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essay smash Copyright 2017 Time Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without permission is prohibited. Read Smash creator's essay about commitment being fired from apa essay example, her own show. EW exclusively excerpts Theresa Rebecks explosive essay, in which she details her experience creating the cult TV show Smash , what its like being a female showrunner in Hollywood, and being fired from organizational commitment, her own show. Posted on March 31, 2017 at 11:42am EDT. Double Bind: Women on Ambition is a new anthology of essays from prominent women like essayist and author Roxane Gay, Molly Ringwald, Smash creator Theresa Rebeck, and writer Francine Prose, with each contributor exploring the way ambition and feminism have influenced her career.

Below, EW has an what of the exclusive excerpt of organizational, Rebecks explosive essay, in on Biography of Josef Albers which she details her experience creating the short-lived cult TV show Smash , what its like being a female showrunner and organizational commitment, TV writer in Hollywood, and dante's inferno punishments, what happened when she was eventually fired from her own show without cause. Excerpted from Double Bind: Women on Ambition, edited by Robin Romm. So Im walking to a rehearsal in Midtown, and my agent calls me. He runs me through one thing and organizational commitment, another, and then he gets down to it. Had I heard that Steven Spielberg had set up a project at Showtime, a TV series about backstage at a Broadway musical? They want you to write it, he informed me. Anthropology? Mr. Spielberg read one of commitment, your plays over the weekend, and he called this morning to apa essay example say that he is infatuated.

Let me tell you something. When Steven Spielberg calls your agent to say he is infatuated with your writing, that is a good day. The saga of commitment, what came next is so long and complicated it would take a book to write it all out. On Biography Of Josef Albers? Sometimes I think of writ- ing that book and sometimes I think that writing that book and reliving the whole thing would be somewhat akin to commitment shooting myself in the head. But well get to that. So I took the job, I wrote the pilot, I created all the characters, I nurtured it through a transition from Anthropology Essay, Showtime to NBC, I produced the pilot, and commitment, the show got picked up for an order of are the 7 layers osi model, seventeen episodes. Commitment? I was the show runner of the first season, which got terrific numbers and established itself immediately as an international sensation. The show was called Smash. At the end of the first season, I was fired without cause. No one likes being fired, and guess what, I am no exception.

As the dust settled, it became clear that at the management level a lot of dastardly stories had been invented about my character. Sometimes I try to parse them and fit them all back together; I have been, at times, desperate to figure out what actually happened. Penalty Definition? There was a destructive and incoherent madness to it that resists interpretation. Mr. Spielberg, to give him much credit, called me the day I was fired and organizational, apologized. He told me that he blamed himself.

He felt that the politics had gotten way out of hand, and they wouldnt have if he had been around more. What Are The Of The Osi Model? He was probably right. And, of course, as soon as I was fired, all the men who had conspired to have me removed from my post realized that the show wasnt going to survive without me and so they slunk away and went off to commitment do other things. The network then hired a whole bunch of other people to run it in city of god my stead, and it fell apart, and one year after I had made that show into commitment a bona fide hit, it was canceled. Everyone told me the best thing to do was ignore it and put it behind me. Then I couldnt get hired for three years. Then I fired my lawyer and I fired my manager and I fired my agent. And then my new agent and Essay of Josef Albers, new manager and new lawyer all sat me down and organizational, explained to me, in no uncertain terms, that I had to take a step back, accept a demotion, and take a job below my skill set and Anthropology, pay grade. At this new job, I had to say yes to organizational everything, and I had to prove that I played well with others. The whisperers had run around and told everyone that I was a lunatic.

So this is dante's inferno punishments what I had to do, if I ever wanted to run a show again: I had to keep my head down and prove that I was smart and hardworking and a team player. God knows I had plenty to do during those years. I wrote two plays. I finished my third novel. I directed All My Sons for a major regional theater, and I wrote and directed an independent movie. My son started college; my daughter finished middle school. But I was convinced that I had to return to television.

I felt cheated by what had happened on Smash , and I was determined that the men who had cheated me would not have the last word on my talent and my character. It pissed me off that the men at my level who had been fired in similarly ridiculous circumstances somehow managed to bounce upward. I felt like what had hap- pened to me was yet another version of the organizational recklessly hideous way so many talented women are treatedsilenced, kicked to the curb. I didnt want to just slink away and disappear. I wanted to fight my way back into death penalty definition the game. To successfully run a television show, you have to be a general. I was an excellent general. But in order to prove I could do it again, I had to be a good girl. My ambition is wearing me out.

Ive been on many different television shows over the years, and my husband is frankly enraged by the way people behave in organizational this environment. He threatened to leave me, a couple of times, if I ever went back on staff of another TV show. Death? He was kidding, but only sort of. Organizational? He wants me to take my ambition out of the game and stay out of it. Hes not necessarily wrong. I tell stories about the is Quantitative Essay shenanigans that go on in writers rooms, and my friends outside the business roar with laughter or cringe in disbelief. The misogyny is beyond anything that people believe when I tell these stories. Commitment? On my first job in is Quantitative Essay television, when I was in my twenties, I would sit, dazed, while a roomful of men sat around and commitment, told fist-up-the-ass jokes, roaring with laughter. In another room, the is Quantitative Essay guys would sit around and pitch stories, and commitment, then write everything down in great detail on little white cards.

Whenever a scene with female characters showed up they would write a card that said, girl scene here. Then they would look at me and say, Youre a woman, you write this. When I said, You know where I come from, we write both women and men, it was considered provocative. One time, I was in a room where one of the guys was pitching a beat in a story. He said musingly, Two people walk into a bar. No wait. Apa Essay Example? Two people and a woman walk into a bar. One time, after a number of seriously offensive jokes were told in organizational commitment succession, I said, Come on, you guys, am I going to have to leave the apa essay example room? Instead of apologizing, one of my male peers said to me, If you think thats rough, you havent been in enough writers rooms. Dont tell me where Ive been, ahole, I replied. Okay, I didnt really say that, I just thought it. But the organizational rest of those stories are true.

Why would any writer with curiosity and brains and a simple will to tell a decent story put up with bs like this? Well, they do pay you a lot of money. Writers of penalty definition, all other genresfiction, theater, poetry, nonfiction, independent filmgenerally dont make much money at all. By contrast, television writers are quite well paid, although many of them dont think so because if you spend too much time in Hollywood, you inevitably end up comparing yourself to commitment people who make even more than you do. Back in the day, writers like Clifford Odets, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and William Faulkner went out to lil ze Hollywood to make money, and the system treated them like this as well.

And they complained, drank too much, fell into despair, and went back to their real writing. I dont know why I put real in quotes; they actually were leaving this nonsense and going back to doing real writing. Organizational? And that sort of thing is Essay on Biography of Josef Albers still going on: We all howl about it and write novels and plays and movies like Barton Fink , excoriate Hollywood, and then go back for more money. I personally had given up on all that nuttiness by the time I got that phone call from my agent, so many moons ago. Truth be told, I was in a healthier headspace back then.

I was living where I wanted to be living, doing what I wanted to be doing, and hanging out with the people I wanted to be hanging out with. Organizational Commitment? I didnt have any fierce need to run my own television show. At least, I wasnt chasing it. Why didnt I stay there? When I think back to that day when I was just walking to on Biography Albers rehearsal for a play that paid me next to nothing in a lousy space in Midtown, before my agent called to commitment tell me Mr. Spielberg was infatuated, mostly what I remember is that I was happy. But I dont know one person on Anthropology, planet Earth who would have turned down that offer. Everyone wants their own show.

I recently found out organizational commitment, that one of my favorite novelists wasnt writ- ing novels anymore because he was trying to city lil ze get his own show on organizational, Showtime. Apparently he needs the money, but trust me, its not merely about the Anthropology is Quantitative Essay money. Organizational? The thought of city, having your own TV show is a big promise to commitment a hungry little ego. My friend Lisa cops to death penalty definition the hungry little ego. Twelve to fifteen million people hearing my words and seeing characters who they love, and I love expressing my values and my empathy and commitment, my humor, I fucking love that. I really like being one of the people who has the privilege of pouring stuff out into the world and hoping it lands and sticks and resonates with whoevers watching and listening. 7 Layers? Full of myself a little?

Yeah, I think you have to be, to think that your work is worth the many millions of dollars to film it, and the attention of the audience. Her position, I think, really is swell. I also think that Lisas hungry little ego is a sort of pleasant and respectful version of the breed. Most egos dont behave as well as hers does. Add to that fact this: The apprenticeship of television writing is all about organizational having your own ego kicked in apa essay example the head so many times it develops a revenge fantasy. Organizational Commitment? Television is a training ground for fucking up peoples characters just enough to example make them truly dangerous when they are finally given power over commitment, other creative souls. And the truth is, everyone in the industry knows it.

I cant say I enjoy writing for television, another friend told me. Its unhealthy in general. The system is a killer. You sit in a room with other writers eight hours a day, then the 7 layers osi model show runner comes in and makes all the organizational commitment decisions. And thats the part before you get notes, do rewrites, more notes, more rewrites, then get totally rewritten anyway. But she started as a playwright and penalty, couldnt get her plays done. When shes not writing for a television show, she doesnt have decent health insurance. In the face of this, we all sit around and tell apocryphal stories about organizational commitment shows where the dante's inferno network left you alone, where the organizational show runner had a good heart and a light hand. Theres always a mythic show out there, where they treat the writing staff with respect and shoot the scene the way you wrote it, and it came out great, and death penalty definition, the lowly but talented and decent staff writer is organizational commitment vindicated.

The heart remains hopeful. Every show actually seems like just a great job at the beginning. Definition? Everybody likes each other. The network notes havent gotten too crazy; the boys havent started acting like jerks yet. The excitement is organizational commitment heady. Money! Health care! Telling stories for a living! Its truly all you know, and all you want to know. Freud writes eloquently about the egos need to return time and again to the same pattern of Essay of Josef, behavior, repetition compulsion, a drive so strong it overrides the commitment pleasure principle and sends us back into traumatic situations that we know are traumatic. That mysterious thing called the 7 layers osi model Self seems to want to organizational commitment go through the same pain over and over 7 layers of the osi model, and over again, mystifying itself with the belief that next time, Ill master it, Ill control it, Ill get it right.

Mircea Eliade writes of the Myth of Eternal Return. The Buddhists call it samsara. I felt the reality of these definitions strongly once when I was stuck in a traffic jam on Sunset Boulevard going to a meeting. Organizational Commitment? Holy s , I thought. How did I get here again? Although, endlessly indulging in is Quantitative repetition compulsion might also be tagged as perseverance. Or ambition. Women are told they have to be better, smarter, tougher, and more resilient than their male counterparts because, well, thats just the way the world is. Men tell us this. Organizational? I cannot count the osi model number of menincluding my new agent and my new manager, who are great and on commitment, my sidewho blithely announce that this is apa essay example just the way things are. So maybe weve just been programmed this way.

Who knows. One time I asked my daughter Cleo why she was doing something that was getting her in trouble over and over again. She was about four years old. With tears streaming down her face, she said to me, Im a stubborn girl. My husband had to commitment stop himself from Essay on Biography Albers, laughing. Commitment? I wonder where she got that? he said. I am a stubborn girl. I am also a talented and hardworking girl, and the truth is I do play well with others.

But in corporate culture, play well with others has come to mean absolutely agreeing to everything that gets thrown at you. It is a given: You have to apa essay say yes to your boss all the time. And that means all the time, and commitment, cheerfullythat, Im not as good at. And the men who Ive seen attain success in this world are salesmen, charmers; they know how to manage up. Thats another phrase I learned: manage up. Basically that means making your bosses love you, whether or not you are doing a good job. Here is Anthropology another phrase that I learned: comfort level. When I was fired from the show I created, my soon-to-be-ex-agent told me that the president of NBC had a comfort level issue with me.

Comfort level, I came to organizational commitment learn, is Anthropology is Quantitative Hollywood code for organizational commitment men who dont want to example work with women. So women, who are suspect because there is this comfort level issue have to work extra hard to organizational commitment play well with others and manage up, in addition to sucking everything up and understanding that things are going to be handed to death the guys, and organizational commitment, then theyre going to tell a lot of sexist jokes and tell you to your face that youre supposed to be writing the girl scenes because theyre too busy writing about shooting people and blowing things up and what are the osi model, other utter bullshit. Ooops, did I say that? This is another thing that play well with others means: Keep your mouth shut. In television, we have to be very stubborn girls indeed. I loved running a television show. I was really good at it. I liked that I had to organizational write so much, I liked working with the actors and the directors, I liked production meetings, I liked going all over to location shoots, I loved editing. I loved my postproduction supervisor and my line producer; both of them taught me life lessons about graceful professionalism, taking care of your collaborators. I ran a clean set, so the people who worked there were happy.

I was a good general. I also have to admit that it was fun rewriting my whole writ- ing staff on Smash. On Biography Albers? Fun might be too strong. Because I hated having it done to me so much, it was not something I took on lightly; I actually tried not to organizational rewrite everything egregiously just because I could. Death? But for organizational commitment that first season at least, it was my show and I had the last word and I understood the Anthropology is Quantitative Essay thrill of organizational, that, and the responsibility. So I did my job, and definition, I stand by it.

But no matter how hard I triedand trust me, Im not a lunatic, and I did trythe boys didnt want me running that show. Commitment? One of the apa essay example other executive producers kept saying, But who is in charge? He had never worked on a television show before so I assumed this was just informational, and I would tell him, point-blank: I am the commitment show runner. That means I am in charge. This struck him as more than slightly insane. I had to keep explaining to him how television shows work: You stand with the show runner. You dont keep attacking the show runner; it will bring the is Quantitative Essay show down. Organizational Commitment? It was a truth he did not want to understand. There was also an architectural problem in the power structure above me.

How to manage up was never very clear. What Are The? Mr. Spielberg is an enormous force and a great storyteller. Organizational Commitment? He and the head of the Essay Albers network both believed that they were in charge. There was a strange dysplasia. They seemed to think that I was some kind of commitment, factotum, or typewriter even. No matter how polite I was, it rocked everyone to are the 7 layers osi model the core when the typewriter talked back. Was it gender based? It sure felt like it.

The power structure includedtenmenandonewoman, and, inspiteof all theirsecond- guessing and wrangling, the show was terrific until they fired the woman in charge. I was explicitly told, during my firing, that the show was too important to organizational the network, and what of the osi model, so they were taking it out of my hands. The person they gave it to had virtually no credentials and no experience in the theater. His television credits were nowhere near as comprehensive as mine. The show died under his watch.

Two years later, another net- work gave him another show to run. Meanwhile, I was still being told that I was unemployable because everyone knew that I was a lunatic. The whole thing was dreadful. And I do want to do it again. Is this like childbirth?

You think, Oh god, its so great having a kid , I dont remember the pain . No, its actually not like that. The memory of the pain is pretty vivid. Woody Allen has famously admitted the organizational commitment heart wants what it wants. Apa Essay? But what does that mean? Is that just a way of excusing inappropriate desire? I tell myself that its not just enraged ego; I have stories to tell.

My heart wants to organizational commitment tell stories. Women should be telling stories. On Biography? And the earth will not survive without women claiming their voices and their partnership for its people. Commitment? It may not survive even so. Inferno? So my heart says, get up, get back in the game, this isnt just about you. Organizational Commitment? Stand up, you stubborn girl. If I have an ambition, it is to change the world. So yes, I am ambitious. And while I do believe in playing well with others, I ultimately dont know how to keep my mouth shut. Inferno Punishments? What storyteller does?

I wish this were not the organizational story I have to tell today. I have other stories. I am anxious to get on with them. Excerpted from Double Bind: Women on Ambition edited by Robin Romm. Copyright 2017 by Robin Romm. With permission of the lil ze publisher, Liveright Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.

Liveright Publishing Corporation. Get the latest TV news from Entertainment Weekly. J.K. Rowling: U.K. Commitment? enacted sweeping gun law reform after mass shooting, so why won't U.S.? Sylvia Plath bikini book cover slammed as inappropriate. 'Naptime with Joey': Exclusive photos feature Joey-as-Braveheart. Read a chapter from 'Diary of a Wimpy Kid: The Getaway' 1 'Restore Me': Preview the explosive new 'Shatter Me' book.

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essay on news media Robert G. Kaiser. I n 1998, Ralph Terkowitz, a vice president of The Washington Post Co., got to commitment know Sergey Brin and city of god, Larry Page, two young Silicon Valley entrepreneurs who were looking for backers. Terkowitz remembers paying a visit to the garage where they were working and keeping his car and driver waiting outside while he had a meeting with them about the organizational idea that eventually became Google. An early investment in Google might have transformed the Post 's financial condition, which became dire a dozen years later, by which time Google was a multi-billion dollar company. Example? But nothing happened. Commitment? “We kicked it around,” Terkowitz recalled, but the then-fat Post Co. had other irons in other fires.

Such missteps are not surprising. City Lil Ze? People living through a time of revolutionary change usually fail to grasp what is going on around them. Organizational Commitment? The American news business would get a C minus or worse from what 7 layers of the, any fair-minded professor evaluating its performance in the first phase of the Digital Age. Big, slow-moving organizations steeped in their traditional ways of doing business could not accurately foresee the next stages of a technological whirlwind. Obviously, new technologies are radically altering the ways in which we learn, teach, communicate, and are entertained.

It is impossible to know today where these upheavals may lead, but where they take us matters profoundly. How the digital revolution plays out over time will be particularly important for journalism, and therefore to organizational commitment the United States, because journalism is the craft that provides the lifeblood of a free, democratic society. The Founding Fathers knew this. They believed that their experiment in self-governance would require active participation by an informed public, which could only be possible if people had unfettered access to information. Death Penalty? James Madison, author of the First Amendment guaranteeing freedom of organizational commitment, speech and of the on Biography of Josef Albers press, summarized the proposition succinctly: “The advancement and commitment, diffusion of knowledge is the only guardian of true liberty.” Thomas Jefferson explained to his French friend, the Anthropology Essay Marquis de Lafayette, The only security of organizational, all is in a free press. The force of public opinion cannot be resisted when permitted freely to be expressed.” American journalists cherish another of Jefferson's remarks: “Were it left to dante's inferno punishments me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.” The journalistic ethos that animated many of the Founders was embodied by a printer, columnist, and editor from Philadelphia named Benjamin Franklin. Organizational? The printing press, which afforded Franklin his livelihood, remained the engine of American democracy for inferno punishments more than two centuries. But then, in the second half of the 20th century, new technologies began to undermine long-established means of sharing information. First television and then the computer and the Internet transformed the way people got their news.

Nonetheless, even at organizational commitment, the end of the century, the of god lil ze business of providing news and analysis was still a profitable enough undertaking that it could support large organizations of organizational commitment, professional reporters and editors in print and broadcast media. Now, however, in the first years of the Essay of Josef Albers 21st century, accelerating technological transformation has undermined the business models that kept American news media afloat, raising the possibility that the great institutions on which we have depended for news of the world around us may not survive. These are painful words to organizational write for inferno punishments someone who spent 50 years as a reporter and editor at The Washington Post . Commitment? For the first 15 years of my career, the Post 's stories were still set in lead type by linotype machines, now seen only in museums. We first began writing on death definition, computers in the late 1970s, which seemed like an unequivocally good thing until the rise of the Internet in the 1990s. Then, gradually, the ground began to shift beneath us. Organizational? By the dante's inferno time I retired earlier this year, the Graham family had sold the Post to organizational Jeff Bezos, the is Quantitative Essay founder of Amazon, for $250 million, a small fraction of its worth just a few years before. Organizational? Donald Graham, the chief executive at the time, admitted that he did not know how to save the dante's newspaper. In fact, digital technology has flummoxed the commitment owners of traditional news media, especially newspapers, from the beginning. Are The 7 Layers Of The Osi Model? For example, in 1983, in the early years of organizational commitment, computerized production of newspapers when almost no one knew what was coming, The New York Times almost committed digital suicide. The Times decided it only dante's needed to retain the rights to the electronic versions of organizational, its stories for 24 hours after publication. To make a little extra money, the Times sold rights to everything older than 24 hours to Mead Data Central, owners of the Lexis-Nexis service.

Mead Data Central then sold electronic access to death definition Times stories to law firms, libraries, and commitment, the public. By the early 1990s, as the Internet was becoming functional and popular, this arrangement was a big and growing problem: newspapers, including the punishments Times , were planning “online,” computerized editions, but the Times had sold control of its own product to Mead Data. Luckily for the country's best newspaper, the Anglo-Dutch firm Reed Elsevier bought Mead Data in 1994. The sale triggered a provision in the original Times -Mead contract that allowed the Times to commitment reclaim the electronic rights to its own stories. That enabled the Times to put its journalism online in 1995. But putting newspapers online has not remotely restored their profitability. For the moment, The New York Times is making a small profit, but its advertising revenues are not reassuring. The Washington Post made profits of more than $120 million a year in of the the late 1990s, and today loses moneylast year more than $40 million.

Newsweek magazine failed, and Time magazine is teetering. Once-strong regional newspapers from Los Angeles to Miami, from Chicago to Philadelphia, find themselves in desperate straits, their survival in doubt. Organizational? News divisions of the major television networks have been cutting back for more than two decades, and are now but a feeble shadow of their former selves. Overall the apa essay example economic devastation would be difficult to exaggerate. One statistic conveys its dimensions: the advertising revenue of all America's newspapers fell from organizational, $63.5 billion in what are the of the osi model 2000 to about $23 billion in 2013, and is still falling. Traditional news organizations' financial well-being depended on the willingness of advertisers to pay to reach the mass audiences they attracted. Advertisers were happy to pay because no other advertising medium was as effective. But in the digital era, which has made it relatively simple to target advertising in very specific ways, a big metropolitan or national newspaper has much less appeal. Commitment? Internet companies like Google and Facebook are able to sort audiences by the most specific criteria, and thus to what 7 layers of the osi model offer advertisers the possibility of organizational commitment, spending their money only on dante's, ads they know will reach only people interested in organizational what they are selling. So Google, the is Quantitative Essay master of targeted advertising, can provide a retailer selling sheets and towels an audience existing exclusively of people who have gone online in the last month to shop for organizational sheets and towels. This explains why even as newspaper revenues have plummeted, the ad revenue of of god, Google has leapt upward year after yearfrom $70 million in 2001 to an astonishing $50.6 billion in 2013.

That is more than two times the combined advertising revenue of every newspaper in America last year. And the situation for proprietors of newspapers and magazines is likely to get worse. One alarming set of statistics: Americans spend about 5 percent of the time they devote to media of all kinds to magazines and newspapers. But nearly 20 percent of advertising dollars still go to print media. So print media today are getting billions more than they probably deserve from advertisers who, governed by the inertia so common in organizational human affairs, continue to buy space in is Quantitative Essay publications that are steadily losing audience, especially among the young. When those advertisers wake up, revenues will plummet still further. King County Journal. Union City Register Tribune. Halifax Daily News. Rocky Mountain News.

News organizations have tried to adapt to the new realities. As the Internet became more popular and more important in the first decade of the 21st century, newspaper proprietors dreamed of paying for their newsrooms by mimicking their traditional business model in the online world. Their hope was to create mass followings for their websites that would appeal to advertisers the way their ink-on-paper versions once did. But that’s not what happened. The news organizations with the most popular websites did attract lots of eyeballs, but general advertising on their sites did not produce compelling results for advertisers, so they did not buy as much of it as the papers had hoped. Commitment? And the price they paid for it steadily declined, because as the Internet grew, the definition number of sites offering advertising opportunities assured that “supply” outstripped “demand.” Advertising revenues for the major news sites never amounted to even a significant fraction of the commitment revenues generated by printed newspapers in the golden age. Example? There seems little prospect today that online advertising revenues will ever be as lucrative as advertising on paper once was. The other online innovation that has devastated newspapers is Craigslist, the free provider of what the newspapers call “classified advertising,” the small items in small print used by individuals and businesses for generations to organizational buy and sell real estate and merchandise, and to hire workers.

Twenty years ago classifieds provided more than a third of the revenue of The Washington Post . Craigslist has destroyed that business for of god the Post and organizational, every major paper in the country. The Philadelphia Inquirer/Daily News headquarters building on Broad Street in Philadelphia, October 6, 2005. The paper is one of many major newspapers facing cutbacks and dwindling circulation. D espite two decades of on Biography Albers, trying, no one has found a way to make traditional news-gathering sufficiently profitable to assure its future survival. Serious readers of America's most substantial news media may find this description at odds with their daily experience.

After all, The New York Times , The Wall Street Journal , and The Washington Post still provide rich offerings of good journalism every morning, and they have been joined by numerous online providers of organizational commitment, both opinion and newseven of classic investigative reporting. Digital publications employ thousands of reporters and editors in death new and sometimes promising journalistic enterprises. Is this a disaster? Of course notyet. But today's situation is commitment, probably misleading. The laws of economics cannot be ignored or repealed. Apa Essay Example? Nor can the organizational commitment actuarial tables.

Only about a third of Americans under 35 look at a newspaper even once a week, and the percentage declines every year. City Of God? A large portion of today's readers of the few remaining good newspapers are much closer to the grave than to high school. Today's young people skitter around the Internet like ice skaters, exercising their short attention spans by looking for fun and, occasionally, seeking out serious information. Audience taste seems to be changing, with the result that among young people particularly there is organizational, a declining appetite for 7 layers of the osi model the sort of organizational commitment, information packages the great newspapers provided, which included national, foreign and apa essay example, local news, business news, cultural news and criticism, editorials and opinion columns, sports and obituaries, lifestyle features, and science news. Alas for those who continue to want access to organizational that kind of product, there is no right to reliable, intelligent, comprehensive journalism. We only get it when someone provides it. And if it doesnt pay someone a profit, its not likely to be produced. New York City. 1959. TV news anchorman Walter Cronkite.

Dennis Stock/Magnum Photos. B efore digital technology changed the world, the news was quite orderly and what are the 7 layers of the, predictable. To find out what was happening, you bought a paper, listened to commitment the radio, or watched television. Most people relied on one or two sources for all their newsa newspaper and a TV network, for is Quantitative example. A few institutions and organizational, a few individuals dominated the provision of death, news: Walter Cronkite and John Chancellor; The New York Times and organizational commitment, The Washington Post ; Time and Newsweek . Of Josef Albers? The universe of news providers was small and also remarkably homogeneous. David Brinkley could move from NBC to commitment ABC without causing much of a stir. Anthropology Essay? When Roone Arledge, whose first big accomplishment was to make ABC the leading network for sports, was empowered to build a new ABC News, he did it by raiding the staffs of NBC and organizational, CBS.

Similarly, when Ted Turner launched CNN, he poached talent from the death penalty networks. This small, nearly-closed world rarely provided any surprises. Politically, the big news organizations cast themselves as fair-minded and even-handed, never partisan. Time magazine may have been somewhat more conservative, The New York Times more liberal, but none drifted far from the center of the political spectrum. For nearly four decades after World War II, mainstream journalism was notably non-ideological. At the height of their success, all the best news organizations shared two important qualities: a strong sense of responsibility about their roles as providers of news and commitment, analysis, and plenty of money to spend on lil ze, those missions. In their heyday, roughly the last third of the 20th century, these institutions tended to unify American society. News anchors like Cronkite, Chancellor, Tom Brokaw, Dan Rather, and Peter Jennings were reassuring, avuncular figures with whom millions of Americans shared the dramas of the day.

All the mainstream print and broadcast media sought to provide an information supermarket whose aislesfrom sports to business to politics, foreign affairs, entertainment news, and gossipwould hopefully attract mass audiences across all classes of society. Commitment? And they made moneya lot of Albers, itby selling those mass audiences to advertisers. NBC/NBCU Photo Bank via Getty Images. The money allowed for an extravagant approach to news. Editors and producers could put their news instincts ahead of other considerations, including profitsat least occasionally. I did this myself, dispatching reporters around the organizational country and the world with something awfully close to apa essay abandon when I was a senior editor of The Washington Post . The best newspapersthe best of a much more crowded field than exists todayinvested in Washington bureaus, foreign correspondents, and investigative reporting teams, not to commitment mention luxuries almost unheard of dante's inferno, now. For years, for example, no reporter for the Los Angeles Times had to suffer the indignity of flying in coach; business or first class was the norm. The broadcast media enjoyed even more extravagance.

In the organizational commitment 1970s the Anthropology is Quantitative Essay three television networks each maintained large corps of organizational commitment, foreign correspondents stationed in apa essay bureaus across the commitment globe, and example, also domestic bureaus in organizational the major American cities. They all did serious documentaries and showed them in prime time. Editors and producers pursued stories that interested them, without much concern for how readers or viewers might react to the journalism that resulted. Members of this tribe of journalists shared a sense of what “the news” was. The most influential of them were the editors and on Biography, reporters on the best newspapers, whose decisions were systematically embraced and echoed by other editors and writers, as well as by the producers of television news. Commitment? As many have noted now that their power has declined, these news executives were gatekeepers of a kind, deciding which stories got the most attention. The most obvious examples of their discretionary power came in the realm of investigative reporting. One of the cardinal events of this era was Walter Cronkite's decision in late October 1972 to dante's report in detail on the CBS Evening News the commitment findings of two young Washington Post reporters, Carl Bernstein and 7 layers of the, Bob Woodward, on the developing Watergate scandal. Cronkite’s decision highlighted the strength of the news culture, while also helping to put the Post then still emerging as a leading newspaperat the center of national attention. This was a golden era in journalism, a time when a prosperous and organizational, widely-respected press demonstrated an unprecedented willingness to confront a sitting president.

Watergate and Anthropology is Quantitative, the Vietnam War both made it much easier to challenge authority. Newspapers especially began to show increasing self-confidencesometimes it felt like arroganceby moving away from reactive journalism that focused on the events of the organizational commitment previous day and devoting more space and energy to “enterprise” journalism, which included not just in-depth investigations, but stories about lil ze trends in society, profiles, and organizational, feature stories. Thanks to this new boldness, the relationship between reporters and government deteriorated and became quite contentious. Deference gave way to skepticism and, often, cynicism about the believability of public officials and government agencies. One of the great symbolic moments of this era was the decision by the Nixon administration to seek a court order to stop The New York Times from publishing details of a secret Pentagon history of the Vietnam war that a disgruntled official had leaked to Essay Albers the paper. Initially a federal district court accepted the government’s argument that publication endangered “national security,” and issued an organizational commitment order to dante's inferno punishments the Times to cease publication of stories based on the “Pentagon Papers.” The Times 's source, Daniel Ellsberg, then leaked another set of the papers to The Washington Post , which hurriedly began preparing stories about them. The government sought court action to block the Post as well. The Supreme Court agreed to take the case. The Times and Post hired some of the best (and most expensive) lawyers in the country to argue for publication. The court quickly decided in favor of the newspapers' right to commitment publish. Nixon's attempt to impose “prior restraint” on the American press had failed.

Two private corporations, the Times and Post companies, had defied the government and then persuaded the death penalty definition Supreme Court to let them get away with it. Journalists still remember this as a critical moment in the history of their business. 1902-03: Ida Tarbell profiles John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company The progressive era of the organizational commitment late 19th and early 20th centuries was a time of social activism as Americans and their president, Theodore Roosevelt, fought corruption and monopolistic practices in government and industry. Tarbell, a former school teacher, wrote a series of articles for McClure’s Magazine about the giant Standard Oil Company and its owner John D. Rockefeller. The series was published in Anthropology is Quantitative Essay book form in commitment 1904, and in 1911 the U.S. Supreme Court found the company to be in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, causing its breakup.

Ironically, Tarbell didn’t like the term “muckraker,” which was applied to her and other reform-minded journalists of the era. 1906: Upton Sinclair exposes conditions in Chicago's meatpacking plants Chicago was America’s center of meat processing and packing around the turn of the century in apa essay 1900. Although Sinclair’s famous 1906 work, The Jungle , was a novel, he based it on seven weeks in disguise working in Chicago’s meatpacking plants. His exposé of organizational, conditions that immigrant workers faced in the stockyards and the unsanitary practices of the industry coincided with passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 and dante's, the Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906. Sinclair later focused on organizational commitment, American journalism itself, calling attention in 1920 to the practice of “yellow journalism” in his book The Brass Check . 1953: Murrey Marder dogs Sen. Joseph McCarthy's witch hunt In February 1950, U.S. Senator Joe McCarthy declared that more than 200 Communists were working at the U.S. State Department.

After his re-election in 1952, McCarthy conducted a series of hearings on the matter and Anthropology Essay, implicated Army personnel in espionage. Organizational? In 1953, Murrey Marder, writing for The Washington Post , began full-time coverage of Sen. McCarthy and his hearings. Marder investigated the senator's accusations against Army personnel stationed at Fort Monmouth in New Jersey, finding that the death definition senator's charges against them were all false. Marder later opened the commitment London bureau of the The Post , and after his retirement, helped create the Nieman Watchdog Project. 1962-64: David Halberstam calls foul on the U.S. military's rosy Vietnam claims In October 1963, President John F. 7 Layers Of The Osi Model? Kennedy was so upset about David Halberstam’s reporting from Saigon that he asked Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, the publisher of The New York Times , to transfer David Halberstam out of Vietnam. Organizational Commitment? Since the previous year, Halberstam had offered dogged and skeptical coverage of U.S. government officials’ optimistic portrayals of their and the South Vietnamese government’s efforts against North Vietnam. “The job of the reporters in Vietnam,” Halberstam wrote in 1965, “was to report the inferno punishments news, whether or not the news was good for organizational commitment America.” In 1964, Halberstam earned a Pulitzer Prize for his Vietnam reporting.

1969: Seymour Hersh exposes the Albers My Lai massacre and cover-up In March 1968, U.S. Army soldiers massacred hundreds of commitment, civilians in My Lai, a South Vietnamese village. Anthropology Is Quantitative? In the months following, Army commanders downplayed the incident, keeping it hidden from the public. Organizational Commitment? However, due to inferno pressure on the chain-of-command from a soldier in the infantry company involved, Lieutenant William Calley, Jr. was court martialed in September 1969 for his role. The public wouldn't learn of My Lai until Hersh, acting on a tip, interviewed Calley and his lawyer.

Hersh's story was published by Dispatch, a small news agency with a tiny staff, and then picked up nationally. Calley was the only soldier convicted in relation to the massacre. Hersh won the 1970 Pulitzer Prize for his reporting. 1971: The Pentagon Papers leaked and published. In 1971, with the organizational Vietnam War still going after almost a decade, a military analyst named Daniel Ellsberg leaked a seven-thousand page history of Essay on Biography of Josef, U.S.-Vietnam relations that had been prepared for internal use by the Pentagon. Lengthy sections of these “Pentagon Papers” were published in The Washington Post and The New York Times , revealing the covert origins of a war that was exceedingly unpopular at home. The Nixon administration ordered the organizational commitment newspapers to cease publication of any of the on Biography of Josef documents. This led to a Supreme Court case ( New York Times Co. v. United States ) that eventually ruled in favor of the press. 1972: Woodward and Bernstein expose the Watergate break in In June 1972, five men were arrested for breaking into commitment the Democratic National Committee offices at the Watergate Complex in dante's punishments Washington, DC. Two young reporters at The Washington Post , Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, were intrigued that one of the burglars was on the payroll of President Richard Nixon’s reelection committee and began digging further. Organizational? Woodward and Bernstein uncovered a series of example, political crimes and “dirty tricks” that connected the burglary back to the White House.

Their reporting led to indictments of 40 administration officials and the eventual resignation of President Nixon. The paper won the 1973 Pulitzer Prize for the investigative reporting. 1992: Florence Graves reveals sexual misconduct in Congress In 1992, shortly after the Anita Hill controversy, Florence Graves, founder of Common Cause magazine, began an investigation into sexual misconduct on Capitol Hill. She quickly found a pattern of charges pointing to Senator Bob Packwood. In the fall of 1992, The Washington Post published Graves'story detailing allegations from 10 women of sexual misconduct by the Oregon senator. The story not only led to the first-ever Senate Ethics Committee investigation of sexual misconduct and the eventual resignation of Senator Packwood, but also to the passage of the landmark Congressional Accountability Act, subjecting Congress to the same discrimination laws as the rest of the commitment nation. 2010: Dana Priest and William Arkin detail secret government organizations On July 19, 2010, Washington Post reporters Dana Priest and William Arkin published “Top Secret America,” a series of investigative articles revealing the massive and what they characterized as mismanaged post-9/11 growth of the U.S. intelligence community. The series, benefiting from the work of city of god, more than a dozen other journalists at The Post , compiled hundreds of thousands of organizational commitment, records over two years, identifying 45 government organizations (1,271 sub-units) and 1,931 private companies engaged in top-secret intelligence work. Inferno Punishments? The series highlighted the oversight challenges facing such a fast-growing and secretive system with such an important agenda: maintaining the safety of American citizens. Reuters/Jason Reed JIR.

2013: The Washington Post and The Guardian report on NSA surveillance In early June 2013, The Post and organizational commitment, The Guardian broke nearly-simultaneous stories about what of the osi model National Security Agency surveillance activities being conducted on U.S. citizens and foreign officials. Organizational? Both sets of articles, led by Barton Gellman at The Post and Glenn Greenwald at The Guardian , along with Laura Poitras and Ewan MacAskill, initially relied on a confidential source who was a former NSA analyst and then-employee at a private sector consulting firm. The source had told Gellman that he was operating out of conscience and example, knew that he would be exposed. That person was Edward Snowden. Both newspapers shared the Pulitzer Prize this year for organizational commitment their articles. Washington Post reporters Carl Bernstein (center) and Bob Woodward (left), the team who broke the Watergate story. Washington, D.C., 1974. Wayne Miller/Magnum Photos. T he golden era had its shortcomings, to be sure.

A herd mentality too often prevailed, especially in Washington coverage. Self-important journalists were too common. And both the conventional wisdom and conventional attitudes remained strong. So, for is Quantitative Essay example, when confronted by a story like the AIDS epidemic, the great news organizations reacted slowly and clumsily. Few journalists paid serious attention to the rising disparities in American society. Toward the end of the commitment era, in the first years of the 21st century, the news media succumbed to is Quantitative Essay the national anxieties produced by the 9/11 attacks and failed to challenge effectively the Bush administration's rush to war in Iraq. Many journalists joined the rush. This was an embarrassment for our major journalistic institutions and organizational, a disservice to the country. Nevertheless, America's best news organizations have proved their value again and again, even in recent years, as their fortunes have declined. The culture of journalistic skepticism born in the 1960s and 1970s has continued to serve the country well.

Repeatedly, journalists have broken significant news stories that government officials hoped would never be revealed, from accounts of Americans torturing terror suspects to revelations of the systematic mistreatment of veterans at apa essay example, Walter Reed Hospital; from accounts of the government's eavesdropping programs to descriptions of organizational commitment, its vast, post-9/11 intelligence apparatus. The major journalistic revelations of the last decade altered the country's image of death, itself. They mattered. And society has benefited in less tangible ways, too. Organizational? “How would this look on the front page of The Washington Post ?” has been a question asked in offices in Washington ever since the Anthropology time of Watergate, to good effect. Organizational Commitment? Of course this deterrent to illegal, unethical, or embarrassing behavior is unevenly effective; many miscreant public officials have ignored it, and will in the future, whether or not there continues to be a front page of The Washington Post . But this sense of accountability has had a salutary effect. The best journalism has most often been produced by those news organizations that have both the on Biography Albers resources and the courage to defend their best work when it offends or alarms powerful institutions and individuals. The public may perceive journalism as an individualistic enterprise carried out by lone rangers of rectitude, but this is rarely the organizational commitment case. The best work is usually done by a team that has the backing of an organization committed to maintaining the highest standards of Anthropology Essay, seriousness and organizational, integrity, and to nurturing talented reporters and editors. In the trickiest realms of investigative reporting on matters that touch on “national security,” the teamincluding the writers and editors as well as the punishments lawyers and organizational, often the publisher toocan be critically important. News organizations that can afford to support such teams are now at risk. A healthy democratic society requires refereesauthority figures with whistles they can blow when they perceive infringements of the rules.

Prosecutors and judges fulfill this role in matters of law enforcement, but their writ is limited by the scope of the is Quantitative law. “I am not a crook,” insisted Richard Nixon, and perhaps he wasn't, but he was a kind of organizational commitment, political criminal nevertheless, and dante's, he was first called to account by journalists. Will such whistle blowers be on commitment, the job to confront the next Nixon? Paul Starr, the Anthropology is Quantitative Essay distinguished Princeton scholar, has put the commitment matter succinctly: “By undermining the economic basis of professional reporting and by fragmenting the of the osi model public, [the digital revolution] has weakened the ability of the press to act as an effective agent of organizational, public accountability. If we take seriously the Anthropology is Quantitative idea that an independent press serves an essential democratic function, its institutional distress may weaken democracy itself. And that is the danger that confronts us.” Bill O'Reilly vs. Jon Stewart 2012: The Rumble In The Air-Conditioned Auditorium at George Washington University on October 6, 2012. Jamie McCarthy/Getty Images for The Rumble 2012.

I f today's providers of the commitment best journalismoften referred to these days, somewhat ominously, as “legacy media,” meaning the old stuffcannot survive their continuing tribulations, what will take their place? Predicting the future is a fool's errand, but some trends are clear. The Internet promotes fragmentation by encouraging the development of like-minded communities, from you and your Facebook friends to avid Tea Party supporters who love Breitbart News, a highly readable, relentlessly ideological right-wing news site. Surveys by the Pew Research Center for the People the Press show that increasing numbers of American get their “news” from ideologically congenial sources. What Are The 7 Layers Of The Osi Model? The news media are fragmenting just as American society is fragmentingby class, by region, by religious inclination, by generation, by commitment ethnic identity, by politics and more.

The rise of the are the 7 layers osi model fragmented news media is quite a recent phenomenon. It really became significant after the inauguration of Barack Obama in January 2009. President Obama came into the White House in the midst of the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. He had run as a unifier who would bring a new era of commitment, bipartisan collaboration: “Yes we can!” But no, he couldn't. Republicans in Congress decided at the outset of his administration that they would try to deny the death penalty definition new president any victories. Obama's early legislative successes, based on the big Democratic majorities in the House and Senate produced by the 2008 election, disguised the fact that partisan gridlock lay just around the corner. After 2010, when Republicans regained control of the organizational House, the gridlock set in. The politicians made an uneasy peace with the idea of perpetual partisan warfare. Voters also took increasingly ideological positions, and looked with increasing suspicion on those who disagreed with them. Today's politicians, especially on the right, communicate to “their” voters through “their” media, most notably, of course, Fox News.

Similarly, liberal Democrats like to appear on MSNBC. More ideological politicians like a world without Cronkiteswithout recognized gatekeepers and arbiters. So “the news” that once helped unify the country is now just another source of division. Daniel Patrick Moynihan used to argue that “everyone is on Biography, entitled to his own opinion, but not to his own facts.” No longer. Politicians and commentators now seem perfectly happy inventing their own reality when it suits their political or ideological purposes. Fox News's determination to ridicule the Affordable Care Act”Obamacare”had nothing to do with traditional journalistic truth-seeking. Rather, it was part of a propaganda campaign.

The MSNBC cable network, part of NBC, which used to be a serious news organization, saw a business opportunity in making itself a liberal alternative to Fox, the most profitable cable news network, and now unabashedly propagates a liberal view of the commitment news. Fox and MSNBC have both decided to cater to their audiences not with original reporting of the news (which is expensive), but with commentary on the news interspersed with broadcasts of set-piece events like presidential news conferences. Curiously, or revealingly, there is little outrage in the culture about inferno punishments these developments. We seem to have adapted to the demise of the old expectations about accuracy, fairness, and reporting without much of a fight. Some of the commitment new online products produce interesting and penalty definition, informative journalism, but none has the ambitions or the sense of responsibility of the best publications. They couldn't afford those luxuries. A great news organization is expensive. Organizational Commitment? The newsroom of city of god, The New York Times costs about $230 million a year.

The news operation of The Washington Post , already substantially diminished from the organizational commitment height of city of god, its profitability and influence, still costs more than $90 million a year. Without the organizational revenues to support them, newsrooms all over the country have been decimated. Newspapers employed 59,000 journalists in 1989, and 36,000 in 2012 (and fewer since then). Of God Lil Ze? Once-formidable institutions including The Baltimore Sun , Chicago Tribune , Los Angeles Times , and commitment, Miami Herald are vastly diminished. Others have gone out of is Quantitative Essay, business altogether. The significant news organizations that have survived are under terrific pressure now. A revealing document emerged this spring from The New York Times , a 96-page report written by a committee of Times employees on the digital future. Reading it makes clear the extent to which even Times reporters and editors now see the demands of the digital age as incompatible with their traditional pursuits.

The committee argues that The New York Times must become a “digital first” organization. “That means aggressively questioning many of our print-based traditions and their demands on our time, and determining which can be abandoned to free up resources for organizational digital work.” One example cited in the report: “Packaging, promoting and sharing our journalism” on the Internetthree activities that have nothing to do with reporting and writing news storiesmust become a priority for the newsroom. Even when journalists are allowed to pursue traditional reporting, the requirements of online journalism limit their opportunities to do so. Of God? Before the big papers had websites, a reporter could take all day to cover an event, talk to organizational sources to get background information, consider the implications of the new developments, and write a story for the next day's paper. Today the same reporter has to file multiple versions of the same story as the day progresses, adding new tidbits as she acquires them. There is much less time available to dig into a story and discover its ramifications. City Of God? The quantity of original reporting has surely declined as the importance of the Internet has grown.

One immediate effect of all these changes and organizational, cutbacks is that there's no paper in America today that can offer the same coverage of its city, suburbs, and state that it provided 20 or even 10 years ago, and scores of city halls and state legislatures get virtually no coverage by any substantive news organizations. Television remains the primary source of news for most Americans, but local stations have dramatically reduced their reporting staffs, and the networks no longer try to cover the world and the country as they once did. It’s true that the federal government in Washington still gets a lot of example, attention from reporters. But one large category of Washington coverage has virtually disappeared: journalism about organizational members of Congress by news organizations “back home.” A generation ago scores of local newspapers and television stations employed Washington correspondents who kept an eye on the members of the House and Senate from their cities and states. Senator Christopher Dodd recalls that in his early years in the Senate, in the 1980s, a dozen reporters from Connecticut outlets were based in Washington and reported regularly on his activities. By the time he retired in 2010, that number had fallen to zero.

No Connecticut newspaper or television station had a reporter in the nation's capital. Facade of The Newseum, incorporating the text of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. David Monack/Wikimedia Commons. A re there no grounds for optimism, or even hope? Of course there are. In this age of creative destruction, the destruction is Anthropology is Quantitative, more obvious than the creativity, but some of the organizational commitment new, online providers of news are doing interesting work that helps compensate for the shrinkage of traditional outlets' reporting staffs. Death Penalty Definition? For example, in Connecticut there are now several bloggers reporting on commitment, the state's members of Congress, and CT Mirror, a non-profit news site, has a full-time Washington reporter.

Around the country dozens of news websites have sprung up to provide some local coverage, many of them employing their own reporters, and city of god lil ze, a few of them are quite good. There are also several web-based operations that sometimes break important national stories. The very best of commitment, them is punishments, ProPublica, a non-profit organization founded by Paul Steiger, the former managing editor of The Wall Street Journal , that is devoted to investigative reporting, an expensive specialty that has suffered in organizational the era of disappearing newspaper profits. ProPublica provides pro bono journalism of the highest quality, as good as the 7 layers osi model investigative projects of the major newspapers. Its budget of $12 million a year, nearly all raised from donors, funds a staff of 45 reporters and editors. Organizational Commitment? But as its journalists acknowledge, the ProPublica stories that have the greatest impact are those done in collaboration with legacy news media that publish or broadcast them. Death Penalty Definition? Its own excellent website has a relatively small audience. AP Photo/Jason DeCrow. Other non-profit organizations are also providing reporting at a level that only the commitment major news organizations used to offer. The winner of the city lil ze 2014 Pulitzer Prize for investigative reporting was Chris Hamby of the Center for Public Integrity in Washington, a non-profit watchdog organization that maintains vast electronic files tracing the flow of money into organizational commitment our politics.

Marcus Brauchli, who has served as the senior editor of both The Wall Street Journal and The Washington Post , observed recently that thanks to Internet offerings, the quantity of American journalism has never been greater. It used to be the case that newspapers like the city lil ze Times and Post offered their readers what was usually the very best coverage available in a wide range of organizational commitment, news categoriesthere were no serious competitors. Dante's Punishments? Today there are competitors in organizational commitment every one: ESPN in sports, Politico in apa essay example Washington coverage, BuzzFeed in the world of popular culture, and so on. We at the Post used to have a corner on the market in Washingtonno competitor could challenge us in any of organizational, our major categories. City Of God Lil Ze? No corners are available now. New York Times Building. Jleon/ Wikimedia Commons. I f there is commitment, some good news, it's hardly enough to Essay on Biography Albers be reassuring. Something more substantial has to happen to sustain the kind of commitment, journalistic excellence that a democracy requires. Of course there can be technological surprises. A group of young people could be working in a Silicon Valley garage right now on an idea that could re-establish a healthy revenue stream for major news organizations.

I certainly hope so. Efforts to save serious journalism enjoy one natural advantage: smart people playing influential roles in society know that they need good information about many subjects. It is conceivable that these citizens, who are a significant audience albeit a small fraction of the total population, will be willing to Anthropology is Quantitative pay the full cost of the journalism they consume. At first blush this may sound painfully obvious. Don't people usually pay for the services they use?

Not the news. Before websites, readers paid a pittance for their news in newspapers that were deliberately priced below the organizational cost of a cup of coffee to try to maximize circulation (and therefore advertising dollars). And then for lil ze the better part of two decadesthe first decades of the World Wide Webonline consumers got used to the idea that news was not just cheap but free. Commitment? In the United States The Wall Street Journal was the city only major publication that charged for online access to its journalism. Everyone else gave their work away on the theoryor hopethat this was the way to build the audiences that advertisers would eventually pay to organizational reach.

Then in March 2011, The New York Times announced a paywall that required regular online readers to pay for its journalism, a risky gambit that has proven remarkably successful. At the beginning of April the Times had 800,000 “digital subscribers,” people paying to Anthropology read the paper on electronic devices only. (The daily ink-on-paper Times is bought by 680,000 people, and 1.2 million on commitment, Sundays.) Digital subscriptions currently bring in more than $150 million a year, money that has saved the company from the grave financial crisis caused by declining revenues for the print edition. 7 Layers? The Washington Post and most other large newspapers followed the Times , if they were not already charging for online access. Commitment? Though none of the others has had as much success signing up digital subscribers as the Times , the newspaper’s ability to persuade online readers to example pay is heartening. It suggests at least the possibility that over commitment, time, consumers of news might follow the lil ze path of television viewers, who once thoughtbefore the arrival of cable televisionthat TV was free, but eventually got used to paying substantial monthly cable bills. Some version of that transition could save the traditional news businessif some clever inventor can figure out how to make it happen. Until now no one has, and commitment, even the Times 's encouraging numbers fall short of a solution that could save its $235 million-a-year newsroom. A morning edition of the Washington Post- August 6, 2013. Amazon.com Inc founder Jeff Bezos bought the newspaper in a surprise deal that ended the Graham family's 80 years of ownership. Design the electronic classifieds now. see the full memo.

L ast fall, when he met the staff of dante's, The Washington Post soon after buying the paper, Jeff Bezos of Amazon spoke about the importance of “the bundle,” as he called the variety of news, opinion, useful information, and entertainment that the Post offers each day. The goal in the digital age, Bezos said, had to be to make the bundle attractive to a lot of peopleso attractive that they would be willing to pay for it. Organizational Commitment? The average age of the dante's inferno readers of the organizational commitment printed paper, Bezos noted, goes up “about one year every year.” It's no secret where that leads, he quipped. Now that he owns the money-losing Post , Bezos faces the challenge of how to sell that bundle. Michael Moritz of lil ze, Sequoia Capital, one of the country's most successful venture capitalists, summarized the problem: “How [can] an Internet property, dedicated to broad-based news and information, ever generate a lot of money? Without solving that riddle, there is no path to prosperity.” Of course, a large organization offering “broad-based news and information” is not the organizational commitment only conceivable model. Inferno Punishments? Personally I am convinced that our society will be best served by the survival of a few distinguished news organizations committed to holding powerful people accountable for the ways they use their power. This view is commitment, certainly a product of my lifetime's service in one such organization.

But there are other possibilities. Death Penalty Definition? The news supermarkets we are used to may not survive, but “disaggregated” news organizations specializing in specific subjects might, over time, provide the accountability journalism we need. One interesting example is the SCOTUS blog, which provides excellent coverage of the Supreme Court. It makes no profit, but is organizational, supported by Bloomberg. Politico's coverage of Essay, Washington and politics, though uneven, is better than that of any but the organizational commitment very best news organizations.

And Politico, thanks to revenue from its Capitol Hill newspaper edition, actually makes money. It is also possible that “prosperity” won't be necessary. Apa Essay? The $250 million Bezos paid for commitment The Washington Post was a tiny sliver of his $30 billion net worth. For him to cover the Post 's losses now costs the equivalent of lunch money for definition an ordinary mortalsomething Bezos could easily afford for decades to organizational come, if he chooses to play the example angel's role indefinitely. The money-losing Boston Globe , sold at organizational, a huge loss by The New York Times in 2013, has a deep-pocketed new owner in John Henry, principal owner of the Boston Red Sox, who similarly could keep the paper afloat indefinitely if he wants to. Apa Essay? There might be comparable angels in the futures of other news organizations. New Yorkers have speculated for years that their former mayor, Michael Bloomberg, worth $34 billion, might play that role some day for The New York Times . The wealthiest giants in this brave new world are companies that did not exist 20 years ago, inventive outfits that have capitalized on digital technologies most effectively. Facebook and organizational commitment, Google, for example, bestride the globe like modern-day King Kongs, catering to billions of people and what are the of the, earning scores of billions of dollars. Both exploit the work of traditional providers of organizational, news that create information useful to Facebook friends and Google searchers. They lead large numbers of readers to the journalism of the legacy media.

But they contribute relatively little to the survival of those providers. These firms were created by a new generation of of the, young people whose self-interest may lead them either to realize the commitment importance of the legacy institutions, or figure out how to are the 7 layers osi model create new ways to do what the old news organizations did in the past. Financially, it would be easy for Google to rescue The New York Times . The annual cost of the Times 's newsroom represents less than 2 percent of Google's 2013 profits. Google, or someone else, could also create new news organizations dedicated to excellent coverage of narrow fields. The future, in Mort Sahl's wise words, lies aheadbut remains invisible. News as we know it is at risk. So is democratic governance, which depends on an effective watchdog news media.

Both have been undermined by changes in society wrought by digital technologiesamong the commitment most powerful forces ever unleashed by mankind. We have barely begun the Digital Age, and there is no point in Essay on Biography trying to predict just where it will take us. Commitment? News certainly has a future, but what that will be is unclear. All that we know for certain is that we are lighting out for new territory. Join the conversation on Twitter using #BrookingsEssay or share this on Facebook . This Essay is of god lil ze, also available as an eBook from these online retailers: Amazon Kindle, Barnes Noble, Apple iTunes, Google Play, and on Kobo. Like other products of the Institution, The Brookings Essay is intended to contribute to discussion and stimulate debate on important issues. The views are solely those of the author. Graphic Design: Marcia Underwood and Jessica Pavone. Research: Fred Dews, Thomas Young, Jessica Pavone, Kevin Hawkins. Editorial: Beth Rashbaum and Fred Dews. Web Development: Marcia Underwood.

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How to choose the right NBN plan for your business. The National Broadband Network (NBN) is commitment being rolled out across Australia, as a much-needed upgrade to the dated internet infrastructure of before. If NBN is available in your area, its an opportunity thats probably well worth taking advantage of. Even if its not at your address yet, it very likely will be within the city lil ze next few years, in which case its probably time to start preparing so your business can hit the ground running. Why should you choose an NBN plan for organizational commitment business? Faster speeds provides your business with the opportunity to what are the of the osi model improve the way your business operates. Greater support for business.

Internet providers recognise the critical data needs of organizational commitment, business customers, providing increased support for your business. A fast and reliable broadband connection allows your business to example work without interruptions. The NBN is designed to replace the older and soon to be obsolete ADSL network, and to organizational commitment finally bring high speed internet to penalty more remote parts of Australia. To reach everyone the NBN uses a mix of organizational, technologies including fibre optic connections, wireless, satellite and existing short-distance connections within streets and buildings. Fibre optics will make up much of the network, and are essentially glass cables which are capable of transmitting large amounts of data much more quickly, with much less degradation over on Biography of Josef, longer distances, and with greatly reduced bottlenecking in high traffic compared to other connection types. In short, the NBN provides a broadband connection that is organizational commitment simply much faster, and much more reliable. For business purposes, this matters. If youve ever found yourself frustrated at slow internet and 7 layers wondering how much productivity its costing you, you'll understand the opportunities to be had with faster connections.

The main plan benefits to compare before applying for an NBN business plan. Data, communication and speeds: The right plan should match your business needs. Organizational Commitment? Pay special attention to Essay on Biography of Josef Albers both the commitment upload and download speeds, and Essay of Josef Albers consider the range of networked equipment your business uses, as well as the typical day to organizational day internet use. Its generally a good idea to example have a buffer for every person who will be using your business network, so everyone can maintain productivity at slow internet times. Essentially, the more people getting online and the more data you need, the commitment larger the buffer you need. Multiple phone lines: If your business has more than one phone line its essential that your provider is able to what are the osi model accommodate them. Enhanced service level agreement (eSLA): Businesses can look forward to receiving faster response times and a higher level of support for their NBN service. This type of agreement is between the service provider and business.

Monthly data allowance: For business purposes its generally a good idea to organizational commitment avoid any plans with caps, and to limit your comparisons to unlimited data plans. Minimum monthly cost: This can give you a good overview of what the costs will be, to consider in line with one-off fees and monthly fees. Call allowance and cost: Try to get an idea of how much phone calls will be costing you, and look for a plan with any phone features that suit your needs, such as free, unlimited local calls or an international call allowance. Set up fees: How much will it cost to Essay get set up? Early termination charges: With the organizational NBN still developing and more providers entering the market it can be a good idea to look for a flexible plan. The catch is that these typically cost a bit more every month. Weigh potential early termination charges against the cost difference of is Quantitative, a no lock-in plan. Hardware and equipment: Does the plan include any routers, signal boosters or other equipment? If so, consider whether its right for you and whether its a free extra or youre being charged for it.

Support services: Hows the customer service? When your business depends on it, you want to know there are prompt answers available and support for organizational commitment any outages or issues. Besides checking the service agreement you can also research the providers reputation online, specifically with an eye towards how other business customers have had their issues resolved, how long it took, whether there were unreasonable charges and anything else you find. Additional benefits and perks: Discounts, bundle options, bonuses and other perks are widely available as competitors jostle for business. It can be worth factoring these into your decision, but generally not at the cost of finding a plan that suits your needs. How the NBN can help your business to Engage customers better. Penalty? Faster connections can greatly improve your customer experience. This means fewer people clicking away because your website is slow, and organizational commitment the ability to make it much more immersive sites with better features, higher quality images, more videos and whatever else you need.

If you want to use more videos or high quality images as marketing material, its quicker and easier to send it out. In particular, if you have customers overseas you can expect to notice a difference. Of The Osi Model? Bolster productivity. Higher speeds naturally mean less downtime and more productivity, but also help remove obstacles for remote, overseas or at home workers, and let them engage as easily and readily as if they were there in person. Commitment? Get more flexible data access with cloud services. Cloud based services deliver access to important information and materials no matter where someone is. An obstacle of of Josef, cloud services is the speed at which one can upload and access it, and the NBN helps remove these. Save money. Having a faster, higher quality connection can help save on travel time and commitment cost. For example, a doctors office with the NBN can now send and receive x-rays of exceptional quality for faster accurate diagnoses, and what 7 layers of the osi model can also let specialists around the world see them.

With an old copper connection this would simply have been time and cost-prohibitive. Your business might be able to video-conference internal meetings, engage customers around the world and talk with suppliers with all the efficiency benefits of face to organizational face communication. The NBN goes a long way to what are the of the removing the barriers and costs of organizational commitment, distance. Why are there so many NBN technologies, and how do they affect my business? The complexities and costs of rolling out a fibre optic network around Australia has led to a few different types of what, connections. Depending on where youre situated, the NBNs internet will arrive at your business in a different way. It is important to note that you cant choose which type of NBN connection you will receive. Commitment? The main ones are:

FTTP - Fibre to lil ze the premises : Fibre optic network right to your office/ home. The advantage of FTTP is that it allows for the highest possible speeds. FTTN - Fibre to the node : Fibre optics to commitment a nearby node, then copper to your business. The speeds of apa essay, FTTN can be variable and lower than the organizational advertised speeds depending on your specific location and what 7 layers the the length of organizational commitment, copper used. FTTB - Fibre to the basement: Fibre optics to the building, typically the dante's inferno basement, and then copper to organizational commitment your unit. Also known as fibre to the building. In most cases FTTB should offer speeds approaching FTTP, and better than FTTN. HFC - Hybrid fibre coaxial: Uses an city existing pay TV or cable network running to commitment your premises from the node, for higher quality than copper. FTTdp - Fibre to the distribution point: A cross between FTTP and FTTN in dante's inferno both price and organizational quality, with fibre to the node, a different kind of fibre to a distribution point nearer to the premises, and then copper over a shorter remaining distance.

The idea was devised partway through the development of the NBN, and of Josef Albers is expected to feature in the wider rollout. Fixed wireless NBN: Intended for areas where running wires is not feasible or is cost-prohibitive. An estimated 4% of Australians will end up with fixed wireless NBN. This transmits wireless internet to commitment the premises from a fixed line-of-sight location, in dante's a way that performs significantly better than copper over longer distances. Satellite: A satellite dish is organizational commitment installed on punishments, the premises in rural and remote locations to receive the NBN connection. This is the slowest type of commitment, NBN connection, but because its generally reserved for the most remote areas it will almost certainly be a significant upgrade to your current broadband. Its important to of Josef know what youll be getting, because this determines what your speed limits will be.

FTTP is generally the fastest, with all of the others having technical bottlenecks which may prevent you from getting the speeds advertised by the fastest plans, depending on commitment, the age, quality and Essay condition of the organizational existing copper cables, or other limitations. However, in almost all cases it should still be significantly faster than ADSL, and what 7 layers of the upgrades are frequently being made. If your business is in a situation where the existing copper (or HFC) wiring is the obstacle it may be worth looking more closely at commitment, the plans which offer greater flexibility and do not lock you into an extended plan. Can I get a fibre network installed to my premises? Yes, although the costs are generally quite high. You may be responsible for both the installation and ongoing maintenance costs, which would typically be the responsibility of the network provider. Both the short term and apa essay long-term costs are generally not worth it except in commitment specialised circumstances. What NBN speed does my business need? Consider both the download and the upload speeds when looking at plans. Download: The speed at which you can receive inbound traffic, such as streaming a video. Upload: The speed of your outgoing traffic, such as sending files.

Upload speed is typically a lot more important for Essay on Biography businesses than it is for residential plans, so its worth paying more attention to this, in organizational line with your business needs. 12Mbps down and on Biography of Josef 1Mbps up service - Ideal for everyday residential use. 25Mbps down and 5Mbps up service 25Mbps down and 10Mbps up service. 50Mbps down and 20Mbps up service. 100Mbps down and 40Mbps up service 100Mbps down 100Mbps up service. If the NBN is now available in your area and your business is ready, then making the switch itself is straightforward.

Simply contact your chosen provider and prepare your establishment to get the ball rolling. Checklist: Make sure your business devices are moved over to the NBN successfully. Its essential to make sure your business is prepared before making the switch. Other than the internet itself, certain equipment and services might also be disrupted. PBX systems or multiple phone lines: Contact the equipment provider or phone service for advice on compatibility with the NBN and commitment any changes which may be required. Fax machines and fax lines: Check with the phone company whether your equipment, and their service, is compatible with the NBN. ATM on site: Contact the Anthropology is Quantitative Essay relevant bank to see whether its compatible. Commitment? EFTPOS terminals: Contact the bank or other relevant provider for advice on minimising disruption and death penalty downtime. Organizational? The same applies for HICAPS and health claim terminals, or similar networked card reading devices. Cloud services: Contact your chosen internet service provider for information on expected disruptions, and ways of minimising it. Wider area networks such as VPN: Speak with the equipment and service providers to find ways of minimising disruption, and to check up on the data needs.

Unified communications (eg, video-conferencing systems): Contact the equipment and internet service provider for ways of minimising disruption, and to find out your data needs. Telephony (eg, VOIP): Consult the apa essay example equipment and internet services provider for organizational commitment information on compatibility, data requirements and reducing disruption. Monitored security alarms or cameras: Check with the equipment provider whether the gear is compatible with the city of god NBN, and organizational any changes you may need to example make. Fire alarms and organizational lift emergency phones: If you have a monitored fire alarm or lift emergency phone, register them with NBN and consult your lift maintenance provider for any compatibility issues. Medical alarms or autodiallers: Register these with the NBN and check with the equipment providers to make sure its compatible, and to help minimise any break in penalty service.

Business NBN frequently asked questions. Are there any NBN plans designed for businesses only? Yes. There are some NBN plans which have speeds, capacities and other benefits which put them well beyond the needs of organizational, residential customers. If you have a medium or large business, or have particularly intensive data needs, then there are some business-specific features you might want to look for, not typically included in Anthropology Essay residential plans. Enhanced service level agreement: A business plan may include more competitive uptime service agreements than residential plans, and organizational can be good for delivering peace of mind.

An enhanced service level agreement means the NBN will provide a higher level of punishments, support to your ISP, which means great support for your business. Symmetrical internet connections: A high speed symmetrical connection offers simultaneously high speed uploads and downloads. Typical connections will often favour downloads by default. Organizational? Multiple connections: Business plans can include multiple separate connections, each for a different purpose such as data or voice, to ensure reliability and high speeds for each. You can expect to pay considerably more for multiple connections since this requires more infrastructure. Expansion options: Some business plans may be more scalable, or have expansion options to death penalty help it keep meeting your needs in organizational commitment the future.

Multiple location plans: You may be able to cover multiple office locations under one plan. To meet the technical ACCC definition of super-fast, an internet plan only apa essay, needs to organizational have download speeds above 25Mbps. Can business customers receive gigabit speeds yet? Yes, but only example, wholesale. Gigabit speeds are 1,000 Mbps, or 40 times faster than super-fast. These are available for commercial customers, but only directly from NBN at the wholesale level. When you as a typical business or residential customer sign up for an NBN plan, youre going through a third party provider.

To date, none of these third party providers offer gigabit plans in organizational commitment Australia because there simply isnt any demand for it at the prices they would have to charge. Whats the difference between fibre and fixed wireless NBN? In short, fibre is internet run through cables while fixed wireless is wireless. Anthropology Is Quantitative? Fibre optics can deliver considerably higher speeds, and currently have higher speed plans available, while fixed wireless will generally reach speeds of up to around 25Mbps. Fixed wireless NBN is intended for areas where its not feasible to run fibre optic cables, and an estimated 4% of Australians will be able to receive it through direct line-of-sight towers. What happens if I dont change to commitment an NBN plan? In areas where the NBN fibre optic network is being run they are replacing the old copper network. Here, you have 18 months after it arrives to switch to an NBN plan before the old connection is shut off.

The exception is in the few areas with fixed wireless, where no new fibre optics are being run and therefore the existing copper network is staying. Got any other questions? Contact us below in the comments section and well get back to you within 24 hours. The latest broadband offers on death definition, finder. Find out when the NBN is commitment coming to your area with our tracker. Save 75% on a 2 year deal with NordVPN. Get 2 years of super fast and city of god secure NordVPN for $72. Grow your small business and compare the best broadband plans for SMEs. amaysim are now offering unlimited data NBN plans from $60/month.

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Although we provide information on commitment, the products offered by a wide range of issuers, we don't cover every available product. You should consider whether the products featured on our site are appropriate for your needs and of god lil ze seek independent advice if you have any questions. The identification of organizational, a group of products, as 'Top' or 'Best' is a reflection of user preferences based on current website data. On a regular basis, analytics drive the creation of a list of popular products. Where these products are grouped, they appear in no particular order. Where our site links to particular products or displays 'Go to site' buttons, we may receive a commission, referral fee or payment.

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Acceptance by insurance companies is based on things like occupation, health and lifestyle. Definition? By providing you with the ability to organizational apply for a credit card or loan we are not guaranteeing that your application will be approved. Essay On Biography Of Josef Albers? Your application for credit products is subject to the Provider's terms and commitment conditions as well as their application and what lending criteria. Please read our website terms of use for more information about organizational our services and our approach to privacy.