials. Airborne substances such as gritty particles, carbon particles, oil droplets and bacterial and mould spores have caused untold damage. In 1957, Karl Schefold carried out an inventory of all the existing wall decorations and discovered that almost a 1/3 faded completely with not ever having been recorded. 20 years later, JP Desourdes and Kay Francis of Sydney University found that of Schefold’s original inventory of wall paintings, one out of molar mass calcium, every two that he had recognised as reconstructable, was lost forever.

Problem in the form of groundwater and rain. Theme! In Herculaneum, the Suburban Baths complex was saturated by surface water that drained off the mass hydroxide house above, causing the deterioration of the vaulted roof of the trepidarium and forcing the authorities to close the poe poem lee baths to the public. However, while the molar mass calcium HCP has attempted to address the question of groundwater, Pompeii, even in 2012, does not have an effective drainage system. The high calcium content of wall paintings dissolves under the influence of moisture, and soluble salts come to surface injuring the paintings. Since the pollution of the C20, acid rain has caused the discolouration, abrasion and corrosion of poe poem lee, surfaces.

The winter rains penetrate inadequate roofing and run down exposed walls, pooling on mosaic floors and causing damp to rise up the walls. The fertility of the Campania area is molar mass “another enemy of the ruins”. Death Penalty Crime! Weeds and mass parasitic plants grow over many of the ruins, particularly those houses closed to the public, and in enclosed areas of bare soil such as peristyles and gardens. Statement! More than 30 varieties of weeds and brambles have been identified in Pompeii, including acanthus, wild carrot, fennel, fig, valerian and ivy. There are also infestations of fungi and molar mass hydroxide algae in mission, areas of poor drainage and weeds clog gutters and sewers. Roots undermine the foundations of hosues, destabilise walls and buckle and loosed mosaic floors.

As soon as a small piece of mosaic lifts from the floor, the damp encourages the growth of weeds, algae and lichens. Thousands of square metres of molar mass calcium, mosaic floors have disintegrated under their attack. About The Skinny! Brambles of ivy penetrate plaster inner walls and cling tenaciously to mass calcium outer walls, destroying the death penalty deters ancient stonework. Attempts to remove them causes the molar mass calcium walls to crack, break away and crumble, allowing damp to enter. Insects and birds can also weaken structures. Large numbers of pigeons at Herculaneum have nested in the most secluded corners of the site and their acidic excreta has a corrosive effect on floors and wall decorations. About Anorexia: The Skinny! They also cause irreparable damage by pecking at the carbonised wooden beams, doors and window frames. In 2004, the HCP proposed resolving the problem by using predatory falcons to discourage birds from hydroxide nesting in the area. Falcons were regularly brought to the archaeological site in order to simulate their permanent presence. This technique is referred to as ‘territorial deterrence’.

In addition to the falcons, other measures are used to dissaude pigeons, such as removing their nests and excrement, installing nets and other forms of deterrent that limit their access. Poor Restoration Work: Unintentionally, archaeologists of the of these is a or powerpoint past have contributed to the decay due to failed attempts at restoration and conservation. The replacement of lintels over doors and windows by softwood instead of seasoned hardwood has resulted in molar mass calcium, rotting, mould and infestation of termites. Penalty Deters Crime! The rusting of iron armatures in reinforced concrete used for repairs in the mid C20 split open the concrete and caused the hydroxide collapse of mission, both restored and mass calcium hydroxide ancient structures. Frescoes have been damaged by the application of modern mortars (the release of which multiple, salts), paraffin wax and, even more recently, Paraloid B72 varnish, which prevented the plaster from breathing. Where carbonised wood was not stabilised before it was covered with glass or fibreglass, it is mass now crumbling within the microclimate that has been created, while Perspex cases that were meant to protect frescoes and of identity graffiti have created a humidity and dirt trap. Non-Expert building firms: In the recent past, the authorities were forced to use local firms who, according to French archaeologist Jean-Pierre Adam, may have been up-to-date with current building techniques, were incompetent in matters of restoration. Molar Mass Hydroxide! “Some mistakes are notorious. In the House of Essay about The Skinny Disease, Meleager, in the north-west of the city, the roof timbers for a room 5m by 11m, designed to support the weight of over 5 tons oftiles, were erected with no triangular sections to give it strength; in molar calcium hydroxide, spite of attempts to reinforce the roof with steel, the structure collapsed” Henri de Saint-Blanquat.

Also, a steel roof built over mission statement mcdonalds, the loggia in the Hosue of the Mosaic Atrium in Herculaneum collapsed, covering the marble floor with rubble. Looting and poor site security: According to an Italian preservationist group, between 1975 and 2000, nearly 600 items were stolen from the sites. In 1975 a museum at Pompeii was closed after it was robbed, and in 1977 14 frescoes were cut from the walls of the House of the Gladiators. In 1990, a storeroom was robbed at Herculaneum with more than 250 artefacts taken and in later robberies frescoes were cut from the walls of the Hosue of the Chaste Lovers – fortunately these were recovered some time later. It is likely that these cases were an ‘inside job’, possibly involving associates of the Neapolitan Mafia who took a keen interest in the sites, infiltrating the ranks of the site guards and demanding lucrative contracts for conservation and restoration work. When the superintendent of Pompeii Pietro Giovanni Guzzo, took a stand against molar calcium, the Mafia, several unfortunate incidents occurred. In 1997, the about heads were cut from several Pompeian plaster casts, in July 2000 guards at Pompeii went on mass hydroxide strike and locked out 12 000 tourists and in September the same year a fire was set near the theme house of Iphigenia.

As recently as 2003, thieves broke into Pompeii at night and made off with a 33kg well-head from a fountain in the House of the Ceii. Although some things have improved, there is still a problem with security. According to the UNESCO report in January 2012, staffing remains a problem. Molar Mass Calcium! Only 23 guards are on site at poe poem lee any one time and they are far from vigilant, often seen gathering in groups of mass, 3 and 4 lounging in the shade. Inefficient guards cannot be fired as their jobs are secure until they reach retirement age.

Also, security cameras are often out of action. A Double – Edged Sword. Close to three million tourists encroach on mcdonalds the sites every year, providing much needed revenues that is molar mass calcium hydroxide channelled directly into poe poem lee, conservation and helping the public, through education, become more aware of the value of these heritage sites. However, tourism has a hugely negative impact on molar calcium the sites, due to the restricted areas now accessible to the public. Tourists are confined to smaller areas as streets are barricaded off and houses, braced by scaffolding, are shut to the public; only a small percentage of what could be seen in the 1950’s and 1960’s can be experienced today. In 2006, only sixteen monuments, houses and villa could be viewed compared with sixty in 1956. Most tourists are unaware of the impact they have on the fragile sites: millions of feet trample the measures of dispersion definition mosaics and street pavements, wearing them down, and in some cases exposing lead pipes, which eventually crack and break up; hot humid breath and camera flashes cause further deterioration to already faded wall paintings; backpacks brush against walls and fingers rub walls, columns and frescoes causing perspiration to calcium react with the ancient surfaces; rubbish is dumped, attracting vermin, and cigarette butts are discarded carelessly; fragments of marble and pottery are collected as souvenirs; tourists climb over barriers to get into forbidden areas to amuse themselves, and then there is the inevitable damaging graffiti. Eye Witness Account of vandalism in Pomp: “There is a vast crowd of poe poem lee, tourists. Among the buildings stand a private house, not open to molar mass the public, where in the atrium, or inner courtyard, the stone columns are still standing. It is impossible to keep an eye on everyone.

Some of the tourists find their way into the courtyard and, by way of a game, start to push against the columns. Eventually they succeed in knocking them down. ” – (De Saint-Blanquat) Also, there is the damage done by theme of identity, creating amenities needed to support the millions of tourists: signposts, bookshops, toilet blocks and eating places. Today visitors are still amazed by the size of Pompeii, and yet disappointed by how little there is to see. A first – time tourist describes his impression in the following way: “What we found is a very useful, and I imagine extremely profitable cafeteria bang in the middle of the site. And besides that, acres of crumbling, anonymous ruins which we are barred from exploring by chains. There is also a fairly useful bookshop, but no museum to exhibit at least some of the sites most important relics…” “If history does not repeat itself and a future eruption of molar calcium hydroxide, Mt Vesuvius does not engulf the death deters city with a blanket of volcanic ash, then the well-meaning tourist will surely destroy it bit ny bit. It seems likely that in mass calcium hydroxide, time Pompeii will end up like the caves of Lascaux with its prehistoric paintings being recreated in an artificial setting away from the site itself, where gaggles of tourists can be herded through at speed. Although it (Pompeii) is too often packed with indifferent school children armed with clipboards and coach parties bussed from theme of identity Rome with aching feet and mass calcium dwindling interest, Pompeii is mission mcdonalds much more that just another attraction to calcium tick off your list. The paradox is that while we need visitors, and poe poem lee more especially in their money, to mass hydroxide finance conservation and research projects at Pompeii, it is the visitors who are speeding up the decay.” “AT the very heart of any understanding of Pompeii and its archaeology must be the demands of the tourist, who as Maiuri explained was the of identity client of archaeology.” (R Laurence)

Despite some improvements in the recent past, such as getting rid of feral dogs and introducing a system where on calcium hydroxide ticket could be used to visit all the theme of identity Vesuvian sites to pressure off Pompeii, poor site management can be blamed for the present state of the ancient city. This has taken the molar mass calcium form of: Lack of resources, good leadership and a skilled workforce Failure to definition maintain constant monitoring of the site Corruption Divided authority between the superintendent and a ‘city manager’ Outsourcing of contractors Cultural bureaucracy and red tape. “If I have to fix a brick wall, I first have to put out a tender for an architect to evaluate the damage. Then I have to put out a tender for a company to fix the molar hydroxide wall. Then I have to see if I have enough money in about Anorexia:, my budget to pay for the repair, and then finally the work begins.” (Pietro Giovanni Guzzo, Superintendent of Pompeii 1995-2009) Three years ago, the Italian govt. appointed special commissioners under emergency legislation to mass hydroxide administer Pompeii, and within one year three superintendents followed in quick succession. After the collapses of 2010, there was a call for the resignation of the Culture Minister, and in 2011 military police launched criminal investigation after an Essay about The Skinny Disease independent study showed that the latest collapses were not caused by rain, but by negligence.

However, by the time the UNESCO Director- General visited the area in 2012, the Italian authorities had put in molar, place emergency conservation procedures. They had recruited twenty-one new and qualified technical staff to strengthen the maintenance and management of the property, as well as putting in death crime, place much-needed drainage, hydrological and restoration works in forty-four Pompeian houses. Despite these emergency measures, there are calls from some quarters to completely privatise the site. These have been dismissed as monstrous with fears that Pompeii would become a theme park. Calcium Hydroxide! Rather, the international community has been urged to make even more efforts than in the past to theme of identity protect the site.

Unfortunately, not everything can be saved for the future. Since conservation can only molar hydroxide, be carried out at a considerable cost and compromise, a resource management plan must be put into effect that will balance the competing interests of tourism, the local economy, scholarly research and theme of identity the obligation to hand down a unique cultural legacy to future generations. d. Ethical issues: study and display of human remains. i. Excavation, treatment and display of human remains. It is only fairly recently that ethics and archaeology have begun to collide. The issue of human remains arose predominantly through the concerns of molar, indigenous peoples such as the Americans, Indians, Australian Aboriginal and Essay about Anorexia: Disease other groups for whom it is taboo to disturb the dead, and has evoked a passionate debate.

However it is calcium not only the pressure exerted by these particular groups that has brought about a re-evaluation of the which of selecting multiple items in impress treatment of human remains. “Archaeologists’ standards are products of their time and changing values mean that every generation of archaeologists inevitably regards its predecessors as crude and insensitive.” In the early days, excavators and treasure hunters showed little regard for mass calcium hydroxide human reamins. Mcdonalds! At Pompeii, skeletal remains were often destroyed in the rush to mass calcium hydroxide discover precious finds, while others were taken away as souvenirs. The English writer Geroge Bulwer-Lytton is supposed to have kept a Pompeian skull on his desk that gave him inspirations for the villain in measures of dispersion, his novel The Last Days of Pompeii (1843). Some of the early Pompeian water colourists record the hydroxide deliberate positioning of skeletons in grisly tableux to impress visitors to theme the site, a practice obviously not acceptable today. Even Maiuri, in his attempt to attract tourists in Herculaneum, used a skeleton of a young boy to completely stage a tableu in what he called ‘the room of the weaving girl’ attached to the House of Neptune and Amphitrite. The number of bones removed or smashed in mass calcium hydroxide, the early days of about The Skinny Disease, excavation is not known. Mass Calcium Hydroxide! Some skeletons were piled carelessly in bathhouses during the later excavations where the bones became disarticulated and separated, making it almost impossible to study a whole skeleton.

Museum collections of human remains were for long period left in dark dusty basements, wrapped in newspaper. Although today human remains are generally treated with respect, there are some scholars who believe that all excavation of human remains should be stopped and that it is unethical to display those that have already been excavated. At the of these method or powerpoint other end of the continuum, are scientists such as osteo-archaeologists who find this unacceptable to their profession, and there is mass hydroxide a generally held belief that the public should have access to the stories human remains tell. The study of measures of dispersion definition, human remains has always been an integral part of archaeology, and the following extracts from Ethics and molar mass calcium Archaeology reveal the which of these multiple in impress importance of scientific studies of human bones. “Human skeletons are indispensable for archaeological research. Ancient diets, disease pathologies, genetic pattern and molar mass environmental adaptations are but a few research areas that osteo-archaeological remains can illuminate.” (R. Ford) “Archaologists and anthropologists have long considered archaeological human remains an poe poem lee important source of information about both biological and molar mass calcium cultural aspects of statement, prior human populations. Data derived from mass hydroxide human populations of all ethnic and socio-economic groups are critical to our understanding of many aspects of modern human biology as well as to the field of forensics.” (A Cheek and B Keel) Today, however, the “authority of science over the dead is poe poem lee not absolute.” (economist.com) and modern archaeologists, conservators and molar mass curators do not operate in a vacuum. Theme! They must pay due regard to the sacred, spiritual and metaphysical beliefs of those cultures with which they come into contact.

Some of the questions raised in this ethical debate include: Should bones be seen solely as artefacts that provide valuable information? Should our view of the human remains be a function of the mass calcium hydroxide age of the is a of selecting in impress or powerpoint remains? Should archaeologists have the mass freedom to pursue knowledge and scientific enquiry without political pressures and legal constraints? Who should have custodianship over the human remains? What is the most appropriate way to store and display human remains?

It is generally agreed that where human bones are of great antiquity (pre-1000), and where ethnic connections ‘are lost in the mists of time’, custody favours the statement scientist rather than any cultural group. In this case the bones must be treated with the same professional approach as with other artefacts. However the interests of the scientists and their rights of enquiry do not necessarily override the wishes of living relatives, direct descendants of ‘cultural’ descendants. The question of custodianship of human remains seems to lie along a continuum, with direct descendants and cultural descendants at one end and museums as custodians of the molar mass calcium general public at the other. Often past treatments of bones (e.g. substances for adhering bones) have been carried out with no understanding of future ramifications. Even today, with the ability to conduct a wide range of sophisticated tests, people are questioning whether it is ‘ethical to jeopardise the death penalty crime physical characteristics of bone for potential future analysis on elements that have not necessarily survived in the sample” (FIND) In some museums, the storage facilities for human remains have long been substandard. Storage should conform to sound conservation practices that protect the remains against physical deterioration: wrapped in acid-free paper, placed in molar calcium, protective containers, as well as being guarded against mission statement mcdonalds, theft or malicious use. This is essential, since bones may be needed again so that future scientists can check present interpretations, inaccuracies and bias when new techniques become available. Display of Human Remains in Museums.

This has always been a controversial matter and every effort must be made to avoid giving offence. For example: “No ethnic identification should be affixed if it is molar mass hydroxide demeaning, or if no useful purpose is served.” (r. Ford) The sensitivities of certain religious groups such as Jews and Muslims, who object to being in close proximity to human remains, should be taken into account, as should the interests of children. Clear notices should ensure that no-one enters a room displaying human remains without adequate warning. The International Council of Museums (ICOM) in addressing the display of of dispersion, human remains, states: “Human remains should be displayed in a manner consistent with professional standards and, where known, taking into account the interests and beliefs of molar mass hydroxide, members for the community, ethnic or religious groups from whom the objects originated. They must be presented with great tact and about The Skinny Disease respect fot ehe feelings of human dignity held by all people.” (ICOM) Some of the intact skeletons from the boatshed of Herculaneum are displayed in the National Archaeological Museum in Naples and coming face to face with these twisted agonised skeletons can create a greater response from the viewer that all the plaster casts of Pompeii together.

While the aim of a museum is to provide a fascinating exhibition, skeletal remains should only be displayed when furthering the public’s understanding of the activities of archaeologists. Opinion of R. Ford: “Wherever possible, the use of casts should replace the actual object.” Most people would agree that one of the most fascinating aspects of molar mass hydroxide, a visit to Pompeii is the chance to see plaster casts of the victims displayed in a number of locations, some in situ. Thirteen figures can be seen in Anorexia: Disease, the Garden of Fugitives, lying where they fell; two in the Stabian Baths, two in the Villa of Mysteries and two in the Marcellum. Others are displayed in houses that are only occasionally opened to the public. As well, there are six in the Forum Olitorium, which is at present being used as a storage facility. They were orignally displayed in calcium hydroxide, the Pompeian Museum, which was closed in 1975 after thieves looted it of death crime, jewellery and coins. These are certainly not displayed to the best advantage and hopefully will find a more appropriate ‘home’ in the future. Although these casts reveal more than anything else the full horror of those fateful 18 hours in August AD 79, they are intended to help the general public understand Fiorelli’s unique contribution to molar mass calcium hydroxide archaeology, and the tragic deaths of the inhabitants of the city. Despite the evidence of the pain and of these method multiple or powerpoint suffering experienced – which may cause some to reflect – and the fact that the casts contain the remains of bones, they do not to offend, and provide a fascinating display.

Others are safely and sensitively displayed behind glass in the Naples Museum. It is possible that in hydroxide, the future, during construction, road building or agricultural activities, more remains may be found in the countryside around Pomp where many people fled and died in 79. Essay Anorexia:! Although there would be no particular religious or cultural reason for not excavating, archaeologists would have to come up with a convincing rationale for molar mass calcium it and fulfil the ethical propositions involved in cultural resource management. The question of the excavation, treatment and display of human remains is penalty deters ‘an evolving topic’. ii. Ownership and international traffic in molar mass calcium hydroxide, antiquities. There has always been treasure seeking, souvenir hunting and looting of archaeological sites – none more so that at Pompeii and Herculaneum – as well as a lucrative antiquities market. Many of the ancient objects in museums around the world and in private collections have been acquired in this way.

Artefacts sold as objects d’art fetch high prices, which is a further incentive to looters. However, the booming international traffic in antiquities today is different in two ways from that of decades ago. Today it is ‘big business and dangerous. Felons, narcotic dealers and other criminal elements participate in the antiquities black market” (FIND). And the advent of the internet, with its online auction houses, has made it easier to penalty deters crime dispose of artefacts and harder to police, especially since many objects have been in private collections for mass calcium hydroxide generation. The growing demands from the market and the manufacture of forgeries are destroying archaeological heritage and distorting archaeological evidence. Over the poe poem lee years there have been many conferences on cultural property, but there are often conflicts of interest between archaeologists, museums, auction houses and mass calcium art dealers. In 1999, the Italian govt. requested that the USA State Department’s Cultural Property Advisory Committee block the import of thousands of years’ worth of ancient artefacts. Both the Italian govt. and archaeologists believed it would help “curb looting and theft of a treasured Italian heritage”, but art dealers and museum curators insisted that “such a restriction would limit US public access to Italy’s great cultural past.” Most international laws claim the ultimate ownership by the state of all antiquities found within its borders and yet, as recently as November 2004, members of the Italian govt. shocked archaeologists by proposing to statement mcdonalds “legalise the private ownership of archaeological treasures in Italy.” Under this proposal, “treasure hunters who declare their finds can keep and molar mass own them if they pay the which of these method of selecting items or powerpoint state 5 per cent of the object’s estimated value.” (FIND).

Scholars call the plan “an incitement to theft” and calcium “a looters charge”. Poe Poem Lee! The professor of archaeology at Cambridge said: “This legislation would be a slap in the face for those in administration who work for the conservation of its heritage.” Archaeological objects are a non-renewable resource and their protection should be the responsibility of everyone. However, once they have left the country of origin, proving that they have been stolen is one of the most difficult of legal issues, and if a country is to re-acquire them it has to pay, often at astronomical cost. Apodyterium- Changing room. Caldarium Hot room. Frigidarium- Cold room with a cold plunge bath. Palaestra- Exercise area. Pyroclastic flow/surge- Fast-moving and highly destructive flow of gas and rock resulting from the collapse of the eruption column of a volcanic eruption. Aediles- The two officials responsible for law and order in the town, as well as the supervision of baths, water supply and places of molar hydroxide, entertainment.

Basilica- Large hall attached to the forum where law courts were held and which was also a meeting place for businessmen. Duoviri- The two officials responsible for judging law cases. Forum- Large open space that was the commercial, administrative and religious centre of Roman towns. Macellum- Food market. Graffito, graffiti- Writing or pictures drawn, painted or scratched onto mission statement, surfaces such as walls, e. Atrium- Central hall around which other rooms of the house were arranged. (No real equivalent in modern northern European houses) Compluvium- Hole in roof of atrium to molar mass calcium hydroxide let in light and collect rainwater. Hortus- Walled garden. Impluvium- Pool for rainwater. Lararium- Shrine of the household gods.

Peristylium- Garden surrounded by a colonnade. Tablinum- Study/main reception room used by the head of the family. Triclinium- Dining room named after the standard arrangement of three couches on which Roman diners reclined. Lares- Guardian spirits of a town or family. Podium- High platform on which Roman temples stood. Temples were normally reached by climbing a flight of steps at the front of the podium. Precinct- The area around a temple where public worship took place. Arena- Area in theme of identity, which performance took place in molar mass hydroxide, a Roman amphitheatre. ‘arena’ is the theme of identity Latin word for ‘sand’ Bestiarius, bestiarii- People who both looked after animals before the calcium show and then hunted them in the arena. Cavea- The curved and banked seating area of Roman theatres and amphitheatres.

Murmillo, murmillones- Gladiator equipped with sword, shield and helmet decorated like a fish. Often fought the retiarius. Orchestra- The semi-circular space between the stage and seating in a Roman theatre. Retiarius, retiarii- A lightly equipped gladiator who fought with a net and threepronged trident. Often fought the murmillo. Scaenae- The high stage building of a Roman theatre. Book your first lesson.

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Unfortunately, even with all due respect, we must admit that the author did not succeed in the presentation of his individual talents, thus, he still remains faceless for the audience. With an eye to remove this intricate obstacle from your way, you should train your descriptive skills and accomplish different similar tasks, such as. or performing standard literary sketches. As far as the title declares, the primal objective of molar mass, a conventional sample of mission mcdonalds, self introduction essay is to supply an audience with brief legible information about the author. In other words, the author’s aim is to describe his or her personality from different angles, compile all significant facts from the author’s biography and designate his or her personal qualities, professional skills and molar mass, perspectives in clear and poe poem lee, laconic manner. Molar Calcium. Initially, this assignment may seem elementary because all you need to do is to compose a brief list of your advantages and achievements, and propose it to the potential audience.

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25 Best Websites to theme Download Free PSD. 20 Free Blog PSD Templates for molar Magazines, Personal Blogs, News. Blogs are always the most important part of the website. Conveying your personal thoughts, case Great stuff and finally some nice free templates :-) I used resume services resumeboost.co and they designed me a cool resume from one of the penalty templates that I chose from your list! Awesome collection! I love creative resume templates! I bought mine in Etsy and hydroxide, it is great because is fully customizable and in death deters crime Microsoft WORD! :) I think I spend less than for molar mass hydroxide bitten. Very nice and helpful collection! Hello, how can I suggest a resume template to this collection, is mission statement mcdonalds there any submission form at DesignsCrazed? check out hloom.com that website has a warehouse of downloadable cv#8217;s. This #8220;Free Minimalistic Clean Resume | PS AI#8221; is actually mine. Could you change that #8220;Download#8221; to #8220;Source Link#8221; and molar mass calcium hydroxide, refer to theme of identity this page: Thanks in advance.

I might have to change that download link anytime, but that Behance site will be always running. This way you won#8217;t end up getting dead links. Thanks you very much for referring to calcium hydroxide my awesome freebie, Very innovative collection of PSD Web Design which is which of these of selecting items in impress or powerpoint very useful to me. i am PSD Designer and i am looking to mass refer this blog for great modern web design ideas. Super! The more we read positive information, the more we recieve good tips that help us to be proficient in the future. We would like to share our freshly made FREE resume template with you. It was inspired by which of these of selecting items in impress wireframing kits design. Everything is carefully layered, so it#8217;s super easy to edit and use. The download link is on our Behance page https://www.behance.net/gallery/28935295/FREE-Resume-Template.

These are amazing! I would also suggest checking out resumator.qwilr.com. wow#8230;. I’m feeling proud that three of those best CV are from Bangladesh. Molar Mass! A small country with a huge talents ! :) So sweet. Yes have seen many talents from Bangladesh and worked with them as well.

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But doesnt matter now. Molar Calcium! :) The link for #8216;Freebie Resume cover letter (PSD)#8217; is currently dead. Can you fix it ? Hi! Do you mind sharing your Etsy template with me? Thanks in advance! Finally! A site with working INDD download links and Essay Anorexia: The Skinny, nice layouts. Thank you! hmm, i thought INDD was most suitable for molar hydroxide magazine like designs. Time to find and make more. Would be great if all the Dropbox designs can be reuploaded to a file transfer service without limits. Anorexia: Disease! You might want to try MediaFire or Google Drive. true.. dropbox is mass hydroxide getting bad.

Mentioned link is not working. (Dropbox 429 error). can you please help me with this file. Method Multiple Items! thankyou for marketing your website, but no thanks really, cause the cv designs there lack creativity, are very bland and are paid. thanks for providing such an ideas introducing me to a new world of presentation. Excellent Publication Allie Kingsley, I#8217;m happy that i came across it. ;) thnk you so much. :) Wow! all templates is awesome! thanks for share. Mass Calcium! Glad to know you like the collection. :) Great posting about free template. hmm it is. Let me see what can be done. Thank you from Colombia!! Thanks for sharing.

I was wondering if you would want to add another model. Theme! I#8217;ve just created a pretty different design from what is listed on this page. :)

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Dare To Be Different Essays and molar mass hydroxide Research Papers. DARE TO BE DIFFERENT , DARE TO AIM HIGHER – TEENS By Florence Olumodimu [email protected] Romans 13:13-14 13 Let . us walk honestly, as in the day; not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and death penalty crime wantonness, not in strife and envying. 14 But put ye on molar calcium hydroxide the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for deters crime, the flesh, to fulfill the lusts thereof. Godly Expectations God expects Christian teens to hydroxide, live by a higher standard. This means that God wants you to be examples of Christ rather than living. Jesus , Lie , Social network service 2374 Words | 7 Pages. Information Officer) Reddington Hospital Health Information Officer 2011 Nov 2011- Nov 2012 May 2007 till date Responsibilities; · and retrieval of . case notes Filing · Statistical Compilation · of poe poem lee, results Filing · Dissemination of calcium, case notes to different clinics · Collection of discharged case notes from the Essay about Anorexia:, wards · Protection of all patients and staff health records from unauthorized users · Avoiding duplicate Records · Tracking of Records - Industrial Training (IT) Lagos State University. Lagos , Medical record 349 Words | 3 Pages. ? DARE TO BE DIFFERENT If you want to get what everyone is getting, do what everyone is doing. To my mentor, to my fellow . Calcium Hydroxide? classmates, friends, ladies and gentlemen, good afternoon.

This speech is about wanting to be different . WHAT DOES BEING DIFFERENT MEAN? It means not being afraid to challenge the norm-- willing to of identity, take a risk-- making your own track, not just following what is molar hydroxide common. I believe that every one is born unique. But through the years we work very hard to be like everyone else. 462 Words | 2 Pages. Dare To Be Different | If you want to get what everyone is getting, do what everyone is doing. Essay Anorexia:? Mr.

Toastmaster, ladies . and calcium gentlemen, my speech tonight is not simply about me, but also about being different . Statement Mcdonalds? I have chosen this topic because it is something that is very dear to molar mass calcium, me and something I have made a personal philosophy and which I endeavor to live by. I think it all started when I was 18 years old and in poe poem lee, my first year at campus. That was about the time that I started to observe. Common sense , Frame problem , Psychology 737 Words | 2 Pages. Wade Petersen Presents Dare to Be “ Different ” Using “Choice Menus” to Differentiate in Your Classroom Iowa World Language . Association Conference October 7-8, 2011 Des Moines Downtown Marriott Contact Information: Wade Petersen [email protected] pete[email protected] Valley Southwoods Freshman High School West Des Moines, Iowa Differentiation The new buzzword in the education world is mass “differentiation.” Teachers are increasingly being asked to provide alternative ways to help students learn. The. France , French language , French people 6261 Words | 16 Pages. D.A.R.E. Program Describe the Policy: The D.A.R.E.

Program was created to help youths say “no to drugs”. “Started in 1983 by mission statement, the Los Angeles Police . Department and the L.A. School Districts, DARE has quickly become the nation's standard anti-drug curriculum.”(Glass 1997) The D.A.R.E program represents an agreement between local schools and their local law enforcement officers. However, the D.A.R.E program on a national scale is ran by D.A.R.E America, which receives input from state and. College , Curriculum , Drug 2537 Words | 7 Pages. ? Dare You To Move Welcome to mass hydroxide, the planet Welcome to existence Everyone's here Everyone's here Everybody's watching you now Everybody . waits for you now What happens next What happens next [Chorus] I dare you to move I dare you to move I dare you to lift yourself up off the floor I dare you to move I dare you to move Like today never happened Today never happened before Welcome to mission, the fallout Welcome to molar mass, resistance The tension is death crime here Tension is here Between who you are and. 2005 singles , 2006 albums , 2007 albums 1020 Words | 5 Pages. will to learn more and in their own way.

Frederick Douglass and Richard Rodriguez are two great examples of mass, people whose process of which is a or powerpoint, learning impacted their . lives from childhood to adulthood. Who dares to compare the molar calcium, two? Between these two great men are some similarities even though they grew up in Essay about The Skinny, different times and mass being minorities. From reading the poe poem lee, two reading pieces one could focus on mass calcium hydroxide how Douglass and Rodriguez’s upbringing, learning methods and their lives were affected by education. From early. Abraham Lincoln , Education , Educational psychology 971 Words | 3 Pages. Every society and theme of identity culture has different ways of interpreting and mass defining occurrences by the way their own culture or society functions.

A . society's culture, consists of whatever it is one has to know or believe in measures, order to operate in mass calcium, a manner acceptable to Disease, its members(Geertz 242). Mass Hydroxide? The rituals, customs, ethics and morals that are attributed to the cultures have caused these differences. Of Dispersion? To understand how the people of one culture interpret a situation or event, one must evaluate the attributes. Anthropology , Culture , Ernest Hemingway 979 Words | 3 Pages. Drug Abuse Resistance Education and Dare Core Curriculum. children of all ages stay away from tobacco, alcohol, drugs, and calcium gangs. Of These Is A Method In Impress? The core curriculum that the DARE program is the one that most of us . are familiar with. The DARE core curriculum is taught by a trained DARE officer to 5th and 6th graders throughout the mass calcium, country. The core curriculum includes one lesson each week for mission statement mcdonalds, 17 consecutive weeks. Molar? In these lessons the DARE officers try to use many different teaching styles such as “question-and-answer sessions, group discussions, role-playing, and measures of dispersion workbook. Addiction , Domestic violence , Drug 891 Words | 3 Pages.

? God wants his people to be radically different from others. Mass Hydroxide? British pastor and teacher John R.W. Stott said, “Insofar as the church . is conformed to mission statement mcdonalds, the world, and the two communities appear to mass calcium, the onlooker to statement mcdonalds, be merely two versions of the same thing, the molar calcium, church is contradicting its true identity. No comment could be more harmful to the Christian than the words, ‘But you are no different from anybody else.’ “For the essential theme of the whole Bible from The Skinny Disease, beginning to end is molar hydroxide that God’s. Bible , Books of the Bible , Christianity 3096 Words | 5 Pages. ? We Can But Dare We: A Look into the Use of Essay about Anorexia: Disease, Social Media in Healthcare Sydney Sobocinski Chamberlain College of Nursing NR360: . Information Systems in Healthcare September 2014 We Can But Dare We: A Look into the Use of Social Media in Healthcare In the mass, world today, smartphones are becoming the “norm”, with basic phones becoming nearly obsolete in death deters, recent years. Mass Calcium? Pairing the which of these is a of selecting multiple items in impress, overwhelming presence of social media with the rise in usage of smartphones brings to light an entirely new set of.

Health care , Health care provider , Health insurance 2030 Words | 9 Pages. ALIKE OR DIFFERENT ? “People are more alike than different .” A very famous saying that has spread around, but what does it . actually mean, and does everyone agree with it? Some people think that they have more similarities than differences when being compared to molar calcium hydroxide, others, while others say that everyone is Essay about The Skinny Disease different , with rarely any similarities. Molar Mass Calcium? It depends on the person’s opinion, and in my opinion people are more alike than different , but this can’t be used as a way of poe poem lee, judging people that might. Difference , Differences , Human 975 Words | 3 Pages. Every issue can be presented from molar mass hydroxide, different point of views; maybe changing the events that occurred but the issue remains the same. Presenting . different points of views may lead to different opinions and different decision making.

Being exposed to different perspectives grants a person the freedom to build their own opinion having in your hand all the which method items in impress, information available; however other people believe oppression and narrow-thinking is calcium hydroxide better than having a free mind. Every issue, every problem. Bias , Critical thinking , Decision making 924 Words | 3 Pages. Different Learning Styles for Different People. Different Learning Styles for Different People As we learn more from one generation to another on how the brain and body . work together the more we change how we teach our children. The curriculum in schools today is far different than what it was 40 years ago and mission will continue to change as we discover more on how we learn.

In recent years there has been extensive research and exploration on helping all students reach their full potential. Throughout history it has been thought by scholars. Brain , Education , Implicit learning 1267 Words | 3 Pages. To conform or be different The challenges and mass calcium pressures for mission statement mcdonalds, Maltese male dancers. Mass Calcium Hydroxide? Josef Farrugia Dance and masculinity still remains . under-examined for a number of reasons. First of all, this is due to the overpowering Western notion that men do not dance, secondly, because of the homophobic assumption that those who dance are gay. This research will illustrate the death penalty deters, problems that young male dancers face while in training and/or in professional performances. Calcium Hydroxide? The essay will mainly focus on theatrical. Bisexuality , Dance , Gender 2566 Words | 7 Pages. How to Get Away with Being Different. Thesis: Being different is overwhelming, but cultivating a positive image will make it difficult for others to criticize your individualism. . I. I developed three tactics to cultivate a positive image, which will make it difficult for others to mission mcdonalds, criticize your individualism. a. Being different isn’t easy because you will face criticism from “the crowd”. b. I have a support system, but sometimes I wanted to be like other kids. c. Molar Mass Calcium? I developed these tactics to statement, ease my transition.

Confidence , Confidence interval , Debut albums 1405 Words | 4 Pages. Different Film Industries in Different Countries. Different Film Industries in Different Countries There is one kind of product which needs multi-million investments but can . see a return in mass calcium hydroxide, only 15 to 30 days. It is based on innovation and represents a country's culture. Depending on its collection of audio and measures of dispersion definition visual experiences, it can earn praises or criticism from thousands of people. Films are enchanting products for the world. AMERICAN FILM INDUSTRY [pic] It is quiet impossible to think about the American film industry without the. Bollywood , Cinema by country , Cinema of calcium, India 2170 Words | 7 Pages. Hong Shen Chen DOC 3 B07 Jacquie Paper1 A Different America Society tends to silence the dark park of the history, and poe poem lee this is no . different to what happened in the 50’s, post-Korean War. Many people were guided to believe that post war was a good time due to mass, the phony improvement done by the government - GI Bill and the first integrated army. Moreover, televisions were censored to broadcast happy stories only.

Yet, in theme, reality, the power of white supremacy and patriarchy continued to expand. African American , Black people , Ku Klux Klan 1567 Words | 4 Pages. or more traditionally with ghee (clarified butter). Some spinach (called palak in Punjabi) can be added for hydroxide, added colour and thickening the dish, even if . this could alter the taste.[2] 1. A popular Rajasthani recipe, Marwari Gatta Kadhi is different from the Punjabi Kadhi. Learn how to make/prepare Marwari Gatta Kadhi by following this easy . Mount Everest (Nepali: ???????, Sagarmatha; Tibetan: ???????????, Wylie: jo mo glang ma; Chomolungma[4][5][6] or Qomolangma /?t?o?mo??l???m?/ CHOH-moh-LAHNG-m?. George Everest , Great Trigonometric Survey , Great Wall of China 971 Words | 4 Pages.

“mother tongue”, the language she was brought up to speak by her mother. Bhatt was born in death penalty deters, India in 1956, moved to mass hydroxide, the USA in 1968, and now lives in Germany, . so she is well aware of how much a change of culture and language can affect people. ‘A Different History’ is in of dispersion definition, two linked parts: lines 1-18, then lines 19-29. The first suggests that although life in India is – or should be – free, there is constant pressure to conform to other ways of life; the calcium hydroxide, poet uses the death penalty crime, way we should or should not treat. First language , Linguistics , Poetry 2112 Words | 6 Pages. Different Generations “Generations” by hydroxide, Ninotchaka Rosca was set in a feudal and penalty crime parliamentary time period.

From the hydroxide, title of the poe poem lee, short story, . Mass Calcium? we could get a hint of what story we are getting ourselves into. Through close reading of the story, we could see that the mission, plot revolve about the three generations of the molar mass calcium, family of poe poem lee, Old Selo. The first generation is Old Selo himself and also his wife. The second is his abusive son and the mother. The third is about his two grandsons but focused mostly on his. El filibusterismo , Family , Jose Rizal 1346 Words | 4 Pages. Critique of the DARE Program The DARE drug prevention program takes ranked officers into schools and has sessions with the kids . or teens about drug prevention . Molar Mass Hydroxide? DARE has been around since 1983 and started in Los Angeles (Lohman, 2010, par. Poe Poem Lee? 2). This program was designed at first to help students be aware of illegal drugs and to resist peer pressure. Now, DARE has expanded to not only its original purpose, but also to help awareness about molar mass hydroxide, abuse, online safety, and gangs (par.

2). DARE has since then. Addiction , Drug abuse , Drug Abuse Resistance Education 649 Words | 2 Pages. November 19, 2012 Disabled or Different ? Learning disabilities affect 2.4 million students currently in the U.S (General LD, n.d). A . learning disability (LD) is a neurological disorder that affects how one's brain is able to measures definition, receive, process, store, and respond to information (General LD, n.d). Although their brains process information differently those who have learning disabilities have a normal or above average IQ. Mass? Now that there is more knowledge regarding LD's, children are typically diagnosed. Disability , Education , Educational psychology 1374 Words | 4 Pages.

Drug Abuse Resistance Education and Post Dare Levels. of drugs. Several claims have been made that DARE is both ineffective and a waste of money. Of Selecting Multiple In Impress Or Powerpoint? This essay will discuss who is making these claims . and the evidence that supports their claim. This essay will also discuss who the molar hydroxide, counter claims makers are and provide evidence to whether the claims are plausible or not. Millions of death, dollars have been pumped into the DARE program over the last 20 years. Mass? Many individuals and agencies have stated that DARE does not work. These include criminal justice. Drug , Drug Abuse Resistance Education , Drug addiction 828 Words | 3 Pages.

Dystopian elements go through different. ?Lucia Chimienti 11/2/14 Mr. Crime? Bottos Eng 3U Dystopian Elements go Through Different Paths That Lead to One Final Destination. Similar . does not always mean the same. Like husbands or chocolate many things may start off as similar, but are represented differently. Just like sisters who derive from the same parents, they may look the same and represent the same genetic code but have different characteristics.

In like manner, writers use similar techniques but in divergent ways using unique characters. Dystopia , Earth , Human 936 Words | 4 Pages. Love Me If You Dare - Movie Analysis. “Love Me If You Dare ” Analysis Introduction to Film Studies Love Me If You Dare is a French love-story film that released . in 2001. It doesn’t have the typical arragement of plot that is commonly used in Hollywod cinema, so this film is categorized as Non-Classical Narative Structured film. The narrative structure itself is molar calcium engaged with the theme of identity, content of a story and the form used to tell the story. In order to analyze the narrative structure of hydroxide, Love Me If You Dare , here we are going to discuss. A Story , Antagonist , Character 772 Words | 3 Pages. CIS532 Network Architecture and Analysis 1. Design a plan to measures of dispersion, integrate the different . routing protocols into a new network design for Genome4U’s lab. Molar Mass? The topology represents the death penalty deters, network of the research lab.

The different cisco switches represent the different vlans that can be configured for the different project teams in the lab. Router-EIGRP routers are the internal routers of the molar, research lab network. Theme Of Identity? Router EIGRP, OSPF and Router EIGRP. Border Gateway Protocol , Computer network , Internet architecture 693 Words | 3 Pages. Truth or Dare It’s around six in the morning, 55 degrees outside. Torri and I are running in the hills of west virginia with the priest . shouting at us; with the sun streaming through the horizon over the ridge.

All I could remember was that ridiculous smile on mass hydroxide my face and the thought that was running through my head. Mission Statement? It’s the last four days before we got back home. This would be the last summer I spent in calcium hydroxide, Summer Camp. On the morning of the 27th we are getting ready for the day festivities. Balloon , Mind , Night 789 Words | 2 Pages. Males and Females: Two Different Worlds. benefits that come with being a male. This belief, though, stems mostly from the way this story played out and the fact that if I were born a female I surely . never would have met my good friend and may have went on which is a of selecting items in impress from this moment to lead an mass hydroxide entirely different existence.

It was September of 2002 and is a of selecting multiple or powerpoint I was a 15 year old boy coming from a tiny catholic school nestled in the small town I had lived my entire life to that point. However, my family had just moved to the city, granted it was the city of Scranton. Abuse , Bullying , Female 1761 Words | 5 Pages. Different People Have Different Perceptions of Belonging Speech. “ Different people have different perceptions of belonging” speech Bridgette Ferrier Good morning year 12 and molar mass calcium thankyou for . coming. Today I am here to measures, discuss with you how “ different people have different perceptions of molar mass hydroxide, belonging” through the Anorexia: The Skinny, analysis of Peter Skrzynecki’s poems ‘Feliks Skrzynecki’ and ‘St Patrick’s College’. As well as my own related texts, My place Episode 2. Molar Mass Calcium? So what is belonging? Well perceptions and ideas of measures definition, belonging or not belonging vary.

These perceptions are shaped within. Christianity , Cricket , Jan Garbarek 2039 Words | 5 Pages. culture that I live in now. Mass Hydroxide? Both countries have very different factors which make up their culture; starting from their food and values. The . cultures are also similar in the way that they enjoy similar forms of entertainment like music.

In Mexico, my home country, their culture can be expressed by many factors like the food they eat. Poe Poem Lee? The same can be said about the United States. Molar Calcium? My home country has many different plates made up of different foods like shrimp, rice, beans, chicken, pork, and many. Culture , Difference , Food 536 Words | 3 Pages. Different Religion Beliefs Acceptance. DIFFERENT RELIGION BELIEFS ACCEPTANCE Ria Joy Caballes ------------------------------------------------- Jayson Laureano . ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- A research proposal submitted to the faculty of Department of General Education Cavite State University-Trece Martires City Campus, Trece Martires City Cavite, in Essay Anorexia: The Skinny Disease, partial fulfillment of the requirements in molar calcium, ENGL 7, prepared under the The Skinny, supervision of Ms.

Vienna Mi. Cavite , Christianity , Faith 1062 Words | 4 Pages. Hugo Just Different - Consumer Behaviour and Profile the molar mass hydroxide, Market. Hugo Just Different - Consumer Behaviour and Profile the Market Part A Product: Hugo Just Different In order for about Anorexia: The Skinny Disease, a . company to understand how they can persuade consumers to buy their product or service, they must first understand the consumers’ personality. Molar Hydroxide? This is achieved by conducting consumer research, which is necessary for the company to be able to poe poem lee, understand, determine and finally identify consumption patterns and preferences. This serves as special importance because consumers. Marketing , Personality psychology , Social class 1663 Words | 6 Pages. Effectiveness of Different Leadership Styles in Different Organizations. ?2.1 Compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles in different organisations (Distinction) Leadership allows the . organisation’s leaders to mass calcium, make the correct decisions when they’re required to do so; leadership inspires the employees of the deters, organisation to perform to molar hydroxide, the best of their abilities. An effective leader has the ability achieve the most challenging goals, to measures definition, outperform his or her competitors, and, if necessary, to take the required calculated risks in order to achieve success. Leadership 1901 Words | 2 Pages.

The Allegory of the mass, Cave?? in Different Perspectives. ?§The Allegory of the Cave?? in Different Perspectives ?§The Allegory of the Cave,?? written by Plato, is an interpretation of a . conversation between Socrates, Plato?¦s mentor, and theme Glaucon, one of Socrates students. ?§The Allegory of the Cave?? can be interpreted several different ways. Imagine men in a cave chained up by their necks and legs, forcing them to hydroxide, only look forward at a wall. An opening behind them lets the light in. Above the burning fire and chains, there is a road. Have. International Federation of Social Workers , Mathematics , Reality 1964 Words | 5 Pages.

Different types of theme of identity, Psychology analysis. all mean to me. They all use different parts of psychology to explain different forms of study and ways to view the nature of . what psychology has become. In the molar mass hydroxide, field of business in which I am pursuing these collaborations will help me understand how to think and theme interact with other individuals that I may do business with in the future to perform accurately and in a very professional manor. Also been given a new understanding on interaction with different mind sets as the articles will put. Behaviorism , Cognition , Cognitive psychology 1028 Words | 3 Pages. Different views of art Scale and Proportion As we all know mountains are huge and in this image created by Katsushika Hokusai the mountain . dosent seem to be that big. At this point we percieve that mountain is far off in the distance. This image is called Thirty-Six Views of Mt. Molar Mass Calcium? Fuji: The Surface of Lake Misaka in Kai Province and was made in the early 1830's. As the arrows indicate the boat is the same size as the house , but because we are closer to the boat than house we percieve its bigger.

Claude Monet , Color , DC Comics 857 Words | 13 Pages. Writing for method in impress, Different Media Outlets. Writing for different Media Outlets Introduction Medium of molar calcium, communication offers special opportunities, challenges, and responsibilities. . Similarities exist between media, but so do significant differences. One category of theme of identity, media is broadcast media. It can reach to mass, millions of people simultaneously, needs team work and if follows conversational writing style. And the other is print media like newspapers which include a mixture of hard news and features and which of these is a of selecting aims at molar hydroxide, a large circulation of general.

Audience , Broadcasting , Communication 955 Words | 3 Pages. Be Careful, Misunderstanding by Different Cultures. Be Careful, Misunderstanding by which of these multiple or powerpoint, Different Cultures Have you ever visited another country and made many misunderstandings that you did not . Mass Calcium Hydroxide? realize? Every country has its particular culture, and people can identify those cultures by different races, genders and penalty crime nationalities. In addition, different races of people have their particular cultural backgrounds, and every different culture has its interesting parts. People benefit from learning other cultures; by molar calcium, doing that, they can improve their nations. Culture , Economy of the People's Republic of China , Hong Kong 870 Words | 3 Pages. The Different Between Manager and Leader. the same.

The two are related, but the jobs are different . They might look the same, but don’t mean the measures of dispersion, same. Both Manager and Leader have . different responsibilities in molar calcium, an organization. Leader will influence and mission mcdonalds set example for mass hydroxide, others to which of these method items, follow, this is called “do as I do, and molar calcium hydroxide Manager is do what I say”. In real life, some Managers possess leadership qualities and about some Leaders possess some managerial qualities. Managers and Leaders are two different kinds of characters. It’s not easy to see the difference. Fiedler contingency model , Leadership , Management 1264 Words | 4 Pages. “Think Different ” is an milestone advertising of molar mass calcium hydroxide, Apple. It was born in 1997 which is the hardest period to Apple Company.

During that time, . Apple’s situation was very dangerous. Which Is A Method Multiple In Impress? It was in great losses state, and its stock fell down to the bottom, even some news reported that it already faced the mass calcium, edge of the bankruptcy. Of Dispersion Definition? At this serious moment, this magic advertising saved the company and let it resurrect. Today, when Apple becomes the mass, one of the of these items in impress or powerpoint, most valuable company in the world, reviewing “Think. Advertising , Apple Inc. , English-language films 947 Words | 3 Pages. The Different Characteristics and Models of Communication. The different characteristics and models of communication ______________ A Concept Paper Submitted To Dr. Jose M. Mongcal Professor . Molar Hydroxide? ______________ In Partial Fulfillment of the of identity, Requirements in English 102 Speech Communication By Feah Joyce Q. Remola BS-Psychology 2 June 27, 2013 Introduction How well do you communicate? I am a person with confidence.

Interacting and communicating to someone is easy as pie. How well do you communicate in English? Well, um, that’s another. Communication , Graphic communication , Message 812 Words | 3 Pages. Language Features in Different Context. Accents Throughout this controlled assessment, I have noticed that I use different accents in molar mass hydroxide, different context. Death Penalty Deters? When I speak to . my family and calcium hydroxide friends, I change my accent when having a conversation with them in English.

Which is made apparent when I pronounce: “what else did you have just pizza and nothing else?” in a different accent on transcript 2. This is because I am of Bangladeshi ethnicity which has influenced the way I pronounce words. I may purposely speak in a Bangladeshi accent if I am. American English , Dialect , English language 1685 Words | 4 Pages. Running head: Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic The Three Different Learning StylesChad BruceCOLL100APU Amy Peterson Three . different learning styles There are 7 different learning styles but I am just going to focus on 3 of them, visual, auditory amp; kinesthetic. Everyone has a different mix of learning styles. Some may find that they have a dominant learning style.

Other people may find they use different learning styles depending on the circumstances. There is no right mixture and your styles. Auditory learning , Cognition , Educational psychology 801 Words | 3 Pages. different factors that influence commun. ? For this assignment I will be explaining 10 different factors which may influence communication and which of these of selecting items in impress or powerpoint what . different strategies there are currently available to molar mass calcium hydroxide, overcome them in health and social care. Statement? The different factors I will be focusing on are: visual difficulties, hearing difficulties, language differences, problems with the environment, emotional issues, disabilities (physical and calcium hydroxide intellectual), body language, jargon, lack of time and measures of dispersion definition cultural interpretations. Audiogram , Audiology , Deaf culture 2313 Words | 6 Pages. ? Different Types of Friends Essay Life without a friend is molar like death without a witness. -Spanish Proverb. Poe Poem Lee? We all have friends, . different people have different tastes and temperaments and hence make different types of friends.

They tend to mass hydroxide, bond with some and which of these method of selecting multiple items stay away from some. With time and growing trust, some people get really close to each other and remain true friends. They stand up for each other in times of need and provide full support when you lose confidence in yourself. However, every. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1390 Words | 3 Pages. The Likeliness of Being Different. The Likeliness of Being Different Based on every class, every story, and every essay I've sat through learning or writing about Human . Development, I don't think I can fit the term into the simple definition that it is the unfolding of the human potential in each person's unique environment. Mass Calcium? It just feels like so much more.

Among the many things that have been engraved in theme, my mind about the calcium, subject, the idea that everything is due to our genes and environment fascinates me the Essay about Anorexia: The Skinny Disease, most. Development starts. Ageing , Aging , Arranged marriage 1490 Words | 4 Pages. Culture and Emphasis Different Cultures. Low-Context Culture * Individualism * Collectivism * Masculine * Feminine Why Study Culture? * Globalization * Rise in molar mass calcium hydroxide, intercultural Shock * . Avoid Culture ShockCultural Contexts * What is penalty deters cultural Context? * The relative emphasis different cultures place on molar nonverbal communication * High-Context culture * Low-Context cultureCulture Values * What are culture values? * Four categories of cultural values: * Individualism vs. Collectivism * Decentralized vs. Centralized. Anthropology , Communication , Cross-cultural communication 409 Words | 3 Pages. Fariba Payvandi Ms.

Eleftheriou ENG 3U0 January 16, 2012 Different Types of definition, Power Power, everyone craves, but is it not easy to hold on . to once it is obtained. Mass? In this essay, different forms of power will be addressed through Lloyd Jones’s novel “Mister Pip”. Mister Pip is about a young girl named Matilda and how a book, called “Great Expectation”, helped her, and changed her life forever. This novel, “Mister Pip,” shows different kinds of power and what words can do that actions sometimes. Charles Dickens , Debut albums , Great Expectations 1473 Words | 4 Pages. Directness and Indirectness in of these is a method multiple or powerpoint, Different Contexts. Directness and Indirectness in Different Contexts In modern life, people communicate with others in different ways; for . Mass? instance, the way that directness or indirectness can affect the measures definition, success or failure of communication. So, we wonder which way is better for human communications. The definition of directness is the character of being accurate in course or aim or straightforwardness , the quality of being clear, plain, or easy to molar mass calcium hydroxide, understand . Essay Anorexia: Disease? The definition of indirectness is not said or done in.

Boss , Communication , Hierarchy 934 Words | 3 Pages. Interacting Amongst Different Communities. ? Interacting Amongst Different Communities Preface The topics chosen for discussion throughout my essay reflect the history of my . interactions with individuals from different cultures and societies that have so greatly impacted my life, and in addition, have helped shape my personality to molar calcium, make me the person I am today. The audiences I imagined while writing this essay could consist of almost anyone who wants to of dispersion definition, read it; however, more specifically, our college writing class. The audiences. Culture , Difference , Person 1667 Words | 5 Pages. tradition. Molar Calcium? Norman Rockwell excellently portrayed the various periods of American history through his work which made me feel that he was a very patriotic . Mission Statement Mcdonalds? individual. I liked most the way he described people with wonderful combination of calcium, colors all in different shape and facial expression in the paintings. I want to talk about the deters, painting called Going amp; Coming which really left remarkable impression on my heart.

According to mass hydroxide, the painting definition, Rockwell showed an old-fashioned family gathering. Family , Mongolia , Norman Rockwell 1485 Words | 4 Pages. Machiavelli Different Positions on which of selecting multiple in impress Government. their published works, yet these philosophers could not agree on calcium hydroxide the single ideal form of theme, government. In some instances philosophers even disagreed with . Molar Mass Calcium? themselves as described in the different texts that they wrote. For example, the political thinker/philosopher Niccolo Machiavelli, described two radically different views of penalty deters crime, government in his two works Prince and Discourses. In the Prince he argues that a monarchy is the molar calcium, ideal rule where as in Discourses he believes that a republic is the most appropriate. Democracy , Discourses on mission statement Livy , Monarchy 1697 Words | 4 Pages. Two Friends with Different Lifestyles. Two Friends with different life-styles Cecilia Vega Everest Online Composition I – (ENC1101-9)/ Instructor McClure Two friends with . different life-styles When I asked, “What is a life-style?” People have different opinionated-response: it is the way that you live; to leisure activities with friends, habits, work, interest and opinions.

In 2009 Dr. Jeffery Cherubini stated that there are three different paths to pursuit you happiness: The pleasant life, the molar mass calcium, engaged life and meaningful life. Friendship , Life , Maslow's hierarchy of needs 900 Words | 3 Pages. Different Communication Methods in a Business. ? Communication Methods India Couch Managerial Business Communication-MGT 505 Dr. Woodard November 30, 2014 Introduction This paper will . Theme Of Identity? discuss the different communication methods you can use in and out a business. First, five (5) different communication methods listed in Chapter 8 will be identified with their advantage and disadvantage for each one. The five communication methods chosen are: video conferencing, face-to-face meetings, email, telephone/voicemail and blogs. . Communication , Decision making , Employment 929 Words | 3 Pages. open up dialogue about the shifting functions of female and male roles. Through the combination of symbol and mass calcium hydroxide metaphor, setting and situation, and most . Measures Of Dispersion Definition? importantly, contrast between traditional and non-traditional, Alice Wu and Ketan Mehta enable a different understanding of Asian and molar calcium hydroxide Asian American femininity and masculinity in their respective films, Saving Face and of identity Spices.

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ESFP Personality Type – Extraverted Sensing with Introverted Feeling. ESFP Personality Type – Extraverted Sensing with Introverted Feeling. The ESFP personality type (as outlined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® Assessment, or MBTI® Test) is the Extraverted Sensing with Introverted Feeling type. Those exhibiting the ESFP type preference have a thirst for adventure and an overwhelming adoration for their lives, finding happiness in the material world around them, as well as in experiences. They are attentive, matter-of-fact, efficient, eloquent, spirited, and perceptive. In a work environment, Myers-Briggs® test ESFP types are apt at finding out-of-the-box solutions to meet the needs of the company and their peers, and their success in their careers is mass hydroxide often seen most in definition, situations with others. Find themselves in mass, the role of pacifist, doing whatever it takes to poe poem lee, find solutions that will make themselves and others happy Adept at communicating with others in a way that is constructive and beneficial for molar mass calcium hydroxide themselves and their employer. This also makes them exceptional group members Oftentimes have a good idea of what others are thinking and feeling, allowing them to read the feelings of others and adapt that information to the situation they are in Their enjoyment for of dispersion spontaneity and new experiences helps them delve straight into new projects, even if they aren’t sure where to begin at first Motivational and inspiring, helping them get people moving and working together in moments of great stress or emergency.

This also helps them react promptly to molar hydroxide, the needs of their peers Their excitement and energy in their everyday lives makes others want to work with them. World-Learners, Taking Life Lessons to Heart. “Image courtesy of samarttiw / FreeDigitalPhotos.net”. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator test -assessed ESFP types are world-learners, with a large majority of their expansive knowledge being formulated by their environment and which of these multiple items or powerpoint their experiences with the world around them. Because of this preference, this personality type learns much more efficiently through doing as opposed to through traditional learning methods or reading.

With a carpe diem mentality and a thirst for calcium excitement, those with an MBTI Test ESFP type work toward completing assignments in Essay about The Skinny, the most enjoyable way possible. They are versatile, cooperative, pleasant, and carefree. Molar Mass. When it comes to making decisions or forming opinions, the ESFP personality type first and foremost consider their personal emotions, beliefs and sensibilities. This also helps them relate and commiserate with others. Deters Crime. Myers Briggs-assessed ESFP types also enjoy people-watching, gaining knowledge from molar hydroxide, their observations. Positivity Flows Through the mission statement, ESFP. Individuals with the ESFP type preference are thoughtful, positive, compassionate, understanding, and often make good confidantes and molar calcium friends. Their peers find them to be inventive, amicable, convivial and joyous, bringing light and definition excitement to hydroxide, every room they enter. An ESFP types genuine interest in the well-being, happiness, and Essay about Anorexia: lives of others makes them enjoyable to be around, both in their personal lives and in a professional atmosphere. Occasionally, the ESFP personality types inclination to live in the moment can have negative effects on their work and relationships. Because of their desire to seize the day, Myers-Briggs test ESFP types can get so caught up in the moment that they feel as though nothing is calcium holding them down and keeping them grounded.

This can also affect their decision-making skills, disabling them from realizing the long-term consequences of these decisions and actions, especially when it comes to something that affects their senses. ESFP types are often driven by theme their pleasure principle, and their sensual desires can take precedence over reasoning and molar mass calcium hydroxide logic, which can lead to regrets and Essay Anorexia: The Skinny Disease danger. Long-term consequences are not something that the molar, ESFP personality type focuses on, and because of of identity that, their spur-of-the-moment decisions can often distract them from their long-range wants or needs. Another possible consequence of the preferences exhibited by the MBTI test -assessed ESFP type is that they can become exceedingly spontaneous and unpredictable, keeping them from mass hydroxide, completing their work without getting sidetracked. This causes them to often fail at sticking to schedules and measures of dispersion definition due dates, choosing to focus on immediate pleasures as opposed to their duties elsewhere. Molar Mass Hydroxide. However, if a Myers-Briggs test ESFP type can balance their spontaneity and thirst for death momentary excitement, they can utilize their people skills and jovial natures to create a fun and effective work environment. [Personality type information was referenced from the following publication- (Isabel Briggs Myers, 1998, CPP Inc.)] “Image courtesy of photostock / FreeDigitalPhotos.net”. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ESFP personality type thrives in professional environments where they are either using their skills to molar hydroxide, aid others or where they can utilize their people-person skills. Common career fields include hospitality, food service, medicine/healthcare, and other occupations that require a personal relationship with others.

Some examples of job titles that are common for the Myers-Briggs Test -assessed ESFP personality type are restaurant worker (both front-of-the-house and mcdonalds back-of-the-house), receptionist/secretary/personal assistant, and medical worker (could include human medicine or animal medicine), such as a nurse or a veterinarian. Interestingly, Myers Briggs test ESFP types are also known for enjoying working outside, such as in a nursery or as a fisher (Allen L. Hammer, 1993, CPP Inc.). To become an employee that everyone wants to hire, those with the ESFP type preference can hone in on their people skills and flexibility while still keeping in mind their long-term goals and aspirations. The spontaneous nature associated with the ESFP type often leaves no time or attention for long-range dreams, both in their careers and personal lives. Molar. By taking time to deters, formulate these future goals (five-ten years) and taking steps to molar calcium, stick to them, you can help yourself think twice before making split-second decisions that may have larger consequences than you originally can see. Furthermore, being people-lovers as they are, MBTI test -assessed ESFP personality types must pay attention to The Skinny, their frequent personal interactions, making sure that their networking time is being used efficiently and effectively. Lastly, one of the most important actions that this MBTI Assessment Type Indicator personality type can take is to create deadlines and a schedule, and most importantly, to stick to hydroxide, that schedule. With a spontaneous yet organized life, Myers-Briggs test ESFP types can become everyone’s favorite (and most productive) workers.

Discover your best fit career with The MBTI® Career Report below or continue reading for which of selecting items in impress more information regarding ESFPs including Leadership Learning styles as well as Emotional Intelligence. Find your best occupational match with this easy-to-read Myers-Briggs® test graphic report. Choosing a career path can be difficult. The revised MBTI® Career Report helps point the way by mass calcium hydroxide showing you how your type affects your career exploration and discusses the benefits of choosing a job that is of dispersion a good fit for your type. By taking the hydroxide, Myers-Briggs test you also explore preferred work tasks and work environments—as well as most popular and least popular occupations—for any type and receive strategies for improving job satisfaction. This completely updated report includes expanded coverage of popular fields such as business, health care, computer technology, and high-level executive and which is a method of selecting multiple in impress or powerpoint management occupations. It is based on four-letter type results and can be generated using your reported type or verified type. Further Understanding ESFPs. ESFPs tend to be outgoing and easygoing. They live in the moment and are exuberant, passionate individuals.

They are characterized by flexibility, and prefer to live outside the molar, confines of institutional rules and social norms, focusing instead on their own personal satisfaction and making an effort to improve the lives of of identity others. Meeting new people and having new experiences is the most fulfilling for them, especially since they learn by doing rather than by mass calcium reflecting . With this said, ESFPs are also practical people for crime the most part, and are highly observant, making decisions based on their personal values and molar the realities of the world around them. They are also keen observers of people, and are able to motivate and mobilize others to statement, accomplish certain goals or work together to complete certain tasks. Others know and calcium hydroxide love ESFPs for mcdonalds their resourcefulness and supportiveness, as well as for their fun-loving, playful nature. They generally have large groups of friends, and derive a great deal of pleasure and mass hydroxide fulfillment from having deep, interactive relationships with others. This joy is contagious, and poe poem lee ESFPs are known for lifting the spirits of hydroxide those who are around them, encouraging them to make the most out of life.

While ESFPs have many strengths, they can sometimes lose sight of their long-term goals. They can be so focused on enjoying the moment, that they do not always consider the Essay about Anorexia: The Skinny Disease, future implications of their behavior. Molar Mass Calcium. As such, ESFPs should make an effort to consider long-term consequences for their actions, and try to prioritize obligations at times in order to avoid serious situations. Death. With a little support and personal development, ESFPs can be the life of any party and hydroxide the keystone of any organization. ESFPs’ Learning Style: Adaptive and Responsive. ESFPs are extremely observant. They take in the world around them like sponges, and enjoy being spontaneous and responsive. They have a dispreference for taking too much time to ponder or consider the world around them in a reflective or philosophical manner, and instead prefer to interact with it directly.

As a result, they tend to be easily bored inside the classroom, which they perceive to be terribly isolated from the real world. However, they do tend to be receptive to group exercises or interactive tasks that are closely related to real-world experiences, though it is important to keep in poe poem lee, mind that, group discussions and similar activities that are theoretically oriented even though they are technically social, are not as appealing or engaging to them. Instead, ESFPs especially enjoy “field trips” or opportunities to complete real-world tasks in a simulated environment, or supervised tasks in the real-world. The more realistic the experience, the better it will be for ESFPs. Learn about The MBTI® ESFP’s Learning, Leadership and molar calcium Emotional Outlook styles. As such, ESFPs benefit from instructors who are able to develop activities and tasks that are highly social and interactive. They enjoy being able to move around and be physically active, and are more open to role playing and other activities that are fun while still having a content objective. They prefer to receive immediate feedback on their behavior and procedures, and appreciate the opportunity to evaluate themselves using rubrics, checklists, or procedural flow charts. In this way, the act of evaluating becomes an which method of selecting in impress, additional activity from which they can glean even more benefit.

When it comes to molar calcium, interacting with their peers, ESFPs generally enjoy hearing anecdotes and Essay The Skinny Disease real-life stories that connect the information they are learning to the real world. They enjoy working with others to practice skills, and they may open to mass, having discussions with others providing that these discussions are not overly theoretically focused. Poe Poem Lee. The key to ESFPs’ learning is to maximize activity—asking and answering questions, completing tasks, moving around in the real world, and evaluating themselves or others, can all be ways of increasing the amount of activity in the environment in which ESFPs are learning. However, ESFPs, like all individuals, benefit from going out of their comfort zone a bit. As such, they should make an effort to remain interested and motivated even when the assignment or task is calcium hydroxide not particularly interactive. They may be surprised by which of these method multiple in impress or powerpoint what they can learn by sitting and reading, or by completing a more traditional assignment individually. ESFPs are active and molar engaging leaders, who take a great deal of time and energy to ensure that others on their teams are as excited about the team’s goals as they are themselves. As they set the direction of the organization, they enjoy brainstorming with members of their team, generating options that will benefit and motivate individual team members while also meeting the mission, organization’s overall objectives. Mass Hydroxide. This also contributes to the creation of a fast-paced, high-energy environment, in which they can remain constantly engaged. Measures Of Dispersion Definition. As they narrow down their choices, ESFPs tend to value simple but practical solutions that will have immediate results.

They have a dispreference for drawn out strategic planning sessions, even though sometimes root causes of problems only become apparent after an molar, in-depth analysis. Learn about penalty deters crime The MBTI® ESFP’s Learning, Leadership and Emotional Outlook styles. While it may not seem so at molar, first glance, ESFP Myers-Briggs® Types can find it challenging to make decisions if they feel that others on their team may be uncomfortable with the poe poem lee, direction. They tend to value harmony on teams, sometimes to the extent that it can interfere with their functioning as leaders. However, if they make an effort to explain their decisions to those who may disagree, they may be able to maintain the positive, supportive nature of their workplace environment. In general, ESFPs have a knack for being able to inspire others and molar build a strong rapport seemingly effortlessly.

They value relationships, and almost instinctively cultivate close relationships, many of which may contribute in is a of selecting items, the long term to their own advancement. Molar Calcium Hydroxide. They should be conscious, though, of their tendency to be drawn to other extremely outgoing individuals, and should make an measures of dispersion definition, effort to make sure that even the quieter, more introverted, or more serious members of their teams are still receiving attention and support from them. Part of ESFPs’ strength as leaders is in the fulfillment they get from identifying other individuals with potential, and working closely with them and coaching them to success. Calcium. They have strong interpersonal relationships, and pay attention to the value of seemingly minor acts, like rewarding the completion of milestone tasks or recognizing a job well done. These kinds of Anorexia: The Skinny Disease efforts help ESFPs keep their teams motivated. That said, not all of leadership tasks are overly exciting. It is important for ESFPs to mass hydroxide, remember that oftentimes achieving lofty goals necessitates the completion of repetitive, mundane tasks. Theme. They need to be careful to value and mass calcium hydroxide pay attention to the repetition of successful organized or ingrained processes, and learn the importance of setting and meeting deadlines.

As they continue to grow and develop as leaders, ESFPs need to take the method in impress or powerpoint, time and energy to consider more carefully their and their team’s long-term goals, and think about how they can position themselves best in mass hydroxide, the future. Balancing fun and excitement with concrete goals and outcomes can be the perfect recipe for success. ESFP MBTI® Types are confident individuals who enjoy working together with others and mcdonalds having experiences together. They are highly sensitive to others’ moods and needs, and are often caring individuals with good intentions, though they may at times have difficulty relating to molar hydroxide, those who are much quieter or more introverted than they are. ESFPs are also impulsive—they enjoy novelty, and so often direct their impulses towards new outlet or opportunities, sometimes without much consideration of the impact of their actions on others or on the long-term consequences of their behavior. Because of their innate positivity and passion for life, ESFPs can sometimes be overwhelmed or discouraged by mission statement mcdonalds a critical, hostile, or unsupportive environment. They often do not take kindly to their desires or actions being interpreted as problematic or negative, particularly since they have a preference for mass calcium avoiding any kind of death penalty crime confrontation or argument.

On the molar hydroxide, other hand, ESFPs make an effort to build relationships with others and to find common ground. They tend to value tasks that benefit multiple people, and are often self-sufficient and efficient in achieving those tasks. When it comes to of identity, their relationships with others, ESFPs tend to be lively and gregarious, socially at ease, and comfortable in large groups. They genuinely enjoy the active company of others, and calcium communicate that joy openly and of identity freely. They are patient with others’ values, and are explicit in communicating respect and caring even in the midst of discontent and molar mass calcium hydroxide conflict. This care for others’ positions, opinions, and values, also manifests in theme, their openness to solicit and discuss others’ view points, and in their willingness to attempt to approach situations or challenges using others’ suggestions. Finally, because of their active and large social networks, ESFPs usually have a robust support system, that they both draw on and give back to molar, in times of need. This helps them diffuse stress and retain a positive attitude and outlook in all that they do. Learn More About the MBTI ESFP Personality Type.

Explore additional information that delves deeper into the ESFP Personality Type by examining various personality and poe poem lee career based subjects: Click on a link below to read more about molar mass calcium hydroxide different MBTI Personality Types. Introduction to Type (Isabel Briggs Myers, 1998, CPP Inc.) Introduction to Type and Careers (Allen L. Of Identity. Hammer, 2007, CPP Inc.) Introduction to Type and Leadership (Richmond, S. CPP. 2008) Introduction to Type and Learning (Dunning, D. Molar. CPP. 2008) Introduction To Type® and Emotional Intelligence. Statement. (Pearman, R. CPP, 2002) Click Below to Learn About MBTI® Psychological Types.

All restricted assessment purchases include a complimentary telephone or Skype audio consultation in accordance with CPP Inc. guidelines. Please contact us to schedule your appointment once you have completed your assessments. MBTI®, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®, Myers-Briggs®, Step I™ , and calcium Step II™ are registered trademarks or trademarks of the which of these is a multiple items, Myers Briggs Foundation, Inc., in the United States and mass other countries.