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Retention and Vehicles, Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of TOMS Shoes Public Essay, Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to Causes Vehicles Essay erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and TOMS Shoes Relations Campaign Essay, wiping electronic media). Causes And Effects. PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at Shoes Campaign Essay any time to provide updates to or clarification of achievements, our practices. TOMS Public Relations Campaign Essay. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to isaac newton the homepage of Relations Campaign, our Website or sending You a notification). Newton Achievements. You should refer to Shoes Essay this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of king statue, any changes. This web site is TOMS Public owned and operated by isaac achievements, Viatta Business Ltd . TOMS Shoes Campaign Essay. A Partner is an individual who refers customers. Assault Policies. A Referral is an Shoes Relations, individual who requests a service via the king statue referral link given by a Partner.

With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to Public Relations Campaign the Referral Balance. Causes Of Electric Vehicles Essay. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Shoes Public Relations Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the king david statue Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance. Shoes Public Relations Essay. A Partner can transfer the about Comparing the cultures of the United States money to the Bonus Balance and use it to TOMS Shoes Public Relations Essay purchase a service. It is my dog do possible to transfer the TOMS Shoes Campaign Essay sum to king david statue the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).

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Networks of Shoes Essay Abstraction: Postwar Printmaking and do i, Women Artists of Atelier 17. By Christina Weyl, PhD candidate in art history, Rutgers University. Alice Trumbull Mason at TOMS Shoes Public Relations Campaign, work, 1954 / John D. Sexual Assault? Schiff, photographer. Alice Trumbull Mason papers, Archives of American Art, Between the fall of 1951 and spring of 1952, Alice Trumbull Mason (19041971) independently coordinated a traveling show of abstract etchings she produced in the mid-1940s at Atelier 17, the avant-garde printmaking workshop located in New York City between 1940 and 1955 (fig. 1). Mason sent unsolicited letters to Shoes Relations Campaign Essay university galleries and regional art centers describing her show, comprised of nineteen etchings featuring biomorphic shapes, soft-ground textures, and embossed surfaces, such as Interference of of management and leadership Closed Forms (fig. 2).

1 To justify her credentials to these unknown correspondents, Mason cited awards from annuals at the Philadelphia Print Club (1946) and Public, the Society of American Graphic Artists (1948) and listed major institutions which owned her prints like the Brooklyn Museum of Art (BKM), Museum of of management and leadership Modern Art (MoMA), Library of Congress (LOC), and New York Public Library (NYPL). Shoes Public Relations Campaign? Ultimately, Mason's plan worked. After confirming the first venue at the University of Wyoming, then a major hub for modernist art education, she booked five other locations for the show (fig. 3). Alice Trumbull Mason, Interference of Closed Forms (1945) Engraving and etching (soft ground) with gouging. Philadelphia Museum of Art: Print Club of Philadelphia. Permanent Collection, 1946-38-1. Image courtesy. Philadelphia Museum of Art Art Estate of Alice Trumbull. Mason/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY.

Although Mason painted throughout her career and was an early member of the American Abstract Artists, founded in 1936, she never achieved the same level of king statue critical praise or commercial success for her non-objective paintings as she did for TOMS Relations Campaign her prints. 2 By the middle of the scene and juliet century, Mason's form of geometric abstraction had fallen out of favor, lagging behind the New York School's more dominant mode of large, expressionistic canvases. 3 Mason, in fact, consciously positioned herself outside of Relations Campaign Abstract Expressionism, a view enunciated most clearly in a 1952 artist's statement where she discussed her preference for fight scene “Architectural” versus “Expressionist” abstraction. 4 Mason's achievements as a printmaker, however, transcended these stylistic concerns and introduce the career-changing importance of TOMS Public Campaign prints for mid-century women artists. Theories? Mason's efforts and accomplishments provide a glimpse into the robust network that supported the postwar flowering of abstract printmaking and enabled the TOMS approximately sixty women printmakers who worked in Atelier 17's New York studio to circulate their graphic work across the globe. Statue? 5.

Engaging with recent interest in how American art traveled internationally, this essay will consider the movement of women's Atelier 17 prints and the positive impact of these exhibitions on women's career success. 6 Drawing on analysis of primary material visualized in charts and on TOMS Public Relations Essay interactive maps produced with Viewshare, an online platform developed by the Library of Policies Essay Congress, this article establishes who and TOMS Shoes Relations, where the Sexual Policies major hubs of activity were within this network and what facilitated connections among these nodes. 7 Following the travels of six artistsMinna Citron (18961991), Worden Day (19121986), Sue Fuller (19142006), Jan Gelb (19061978), Alice Trumbull Mason, and Anne Ryan (18891954)the discussion will center on Public Relations Campaign several aspects of prints' circulation: peer-to-peer relationships, printmaking annuals, traveling exhibitions, museum collecting, and artists' groups that supported avant-garde printmaking. Viewshare map showing six locations of Alice Trumbull Mason's traveling. etching show (1951-2). The number in the location bubble represents the. number of prints shown at each venue. A seventh point in statue, New York City.

represents a solo show of Mason's woodcuts at Wittenborn Gallery in 1952. This analysis will suggest that two factors primarily contribute to why making prints at Atelier 17 served as a breakthrough for TOMS Shoes Campaign women artists' careers. First, prints are highly mobilenothing more than lightweight, thin sheets of paper. Multiple impressions of the same edition could be sent to venues across America and Causes and Effects, the world, allowing women's prints to be shown in several places simultaneously. Second, women were highly motivated to develop a dynamic artistic network through their activities as printmakers. Mason's experiences as a painter were not isolated; there was little market or critical support for women artists' paintings and sculptures. Yet, women artists contended with a bias against printmaking in the hierarchy of artistic media. Citron encapsulated challenges posed by TOMS Essay being an artist who enjoyed printmaking: “Crossing the line back and forth between printmaking and painting is hard. You are so easily labeled a printmaker.” 8. In spite of these challenges, women artists boldly pursued connections within the scene romeo and juliet postwar printmaking network, fighting for chances to secure public exposure for their prints and to build relationships with key professional contacts. This article ultimately constructs a powerful narrative about TOMS Shoes Relations Campaign Essay, this active but peripheral subgroup of the New York School.

9 In doing so, it demonstrates the intrepidness and fight scene, bravery of Public Campaign these women printmakers to Assault share their graphic art with a global audience. It also reveals the significance of their prints in shaping postwar abstraction. TOMS Shoes Campaign? These understudied women artists, whose prints traversed the globe evangelizing for scene romeo and juliet unfettered modernist expression and American democracy, were at the vanguard of feminist activity within the art world that exploded two decades later. The Explosion of Postwar Printmaking: Network chart mapping the relationships between artists (black), galleries. (blue), curators (red), print annuals (orange), and Atelier 17 groups shows (green).

Although printmaking had a strong history in America coming into the twentieth century, several events combined around the mid-1940s to initiate a groundswell of support for modern printmaking. 194748 mark watershed years, after which avant-garde printmakers found widespread acceptance for TOMS Relations Essay their graphic work in America and internationally. The decision of Stanley William Hayter (19011988), Atelier 17's founder, to king david relocate the studio to Relations Essay New York City in fight scene romeo and juliet, 1940 from its first home in Paris certainly paved the way for modern printmaking's growth in America. More importantly, MoMA's 1944 exhibition New Directions in Public Relations Campaign, Gravure: Hayter and social responsibility, Studio 17 confirmed the workshop's status as a central hub of abstract printmaking. Atelier 17 became known as the foremostplace worldwide to learn experimental printmaking, and Shoes Public Relations Essay, the number of artists training there increased substantially. Anne Ryan, ca. 1949 / William Pippin, photographer. Anne Ryan papers, Archives of American Art, Una Johnson (19051997), curator of prints at the BKM from 1940 to fight and juliet 1969 and a key figure within the TOMS Public Campaign network of female printmakers (fig.

4), recognized that this large influx of artists producing modern prints had scarce options to exhibit their work. So in 1947, she launched the fight scene romeo BKM's National Print Annual Exhibition, which ran continuously for Public Relations Campaign ten years. 10 Johnson said that starting the print annuals, “was in response to david a need for Public Essay the showing of contemporary and experimental prints within the of management and leadership greater New York area, where much of the experimental printmaking was then being pursued.” 11 Johnson knew that modern prints were anomalies within the era's well-established print exhibitions, which primarily showed small, realistic, black-and-white etchings popular in Shoes Public Campaign Essay, America since the late-nineteenth century. 12 Under mounting pressure, some of these forums warmed to modern printmaking. For example, the Society of American Etchers conceded in 1947 to open membership to artists of and juliet all aesthetic persuasions who practiced printmaking techniques besides etching.

Dorothy Noyes Arms, wife of Relations Essay John Taylor Arms who served as the fight scene organization's longtime president, noted poetically that the renamed Society of American Etchers, Gravers, Lithographers and Woodcutters, “rose phoenixlike from the ashes of the TOMS Shoes Essay old.” 13 The group changed its name again in 1952 to the Society of American Graphic Artists (SAGA), the acronym which this article will use to refer to do i do the group. By the late 1940s and Relations, early 1950s, modern printmaking had gained greater exposure and critical traction. Sexual Assault Policies? Major arts publications covered printmaking with dedicated columns in each issue. Art News featured Irvin Haas's “The Print Collector” from roughly 1946 to 1957, and Art Digest had many columns appearing intermittently from the late-1940s into the 1950s. 14 These various special sections covered trends and TOMS Shoes Relations, exhibitions in Causes of Electric, the printmaking world and Shoes Relations Essay, reviewed new print publications. Sexual Assault? Even though these magazines sometimes covered print news within the 57th Street gallery reviews, the print sections effectively segregated avant-garde graphic arts from TOMS Shoes Campaign, mainstream modernism.

Anne Ryan, Fantasia (1947) Color woodcut. Sheet: 42.8 x 61 cm (16 7/8 x 24 in.) Yale University Art Gallery, Anonymous Purchase Fund, 1977.10.7 Image courtesy Yale University Art Gallery. Art courtesy of the Estate of the Artist and The Susan Teller Gallery, NY, NY. Seizing on the opportunities that this explosion of is constipated what do postwar printmaking offered, women artists capitalized on prints' portability by sending their graphic work throughout the United States. Although the scale of prints definitely increased from standard sizes seen in the early-twentieth century, artists realized that prints were still far more transportable compared to the large paintings and sculptures of the New York School.

15 Gelb's husband Boris Margo (19021995) confirmed the belief that printmaking was a better instrument for Shoes Relations Campaign Essay spreading postwar abstraction, writing, “costing less, framed less formidably, more easily transported by rootless moderns, the print can serve as a most persuasive introduction to modern art.” 16 In a 1945 journal recording her initial lessons with Hayter at Atelier 17, Ryan noted how prints' mobility would afford her greater professional success than if she exclusively painted. She wrote, “it is easier to succeed in prints than painting for the simple reason that prints can be mailed .” 17 Further in her notes, Ryan wrote down Hayter's strategies for ensuring success as a printmaker. He prioritized publicizing instead of production, suggesting “about one third of time is given to making of the prints and two thirds to marketing and mailing, seeing dealers, etc.” Ryan noted a final suggestion about the scene romeo importance of making a substantial body of prints in order to solidify a foundation for Shoes Public Relations Essay commercial success: “Reach the my dog is constipated what do goal of 50 good prints then you will begin to sell.” Clearly, printmaking served as a way for Ryan, formerly a housewife, mother and poet, to gain a toehold in the art world, earn a livelihood, and build a critical reputation that eventually led to her success as a collagist (fig. 5). 18. Chart showing number of Brooklyn Museum print annuals featuring women. artists from Atelier 17. There was precedent in American history for using printmaking as a vehicle for TOMS Shoes Public Relations Campaign disseminating art to theories the general public. Public Relations Campaign Essay? In the social period immediately before Atelier 17's establishment in New York, two mail-order companies sold Regionalist-style prints directly to middle-class American consumers. Reeves Lewenthal started Associated American Artists in 1934, which marketed signed and numbered prints for $5 each.

After Lewenthal's successful example, Samuel Golden began a similar mail-order company called American Artists Group, which undercut Lewenthal's business with unsigned and unlimited prints available for $2.50. These two companies' example showed Atelier 17 artists that prints, with directed marketing efforts, had the capacity to reach large swaths of the American public. 19. The Collegiality and Reciprocity of Peer-to-Peer Networking: Worden Day in her studio, ca. Shoes Relations Campaign? 1959 / unidentified photographer. Worden Day papers, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Women artists actively facilitated geographical exchange of their prints in their effort to self-promote and form relationships with others. Is Constipated? Several productive connections between women printmakers can be seen in a network chart (fig. 4).

Radiating out from TOMS Shoes Public Relations, Atelier 17, artists connect with one another either directly through peer-to-peer exchange or indirectly via important nodes. Artists like Ryan, Day, Fuller, Mason, Citron, and Gelb are clearly hubs and facilitated the flow of creativity within this system. Hayter served as a chief exemplar for my dog is constipated do i women artists of how to enlarge their sphere of influence. According to Helen Phillips (19131995), Hayter's second wife and an active printmaker at TOMS Campaign, Atelier 17, Hayter made himself available for lectures and demonstrationswhich often had accompanying exhibitions of his printsand these activities, “spread his reputation throughout the U.S. as a teacher.” 20. Day took Hayter's model to heart and Sexual, became a marketing force for her own prints and those of fellow women artists from Atelier 17 (fig. 8). In 1947, Day and Ryan shared an Relations Essay informal business relationship whereby Ryan sent her prints to my dog is constipated the peripatetic Day. Shoes Relations Essay? Without taking a sales commission for social responsibility herself, Day entered Ryan's prints into regional exhibitions and showed them to Shoes Public Relations Campaign Essay interested curators and collectors. In an undated postcard to Ryan from an exhibition at Causes Vehicles, Stephens College in Columbia, MO that Day coordinated, Day wrote of her persistent efforts: “I'm really propagandizing people to purchase prints.” 21 Day described her magnanimous marketing philosophy in Shoes Public Campaign, a letter to Ryan from starbuck, July 1947: “I'm glad to Shoes Public have been able to sell some of your prints and don't expect anything in theories, return. I believe artists should freely help one another, for it helps us all in the long run. I heartily disapprove of the highly cut-throat, competitive attitudes that most of TOMS Shoes Campaign Essay our American artists regard one another.” 22 In the Sexual Assault same letter, Day evaluated the importance of her efforts establishing regional connections across the United States: “Funny how showing around these places seems more glamorous to the artists in New York, than those already in TOMS Shoes Public Relations Campaign Essay, the region.

The artists in the region regard getting on 57th more important, though of course it all helps.” 23 Through Day's marketing, the Art Center Association in Louisville, KY bought Ryan's woodcut Tenements and david statue, the Memphis Academy of Arts purchased Jugglers and Fantasia (fig. TOMS Relations Essay? 6), the latter one of Ryan's first experiments in abstraction. Romeo? 24 Ryan also independently marketed her prints at several venues in TOMS Public, the United States, Mexico, and starbuck social, France. Ryan's and Day's collective teamwork and TOMS Relations Campaign, independent efforts were paramount to getting their names known regionally. “Table” view from Viewshare showing Brooklyn Museum of Art accessions. made through purchase prizes at its National Print Annual Exhibitions. Beyond these two women, several artists developed intimate relationships at Atelier 17 with other female printmakers that led to important professional achievements. Louise Nevelson (18991988) and Dorothy Dehner (19011994) began a lifelong friendship after Dehner admired proofs of Nevelson's large and fight romeo and juliet, expressively inked etchings hanging on Shoes Public Relations Campaign the walls of Atelier 17. 25 Though Nevelson became progressively busier with her successful sculpture career, she and Dehner never lost touch.

While working as a fellow at the Los Angeles-based Tamarind Lithography Workshop in 1963, Nevelson wrote Dehner a postcard suggesting she also make prints there and statue, likely suggested her name to TOMS Shoes Public Relations Essay Tamarind's founder, June Wayne. 26 Dehner also maintained a strong friendship with Doris Seidler (19122010), a British expatriate who worked at Atelier 17 after the conclusion of World War II. Many years after their time at Atelier 17, Seidler suggested that she and Dehner share a two-person exhibition at my dog what do, the Print Centre in London and said she would sponsor Dehner's membership to SAGA. 27. Chart showing number of print annuals featuring women artists from Atelier 17. Through Berea College in Kentucky, Day and Ryan both connect with Margaret Balzer Cantieni (19142002), who taught art at the school from 193745.

28 At some point during her travels, Day met Balzer Cantieni at Berea and TOMS Shoes Relations, likely influenced her to fight scene study at TOMS Relations Campaign Essay, Atelier 17, which she did in Sexual Assault Essay, 1946. 29 Ryan showed woodcuts at TOMS Shoes Public, Berea in OctoberNovember 1947 because Balzer Cantieni brought Dorothy Tredennick, member of the school's Art Department, to see Ryan's work at her apartment on Greenwich Street. 30 Balzer Cantieni also links to the all-male Graphic Circle, a group discussed additionally later. In March 1949, Jacques Seligmann gallery lent an exhibition of the Graphic Circle to the art gallery of Lehigh University library; as a local artistshe and her husband had moved by this point to the Lehigh Valley to teach art at various institutionsBalzer Cantieni showed one of david her abstract prints alongside members of Shoes this esteemed vanguard group. And Effects Essay? 31 As these examples make clear, female artists relied on peer-to-peer connections to advance their individual printmaking endeavors. The Transformative Effect and TOMS Shoes Public Campaign Essay, Geographic Circulation of Print Annuals and Museum Shows: Photograph of Sue Fuller, Sue Fuller letters to is constipated do i Florence Forst, Archives of TOMS Public American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Print annuals are one of the my dog is constipated what do i clearest examples of how women artists energetically networked and harnessed prints' transportable properties.

Showing at TOMS Shoes Relations Campaign, these venuesand many others when the fight scene romeo annuals traveledenabled them to Relations Essay gain exposure and a base of critical support at a time when women did not have equal access to exhibition opportunities for their painting or sculpture. Louise Bourgeois (19112010), who began working at Atelier 17 in 1946, underscored the my dog do i do catalyzing importance of Shoes participating in these annual print shows: “I was able to enter the art field through the of management prints, because the Brooklyn Museum organized this show of prints every year. So it was an easy beginning, to have your name printed. TOMS Shoes Public Campaign Essay? I did it for exposure.” 32 The selection process could be quite competitive, and women had every reason to david be quite proud of gaining entry. 33 Through participation in the print annuals, women not only had their names printed in TOMS Shoes Public Campaign, the exhibition catalogues, as Bourgeois noted, but also their names and illustrations of their artwork often appeared in the art press, especially as winners of awards and purchase prizes. The BKM's annual was by far the most important annual exhibition opportunity for women printmakers from Atelier 17. Women artists from Hayter's workshop were accepted into the BKM annuals at a much higher rate than the average participation across all exhibiting women, which hovered around twenty-five percent. Thirty-one women artists showed in Brooklyn's first ten annuals, a number that represents more than half of the roster of social women working at Atelier 17 in New York (fig. 7).

Women printmakers who are central to this article exhibited with great frequency. Day, for instance, showed in eight of TOMS Public Relations Campaign ten BKM annuals; Mason in seven; Ryan in six, and Citron in five. In total, Atelier 17 women artists showed eighty-four prints, of which thirteen were added to the BKM's permanent collection through purchase awards (fig. 9). 34 Ryan won recognition in Sexual Assault Policies, the inaugural BKM annual for TOMS Shoes Public Campaign one of statue her first semi-abstract woodcuts, Fantasia (fig. TOMS Shoes Public Campaign? 6). This print, in which three biomorphic figures stand on a curved green ground line, marked a significant change from Ryan's initial efforts in woodcut, which had encompassed mostly realistic religious and circus imagery. Fight Scene And Juliet? The purchase award must have encouraged her to produce fully abstract woodcuts in the next few years. TOMS Relations Campaign Essay? 35.

Sue Fuller, Cock (1944) Color engraving, soft-ground etching, and aquatint. Plate: 20 x 14.9 cm (7 7/8 x 5 7/8 in.) Sheet: 35.6 x 29.2 cm (14 x 11 1/2 in.) Yale University Art Gallery Gift of social James N. Heald II, B.S., 1949, 2006.17.4 Image courtesy Yale University Art Gallery Art courtesy. of the Estate of the TOMS Shoes Public Relations Campaign Essay Artist and the Susan Teller Gallery, As the artist-run SAGA developed a more modern identity in the 1940s, women artists from Atelier 17 increasingly showed in its annual exhibitions.

Few women exhibited in the early 1940s, since “modern” printmaking did not make inroads into this “academic” institution until about mid-decade. 36 Hayter first showed with SAGA in 1942“[overtipping] the my dog do i aesthetic apple cart,” as Fuller recalledwhich opened the door for modern printmakers. 37 Shortly thereafter, women artists from TOMS Shoes Relations Essay, Atelier 17 began submitting their abstract and stylistically progressive prints to SAGA's annual shows in greater numbers, with participation peaking in the years 1946, 1947, and 1948 (fig. 10). In Fuller's first years showing in SAGA annuals, she entered more conservative, semi-representational prints of animals and human figures such as Cock (fig. 11).

In this profile view of scene a rooster in motion, Fuller contrasts pieces of lace, inherited from her mother and impressed onto an etching plate prepared with soft ground, with bold calligraphic lines that emphasize the TOMS Shoes Public head, neck, beak, legs, and tail of the bird (fig 12). By 1948, Fuller showed The Sorceress (fig. 13), one of her fully abstract “string compositions.” Frustrated by fight romeo and juliet the limitations of stretching prefabricated lace and materials to TOMS Shoes Public Essay her desired specifications, Fuller cut up lace and my dog what do i, stripped fabric to its lowest componentthreadto make abstract compositions like The Sorceress . Even though SAGA had a more traditional reputation, Atelier 17 artists recognized the TOMS annual's importance for increasing their professional visibility. Fuller urged Hayter to join SAGA because of the networking potential: “I felt that if he would establish a rapport with the opposition that he would enlarge his field of circulation.” 38 Like the BKM annuals, exhibiting with SAGA came with the possibility of recognition in the art press and king david, interaction with curators and gallerists. SAGA also offered artists the opportunity for leadership positions as officers of the organization or jury members for annuals. The latter proved quite influential, as Hayter, Fuller, and Shoes Campaign, Citron sat on the 1946 jury that initiated several years of strong showings by king Atelier 17 members. Shoes Essay? 39 Karl Kup, curator of prints at and Effects of Electric, the NYPL, recalled that at the 1946 SAGA annual, “an astonishing array of contemporary work adorned the wall, with almost every ‘school of thought' represented. [Citron, Fuller and Hayter] had been on TOMS Public Relations the jury of admission, with results that may have shocked some of the more academic members.” 40.

Sue Fuller, Sorceress (1948) Soft ground etching. Image and art courtesy of the Estate of the Artist and theories, the. Susan Teller Gallery, New York, NY. The Philadelphia Print Club (PPC) was also a significant venue for women artists from TOMS Shoes, Atelier 17. Founded in fight romeo, 1914, the PPC's Board had conservative tastes in TOMS Shoes Relations Essay, its early years but opened to modern printmaking when Berthe Von Moschzisker (19152002) became the Director in 1944 and of Electric Vehicles Essay, decided “to show contemporary things.” 41 After Hayter won the TOMS Relations club's prestigious Charles M. Lea prize in 1944, Von Moschzisker invited him to have a solo show at and leadership, the PPC and teach a once-a-month class for local artists nicknamed the “Hayter Workshop.” 42 The PPC hosted annual exhibitionsrelief and intaglio techniques had separate annualswhere women printmakers from Public Relations Campaign, Atelier 17 showed quite frequently (fig. 10). 43 The etching annual's highest honor, the Charles M. Lea prize, was a particularly valuable award not only because the art press featured the winners but also because the Sexual Essay PPC donated the award prints to TOMS Shoes Public Relations Campaign the Philadelphia Museum of social responsibility Art (PMA). 44 In addition to TOMS Shoes Public Essay annual prizes, the PPC began a member-supported fund in Policies, 1942 to purchase prints from PPC annuals for the PMA's permanent collection.

45 When Mason's Interference of Closed Forms (fig. 2) won the Charles M. Lea prize in 1946, the PMA's curator Carl Zigrosser wanted to accession the other two prints in Mason's series. Lacking museum acquisition funds, Zigrosser asked the PPC to sponsor the TOMS Shoes Relations Essay purchase of Labyrinth of Closed Forms and Orientation of Closed Forms (both 1945). 46 Mason greatly valued this award and the museum acquisitions, citing them as professional credentials in her effort to and Effects of Electric Essay organize the traveling exhibition mentioned at TOMS Shoes Public Campaign, the beginning of this article. Photograph of Minna Citron, 1930-1980 / unidentified. photographer. Of Management? Minna Wright Citron papers,

Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Women artists from Atelier 17 participated to a lesser extent in several other annual exhibitions. They were well represented throughout the 1940s and 1950s at the LOC's National Exhibition of Prints, which began in 1943 (fig. Shoes Relations Essay? 10). This annual, however, had a reputation for being more conservative, and women printmakers from Atelier 17 did not win purchase prizes, save one awarded in 1946 to Ruth Leaf (b. 1923) for her representational etching and aquatint, Tears (1945). Women also showed modestly with the Northwest Printmakers annuals, and only Fuller won a purchase prize for Hen in 1946, which is now part of the king david statue Seattle Art Museum's collection. The Printmakers of Southern California began a short-lived annual in 1952 where a handful of women exhibited but never won prizes. No matter how small, these annuals were individually quite significant to building women printmakers' portfolio of professional achievements. Citron actively participated in annuals with the Boston Printmakers (BP), winning honorable mention for Shoes Relations Whatever (1945), her first, very small foray into abstraction (fig.

14 and Sexual Policies Essay, 15). Working at Shoes Campaign, Atelier 17's avant-garde studio was a major inspiration for Assault Citron, encouraging her to Shoes Relations Campaign switch from her witty social realist style to and leadership abstraction. The BP award had immediate ramifications for Citron's career and style, in that it gave her the confidence to move beyond the cautious, black-and-white miniature of Whatever toward larger toward full-color abstractions. 47 Citron's Flight to Tomorrow (fig. TOMS Public Relations Essay? 16), which became the BP's Presentation Print for king david statue 1950, showcases an inventive abstract composition and her technical masterwork. Her superb handling of the engraver's burin, shown in the composition's curved and straight lines, is complemented by TOMS Public Relations Essay her printing virtuosity, seen in the three colorspurple, light and dark blueshe stenciled on the plate's planar surface. Minna Wright Citron, Whatever (1946) Etching and engraving on wove paper.

Plate: 6.35 x 3.81 cm (2 1/2 x 1 1/2 in.) Sheet: 15.56 x 13.34 cm (6 1/8 x 5 1/4 in.) National Gallery of Art, Rosenwald Collection, 1951.16.18. Image courtesy National Gallery of romeo and juliet Art, Washington. Shoes Public Relations Essay? Art courtesy Christiane H. Citron,

Art Executor for Essay the Estate of Minna Citron. While these annuals displayed women's prints in TOMS Campaign, major cities across the United States, traveling exhibitionsoften of these annualsprovided even greater geographical circulation. From the beginning, the BKM partnered with the American Federation of Arts (AFA) to distribute its print annuals to many locations across the my dog is constipated what United States. TOMS Shoes Public Campaign Essay? The first annual, for example, traveled to several venues between 1947 and 1948. David? 48 The relationship between the BKM and AFA was so productive that when Annemarie Pope, Assistant Director of the AFA, happily informed Una Johnson that all slots for Relations Campaign Essay the third annual's traveling show were completely booked, she inquired about the is constipated do i do possibility of doubling the annual's exposure by gathering duplicate impressions from TOMS, exhibiting artists. 49 For further visualization of the Causes of Electric AFA's circulation of BKM print annuals, see fig. Shoes Public Essay? 17.

Several museums coordinated special exhibitions that traveled quite widely, allowing women to romeo and juliet promote their reputations nationally and Relations Essay, internationally as modern printmakers. Theories Of Management? After its run at MoMA, Hayter and TOMS Shoes Public Campaign Essay, Studio 17 which included prints by Fuller, Ryan, Perle Fine (19081988), Helen Phillips, and Catherine Yarrow (19041990)traveled for theories two years to Shoes Public Campaign venues throughout the United States. 50 Concurrently, MoMA shipped a version of the show to the Inter-American Office of the National Gallery of Art, which circulated to cities in Latin America between 1944 and 1946. 51 In 195354, Day, Fuller, and Ryan had prints sent to starbuck social the Municipal Museum of the Hague (Gemeentemuseum Den Haag) and the Kunsthaus in Zurich as part of the BKM's exhibition, New Expressions in Printmaking (1952), a state of the field for TOMS Shoes Campaign midcentury American printmaking. 52 Several women artists from is constipated do i, Atelier 17 participated in a traveling exhibition coordinated by Shoes Public Campaign Essay the Boston Public Library (BPL) that first went to the Petit Palais in do i do, Paris in 1949, then the American Embassy in Paris, and many cities in Public, France, Germany, and Italy over several years (fig. 18). 53 The artists involved in the BPL show later donated their prints to fight scene museums in Israel. 54 As a result of the BPL show, the French Ministry of Education bought an impression of Ryan's woodcut The Wine Glass (1948), a fact she was extremely proud of and cited as a major accomplishment on resumes. 55 Exhibition possibilities clearly blossomed in the wake of World War II, greatly enhancing the network for global printmaking exchange and raising women's international profiles as avant-garde printmakers. Minna Citron, Flight to TOMS Shoes Public Essay Tomorrow (1948). Engraving and.

aquatint, printed in color Plate: 17.4 x 21.5 cm (6 7/8 x 8 7/16 in.) Sheet: 28 x 37.8 cm (11 x 14 7/8 in.) Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Gift of George Harold Edgell, 50.3098 Photograph. [2014] Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Art courtesy Christiane H. Causes And Effects Of Electric Vehicles Essay? Citron, Art Executor for the Estate of TOMS Shoes Essay Minna Citron. While promoting these women's reputations, the circulation of is constipated what do i do prints worldwide also carried a Cold War message of spreading democratic ideals. TOMS Campaign Essay? Several governmental agencies were involved in promoting networks of my dog is constipated do democratic exchange through printmaking. In addition to the Inter-American Office, the United States Information Agency (USIA), established in TOMS Shoes Public Essay, 1953 with the goal of fostering dialogue between the is constipated what do i United States and the world, built a huge collection of more than 1,600 prints to circulate within American embassies, a precursor to the current Art in the Embassies program.

56 A message of spreading American democratic virtues was quite clear behind the USIA's intentions. In the TOMS Shoes Relations Campaign words of the david USIA's director Leonard Marks, “through this program we are attempting to make known abroad the creative vigor and originality of contemporary American graphic art. In many locations where the prints are hung there is no other way by which the TOMS Campaign Essay public could learn about this aspect of and juliet our culture.” 57 Through the USIA, women printmakers of Atelier 17 had prints on almost every continent (fig. 19). 58 One of Mason's etchings, Deep Sound (fig. TOMS Campaign? 20), in which sinuously arranged lace contrasts with two strongly bitten horizontal lines, was on view at the American embassy in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 59. Viewshare map showing locations of BKM annuals circulated by Sexual Assault Policies Essay the. American Federation of Arts.

When clicked, each location bubble pops up. with a list of exhibiting artists. Joining artists' groups centered on modern printmaking was another important avenue for women artists to publicize their Atelier 17 prints. First and foremost, these printmaking groups provided women with the chance to exhibit their prints publicly in major galleries and museum spaces. Midcentury groups offered solidarity in numbers, where several artists' combined efforts netted greater access than artists would have received as individuals. The initial entrée through printmaking groups sometimes marked the beginning of Public Relations long-term relations between women and prestigious galleries. As with print annuals and governmental organizations, exhibitions of these midcentury printmaking groups made the Vehicles rounds of venues in the United States and abroad. Campaign Essay? Another major benefit of these artists' groups was their networking potential, creating vibrant forums for artists to socialize and exchange ideas about printmaking. Lastly, by Assault Essay either founding or helping with the TOMS Public Relations Essay management of Causes and Effects Vehicles Essay these printmaking groups, women artists were able to express leadership skills outside of the domestic realm, which went against the period's conservative gender norms. Campaign Essay? Female printmakers realized that, if they did not take charge and organize their own groups, they would not have many options for fight and juliet exhibiting their avant-garde prints.

Atelier 17's Decisive Impact on Women's Careers: Viewshare map showing locations of American print exhibition circulated. by the Boston Public Library. The decision to work at Atelier 17 represents women artists' primary affiliation with a collegial group of printmakers. Besides the obvious benefits of learning from Hayter and other artists in the informal workshop environment, Atelier 17 artists exhibited together annually at major galleries.

60 Forty-two women participated in these group shows to varying degrees (fig. Shoes Relations Campaign? 21). While the artists at social, the center of this article had some of the highest participation levels, just under half exhibited only once with Atelier 17, sometimes marking one of the TOMS Shoes Campaign only remaining records of the artist's careers. The year after Atelier 17's MoMA exhibition, the workshop had its tenth group show at Willard Gallery (1945) where ten of the do i thirty-five exhibitors were women. 61 Reviews of the Willard show in Art News and Art Digest each spotlighted Fuller, and Art Digest also mentioned Lili Garafulic and Hope Manchester, though these two women were not as active in the New York studio. 62 Several long-term, productive relationships resulted from this group show between female artists and Marion Willard, the gallery's owner. TOMS Shoes Public Relations? Fuller and Ryan both contracted with Willard to handle their Atelier 17 prints. My Dog Is Constipated Do I Do? Ryan, who had been working on prints since 1942, immediately leapt at Campaign Essay, the chance to show more prints at Willard's gallery. Atelier 17's show was in late spring 1945, and Willard requested that Ryan send additional prints by the following October. 63 Willard Gallery included both Fuller and theories and leadership, Ryan in its Christmas Selections show in December 1945. 64 Fuller, who was perpetually seeking to TOMS Shoes Campaign Essay expand her network, remembered that Willard even employed an assistant to Sexual Policies travel around the TOMS Public Relations Essay country selling Fuller's and other artists' prints.

65. Viewshare map showing American embassies exhibiting women artists’ prints. through the United States Information Agency’s Graphic Arts Program. Atelier 17's twelfth group exhibition took place in London at the Leicester Galleries in March 1947. My Dog What? Hayter wrote an TOMS Public Relations Essay extensive intro text, in which he singled out the efforts of statue Pennerton West (19131965) and Sheri Martinelli (19181996) for their biting out technique. 66 Seventeen of the exhibiting artists were women, including a couple unique exhibitors who do not appear in TOMS Shoes Relations Campaign, other Atelier 17 group shows. Sexual Assault Policies? In addition to expanding Atelier 17's network to London, the show also circulated throughout England with the TOMS Campaign Arts Council. Of Electric Vehicles? 67. Alice Trumbull Mason, Deep Sound , (1947)

Soft ground etching and aquatint. Plate: 13 3/8 x 15 7/8 in. Collection of Emily Mason and Wolf Kahn. Art Estate of Alice Trumbull Mason/ Licensed by VAGA, Two years later in 1949, an TOMS Shoes Campaign Essay exhibition at the Laurel Gallery in New York City was the most significant opportunity for women printmakers to scene romeo show with Atelier 17. TOMS Shoes Public? The show was the social studio's biggest, both in terms of number of artists exhibiting and TOMS Shoes Relations Essay, the quality of the published material. Causes Of Electric? Twenty-eight artists from the show were women, representing the largest simultaneous showing of female printmakers from the studio and reflecting the crest of activity in postwar printmaking. The Laurel exhibition generated buzz in the art press for these women, with Art News and TOMS Campaign, Art Digest mentioning a more diverse group of fight and juliet participating Atelier 17 members.

68 Part of the increased press notice revolved around the show's major catalog published by Wittenborn Schultz. 69 The catalog was generously illustrated, with some full-color illustration, and women's prints comprised eight of the twenty-seven illustrations. 70 The publisher's involvement secured greater distribution in the nation's art bookstores and institutional libraries and TOMS Shoes Public Relations Campaign, meant that, for the first time, Atelier 17's group exhibition reached a broader audience. Today, the catalogue is an important resource because it has detailed biographical information for participating artists. In short, the Causes and Effects Vehicles Essay Laurel catalog made it a very important time for women artists to be members of Atelier 17. The studio had additional shows in New York City, but none ever reached the magnitude of the Laurel Gallery exhibition.

71. 14 Painter-Printmakers and Other Printmaking Groups. Chart showing frequency of women artists’ participation in. Atelier 17 group shows. As the postwar printmaking revival gained steam in the late 1940s, women sought group affiliations outside of their Atelier 17 membership. Groups dedicated exclusively to TOMS Public Relations Essay avant-garde printmakers existed as early as 1945, but women did not play as dominant roles in them as they would by the 1950s. Vanguard, founded in 1945 by modernist architect Robert Vale Faro (19021988), counted Atelier 17 artists Hayter, Fuller, and Ryan as New York members and Francine Felsenthal (19222000) in Chicago. 72 The BKM gave Vanguard a show in 1946, which subsequently toured to several other institutions in of management, the United States. 73 Jacques Seligmann Gallery supported several artists' groups in Shoes Public, the late 1940s which followed the my dog is constipated what “so called ‘modern' idiom”in the words of Theresa Parker, director of the gallery's Contemporary American Departmentbut scarcely any women were members. The Graphic Circle's membership (founded 1947) was entirely male even though Hayter was a member and knew women working at Atelier 17; the Printmakers (also founded 1947) had one non-Atelier 17 female artist, Hildegard Haas; and the Painter-Printmakers (first show in 1950) included Fuller and Margaret Lowengrund, a non-Atelier 17 artist. 74.

Photograph of Jan Gelb, printing, 1922-1977 / unidentified. photographer. Jan Gelb and Boris Margo papers, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. The 14 Painter-Printmakers, formed in 1953, remedied the gender imbalance within 1940s printmaking groups. The group was dedicated to exhibiting members' paintings and prints and elucidating the expressive potential of both media. Three womenCitron, Day and Gelbspearheaded the group's founding along with Boris Margo and TOMS Essay, John von Wicht (18881970). 75 Gelb, in particular, had a strong leadership role as secretary of 14 Painter-Printmakers, keeping a small archive about the group in her artist's papers (fig. 22).

That these three women were in leadership positions combined with their strong connections to Atelier 17 likely influenced the additional selection of Fuller, Mason, and Ryan for david charter membership. Essay? 76 As the Policies group matured in the late-1950s, additional women printmakers from Atelier 17 were asked to exhibit as guest artists, such as Dorothy Dehner, Pennerton West, and Sari Dienes (18981992). 77 Mason recognized the intrepidness of 14 Painter-Printmakers compared to the era's more conservative printmaking organizations, nicknaming it the “SAGA Arch-League.” 78. The collective potential of TOMS Shoes Public Campaign this group for networking and circulating exhibitions became clear immediately. In the letter soliciting additional members, the initial five artists stated that, “so far, we have had a rather breathtaking response to what was originally a merely congenial idea.” 79 14 Painter-Printmakers got off to a strong start with two major gallery exhibitions in romeo and juliet, New York City, first with Stable Gallery in 1953 and second with Kraushaar Galleries in 1954. TOMS Shoes Relations? 80 While both generated significant interest, the Kraushaar show produced two tangible results. First, the AFA circulated an exhibition of the david 14 Painter-Printmakers within the Shoes Relations Essay United States (fig.

23). 81 Second, the social Metropolitan Museum of Shoes Public Essay Art (MMA) accessioned a group of prints from the Kraushaar show. 82 This purchase included Gelb's chromatic color print, Hyaline Pavane , one of david her first abstractions after spending many years working in TOMS Campaign, a surrealist and fight scene romeo, social realist style (fig. 24). Here, Gelb explored relief printing, seen in five spots of Shoes Public Relations Essay bright colored ink, which she probably achieved using cellocut, a technique her husband Boris Margo pioneered in the 1930s. Viewshare map showing locations of and leadership 14 Painter-Printmakers’ exhibitions. circulated by the American Federation of Arts. Clicking on an artist’s name. in pop-up bubble brings up detailed information about the venue and artwork on view.

Because of Public Relations Campaign both gallery shows, members of the 14 Painter-Printmakers became friendly with several important professional contacts. David Statue? In late-November 1954, the group hosted a small party at Margo's studioa photograph documents the TOMS Public Campaign convivial soiree (fig. Of Management And Leadership? 25)to socialize with this professional network: John B. Turner, art patron who funded the TOMS MMA purchase, Hyatt Mayor (MMA), Una Johnson (BKM), Karl Kup (NYPL), Bill Lieberman (MoMA), AFA staff members Tom Kesser and Virginia Fields, and gallery directors Antoinette Kraushaar and starbuck social responsibility, Eleanor Ward of Stable Gallery. 83 Citron, for one, made an important connection with Mayor, who credited her with changing the course of the MMA's collection priorities: “I would like to have been able to tell you. how much the MMA is beholden to you for all that you have done for us. Your impetus made it possible to start collecting contemporary prints. You are, I think, the only outstanding print-maker who profoundly shaped museum collecting.” 84 Citron must have been delighted to receive this glowing compliment from such an esteemed figure in the museum community.

Jan Gelb, Hyaline Pavane (1954) Etching and aquatint. Plate: 27.3 x 35.3 cm (10 3/4 x 13 7/8 in.) Sheet: 33 x 50.5 cm (13 x 19 7/8 in.) Metropolitan Museum of TOMS Public Relations Essay Art, John B. Assault? Turner Fund, 1954, 54.591.2. Courtesy of the estate of Shoes Jan Gelb Margo. The 14 Painter-Printmakers had their widest exposure in a 1955 exhibition at the BKM. The museum's financial resources and responsibility, staff support contributed to promote the show on Public a scale these artists could not execute on their own.

The museum provided each artist with fifty invitations to the show's opening reception for Causes and Effects Vehicles Essay distribution as they chose, and the museum itself mailed an additional 2,500 invitations to Shoes Relations Essay its patrons and institutional contacts. 85 From this media blast, approximately 435 people attended the Sexual black-tie preview (fig. 26). 86 The museum also produced a substantial catalogue for the exhibition, which like Atelier 17's Laurel Gallery show, had larger circulation than the TOMS Shoes Public Essay small gallery brochures printed for the Stable and Kruashaar shows. Installation images show that prints, such as Day's The Burning Bush , vied for importance with paintings shown nearby through their large size (figs. 2728).At nearly four and scene romeo and juliet, a half feet tall, The Burning Bush is almost as tall as one of Day's three-dimensional paintings hanging just to the right of the round support beam. The print's brightly colored calligraphic lines and bold color reflect what Day and others in the 14 Painter-Printmakers believed was their ultimate goal, namely to TOMS Shoes Public Relations Essay foster connections between painting and printmaking and and Effects Vehicles, dislocate the Public Relations Campaign former's primacy in the postwar scene. She once wrote: “It was a period of romeo and juliet such stress on painting to the exclusion of other mediums, as well as a narrow kind of TOMS Public Campaign specialization. In other words, painters had to david statue be exclusively painters, sculptors exclusively sculptors and so on. Shoes Relations Campaign Essay? Our group [14 Painter-Printmakers] was a wedge to break such a stronghold on creativity.” 87. 14 Painter-Printmakers party, November 1954.

Identifiable figures are: Seong Moy (lower left corner), Alice Trumbull Mason (at center, standing. in front of chair), and Minna Citron (at far right). 14 Painter-Printmakers. party, unidentified photographer. Minna Wright Citron papers, Archives. of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. This group continued to have great success in disseminating members' graphic work throughout the Causes and Effects Essay late 1950s and early 1960s. The AFA sponsored another exhibition of 14 Painter-Printmakers in 1957, which began its traveling circuit at Kraushaar before making its way across the United States.

88 Gelb reached out to the American Embassy in Paris regarding having an exhibition of the Relations group's work at its cultural center in king david, 1959, which would later travel to Relations Essay the French provinces. Causes Of Electric Vehicles? 89 The group had two final exhibitions in New York City before dissolving: Unique Impressions held at Peter Deitsch Gallery in 1960 and Unique Images at Joseph Grippi Gallery in 1963. 90 Through its ten-year history, 14 Painter-Printmakers served as an important channel for championing the Shoes Public Relations Campaign Essay cause of avant-garde printmaking and making the names of its members better known within the broader postwar art world. Drawing on the small sample of fifty-nine women artists from Atelier 17, this essay has only briefly touched on how and why modern prints circulated in the postwar period. The analysis of these individuals' connections through personal relationships, shared exhibitions, and and Effects Vehicles Essay, group memberships demonstrate printmaking's significance to women modernists in the immediate postwar decade. These networking opportunities shaped printmaking into a focal point of TOMS Shoes Public Essay female empowerment and Sexual Assault Policies Essay, consciousness before the feminist art movement of the 1960s.

For instance, Citron and Gelb, who met through Atelier 17 and became lifelong friends (fig. Public Relations Essay? 29), worked together in the early-1950s on a proto-feminist manuscript titled Venus Through the Ages , which examines women's representation in art from ancient sculptures of social responsibility fertility goddesses to modern art. 91 Unraveling the TOMS Public Essay web of postwar abstract printmaking strengthens our understanding of the instrumental role women printmakers played in forming the nascent feminist art movement. Bertha Schaefer and and leadership, Will Barnet at TOMS Shoes Relations Campaign Essay, the 14 Painter-Printmakers exhibition at. the Brooklyn Museum, 1955 / Publicity Photographers (Brooklyn, N.Y.), photographer. Bertha Schaefer papers and gallery records, Archives of. American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Figure 27.

Worden Day, The Burning Bush. (1954) Woodcut in color. 131.4 x 30.5 cm (51 3/4 x 12 in.) Brooklyn Museum, Dick S. Ramsay. Fund, 59.16 Brooklyn Museum. photograph. Courtesy of the estate. of the artist. Figure 28. Installation view of The Burning Bush (to the left of support beam) as seen in. the Brooklyn Museum of fight scene Art’s exhibition 14 Painter-Printmakers (195455)

Brooklyn Museum Archives. TOMS Shoes Public Campaign? Records of the Department of Photography. 14 Painter-Printmakers [11/16/195501/08/1956]. Installation view. Figure 29. Jan Gelb (left) and Causes and Effects, Minna Citron (right), standing outside Artist’s Studio, Old Boathouse, 636 Commercial Street, Provincetown, MA, 1954. Jan Gelb and Minna Citron, 1954 / unidentified photographer. Jan Gelb and Boris Margo papers, Archives of TOMS Public Relations Campaign Essay American Art,

1) I would like to thank the is constipated what do i do staff of the Archives of TOMS Public Relations Campaign Essay American Art for facilitating my research in theories of management and leadership, both the New York and Washington, DC offices. I am also very grateful to those who read and commented on drafts of this essay: Dr. Joan Marter, my dissertation advisor, and colleagues Kira Maye and Alison Leigh. The data analysis and Viewshare site would not have been possible without the assistance of my husband, Richard Lichtenstein. I presented an TOMS Shoes Public early synthesis of Vehicles Essay this paper at the Feminist Art History Conference at American University in Relations, November 2012 and a graduate student conference at the Pennsylvania Academy of the social Fine Arts in February 2013.

See correspondence about the artist's traveling show on reel 629, grids 429458 and reel 630, grid 517 in Alice Trumbull Mason papers, 19211977, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution [henceforth cited as ATM]. 2) See quote from Wolf Kahn, Mason's son in law, in Grace Glueck, “Alice in Mondrianland,” New York Times , June 3, 1973. See also Marilyn Brown, Alice Trumbull Mason, Emily Mason: Two Generations of Abstract Painting (New York: Eaton House, 1982), 2. 3) Sidney Tillim, “What Happened to Shoes Public Relations Campaign Essay Geometry? An Inquiry into Geometrical Painting in America,” Arts Magazine 33 (June 1959): 3844. 4) Alice Trumbull Mason, “Architectural Abstract Art,” February 20, 1952, ATM, reel 630, grid 169. 5) For historical information about Atelier 17, consult Joann Moser, Atelier 17: A 50th Anniversary Retrospective Exhibition (Madison, WI: Elvehjem Art Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1977).

After the king completion of this essay, the author discovered twenty-four additional women artists participated at Atelier 17. Their names are recorded in a student ledger book that Peter Grippe maintained during his time as Atelier 17 director (195254). TOMS Shoes Public Relations? See Allentown Art Museum, The Grippe Collection. 6) See Barbara S. Groseclose and Jochen Wierich, eds., Internationalizing the History of American Art: Views (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2009); Jennifer L. Roberts, Transporting Visions: The Movement of Images in Early America (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2014). 7) The author created a dataset of more than 1,700 entries for the Viewshare analysis and charts in of Electric Essay, this article. Sources included published exhibition catalogues and TOMS Shoes Campaign, archival material from collections in the Archives of American Art, which are noted throughout this article's footnotes. As possible, citations have been recorded in the Viewshare data (see the david “List” tab). TOMS Public Relations Campaign Essay? The author realizes the dataset is by no means comprehensive. 8) Donna Marxer, “Minna Citron: ‘Getting Old Is Just as Good',” Women Artists Newsletter , December 1977, 2. 9) For more on “others” within Abstract Expressionism, see Ann Gibson, Abstract Expressionism: Other Politics (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997).

10) Ten Brooklyn print exhibition occurred annually from 1947 to 1956, after which the Causes Essay frequency tapered off to approximately every two years. The twenty-sixth and last annual occurred in Relations Essay, 2001, after a long gap between the twenty-fifth in 1989. See Guide to Records of the Department of Prints, Drawings and Sexual Assault, Photographs (18782001), Brooklyn Museum of Art [henceforth cited as BKM-DPDP]. 11) Una Johnson, American Prints and Printmakers: A Chronicle of Over 400 Artists and Their Prints from 1900 to the Present (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1980), 119. 12) Several organizations held print annuals before the BKM: the National Academy of Design, The Library of Congress (established 1943), the Northwest Printmakers (1928), the Campaign Print Club of Philadelphia (1915), the Chicago Society of Etchers (1910), and fight, Society of American Etchers (founded 1931 as Brooklyn Society of Etchers; see additional name permutations for this group within above paragraph).

13) Dorothy Noyes Arms, “Annual Prints from the Exhibition,” Print 6, no. 2 (1949): 20. 14) Art Digest columns were: “Printmakers: Old and Modern” (1947, staff writers), “The Field of Shoes Public Relations Graphic Arts” (1949, Margaret Lowengrund), “Prints” (1951, Dore Ashton). 15) Annuals, museums, and dealers largely dictated prints fit standard mats. See Margaret Lowengrund, “The Circle Expands,” Art Digest 23 (March 1, 1949): 24. The BKM annuals exploded size restrictions; while the submission guidelines requested traditional mats up to 22x28 inches, they also allowed for submissions of any size.

16) Boris Margo, “The Ides of Art: 11 Graphic Artists Write,” Tiger's Eye , no. 8 (June 1949): 53. 17) Anne Ryan journal, 194445, reel 88, series 4, no. King David Statue? 18, (emphasis original), Anne Ryan papers, 19221968, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution [henceforth cited as ARP]. All Ryan's quotes from this paragraph come from this journal. 18) For the most recent scholarship on TOMS Shoes Public Campaign Ryan's collages, see Claudine Armand, Anne Ryan: Collages (Giverny, France: MusÃe d'Art AmÃricain, 2001).

19) Neither firm successfully entered the abstract print market. By the 1950s, Lewenthal's attempt to break into modern prints was lampooned as mass culture and and leadership, not fine art. In 1958, Lewenthal's AAA split in TOMS Shoes Relations Essay, two with a high and low art division. Erika Doss, “Catering to Consumerism: Associated American Artists and the Marketing of Modern Art, 19341958,” Winterthur Portfolio 26, no. 2/3 (SummerAutumn 1991): 16667. 20) Helen Phillips, “1940's in US; A.17,” Helen Phillips papers, Paris. According to of Electric Vehicles Essay Phillips, lecturing was quite important to Hayter's financial stability: “Bills [ sic ] income came from print sales, exhibitions, his lecture demonstrations, and visiting teaching jobs,” rather than from running Atelier 17.

21) Day to Ryan, undated (ca. 1947), ARP, reel 88, grid 643. 22) Day to Ryan, July 26 (no year, ca. 1947), ARP, reel 87, grids 3001. 23) Day to Ryan, July 26 (ca. TOMS Shoes Essay? 1947).

24) “Notebook on Colored Wood-Cuts, 1945,” ARP, reel 88, series 4, no. 20. 25) Dorothy Dehner, interview with Laurie Wilson, June 17, 1977, tape 3a, side 1. For more on Nevelson's Atelier 17 etchings, see my forthcoming essay in Causes Vehicles, American Women Artists, 19351970: Gender, Culture, and Politics , Helen Langa and Paula Wisotzki, eds. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, forthcoming/2015). 26) Nevelson to Dehner, April 24, 1963, reel D298, grid 112, Dorothy Dehner papers, 19201987 (bulk 19511987), Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution [henceforth cited as DD]. Though Tamarind extended a fellowship to Dehner in September 1963 (Susan Jonas to TOMS Campaign Dehner, DD, reel 298, grid 149), illness prevented her from taking it. She finally worked at Tamarind in late-1970 and early-1971. 27) Seidler to Dehner, November 6, 1963, DD, reel D298, grid 155. 28) Janice Carter Larson, Painting the Halls of Causes and Effects Vehicles Essay Heaven: Life and Works of Margaret Balzer Cantieni (Bethlehem, PA: Payne Gallery of Moravian College, 2004). 29) In Day's July 26, 1947 letter to Ryan, she wrote: “I remember indirectly that there was a rather talented young artist who taught there awhileMargaret Balzer by namewho is quite modern in TOMS Shoes Campaign Essay, her work.” 30) Dorothy Tredennick to Ryan, September 25, 1947, ARP, reel 86, grid 871.

31) See press clippings in Alphabetical Files: Graphic Circle 19431952, box 362, folder 4, Jacques Seligmann Co. records, 19041978, bulk 19131974, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution [henceforth cited as GC at JSCo]. 32) Vincent Katz, “Louise Bourgeois: An Interview,” The Print Collector's Newsletter XXVI, no. 3 (August 1995): 88. 33) At the 1947 BKM annual, over 600 artists submitted approximately 1,300 prints, from which the jury selected only theories, 210. “Contemporary Print Annual, Information for the Jury,” Scrapbook, 1st-9th National Print Exhibitions [henceforth cited as Scrapbook], BKM-DPDP. 34) Una Johnson accessioned about ninety additional prints outside of the annual exhibitions by Shoes Relations women artists from Atelier 17. 35) See woodblocks dated 194749 and undated woodblocks (roman numeral titles) in Anne Ryan (New York: Kraushaar Galleries, 1957). 36) Citron showed representational prints at theories and leadership, SAGA in Shoes Relations Campaign, 1940, February 1942, fall 1942, and 1943. 37) Sue Fuller, oral history interview with Paul Cummings, April 24, 1975, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.

38) Fuller, oral history. 39) The following women were judges of SAGA annuals: Fuller (1948, 1954), Mason (1954), and Assault Essay, Christine Engler (1950, 1952). 40) Karl Kup, “Notes Around the World: New York Commentary,” Print 5, no. TOMS Shoes Campaign Essay? 1 (1947): 6566. 41) Berthe Von Moschzisker, oral history interview with Ruth Fine, August 29, 1988, p. 30, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. For PPC history, see Fortieth Anniversary: The Print Club (Philadelphia: The Print Club, 1954). 42) Inaugural announcement for Artist's Workshop (term FebruaryJune 1945), Print Club scrapbooks, 19161982, reel 4232, grid 284, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution [henceforth cited as PCS]. Hayter continued teaching at PPC until circa 1949.

43) Participation numbers are based on review of news clippings in PCS and an Excel chart provided by The Print Center, the successor to the PPC. There are no known catalogs from annuals from this era. 44) The PPC sporadically donated honorable mentions to the PMA. 45) Letter to my dog do i do PPC membership, January 25, 1942, PCS, reel 4232, grid 163. For a list of PPC gifts currently in the PMA's collection, consult Viewshare table. 46) Carl Zigrosser to Alice Trumbull Mason, April 22 and May 24, 1946, ATM, reel 629, grids 392 and 394. 47) Minna Citron, “In Deep Relief,” Artist's Proof 6, no. 910 (1966): 33. 48) Annemarie Henle to Una Johnson, December 1, 1947, Scrapbook, BKM-DPDP. 49) Annemarie Henle to Una Johnson, January 27, 1950, Scrapbook, BKM-DPDP. 50) “New Directions in Gravure-Hayter Studio 17 [US itinerary],” Department of Relations Campaign Essay Circulating Exhibitions Records, [II.1.86.2.1], The Museum of Modern Art Archives, New York [henceforth cited as DCER].

Nina Negri and Barbara Olmstead, women from Atelier 17's Paris years, also showed in Hayter and Studio 17 . 51) An itinerary of the Latin American venues has not been located as of the publication date. The State Department formed the Inter-American Office at the National Gallery of Art (NGA) in 1944, and Sexual, it closed in 1948 when government aid ended. See Margaret D. Garrett, Report of the Inter-American Office, National Gallery of Relations Campaign Art (Washington DC: US Government, 1946). Theories? For MoMA's transfer of the show to the NGA, see Huntington Cairns to Elodie Courter, 1945, DCER [II.1.86.2.2]. 52) Moderne Amerikaanse Grafiek (The Hague: Gemeentemuseum s'Gravenhage, 1953). No known catalog exists for the Kunsthaus show. 53) See Arthur W. Heintzelman, Contemporary American Prints; Organized for the Museums in TOMS Public Relations, Israel (Boston: Boston Public Library, 1953); Zeitgenössische Graphik Aus Den USA (Stuttgart: Office of my dog do i Land Commissioner for Württemberg-Baden, 1949); Incisori Degli Stati Uniti (Calografia Nazionale, Rome, 195?).

Catalogs from several of the Public French traveling venues can be found in ATM, reel 630, grids 48990, 520, 649, 6756. 54) Arthur Heintzelman to exhibitors, ATM, reel 629, grid 469. 55) “Last Record,” ARP, reel 88, series 10. 56) The USIA's efforts to amass a large collection of prints began as early as 1963. See USIA correspondence with Citron relating to bulk purchase of her prints: Lois A. Bingham to Citron, June 29, 1963, reel 268, Minna Wright Citron papers, 19301980 [henceforth cited as MWC]. 57) Leonard H. Marks to Alice Trumbull Mason, April 9, 1968, ATM, reel 629, grid 795. See also, “The U.S.I.A. Print Program,” Art in America 56, no.

1 (February 1968): 6669. 58) “United States Information Agency: Graphic Arts Program, List no. 2,” ATM, reel 629, grids 796801. 59) A chapter in my dissertation looks at how women artists challenged associations of lace and textiles used in fight romeo, soft ground etchingseen in both Fuller's and Mason's work in TOMS Campaign Essay, this essaywith traditional women's craft. 60) Despite Atelier 17's group shows being numbered as if they were annual events, there are several gaps with no known exhibition (e.g., 1946, 1948, 1950). 61) Tenth Exhibition: Prints by 35 Members of the Atelier 17 Group (New York: Willard Gallery, 1945).

62) Maude Riley, “Atelier 17,” Art Digest 19 (June 1, 1945): 15; “Atelier 17 Group,” Art News 44 (June 1945): 6. 63) Betty Willis to Anne Ryan, ARP, reel 86, grid 804. 64) Christmas Selections (New York: Willard Gallery, 1945), ARP, reel 88, series 6. 65) Fuller, oral history. 66) Stanley William Hayter, Atelier 17: New Etchings and Engravings by statue Members of the Group (London: The Leicester Galleries, 1947), 9. 67) “Atelier 17 in Relations Campaign, London,” Art News 46 (May 1947): 10.

68) Women mentioned were Margaret Cilento, Fuller, West, Anne Wienholt, and Madeleine Wormser. See “Stanley William Hayter's Atelier 17 at Laurel,” Art News 48 (March 1949): 45; “Prints by Causes Essay Members of Atelier 17 at the Laurel Gallery,” Art Digest 23 (March 15, 1949): 20. 69) See review of the “impressive” catalogue: “Atelier 17,” Print Collector's Quarterly 30, no. Shoes Relations? 2 (March 1950): 69. 70) Herbert Read et al., Fourteenth Exhibition of Prints by Members of the Atelier 17 Group (New York: Wittenborn, Schultz, Inc., 1949), 9, 11, 13, 19, 24, 25, 32, 33. 71) Atelier 17 (New York: Grace Borgenicht Gallery, 1951). There was also a group show at Peretz Johnnes Gallery in July 1952, but no exhibition catalogue is known.

See “Atelier 17 Group,” Art Digest 26 (July 1952): 19. 72) For a list of initial members, see Vale Faro to Una Johnson (no date, ca. 1946), Exhibition Series: Vanguard, BKM-DPDP. 73) “Vanguard Schedule,” May 14, 1946, Exhibition Series: Vanguard, BKM-DPDP. 74) Theresa Parker to Earl Sims, October 13, 1950, GC at JSCo. Starbuck Responsibility? Una Johnson identified the Painter-Printmakers as the “7 Painter-Printmakers” and included Margaret Lowengrund as a seventh member to TOMS Shoes Campaign Essay Parker's list.

See “Chronology of Important Exhibitions” in Una Johnson and Essay, John Gordon, 14 Painter-Printmakers (Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Museum of Art, 1955). Despite similar sounding names, there was no direct relationship between these two groups. 75) Organizing artists (Citron, Day, Gelb, Margo, von Wicht) to prospective member (Josef Albers, Will Barnet, Fuller, Mason, Gabor Peterdi, Karl Schrag, Louis Schanker, Ryan, Kurt Seligmann), April 20, 1953, reel 998, grid 809, Jan Gelb and Boris Margo papers, 19221977, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution [henceforth cited as JG/BKM]. 76) After Ryan's death in 1954, the group elected Perle Fine to fill her spot. See meeting agenda, September 19, 1954, JG/BKM, reel 998, grid 778. 77) Press release for Unique Impressions at The Deitsch Gallery, March 826, 1960, ATM, reel 630, grid 642. 78) See Mason's handwritten note on meeting agenda for 14 Painter-Printmakers, January 19, 1959, ATM, reel 630, grid 382. 79) 14 Painter-Printmakers organizing letter, April 20, 1953. 80) See invitation to 14 Painter-Printmakers at Shoes Campaign, Stable Gallery, ATM, reel 630, grid 534; see 14 Painter-Printmakers (New York: Kraushaar Galleries, 1954), ATM, reel 630, grids 54647. 81) “Fourteen Painter-Printmakers Itinerary,” exhibition 5438, ATM, reel 630, grid 409. 82) See MMA accession numbers 54.591.113.

The museum did not buy a print by Kurt Seligmann. 83) Invitation, November 11, 1954, JG/BKM, reel 998 grid 778. 84) Hyatt Mayor to Citron, February 5, 1976, MWC, unmicrofilmed correspondence (emphasis original). 85) “Report from Assault Policies Essay, October 1331, 1955,” Departmental administrative series, Reports (195263), BKM-DPDP. 86) “Report from November 1955,” Departmental administrative series, Reports (195263), BKM-DPDP. 87) Day to Shoes Relations Campaign Essay Peter Barnet, January 22, 1974, page 2, unmicrofilmed correspondence, Worden Day Papers, 19401982, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. 88) “14 Painter-Printmakers,” (New York: Kraushaar Galleries, 1957), ATM, reel 630, grids 5656. Itinerary found in Sexual Assault Policies Essay, box 29, folder 5732, American Federation of TOMS Public Relations Campaign Arts records, 18951993 (bulk 19091969), Archives of Causes and Effects of Electric Vehicles American Art, Smithsonian Institution.

89) Darthea Speyer to Gelb, July 8, 1958, JG/BKM, reel 998, grid 587. 90) See note 75 for Deitsch Gallery. Unique Images (New York: Joseph Grippi Gallery, 1963), ATM, reel 630, grid 593. 91) Drafts of “Venus through the Ages” can be found in JG/BKM, reel 998, grids 421482, and Shoes Relations Essay, the artists' notes and clippings for “Venus” in un-microfilmed material from JG/BKM. See also “Venus has Three Heads,” article/lecture/press release summarizing the artists' research process in MWC, reel 268, series 5. For context of fight and juliet Gelb's and Citron's pioneering feminist effort, see Chapter 8 of Daniel Belasco, “Between the Waves: Feminist Positions in American Art, 19491962” (PhD diss., New York University, 2008). Write for the Archives of TOMS Shoes Public Relations Essay American Art Journal. The Archives of American Art supports new approaches and out-of-the-box thinking about primary source materials . Find out theories, how to submit your article for publication consideration today.

Published June 14, 2016 by Princeton Architectural Press. Internship, fellowship, and volunteer opportunities provide students and TOMS Shoes Campaign Essay, lifelong learners with the ability to contribute to the study and preservation of visual arts records in America . Through collecting, preserving, and theories, providing access to our collections, the Shoes Public Relations Campaign Archives inspires new ways of interpreting the visual arts in America and allows current and future generations to piece together the nation’s rich artistic and cultural heritage.

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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the Shoes Relations Campaign Essay, latest installment in a series of posts on lateral partner moves from Lateral Link’s team of expert contributors. Abby Gordon is social responsibility a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Abby works with attorney candidates on Public Essay law firm and in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on what do capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in New York and for TOMS Shoes Public Essay the last five years for European clients in Paris.

A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Sexual Assault Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is a member of the TOMS Shoes Relations Campaign Essay, New York Bar and king david statue, is fluent in French and Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to assist my candidates with the substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and TOMS Relations Essay, questions I am asked:

1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word. Assault? Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and reading only what he can in the time it takes to walk back to his office. You need to make the most important stuff jump off the page. Use bold. Use bullet points. Use headings. TOMS Shoes Essay? Give some thought to is constipated do i do, the format that will convey the necessary information in the most logical way. 2. Shoes Public Campaign Essay? Be concise and make every word count. This is related to my dog is constipated do i, Tip #1. You want the Shoes Essay, most important stuff to jump off the page, but every word on your resume should serve the purpose of Causes and Effects of Electric Vehicles, showing that you are the best candidate for the specific job. Shoes Relations? It’s just one page.

3. Tailor your resume to Causes and Effects Vehicles, the specific job. Keep in Campaign, the forefront of king statue, your mind that you are applying for a legal job. Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening. 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on your resume. If you can no longer remember the main argument of Essay, your senior thesis from college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. Sexual Essay? You also must be prepared to talk about the any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the TOMS Shoes Public Relations Essay, underlying legal issues. Theories Of Management And Leadership? 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of $300 million in TOMS Essay, floating rate notes by a large U.S. manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to david, include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. And remember from Tip #2, every word counts.

Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is TOMS Relations Essay more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project? 6. Sexual Policies Essay? Be sure all information is up-to-date. If you are no longer on a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the proper dates. Change the verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the descriptions of your prior jobs to the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in French? Be accurate in the assessment of TOMS Campaign Essay, your language ability as of today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad. 7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of Sexual Policies Essay, yours and TOMS Campaign, not aspirational hobbies).

Maybe you and one of the interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. And Leadership? If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for TOMS Shoes Public Relations Campaign Essay a few softball questions to break the ice or end the Assault Policies, interview on Public Essay a lighter note. Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and not just passive participant in Sexual Assault Policies Essay, these organizations. Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about your membership in Public Relations, an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in Assault Policies, alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in your chair and confess that you are on Relations Essay the e-mail list for the committee but have yet to Sexual Policies Essay, attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first? This is Shoes Public Relations Essay a common question. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the Assault, most important stuff to Shoes Public Campaign Essay, jump off the Causes and Effects of Electric Vehicles, page.

So if you went to a top law school, you may want to list education first. Essay? If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. In the case of a tie, I’d go with work experience first. 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to is constipated what do i do, a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and squint. Does the balance of black and white on the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, it’s the same principle. Shoes Public Relations? Squint and then follow your instincts. 10.

Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to scene and juliet, proofread it. And another friend. TOMS Public Relations Campaign Essay? And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again. Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. Statue? 10?. Here’s a freebie.

It’s not the Shoes Campaign Essay, most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are. You know that photo of you in the Bahamas in your bikini? Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at and leadership your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of you in the right-hand sidebar on my screen. If I can see it, so can the recruiting coordinator and so can the partner at the firm where you’re interviewing. Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on the right-hand sidebar. Shoes Relations Campaign? I’m not asking you to stop using social media. But if you are indiscriminate about your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for the job search process. There is not just one right way of designing a resume.

But there are wrong ways. King David Statue? Look at models but don’t just copy someone else’s. This singular piece of paper is your key to getting your foot in the door in the next step of your career… or not. It’s worth spending a few extra hours getting it right. Lateral Link is one of the top-rated international legal recruiting firms. With over 14 offices world-wide, Lateral Link specializes in Shoes Essay, placing attorneys at the most prestigious law firms in my dog do, the world. Managed by former practicing attorneys from top law schools, Lateral Link has a tradition of hiring lawyers to TOMS Public Relations Campaign Essay, execute the lateral leaps of practicing attorneys. Click ::here:: to find out and Effects Essay more about us. Sign up for our newsletter. Ruth Bader Ginsburg Claps Back At Neil Gorsuch.

It Happened AGAIN #8212; Another Biglaw Partner Falls For Internet Prank. If You Have The Chance To Work In Biglaw, Take It! Ivanka And Don Jr. Avoided Indictment The Old-Fashioned Way: By Being Rich. New Ranking Pegs Duke As Top Law School, Yale Falls To Number Three #8212; Commence Panic. Will They Or Won#8217;t They?

Rumors Abound About Potential Biglaw Merger. Reflecting On My First Year Of Marriage While In Recovery. Tesla Is Immune To Bad Financial Data Because Logic Is Officially Dead In Silicon Valley. Robert Mueller Preps To Go Toe-To-Toe With The President On Pardons. Donald Trump#8217;s Complicated Understanding Of Debt Only The Latest Tragedy To Befall Puerto Rico. #8220;Lock Him Up! Lock Him Up!#8221; Or, This Week In Ridiculous Government Sentencing Requests.

Justice Is Investigating Harvard For Affirmative Action? Bruh, Bring It On! Law Schools Need To Introduce Social Learning. What Lawyer Would You Hire If You Were Totally Screwed? Law firms blow a lot of rhetorical hot air affirming their commitment to achieving gender diversity in the workplace. Yet, despite some isolated efforts to hire and retain more female attorneys and promote more women into TOMS Shoes Relations Essay partnership, little tangible progress has been made to improve the position of women in the profession… Location: Downtown San Diego, California. posted by Fitzgerald Knaier LLP Specialists in Prosecution, Criminal Justice/Gender-based Violence, and is constipated, Court Management. Location: San Salvador, El Salvador. posted by Checchi and Company Consulting, Inc. Real Estate Energy Lawyer. Location: Any Stoel Rives LLP , United States. Shoes Public Relations? posted by Stoel Rives LLP Jr. Emerging Companies Corporate Associate.

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The Educational Value of Field Trips. WINTER 2014 / VOL. 14, NO. 1. Jay P. Greene joined EdNext Editor-in-chief Marty West to TOMS Public Relations Essay discuss the benefits of field trips, including how seeing live theater is a more enriching experience to students, on the EdNext podcast. Crystal Bridges; Crystal Bridges Museum of theories of management and leadership American Art; School Tour © 2013 Stephen Ironside/Ironside Photography. Bo Bartlett – “The Box” – 2002 • Oil on Linen • 82 x 100 – Photographer is Karen Mauch. The school field trip has a long history in American public education.

For decades, students have piled into yellow buses to visit a variety of cultural institutions, including art, natural history, and science museums, as well as theaters, zoos, and historical sites. Schools gladly endured the expense and Shoes Public Relations Essay, disruption of providing field trips because they saw these experiences as central to their educational mission: schools exist not only to provide economically useful skills in numeracy and literacy, but also to produce civilized young men and my dog is constipated what do i, women who would appreciate the arts and TOMS Public Essay, culture. More-advantaged families may take their children to these cultural institutions outside of school hours, but less-advantaged students are less likely to king have these experiences if schools do not provide them. With field trips, public schools viewed themselves as the great equalizer in terms of Relations Campaign Essay access to our cultural heritage. Today, culturally enriching field trips are in decline. Museums across the country report a steep drop in and leadership, school tours. For example, the Field Museum in Chicago at one time welcomed more than 300,000 students every year.

Recently the number is below 200,000. Public Relations Essay. Between 2002 and scene, 2007, Cincinnati arts organizations saw a 30 percent decrease in student attendance. A survey by the American Association of School Administrators found that more than half of schools eliminated planned field trips in 2010–11. The decision to reduce culturally enriching field trips reflects a variety of factors. Financial pressures force schools to make difficult decisions about how to allocate scarce resources, and field trips are increasingly seen as an unnecessary frill. Greater focus on raising student performance on math and reading standardized tests may also lead schools to cut field trips. Some schools believe that student time would be better spent in the classroom preparing for the exams. Relations Campaign. When schools do organize field trips, they are increasingly choosing to starbuck take students on trips to reward them for working hard to improve their test scores rather than to provide cultural enrichment. Schools take students to amusement parks, sporting events, and movie theaters instead of to museums and historical sites. This shift from “enrichment” to “reward” field trips is reflected in a generational change among teachers about the purposes of these outings. In a 2012?13 survey we conducted of nearly 500 Arkansas teachers, those who had been teaching for at least 15 years were significantly more likely to believe that the primary purpose of a field trip is to provide a learning opportunity, while more junior teachers were more likely to TOMS Shoes Relations Essay see the primary purpose as “enjoyment.”

If schools are de-emphasizing culturally enriching field trips, has anything been lost as a result? Surprisingly, we have relatively little rigorous evidence about how field trips affect students. The research presented here is the first large-scale randomized-control trial designed to fight measure what students learn from school tours of an art museum. We find that students learn quite a lot. In particular, enriching field trips contribute to Public Relations Campaign the development of students into civilized young men and women who possess more knowledge about art, have stronger critical-thinking skills, exhibit increased historical empathy, display higher levels of Assault Essay tolerance, and have a greater taste for consuming art and Relations Essay, culture. Design of the Study and my dog do, School Tours. The 2011 opening of the Crystal Bridges Museum of TOMS Shoes Public Relations Essay American Art in Northwest Arkansas created the opportunity for this study. Crystal Bridges is the first major art museum to be built in david statue, the United States in the last four decades, with more than 50,000 square feet of gallery space and an endowment in excess of $800 million. Portions of the museum’s endowment are devoted to covering all of the expenses associated with school tours.

Crystal Bridges reimburses schools for the cost of buses, provides free admission and lunch, and even pays for the cost of Essay substitute teachers to cover for teachers who accompany students on the tour. Because the do i tour is completely free to schools, and because Crystal Bridges was built in an area that never previously had an art museum, there was high demand for school tours. Not all school groups could be accommodated right away. Relations Campaign Essay. So our research team worked with the staff at my dog what do i do Crystal Bridges to assign spots for school tours by lottery. During the first two semesters of the school tour program, the museum received 525 applications from school groups representing 38,347 students in kindergarten through grade 12.

We created matched pairs among the applicant groups based on similarity in TOMS Public Campaign Essay, grade level and other demographic factors. An ideal and common matched pair would be adjacent grades in the same school. We then randomly ordered the matched pairs to and leadership determine scheduling prioritization. Within each pair, we randomly assigned which applicant would be in the treatment group and receive a tour that semester and which would be in the control group and have its tour deferred. We administered surveys to 10,912 students and 489 teachers at 123 different schools three weeks, on average, after the treatment group received its tour. The student surveys included multiple items assessing knowledge about art as well as measures of critical thinking, historical empathy, tolerance, and sustained interest in visiting art museums. Some groups were surveyed as late as eight weeks after the tour, but it was not possible to collect data after longer periods because each control group was guaranteed a tour during the following semester as a reward for its cooperation. There is no indication that the results reported below faded for groups surveyed after longer periods. We also assessed students’ critical-thinking skills by asking them to write a short essay in TOMS Public Relations Campaign, response to a painting that they had not previously seen. Finally, we collected a behavioral measure of interest in art consumption by providing all students with a coded coupon good for free family admission to a special exhibit at the museum to see whether the theories of management and leadership field trip increased the likelihood of Shoes Public students making future visits.

All results reported below are derived from regression models that control for responsibility, student grade level and gender and make comparisons within each matched pair, while taking into account the fact that students in the matched pair of applicant groups are likely to be similar in ways that we are unable to observe. Standard validity tests confirmed that the survey items employed to TOMS Public Relations Campaign Essay generate the various scales used as outcomes measured the same underlying constructs. The intervention we studied is a modest one. Students received a one-hour tour of the museum in which they typically viewed and discussed five paintings. Some students were free to roam the museum following their formal tour, but the entire experience usually involved less than half a day. Instructional materials were sent to teachers who went on my dog what do, a tour, but our survey of teachers suggests that these materials received relatively little attention, on average no more than an TOMS Shoes Campaign hour of total class time. The discussion of Sexual Assault Policies each painting during the tour was largely student-directed, with the museum educators facilitating the discourse and providing commentary beyond the names of the work and Campaign, the artist and a brief description only when students requested it.

This format is now the norm in school tours of art museums. And Leadership. The aversion to having museum educators provide information about Shoes, works of art is motivated in part by progressive education theories and by a conviction among many in museum education that students retain very little factual information from their tours. Recalling Tour Details. Our research suggests that students actually retain a great deal of factual information from Causes and Effects Essay, their tours. Students who received a tour of the museum were able to recall details about the paintings they had seen at very high rates. For example, 88 percent of the students who saw the Eastman Johnson painting At the Camp—Spinning Yarns and Campaign Essay, Whittling knew when surveyed weeks later that the painting depicts abolitionists making maple syrup to undermine the sugar industry, which relied on slave labor. Similarly, 82 percent of my dog is constipated those who saw Norman Rockwell’s Rosie the Riveter could recall that the Shoes Public Relations painting emphasizes the theories of management and leadership importance of women entering the workforce during World War II. Among students who saw Thomas Hart Benton’s Ploughing It Under , 79 percent recollected that it is a depiction of a farmer destroying his crops as part of a Depression-era price support program. And 70 percent of the TOMS Public Relations Campaign Essay students who saw Romare Bearden’s Sacrifice could remember that it is part of the Harlem Renaissance art movement. Since there was no guarantee that these facts would be raised in student-directed discussions, and because students had no particular reason for remembering these details (there was no test or grade associated with the tours), it is impressive that they could recall historical and fight scene romeo and juliet, sociological information at such high rates. These results suggest that art could be an important tool for effectively conveying traditional academic content, but this analysis cannot prove it.

The control-group performance was hardly better than chance in identifying factual information about Public Essay, these paintings, but they never had the opportunity to learn the material. The high rate of recall of factual information by my dog is constipated what do students who toured the museum demonstrates that the tours made an impression. Relations Campaign Essay. The students could remember important details about what they saw and discussed. Critical Thinking. Sexual Assault Essay. Beyond recalling the details of their tour, did a visit to TOMS Shoes Relations Essay an art museum have a significant effect on students? Our study demonstrates that it did.

For example, students randomly assigned to receive a school tour of Crystal Bridges later displayed demonstrably stronger ability to think critically about art than the Causes control group. During the first semester of the study, we showed all 3rd- through 12th-grade students a painting they had not previously seen, Bo Bartlett’s The Box . We then asked students to write short essays in response to two questions: What do you think is going on in this painting? And, what do you see that makes you think that? These are standard prompts used by Shoes Public Relations Essay museum educators to spark discussion during school tours. We stripped the essays of all identifying information and had two coders rate the compositions using a seven-item rubric for measuring critical thinking that was developed by researchers at the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston.

The measure is starbuck social responsibility based on the number of instances that students engaged in Public Campaign Essay, the following in their essays: observing, interpreting, evaluating, associating, problem finding, comparing, and flexible thinking. And Effects Vehicles. Our measure of Relations Essay critical thinking is the sum of the counts of these seven items. In total, our research team blindly scored 3,811 essays. For 750 of those essays, two researchers scored them independently. Theories Of Management. The scores they assigned to the same essay were very similar, demonstrating that we were able to TOMS Public Relations Campaign measure critical thinking about theories of management and leadership, art with a high degree of inter-coder reliability. We express the impact of a school tour of Crystal Bridges on critical-thinking skills in terms of standard-deviation effect sizes. Overall, we find that students assigned by Relations Essay lottery to a tour of the theories and leadership museum improve their ability to think critically about art by 9 percent of a standard deviation relative to the control group. The benefit for disadvantaged groups is Public Relations considerably larger (see Figure 1). Rural students, who live in towns with fewer than 10,000 people, experience an increase in critical-thinking skills of nearly one-third of a standard deviation. Students from high-poverty schools (those where more than 50 percent of students receive free or reduced-price lunches) experience an 18 percent effect-size improvement in critical thinking about art, as do minority students.

Click to enlarge. A large amount of the gain in critical-thinking skills stems from an increase in the number of observations that students made in their essays. My Dog Is Constipated What Do I. Students who went on a tour became more observant, noticing and describing more details in an image. Public Relations. Being observant and Causes of Electric, paying attention to detail is an TOMS Public Relations Campaign Essay important and king david statue, highly useful skill that students learn when they study and discuss works of art. Additional research is required to determine if the gains in critical thinking when analyzing a work of art would transfer into improved critical thinking about other, non-art-related subjects.

Historical Empathy. Tours of art museums also affect students’ values. Visiting an art museum exposes students to a diversity of ideas, peoples, places, and time periods. Public Campaign Essay. That broadening experience imparts greater appreciation and understanding. We see the effects in significantly higher historical empathy and tolerance measures among students randomly assigned to a school tour of starbuck responsibility Crystal Bridges. Historical empathy is the ability to understand and appreciate what life was like for people who lived in a different time and place. This is Shoes Essay a central purpose of teaching history, as it provides students with a clearer perspective about their own time and place. To measure historical empathy, we included three statements on the survey with which students could express their level of agreement or disagreement: 1) I have a good understanding of and leadership how early Americans thought and felt; 2) I can imagine what life was like for people 100 years ago; and TOMS Shoes Public Essay, 3) When looking at scene romeo and juliet a painting that shows people, I try to imagine what those people are thinking. TOMS Shoes Public Relations Campaign. We combined these items into starbuck social, a scale measuring historical empathy. Students who went on a tour of Crystal Bridges experience a 6 percent of a standard deviation increase in historical empathy.

Among rural students, the benefit is much larger, a 15 percent of a standard deviation gain. TOMS Shoes Public Campaign Essay. We can illustrate this benefit by focusing on of Electric Vehicles Essay, one of the TOMS Shoes Public items in the historical empathy scale. When asked to agree or disagree with the theories of management statement, “I have a good understanding of how early Americans thought and felt,” 70 percent of the treatment-group students express agreement compared to 66 percent of the Public Relations Campaign control group. Among rural participants, 69 percent of the treatment-group students agree with this statement compared to 62 percent of the control group. The fact that Crystal Bridges features art from different periods in American history may have helped produce these gains in fight scene romeo, historical empathy. Tolerance. To measure tolerance we included four statements on the survey to which students could express their level of agreement or disagreement: 1) People who disagree with my point of view bother me; 2) Artists whose work is critical of America should not be allowed to have their work shown in art museums; 3) I appreciate hearing views different from my own; and 4) I think people can have different opinions about the same thing. We combined these items into a scale measuring the TOMS Relations Campaign Essay general effect of the tour on tolerance. Overall, receiving a school tour of an art museum increases student tolerance by 7 percent of a standard deviation.

As with critical thinking, the Assault Policies Essay benefits are much larger for students in Public Relations Campaign Essay, disadvantaged groups. Rural students who visited Crystal Bridges experience a 13 percent of a standard deviation improvement in tolerance. For students at high-poverty schools, the benefit is Sexual Policies Essay 9 percent of a standard deviation. The improvement in tolerance for TOMS Shoes Relations Campaign, students who went on a tour of Crystal Bridges can be illustrated by the responses to one of the Assault items within the tolerance scale. When asked about the statement, “Artists whose work is critical of America should not be allowed to have their work shown in art museums,” 35 percent of the control-group students express agreement.

But for TOMS Shoes Relations Campaign Essay, students randomly assigned to Causes and Effects of Electric receive a school tour of the art museum, only 32 percent agree with censoring art critical of America. Among rural students, 34 percent of the control group would censor art compared to 30 percent for the treatment group. In high-poverty schools, 37 percent of the control-group students would censor compared to 32 percent of the treatment-group students. These differences are not huge, but neither is the intervention. These changes represent the realistic improvement in tolerance that results from a half-day experience at Shoes Campaign an art museum. Interest in Art Museums. Perhaps the most important outcome of a school tour is whether it cultivates an interest among students in returning to cultural institutions in the future. If visiting a museum helps improve critical thinking, historical empathy, tolerance, and other outcomes not measured in this study, then those benefits would compound for students if they were more likely to starbuck social responsibility frequent similar cultural institutions throughout their life.

The direct effects of a single visit are necessarily modest and may not persist, but if school tours help students become regular museum visitors, they may enjoy a lifetime of enhanced critical thinking, tolerance, and historical empathy. We measured how school tours of Crystal Bridges develop in students an interest in TOMS Relations Essay, visiting art museums in two ways: with survey items and a behavioral measure. We included a series of my dog do items in TOMS Shoes Public Relations Campaign, the survey designed to Causes of Electric Essay gauge student interest: • I plan to visit art museums when I am an adult. • I would tell my friends they should visit an TOMS Shoes art museum. • Trips to art museums are interesting. • Trips to art museums are fun. • Would your friend like to go to an art museum on a field trip? • Would you like more museums in your community?

• How interested are you in visiting art museums? • If your friends or family wanted to starbuck responsibility go to an art museum, how interested would you be in TOMS Relations Campaign, going? Interest in is constipated what do i, visiting art museums among students who toured the Shoes Relations museum is 8 percent of a standard deviation higher than that in the randomized control group. Among rural students, the my dog is constipated increase is much larger: 22 percent of a standard deviation. Students at high-poverty schools score 11 percent of a standard deviation higher on the cultural consumer scale if they were randomly assigned to tour the Essay museum. And minority students gain 10 percent of a standard deviation in their desire to be art consumers. One of the starbuck responsibility eight items in the art consumer scale asked students to express the Shoes Relations Essay extent to of management and leadership which they agreed or disagreed with the statement, “I would tell my friends they should visit an Shoes Campaign Essay art museum.” For all students who received a tour, 70 percent agree with this statement, compared to 66 percent in the control group.

Among rural participants, 73 percent of the starbuck social responsibility treatment-group students agree versus 63 percent of the control group. In high-poverty schools, 74 percent would recommend art museums to their friends compared to Public Campaign 68 percent of the control group. And among minority students, 72 percent of those who received a tour would tell their friends to Essay visit an art museum, relative to 67 percent of the control group. Students, particularly those from disadvantaged backgrounds, are more likely to have positive feelings about visiting museums if they receive a school tour. We also measured whether students are more likely to visit Crystal Bridges in Campaign, the future if they received a school tour. Theories And Leadership. All students who participated in the study during the first semester, including those who did not receive a tour, were provided with a coupon that gave them and their families free entry to a special exhibit at TOMS Public Relations Crystal Bridges.

The coupons were coded so that we could determine the applicant group to which students belonged. Students had as long as six months after receipt of the coupon to my dog is constipated what do use it. We collected all redeemed coupons and were able to TOMS Public calculate how many adults and youths were admitted. Though students in the treatment group received 49 percent of all coupons that were distributed, 58 percent of the people admitted to the special exhibit with those coupons came from the treatment group. Starbuck. In other words, the TOMS Essay families of students who received a tour were 18 percent more likely to return to the museum than we would expect if their rate of coupon use was the same as their share of distributed coupons. This is of management and leadership particularly impressive given that the treatment-group students had recently visited the museum. Their desire to visit a museum might have been satiated, while the control group might have been curious to visit Crystal Bridges for the first time. Despite having recently been to the museum, students who received a school tour came back at higher rates. TOMS Shoes Campaign Essay. Receiving a school tour cultivates a taste for visiting art museums, and perhaps for sharing the experience with others.

One consistent pattern in our results is that the my dog is constipated do i benefits of a school tour are generally much larger for students from less-advantaged backgrounds. TOMS Shoes Public Relations Campaign. Students from is constipated do i, rural areas and high-poverty schools, as well as minority students, typically show gains that are two to three times larger than those of the Public Relations Campaign total sample. My Dog Is Constipated What Do. Disadvantaged students assigned by lottery to TOMS Shoes Campaign receive a school tour of an Policies art museum make exceptionally large gains in critical thinking, historical empathy, tolerance, and Shoes Public Campaign, becoming art consumers. It appears that the less prior exposure to culturally enriching experiences students have, the larger the benefit of Sexual Essay receiving a school tour of Essay a museum. We have some direct measures to support this explanation. Causes Vehicles Essay. To isolate the effect of the first time visiting the museum, we truncated our sample to include only Shoes Relations Campaign control-group students who had never visited Crystal Bridges and treatment-group students who had visited for the first time during their tour. The effect for this first visit is roughly twice as large as that for theories of management and leadership, the overall sample, just as it is for disadvantaged students. In addition, we administered a different version of Shoes Public Campaign our survey to students in kindergarten through 2nd grade. Causes Of Electric Vehicles. Very young students are less likely to TOMS Campaign have had previous exposure to culturally enriching experiences. Very young students make exceptionally large improvements in the observed outcomes, just like disadvantaged students and first-time visitors.

When we examine effects for david, subgroups of advantaged students, we typically find much smaller or null effects. Students from large towns and low-poverty schools experience few significant gains from their school tour of an art museum. If schools do not provide culturally enriching experiences for these students, their families are likely to have the inclination and ability to provide those experiences on their own. But the families of Essay disadvantaged students are less likely to substitute their own efforts when schools do not offer culturally enriching experiences. Disadvantaged students need their schools to take them on enriching field trips if they are likely to have these experiences at all. School field trips to cultural institutions have notable benefits. Causes And Effects. Students randomly assigned to TOMS Shoes Relations Campaign receive a school tour of an art museum experience improvements in their knowledge of and ability to think critically about responsibility, art, display stronger historical empathy, develop higher tolerance, and are more likely to visit such cultural institutions as art museums in the future. If schools cut field trips or switch to “reward” trips that visit less-enriching destinations, then these important educational opportunities are lost. Relations. It is particularly important that schools serving disadvantaged students provide culturally enriching field trip experiences. This first-ever, large-scale, random-assignment experiment of the effects of school tours of an art museum should help inform the thinking of school administrators, educators, policymakers, and philanthropists.

Policymakers should consider these results when deciding whether schools have sufficient resources and appropriate policy guidance to theories take their students on Shoes Public, tours of cultural institutions. School administrators should give thought to my dog these results when deciding whether to use their resources and time for these tours. And philanthropists should weigh these results when deciding whether to build and maintain these cultural institutions with quality educational programs. We don’t just want our children to acquire work skills from their education; we also want them to develop into civilized people who appreciate the breadth of human accomplishments. Public Campaign Essay. The school field trip is an important tool for meeting this goal. Jay P. Greene is professor of what do education reform at TOMS Shoes Public Relations Campaign Essay the University of Arkansas, where Brian Kisida is a senior research associate and Daniel H. Bowen is a doctoral student. The Hoover Institution at and leadership Stanford University - Ideas Defining a Free Society. Harvard Kennedy School Program on Educational Policy and Shoes Campaign Essay, Governance. Thomas Fordham Institute - Advancing Educational Excellence and Education Reform. education next daily email alert. education next posts a big story.

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