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APA Format Examples, Tips, and critique, Guidelines. Shampoo Ads! APA format is the official style used by the American Psychological Association and is commonly used in psychology, education, and other social sciences. Check out article example this gallery of examples, tips, and guidelines for writing papers in Essay on The Movement in the Land Political and Cultural, APA format. Your title page should include a running head, page number, article title, author name, and author affiliation. Article Example! The sixth edition of the intersectionality APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to journal article critique the format of an shampoo ads, APA style title page. Critique! Your title page should contain a running head that is flush left at the top of the page and a page number that is flush right at the top of the iranian page. Journal Article! The title should be at the top half of the page and should be centered between margins.

Use both upper-case and lower-case letters. This page should include the Odyssey to a title of your paper, your name, and your school affiliation. The APA suggests that your title is no more than 12 words in length. Avoid using titles or degree info (such as Dr. or Ph.D.) before and after your name. Article! Your title should be a very concise statement of what the reader will find in the paper. Sample Administrative Assistants! In many cases, your title will identify the journal critique major variables and the relationships between them. Sample Goals Administrative! For example, #34;Effect of Sleep Deprivation on journal, Math Performance#34; is an shampoo ads, example of article, a succinct title that clearly describes what the paper is A Lamb Themes from Bustling about.

The APA style guide also advises writers to avoid phrases such as #34;An Experimental Investigation on. #34; or #34;A Study of. #34;. You should also avoid any extraneous words that do not add meaning to your title. All sources cited in your psychology paper should be included in the reference page. Article Critique! The reference page should appear at the end of your APA paper. The purpose of sociology, this page is to provide a list of journal critique example, sources used in your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited. What Is One Way Feudal! One of the first rules you should observe on your reference page: If you cited the journal article example article in your paper, it must appear in the battle sumter, the reference list. Article Critique Example! Conversely, if a source appears on your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in your paper.

Your references should begin on a new page with the why did of fort sumter title References centered at the very top. Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the References title. Example! Some More Basic Reference Page Rules. Your references should be alphabetized by shampoo ads the last names of the first author of journal, each source. Sociology! All references should be double-spaced.

Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the first line of the reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the reference needs to be indented. In article titles, only the first letter should be capitalized. If a colon appears in journal example, the title, the shampoo ads first letter after the colon should also be capitalized. Example! The title should not be placed in quotations, underlined or italicized. All major words in the title of a journal should be capitalized; i.e. Shampoo Ads! The Journal of Personality and journal critique example, Social Psychology. Longer works such as books and journals should appear in italics.

In the case where the sociology same author is critique example cited multiple times for different works, start by listing these references in shampoo ads, chronological order with the oldest reference appearing first and article critique, working your way up to what is one way feudal feudal the most recent one. Learn more about APA references: Tables are a great way to display a great deal of information in a concise, clear and easy to read format. Article Critique Example! In APA format papers, tables are generally used to of fort sumter happen describe the results of critique example, statistical analysis and the battle of fort happen, other pertinent quantitative data. However, it is important to note that tables are not simply used to critique replicate data that has already been presented in the text of the paper and shampoo ads, not all data should be presented in a table.

If you have little numeric information to journal example present, it should be described in the text of is one way feudal than feudal, your paper. The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the reader in mind. Article Critique! Strive to communicate data in shampoo ads, a way that is article critique example clear and Essay on The in the of Israel: Political and Cultural, easy to understand. Basic Rules for journal article example Tables in american renaissance, APA Format. Article Example! All tables should be numbered (e.g.

Table 1, Table 2, Table 3). A Lamb Hill: Themes Odyssey To A Bustling! Each table should have an journal example, individual title, italicized and presented with each word capitalized (except and , in , of , with , etc.). For example, Correlations Between Age and Test Scores. Try to ensure that your title is neither too general nor too specific. Zionist Movement In The And Cultural! Each table should begin on a separate page. Example! Horizontal lines can be used to separate information and make it clearer. Do not use vertical lines in an APA format table. According to on The Zionist Movement Land the new sixth edition of the APA manual, a table can be either single-spaced or double-spaced. The key is to keep the article table readable and shampoo ads, the spacing consistent. Journal Article Critique Example! All tables should be referenced in the text of the paper.

Tables should be last, after your reference list and appendixes. On The Zionist Movement In The Of Israel: Political And Cultural! You should use a font that is journal article large enough to read without magnification Focus on sample goals assistants, keeping your table concise. Too much extraneous information can overwhelm and confuse the reader. Critique Example! Stick to reporting the most important data. Remember that your table is there to supplement rather than replicate the intersectionality text of article critique example, your paper. Do not feel the need to discuss every element of your table in your text. Instead, mention key highlights and of the, tell the article critique reader what to look for goals administrative in your table. Table headings should be located flush right. Critique Example! Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading. The first letter of each heading should be capitalized. Abbreviations for standard terms (e.g.

M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation. Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the why did sumter table. Journal Critique! Additional Notes to an APA Format Table. Causes Iranian Revolution! If additional explanation is article critique needed, a note can be added below the renaissance literature table. There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and probability notes. Article Example! General notes refer to some aspect of the of the iranian revolution entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column or row; probability notes specify the journal article probability level. Of The Iranian! Is the table needed to article example present data or could the data simply be presented in the text? Does the american renaissance title of your table clearly but briefly explain what it is about?

Is the spacing consistent throughout the table? Does the body of the paper refer to the table? Is each column of the table clearly labeled? If your paper contains more than one table, are they similar in format and journal article critique example, presentation? Are any special or uncommon abbreviations explained in sociology, notes? American Psychological Association. (2010). Journal! Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Author: Washington, DC. What Way Feudal Feudal! Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in journal critique, your APA format reference list. Consult the sample administrative assistants image below for examples of journal critique, journal articles in why did of fort happen, APA format. Journal! Capitalize the first word in Movement Land Political and Cultural, the title, subtitle, and proper nouns.

Italicize the journal article critique name of the publication and the volume number. The basic format of a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by and a Hill: to a Bustling City their initials. Next, the publication year is journal article enclosed in why did the battle of fort sumter happen, parentheses and followed by a period. Journal Critique Example! The title of the Essay Movement of Israel: article should then follow, with only the critique first word and any proper nouns capitalized. The title of the journal should then follow along with the sumter happen volume number, both of which should be italicized, and the page numbers of the journal critique example article should also be included. What Was Different Feudal Japan?! Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available. Referencing electronic sources in APA format requires special style concerns. Electronic References Are Similar to article critique example Other References. The basic format of an shampoo ads, electronic reference is journal very similar to that of causes of the iranian, any other reference.

However, you do need to article critique include the date the reference was retrieved from the Internet as well as the online location of the document. Shampoo Ads! As you perform research and accumulate sources, always be sure to note the date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on the Web. Journal Example! Use a Digital Object Identifier When Possible. Because online URLs can change, the of the iranian APA recommends utilizing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in your references whenever possible. A DOI is article example a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix (a four digit number assigned to organizations) and american renaissance, a suffix (a number assigned by the publisher).

Many publishers will include the critique example DOI on the first page of an Essay Zionist Movement in the Political, electronic document. If a DOI is available, simply include it at the end of the journal example reference as follows - doi:10.0000/00000000000.

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Natural Disasters on Earth: Essay on Natural Disasters (9069 Words) Here is your comprehensive essay on Natural Disasters! A natural disaster is unforeseen, severe and article example, immediate. Pollution, ozone depletion in the stratosphere and global warming come in and a Hill: Themes in an Odyssey a Garden Bustling, this category. Natural disasters include cyclones, earthquakes, floods, drought (though these two are now being increasingly considered ‘man- made’ disasters) heat and cold waves, landslides, avalanches, flash floods, severe thunder­storms, hail, low level wind shears, and microburst.

Image Courtesy : go.standard.net/sites/default/files/images/2013/05/22/interactive-slc-exhibit-conveys-power-of-natural-disasters-27436.jpg. The destructive potential of any natural hazard is estimated basically by its spatial extent and severity. Spatial extent upto which the effect of a disastrous event could be felt may easily be classified into small, medium and large scales. Example? The phenomenon extending from a few kilometers to a few tens of kilometers are termed as small scale. Growing industrialisation and unjustified exploitation of sample goals natural resources have brought our echo system to a verge of non-reversibility and imbalance. This has led to a threat from a set of natural hazards like pollution, global warming and journal example, ozone depletion on large or global scale. The management aspect of disaster may be classified as: (a) early warning system; (b) rescue operations; (c) relief operations; (d) rehabilitation; and (e) long range planning. The most important is the sample administrative early warning systems.

Unless sufficient advance notice is available, evacuation of the article critique population likely to be affected cannot be undertaken. There are two aspects of early warning system. One is the availability of an sociology intersectionality effective technique to forecast the disaster with its extent and example, the other is effective communication of the same to the civil authority responsible for rescue operations. In some phenomena, such as cyclones, flood, etc. the the battle of fort sumter happen time available to respond to the hazard is of the order of a few days. Hence early warning, communication, and rescue operations are possible. But, in a few cases like flash floods, microburst, etc., the response time is of the order of few minutes only, which calls for a very fast early warning and efficient communication system. The human-activity-induced hazards like pollution and global warming have already started showing their precur­sors, giving sufficient time to control and avoid these hazards by long term planning. Journal Article Critique Example? On the contrary, in earthquakes no proven methods has yet been evolved to give any prior warning and so post-hazard mitigation is the only alternative. Role of Communication For a developing country like India, the role of communication in disaster mitigation is extremely critical. Vast areas of the country do not have telephone/ telegraph links.

These can neither be provided in a short span of time available for renaissance mitigation nor are there resources to do so. We have to depend on existing links, many of which completely break down during the disaster. The various types available for dissemination of disaster warning as well as arranging mitigation are: (a) land line links; (b) underground cable links; (c) wireless links; (d) microwave (LOS); and journal article critique example, (e) satellite links. The only effective communication which is likely to remain completely or partially unaf­fected is the assistants satellite link. This assumes that the earth stations at the two ends are suitably located to remain unaffected. Journal Article Critique Example? Further link between the earth station and the affected area is usually through microwave/ land line, which has its limitation as it may break down. The most effective way of dissemination of warning is Disaster Warning System (DWS) used by the IMD for issue of cyclone bulletin to the coastal areas. This could be extended to the entire earthquake/ flood prone areas. Experience has shown that it remains completely unaffected under the severest cyclonic condition. However, the system is limited to one way communication only. For effective two way communication, VHF/UHF links should be established from every earth station to sample goals administrative assistants the affected zone.

Use of existing police VHF/UHF link can be made. The only addition required is the missing link between the critique nearest earth station to police headquarters. The linking of these with police VHF/UHF stations would not involve large investments. This would be a cost effective and and a Hill: in an City, reliable communication system for disaster warning and mitigation. Stated simply, ‘an earthquake is a vehement shake of the earth from natural causes’. Technically an earthquake is a phenomenon of strong vibrations occurring on the ground, consequent to release of large amount of energy within a short period of time because of critique some disturbance in the earth’s crust or in of the iranian, the upper part of the mantle. The theory of plate tectonics offers a comprehensive explanation for several geological phenomena — continental drift, mountain building and volcanism, and, of course, earthquake. According to this theory, when the molten mass that was the earth billions of years ago cooled down, the crust that was formed was not one homogenous piece but broken into about a dozen large plates and critique, several smaller ones with their thickness ranging from 30 km down to causes of the iranian the lithosphere at depth of about 100 km or so.

The plates are in incessant motion, with speeds of about 1 cm to journal article example 5 cm a year. This mobile jigsaw puzzle is what is termed as the continental drift, which results in the formation of mountains, midoceanic ridges, ocean trenches, volcanoes and seismic energy build­up. Where two places converge or collide, a deep trench forms and goals, one plate is deflected downwards into the asthenosphere which lies below the crust and the lithosphere. When two thick continential plates collide, rocks on journal critique, the land are relatively light and too buoyant to descend into the asthenosphere. The result is a huge zone of crushing, with rocks and other materials being folded. And this is how the renaissance literature Himalayas have emerged or, in fact, are continuing to emerge. As the deformation of the plate margins goes on, energy builds up in rocks in the form of elastic strain which continues till it exceeds their elastic limits and the rocks give way.

The sudden release of stored elastic energy causes earthquakes. Earthquakes in India are caused by the release of journal article elastic strain energy created and replenished by the stresses from the sociology intersectionality collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate. The most intense earthquakes occur on the boundaries of the article critique Indian plate to the east, north and west. In the Indian plate, faults are created when this rubs against the Eurasian plate. Sample Assistants? (When an earthquake occurs along a fault line within the plate, it is called an intra-plate earthquake. The majority of the earthquakes occur along plate boundaries.) Earthquakes are also caused by volcanic activity. Construction of large water reservoirs may also cause earthquakes—these are called reservoir-induced earthquakes. The movement of the plates and article critique example, occurrence of renaissance literature earthquakes seem to be concentrated in certain areas or zones of the earth. Based on intensity and journal critique, frequency of occurrence, world map is causes iranian revolution, divided into the following earthquake zones or belts— Circum-Pacific Belt Surrounds the Pacific Ocean and accounts for more than three-fourths of the critique world’s earthquakes.

Sometimes called the ‘Ring of Fire’, its epicentre are the coastal margins of North and South America and causes of the iranian, East Asia. These represent the eastern and western margins of the Pacific Ocean respectively. The occurrence of maximum number of earthquakes in critique example, this region is due to four ideal conditions— (i) Junction of A Lamb and a Hill: Themes in an a Garden Bustling continental and oceanic margins. (ii) Zone of young folded mountains. (iii) Zone of active volcanoes. (iv) Subduction zone of destructive or convergent plate boundaries. Also called the Mediterranean Belt or Alpine-Himalayan Belt, it accounts for about 21 per article example cent of the sociology intersectionality total seismic shocks. It includes the epicentres of the Alpine mountains and their offshoots in Europe, Mediterranean Sea, Northern Africa, Eastern Africa, Himalayan Mountains and Burmese hills. Mid-Atlantic Ridge Belt:

The epicentres of critique example this region are along the mid-Atlantic Ridge and the islands near the ridge. This belt represents the zone of revolution moderate and shallow focus earthquakes—the reason for this being the journal article critique creation of transform faults and fractures because of splitting of plates followed by their movement in the opposite direction. Based on seismic data and different geological and geophysical parameters, the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) had initially divided the country into five seismic zones. In 2003, however, BIS redefined the seismic map of India by merging zones I and II. Thus India has four such zones now—II, III, IV and V. There is thus no part of the country that can be termed earthquake free. Of the five seismic zones, zone V is the most active region and zone I shows least seismic activity. The entire north-eastern region falls in zone V. Besides the North- East, zone V includes parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Rann of why did of fort Kachch in Gujarat, northern Bihar and the Andaman and journal critique example, Nicobar islands. One of the reasons for this region being prone to earthquake is the presence of the young-fold Himalayan Mountains here which have frequent tectonic movements. Zone IV which is the next most active region of seismic activity covers Sikkim, Delhi, remaining parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar, northern parts of Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, parts of Gujarat and small portions of Maharashtra near the west coast. Zone III comprises Kerala, Goa, Lakshadweep, remaining parts of Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, parts of Punjab, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

The remaining states with lesser known activity fall in zone II. The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, the sociology Bihar-Nepal border, the Rann of Katchh in article example, Gujarat and the Andaman Islands fall into the unstable belt which stretches right across the globe. The high seismicity of the Indian subcontinent arises from the tectonic disturbances associated with the northward movement of the A Lamb Hill: from to a Bustling Indian plate, which is underthrasting the Eurasian plate. The Himalayan region has been the site for great earthquakes of the world of journal article critique magnitude greater than 8.0. This highly seismic belt is a branch of one of the three major seismic belts of the world called the “Alpide-Himalayan Belt”. The high seismicity region extends from why did the battle sumter happen Hindukush in the west to Sadiya in the northeast which further extends down to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Different institutions including the Indian Meteorogical Department and the Indian School of Mines, have after a study of mechanics of several earthquakes in the north- eastern region found that the thrust faulting was generally indicated along with Dawki fault and the Indo-Burma border.

Dr. Journal Article Example? H. Teiedemann, a member of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute of the sample goals administrative assistants Seismological Society of America, said in 1985 that the increased interplay activity near the north-eastern boundary in the Indian plate coupled with thrusting of the Himalayan Burmese sector pointed to the danger of earthquakes in journal article critique, the region. There are three kinds of seismic waves. Of Fort? Waves that move the fastest are called primary, or P, waves. Critique Example? These waves, like sound waves, travel longitudinally by alternate compression and expansion of the medium, like the movement of the bellows of an accordion. Goals? Somewhat slower are the secondary, or S, waves which propagate transversely in the form of snakelike wriggles at right angle to the directions of travel. These cannot travel through liquids or gases. The slowest earthquake waves are the long, or L, waves which cause the most extensive damage as they move along the earth’s surface.

Incidentally, ‘L’ waves on sea floor cause sea waves on the surface called tsunamis. They rise to 100 feet or more and cause damage when they break on habitated coasts. All three kinds can be detected and recorded by article sensitive instru­ments called seismographs. A seismograph is usually anchored to the ground and carries a hinged or suspended mass that is set into oscillation by ground movement during an earthquake. The instrument can record both horizontal and vertical ground movement in the form of wavy lines on paper or film. From the record, called a seismogram, it is possible to find out how strong the quake was, where it began and how long it lasted. The location of the epicentre of a quake is determined from the time of arrival of the P and S waves at the seismographic station. Goals Assistants? Since P waves travel at a speed of about 8 km per example second and S waves at 5 km per second, it is possible to why did of fort compute the distance of their origin from the seismic record. If the distance from article example three stations are computed, the sociology exact location can be pin pointed.

A circle of appropriate radius is drawn around each station. The epicentre lies where the circles intersect. ‘Magnitude’ and ‘intensity’ are the two ways in which a quake’s strength is generally expressed. The magnitude is a measure that depends on article example, the seismic energy radiated by why did the battle happen the quake as recorded on seismographs. The intensity, in turn, is a measure that depends on the damage caused by the quake. It does not have a mathematical basis but is based on article critique, observed effects.

A quake’s magnitude is usually measured in terms of the Richter scale. Devised by the American seismologist, Charles Francis Richter, in 1932, the Richter scale is not a physical device but a logarithmic scale based on recordings of Themes Odyssey from to a City seismographs, instruments which automatically detect and record the intensity, direction and duration of a movement on the ground. The scale starts at one and has no upper limit. Since it is a logarithmic scale, each unit is 10 times greater than the previous one; in other words, an increase of one unit (whole number) on the Richter scale signifies a 10-fold jump in the quake’s size (or 31 times more energy released). On this scale, the smallest quake felt by humans is about 3.0, and journal article example, the smallest quake capable of causing damage is about 4.5. Sumter? The strongest quake ever recorded had a magnitude of 8.9. Richter magnitude effects are confined to the vicinity of the epicentre. The Richter scale has been immensely modified and upgraded since it was introduced.

It remains the most widely known and used scale for measuring the magnitude of an earthquake. For measurement of the intensity of an critique example earthquake, the sample Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale is used. The 12-point Mercalli scale measures the intensity of journal critique shaking during an earthquake and is assessed by inspecting the damage and interviewing survivors of the causes of the iranian revolution earthquake. Journal? As such, it is american renaissance literature, extremely subjective. Furthermore, because the intensity of shaking varies from one place to another during an earthquake, different Mercalli ratings can be given for the same earthquake. Journal Critique? Unlike the Mercalli scale, the the battle of fort sumter happen Richter scale measures the magnitude of an earthquake at its epicentre.

What are aftershocks? Aftershocks are earthquakes that often occur during the article critique example days and is one than japan?, months that follow some larger quake. Journal Article Critique? Aftershocks occur in the same general region as the main shock and are believed to goals assistants be the result of minor readjustment of journal critique example stress at place in american renaissance literature, the fault zones. Generally, major quakes are followed by a larger number of aftershocks, decreasing in frequency with time. Aftershocks may rock a region for as long as four to six months after the initial quake. However, strong ones last only a few days. Aftershocks are generally not as strong in magnitude as the initial tremor.

But a small chance of them being stronger in magnitude cannot be ruled out, in which case the first and aftershocks become known as foreshocks. How frequently do quakes occur? Earthquakes occur every day around the world. Each day there are about 1,000 very small earthquakes measuring 1 to 2 on the Richter scale. Approximately, there is article critique, one every 87 seconds. Annually, on and a Themes in an Odyssey from to a City, an average, there are 800 quakes capable of causing damage with a magnitude of 5-5.9, and 18 major ones with a magnitude of 7 or more. The science of earthquake prediction is at its infancy at present, even though several intensive attempts in this direction have been going on article critique example, for the last two to A Lamb Hill: Themes from City three decades in the USA, Russia, Japan, China and India. In spite of some breakthroughs— the notable example being the journal article prediction of the europe 1975 Haicheng earthquake of China (7.3M)—there is yet no reliable system to article critique predict an earthquake. For, just a year later in 1976, the seismologists could not predict the Tangshan earthquake.

To predict earthquakes one has to first fully understand the underlying dynamics. Sample Assistants? For example, even though it is known that this intense seismic activity is article, a result of the sociology north-northeastern movement and under thrusting of the Indian plate, it is not known what fraction of the strain energy is article example, being released by earthquakes along the administrative assistants belt. Aside from such dynamic imputs, an empirical basis of journal prediction can be founded by recognising, monitoring and sample goals, interpreting observable and decipherable precursory phenomena. Present day earthquake prediction techniques have mainly to do with precursory phenomena. The parameters that are normally looked at include electrical resistivities, geomagnetic properties, variation in the ratio of compressional to shear wave velocities, etc. Even radon emission from the earth’s crustal layers increase before an journal example impending earthquake. One approach is to predict earthquakes on the basis of changes believed or known to precede an earthquake. Such earthquake precursors include abnormal tilting of ground, change in strain in rock, dilatancy of rocks which could be measured by a change in american, velocities, ground and water levels, sharp changes in pressure, and unusual lights in the sky.

The behaviour of some animals is also believed to undergo a distinct change prior to an earthquake. Article Example? Some lower creatures are perhaps more sensitive to sound and vibrations than humans; or endowed with what one may call prescience. Another approach is to why did of fort sumter estimate the probabilistic occurrence of an earthquake statistically by relating the past occurrences to journal article critique example weather conditions, volcanic activity and tidal forces. There have been some notable Indian efforts too in developing prediction models in the Himalayan-belt context. One relates to the so- called seismic gaps, which postulates that great earthquakes rupture the Hill: in an from to a City Himalayan arc whose total length is about 1700 km. Of this, about 1400 km is supposed to have been ruptured releasing part of the journal article critique example pent-up energy during the A Lamb and a Hill: to a Bustling City last four great earthquakes, leaving a portion of about 300 km to be broken in a “future great earthquake”. The most likely unruptured gaps in the Himalayan arc are stated to journal critique be in Uttar Pradesh (Ganga Basin), and in Kashmir. Sample Goals? Proponents of this model have postulated that the entire Himalayan detachment would rupture in 180-240 years, the rupture being caused by a 8.0 M plus earthquake. This hypothesis forms the basis for the apprehension of the Tehri dam being subjected to article critique example earthquakes of sociology this magnitude. Some scientists have noted that certain cycles of journal critique example low and high seismicity characterise the Alpide belt.

For example, after an extremely active cycle from 1934 to 1951, with 14 earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7.7 a quiet phase began in causes, 1952, and till now only four such events have occurred. In the world scientific community, the latest in earthquake prediction techniques have come from the journal critique United States. One method developed by the Americans involves the use of laser beams. These beams are shot from an observatory to a geostationary satellite in space. On hitting the satellite, the waves are reflected back to the observatory. A substantial difference in the time taken by the laser beams to travel between the two points is an indication of considerable tectonic plate movement, and perhaps an imminent earthquake. A recent study of Indonesian reefs showed that corals record cyclical environmental events and could predict a massive earthquake in the eastern Indian Ocean within the next 20 years. The study conducted off Indonesia’s Sumatra Island showed they have annual growth rings, like those in tree trunks, which record cyclical events such as earthquakes. Scientists said the earthquake could be similar to the magnitude 9.15 earthquake which sparked the devastating 2004 tsunami and left more than two lakh people either dead or missing across Asia. The corals off Sumatra’s Mentawai Islands showed a major earth­quake had occurred every 200 years since 1300. When earthquakes push the seafloor upward, lowering local sea level, the corals cannot grow upward and grew outward instead, a major indication.

An area off Sumatra that has been the source of disastrous earthquakes, still carries a lot of pent-up pressure that could result in another strong quake, noted the study reported in the journal Nature. It is not, however, clear as of now whether a precise earthquake prediction and warning system can be developed and goals, put to any effective use. The greatest damage in an earthquake is example, caused by the destruction of buildings and resultant loss of life and goals administrative, property and journal article critique, destruction of infrastructure. The earthquakes having the same magnitude on the Richter scale may vary in sample administrative, damage from place to place. The extent of damage that an earthquake can cause may depend on more than one factor. The depth of the focus may be one factor. Earthquakes can be very deep and in such cases surface damage may be less. The extent of damage also depends on how populated and developed an area is. A ‘great’ earthquake in an uninhabited or virtually uninhabited area will be less damaging than a ‘large’ earthquake in a highly populated area. The National Buildings Organisation of India lists weaknesses in article example, burnt brick buildings as follows: i. Poor strength of material in tension-and shear.

ii. Why Did The Battle Of Fort Sumter Happen? Toothed joint causing a vertical plane of weakness between perpendicular walls. iii. Large openings placed too close to the corners. Long rooms having long walls unsupported by cross-walls. iv. Unsymmetrical plan, or with too many projections. v. Article Example? Use of heavy roofs having flexibility in plan. vi.

Use of light roofs with little binding effects on walls. Some measures to sociology prevent building collapse during the earthquake are: symmetry and rectangularity of journal building; symmetry in locating openings; simplicity in elevation or avoidance of ornamentation; intersecting internal walls so as to divide the total plan in why did the battle sumter, square enclosures of not more than 6 m wide; use of steel or wooden dowels going into walls meeting at corners (shear walls) or T-junctions to provide effective bonding; use of bond beam or band of reinforced concrete at lintel levels of journal article example openings and serving as lintel too. Sample Goals Administrative? The last one is the one feature that is most effective in ensuring the journal article critique example integrity of enclosures like a rigid box. For masonry construction, the BIS has specified that materials to be used should be well-burnt bricks and not sun-dried bricks. The use of arches to span over openings is a source of weakness and goals administrative assistants, should be avoided unless steel ties are provided. Scientists have suggested designing buildings to counter quake movement by journal example shifting the centre of gravity with the help of a steel weight placed on renaissance literature, the top of the buildings.

In plain areas or towns which are located on a river bank, or situated on a thick layer of alluvial soil (like Ahmedabad), the ‘deep piles technology’ may be useful. In this technique, thick, columns of concrete and steel are inserted 10-30 metre deep into the soil beneath the regular foundation. Article? In case of earthquakes, these pillars provide extra strength and prevent the buildings from collapsing. In the ‘base isolation technique’, heavy blocks of rubber and steel are put between the foundation and the building. A Lamb Hill: Themes In An Odyssey From A Garden Bustling? During a quake, the rubber absorbs the article shocks. In high-rises, enlarged structures on the top floors should be avoided. Enlarged top storeys shift the centre of gravity higher making the building more unstable during the earthquake. ‘Soft first storeys’ should be avoided.

In cities, many buildings stand on columns. The ground floor is generally used for parking and walls start from the sociology first floor. These buildings collapse quickly during an earthquake. Independent tall cores should be avoided unless they are tied to the main structure. Tropical cyclones, the most destructive of article critique nature’s phenomena, are known to form over all tropical oceans except over the South Atlantic and the South Pacific, east of about 140° W. An intense low pressure area in the atmosphere is formed before/after the monsoon. It is iranian revolution, associated with fierce wind and heavy rainfall. Horizontally it extends from 500 to critique 1000 km and vertically from the surface to about 14 km. Severe tropical cyclones cause considerable damage to property and agricultural crops. The principal dangers posed are: (a) fierce winds; (b) torrential rains and associated flooding; and (c) high storm tides (combined effect of storm surge and causes, tides).

Rainfall up to 20 to 30 cm a day is common. The highest ever sustained winds recorded in the case of tropical cyclones are 317 kmph. Example? Storm surge (rise of sea level) of four metres are common. The highest sea level elevation in the world due to continued effect of storm surge and astronomical high tide occurred in 1876 near Bakerganj, where the sea level rose by about 12 metres above the mean sea level on that occasion. Tropical cyclones over why did the battle the Bay of Bengal occur in two district seasons, the pre-monsoon months of April-May and the post-monsoon months of article critique example October-November. On an average, in sociology, fact, almost half a dozen tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea every year, out of journal article critique example which two or three may be severe. Out of these, the stormiest months are May-June, October and November.

Compared to the pre- monsoon season of May, June, when severe storms are rare, the sociology intersectionality months of October and November are known for severe cyclones. The IMD has published the example tracks of the cyclones since 1891 and updates them every year in sociology intersectionality, its quarterly scientific journal, Mausam. As 90 per cent of the deaths in journal example, severe cyclones all over the world occur in high storm surges accompanying them, the only feasible method to save the lives of human beings and literature, animals is to evacuate them to safe inland cyclone shelters as early as possible after the receipt of advance cyclone warnings from the IMD. The evacuation of people is difficult in flat coastal districts as in Bangladesh where the tides of six to 10 metres above the sea level submerges offshore islands and travels inland for considerable distances. Tropical cyclones are by nature devastating mainly because of their place of birth, namely, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). This is a narrow belt at journal article critique example the equator, where the Hill: Themes from to a Bustling trade winds of the two hemispheres meet. It is critique, a region of high radiation energy which supplies the necessary heat for the vaporisation of of fort happen sea water into the air.

This moist unstable air rises, generates convective clouds and journal example, leads to an atmospheric disturbance with a fall in surface atmospheric pressure. This causes a convergence of surrounding air towards this region of low pressure. The converging mass of air gains a rotary motion because of what is known as the Coriolis force caused by the rotation of the Earth. However, under favourable circumstances, such as high sea-surface temperatures, this low pressure area can get accentuated. The convective instability builds up into an organised system with high-speed winds circulating around the low pressure interior. And A Hill: From A Garden To A? The net result is a well formed cyclone consisting of a central region of light winds known as the ‘eye’. The eye has an critique average radius of sociology 20 to 30 km. in fact, in a mature storm like in Bangladesh. It can even be as much as 50 km.

Given the existing scientific knowledge about cyclones, it is not yet possible to physically dissipate the buildup of a massive cyclone. Journal? Cures are generally worse than the A Lamb Hill: Themes in an from to a City disease. For example, while seeding by sodium iodide crystals has been attempted in some parts of the world— with marginal success—a more effective prescription proposed sometimes is a nuclear explosion. Obviously, that would be trading one disaster for an even greater one. Accepted technology, therefore, only provides the capability to detect and track cyclones with sophisticated satellite imagery and ground- based radar systems. But here too the limitations are glaring. Atmospheric science, for example, is not yet in a position to unambiguously predict the motion and critique example, behaviour of a cyclone more than 24 hours ahead of its arrival. So all that is possible in that brief span is to warn the vulnerable sections of the what is one than feudal population of the imminent danger and adopt measures to move them to safer cyclone withstanding structures.

The frequency, intensity and journal critique example, coastal impact of cyclones varies from region to region. Interestingly, the frequency of tropical cyclones is the the battle happen least in the north Indian Ocean regions of the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea; they are also of moderate intensities. But the cyclones are deadliest when they cross the journal critique coast bordering North Bay of Bengal (coastal areas of why did happen Orissa, West Bengal and article, Bangladesh). This is why did the battle of fort, mainly due to storm surges (tidal waves) that occur in journal article critique example, this region inundating the coastal areas. Over the last two-and-a-half centuries, 17 of the the battle of fort sumter happen 22 severe tropical cyclones—each causing loss of more than 10,000 human lives—took place in the North Bay of Bengal. While gales and strong winds, as well as torrential rain, that usually accompany a cyclone can cause sufficient havoc to property and agriculture, loss of journal critique example human life and cattle is mainly due to storm surges.

If the terrain is shallow and shaped like a funnel, like that of Bangladesh—much of the exposed land is just about at the mean sea level or even less—storm surges get enormously amplified. Coastal inundation due to a combination of high tide and storm surge can cause the worst disaster. India has an efficient cyclone warning system. Tropical cyclones are tracked with the american literature help of (i) regular observation from weather network of surface and critique example, upper air observation stations, (ii) ships report, (iii) cyclone detection radars, (iv) satellites, and (v) reports from commercial aircraft. Ships of merchant fleet have meteorological instruments for taking observations at sea. A network of cyclone detection radars have been set up along the coast at Kolkata, Paradip, Visakhapatnam, Machilipatnam, Chennai, Karaikal, Kochi, Goa, Mumbai and Bhuj. The range of these radars is 400 km. When the cyclone is beyond the range of coastal radars, its intensity and movement is monitored with weather satellites. Warnings are issued by sociology the area cyclone warning centres located at Kolkata, Chennai and Mumbai, and cyclone warning centres at journal critique Bhubaneswar, Visakhapatnam and Ahmedabad. IMD has developed a system known as Disaster Warning System (DWS) to transmit cyclone warning bulletins through INSAT-DWS to the recipients.

This consists of the following elements: (i) The cyclone warning centre for originating the area code of the districts and disaster warning message; (ii) The earth station located near the cyclone warning centre with uplink facility in C-band and suitable communication links; (iii) The C/S band transponder on board INSAT; and. (iv) The INSAT-DWS receivers located in europe was different than feudal japan?, cyclone prone areas. Typically, in a cyclone the maximum devastative effects are within about 100 km from the journal example centre and on the right of the storm track where all the islands lie. Evacuating the population just 24 hours before would require an army of high speed boats, an intersectionality unfeasible proposition for a resource—poor country. The obvious solution, therefore, would be to article example provide a large number of storm shelters in the particularly vulnerable areas. So inured are we to the annual phenomena of floods in why did of fort sumter, season, that one more village practically washed away by a flash flood causes no more than a ripple.

But for journal article critique the people there it is a traumatic experience. In most cases ‘flooding’ is caused by a river over-spilling its banks due to (a) excessive precipitation, (b) obstruction in the river bed, (c) inadequate waterways at rail/road crossings, (d) drainage congestion, and (e) change in causes of the iranian revolution, river course. Flood forecasting in India commenced in 1958 with the establish­ment of journal critique example a unit in Central Water Commission (CWC). Earlier, it used to be done by a conventional method—gauge to gauge or discharge correlation by which future gauges at forecast points are estimated on the basis of gauge discharge observed at some upstream station. Gradually, other parameters like precipitation, etc. were incorporated. Nowadays, computer-based hydrological models are being used for inflow and flood forecasting. The basic information required for flood forecasting is rainfall data of the what europe was different feudal japan? catchment area of the river.

Due to poor communication and inaccessibility, complete information is not always available. However, with sophisticated high-powered S-band radars, it is now possible to estimate the rainfall in an area of up to article 200 km around the radar site. This system is sociology, used extensively in journal article critique, the US for estimating the rainfall potential in the catchment areas of major rivers an issue of flood forecast warning. The use of radar for of the iranian revolution the precipitation estimate is based on the principle that the amount of echo return from a volume of cloud depends on the number and size of journal critique example hydrometeros in it. The empirical relationship between the echo return and of fort sumter happen, the rainfall rates has been developed for various types of rain. Using fast switching digital circuits, the return video is digitised, integrated, normalised and contoured into standard six or seven rainfall rates. Observations taken every ten minutes can be cumulatively added and averaged to article critique example give 24-hour rainfall prediction over the region. Iranian Revolution? Through appropriate modes, the information from critique example a number of radar sites can be sent to a central office where powerful computers process the data and why did happen, yield the overall rainfall potential of the weather system.

The advantage of using radars for hydrological work lies in the fact that the information over the inaccessible region is available without actual human intervention. Of course, there are many assumptions which do not always hold good, thereby introducing large errors in the result. But with suitable calibration with actual gauge measurements correction factors could be applied. Another advantage of the radar measurement that it puts the time for the collection of journal critique example rainfall data thereby increasing the and a Themes Odyssey from a Garden to a Bustling lead time available for rescue/evacuation efforts in the region likely to be affected. There are two ways to reduce flood damage—structural and non­structural measures. The former include construction of dams, embank­ments, drainage channels, etc. This has not helped much as population has moved into areas where flooding used to occur and has been controlled due to structure. Whenever flooding level is higher than what the structure can hold, the result is devastating. The non-structural approach calls for removing populations from the journal article flood plains. Another important aspect is to reduce the silting of Hill: in an from Bustling rivers.

Afforestation in the catchment areas, along the river banks, helps in maintaining the journal article example effective river volume. The National Flood Commission (NFC) was set up specifically to deal with the Odyssey to a problem of floods. But it is evident that, over the last four decades or so, flood control efforts have proved counter-productive because they have not included adequate planning for conservation of watersheds. As a result the increasing siltation of rivers is accelerating their rate of flow in flood, eventually forcing even well built embankments to journal article critique example give way. Of The Iranian? As is well known, embankments increase the force of the river by channelling it over a narrow area instead of permitting it to spread. The danger of relying too heavily on the system of embankments for flood control has been well documented. Apart from the depletion in forest cover, overgrazing contributes greatly to soil loss in the catchment areas. Even in the mountainous areas, where efforts have been made to plant trees on steep slopes to reduce the article critique soil loss during rains, mountain goats have impeded the process of regeneration. Cattle and goats also destroy the plant cover that springs up after the causes rain which is crucial for holding down the article example soil. Human activity is yet another factor. Goals Assistants? Quarrying, road construction, and other building activity in journal article critique example, sensitive catchment areas add to the soil loss.

As a result of all these factors, the silt load of many rivers has increased greatly. The siltation level of dams, which has generally been underestimated at the time of construction has had to causes iranian be revised by 50 to 400 per cent in some cases. Siltation reduces the capacity of journal article example reservoirs. Consequently in order to save the dam, unscheduled and panic releases of water are resorted to often without giving adequate warning to what is one people downstream who live in the path of the journal article example released water. Thus ironically dams built partly to assist in flood control, are today contributing to the devastation caused by floods. The phenomenon that really ought to engage the minds of planners is how and why the A Lamb Hill: in an Odyssey Bustling flood-prone area in the country is increasing each year. Even areas which have never known floods in the past are now affected. The NFC estimates that 40 million hectares are flood-prone of which 32 million hectares can be protected.

Although flood management is a state subject, the Union govern­ment provides Central assistance to the flood-prone states for critique example a few specified schemes, which are technical and promotional in why did the battle sumter, nature. Some such Centrally-sponsored schemes are: critical anti-erosion works in Ganga basin states, critical anti-erosion works in coastal and other than Ganga basin states, maintenance of journal critique example flood protection works of Kosi and Gandak projects, etc. The Central government provides special assistance to the Border States and north eastern states for taking up some special priority works. The Central Water Commission is engaged in flood forecasting on assistants, inter-state river basins through 134 river-level forecasting and 25 inflow forecasting stations on major dams/barrages throughout the country. A tsunami is a series of journal article critique travelling ocean waves which are set off by A Lamb Hill: in an City geological disturbances near the floor of the ocean. The waves of very, very long wavelengths and article, period rush across the sample goals administrative ocean and increase their momentum over a stretch of thousands of kilometers. Article Example? Some tsunamis may appear as a tide but they are not tidal waves in reality. While tides are caused by gravitational influences of the moon, sun and the planets, tsunamis are seismic sea waves. That is, they are related to the battle an earthquake- related mechanism of generation.

Tsunamis are usually a result of earthquakes, but may be at times caused by landslides or volcanic eruption or, very rarely, a large meteorite impact on the ocean. The tsunami can be understood at the basic level by looking at the series of concentric ripples formed in a lake when a stone is thrown into it. A tsunami is like those ripples but caused by a disturbance much greater in magnitude. Tsunamis are shallow-water waves different from the wind-generated waves which usually have a period of five to twenty seconds which refers to the time between two successional waves of about 100 to 200 metres. Tsunamis behave as shallow-water waves because of their long wave­lengths. They have a period in the range of ten minutes to two hours and a wavelength exceeding 500 km. The rate of energy loss of a wave is inversely related to its wavelength. So tsunamis lose little energy as they propagate as they have a very large wavelength. So they will travel at high speeds in deep waters and travel great distances as well losing little energy. A tsunami that occurs 1000 metres deep in water has a speed of 356 km per hour.

At 6000 m, it travels at 873 Ion per hour. Journal Critique? It travels at different speeds in water: it travels slow in water that is shallow and fast in deep water. As an average ocean depth of 5000 m is assumed, one talks of tsunamis as having an average speed of about 750 km per hour. The long gravity tsunami waves are caused by two interacting processes. There is the slope of the sea surface which creates a horizontal pressure force. Then there is the piling up or lowering of sea surface as water moves in varying speeds in the direction that the wave form is intersectionality, moving. These processes together create propagating waves. Journal Article Example? A tsunami can be caused by any disturbance that displaces a large water mass from goals administrative assistants its equilibrium position. An undersea earthquake causes buckling of the sea floor, something that occurs at subduction zones, places where drifting plates that constitute the outer shell of the earth converge and the heavier oceanic plate dips below the lighter continents. As a plate plunges into the interior of the earth it gets stuck against the edge of a continental plate for a while, when stresses build up, then the locked zone gives way.

Parts of the ocean floor then snap upward and other areas sink downward. In the instant after the quake, the sea surface shape resembles the contours of the seafloor. But then gravity acts to return the sea surface to its original shape. The ripples then race outward and a tsunami is caused. Killer tsunamis have been generated by subduction zones off Chile, Nicaragua, Mexico and Indo­nesia in the past. There were 17 tsunamis in journal article, the Pacific from 1992 to 1996 which resulted in 1,700 deaths.

During a submarine landslide, the sociology equilibrium sea-level is altered by sediment moving along the critique example floor of the sea. Gravitational forces then propagate a tsunami. Again, a marine volcanic eruption can generate an impulsive force that displaces the water column and gives birth to a tsunami. Above water landslides and objects in space are capable of disturbing the water when the falling debris, like meteorites, displace the water from its equilibrium position. As a tsunami leaves deep waters and propagates into the shallow waters, it transforms. This is because as the depth of the water decreases, the speed of the tsunami reduces. But the change of total energy of the tsunami remains constant. With decrease in speed, height of the tsunami wave grows.

A tsunami which was imperceptible in american literature, deep water may grow to many metres high and this is called the ‘shoaling’ effect. Tsunami attacks can come in different forms depending upon the geometry of the critique seafloor warping that first caused the waves. Sometimes, the sea seems to at first draw a breath but then this withdrawal is goals, followed by arrival of the crest of a tsunami wave. Example? Tsunamis have been known to occur suddenly without warning. The water level on the shore rises to many metres: more than 15 m for tsunamis originating at a distance and over 30 metres for tsunamis that originate near the earthquake’s epicentre.

Waves can be large and violent in one coastal area while another is not affected. Areas can be flooded inland to 305 metres or more; when tsunami waves retreat, they carry things and people out to sea. Tsunamis may reach a maximum vertical height onshore above sea level of 30 metres. The size of the tsunami waves is american renaissance, determined by the quantum of deformation of the sea floor. Greater the vertical displacement, greater will be the wave size. For tsunamis to occur, earthquakes must happen underneath or near the ocean. They must be large and journal, create movements in the ocean floor. The size of the tsunami is determined by sociology the earthquake’s magnitude, depth, fault characteristics and coincident slump­ing of sediments or secondary faulting. Subduction zones off Chile, Nicaragua, Mexico and Indonesia have created killer tsunamis. The Pacific among the oceans has witnessed most number of tsunamis (over 790 since 1990). One of the deadliest tsunamis occurred in Asia on December 26, 2005.

Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Somalia bore the brunt of the disaster that killed over example 55,000 people. It was triggered by the most powerful earthquake recorded in the past four decades—one whose magnitude was 8.9 on the Richter scale. A tsunami with a magnitude 9.2 temblor struck Alaska in 1964. Geographical Changes Caused by Tsunamis: Tsunamis and earthquakes can cause changes in geography. The December 26 earth­quake and american, tsunami shifted the North Pole by 2.5 cm in the direction of 145 degrees East longitude and reduced the critique example length of the day by 2.68 microseconds.

This in turn affected the velocity of earth’s rotation and the Coriolis force which plays a strong role in weather patterns. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands may have moved by about 1.25 m owing to the impact of the colossal earthquake and the tsunami. The warning of an oncoming tsunami cannot be obtained by merely detecting an earthquake in the seas; it involves a number of sociology intersectionality complex steps which have to be completed in a systematic and quick fashion. Journal Article Critique Example? It was in 1965, that the international warning system was started. It is administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

The member states of the NOAA include the sumter happen major Pacific Rim countries in North America, Asia and South America, Pacific Islands, Australia and New Zealand. The NOAA includes France, which has sovereignty over some Pacific islands, and Russia. Computer systems at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre (PTWC) in journal article, Hawaii monitor data from seismic stations in the USA and elsewhere warning is issued when an earthquake is shallow, located under the sea or close to it and has a magnitude that is more than a pre-determined threshold. The NOAA has developed the ‘Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis’ (DART) gauge. Each gauge has a very sensitive pressure recorder on the sea floor in which can detect the change in the height of the ocean it even if it is by just one cm. Causes? The data is transmitted acoustically to a surface buoy which then relays it over satellite to the warning centre. There are seven DART gauges deployed at journal example present and four more are being planned. PTWC has improved its performance rapidly as high-quality seismic data has been made available to intersectionality it. The time it needed to issue a warning has fallen from up to article 90 minutes some six years ago to 25 minutes or even less today. The Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) constitutes computer models developed by the NOAA which can simulate the generation of a tsunami and its inundation of dry land. The Indian Ocean is not prone to tsunamis.

Only two have occurred in this ocean including one on December 26, 2004. India has been a leader in the initiative to develop a reliable tsunami warning system for the ocean. It has decided to set up a sophisticated system for detecting deep sea movements and develop a network with the countries in the Indian Ocean region for sharing information on tsunamis. The Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting System (DOARS) will be set up six kilometers deep under the sea. It will have pressure sensors to detect the water movement. The sensors will be linked to the satellite that will relay information to the earth station.

Some 6-12 more sensors would be installed later and the data buoys would be linked to sociology intersectionality the system that would record changes in the water level. The Indian government plans to set up a network with Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand which would calculate the magnitude and intensity of journal tsunamis from the data available to renaissance literature it. DART-type gauges will be installed by the government and critique, it will join 26 countries in a network that warn each other about tsunamis. A state-of-the-art National Tsunami Early Warning Centre, which has the capability to detect earthquakes of more than 6 magnitude in the Indian Ocean was inaugurated in 2007 in India. Set up by the Ministry of Earth Sciences in the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), the 125-crore tsunami warning system would take 30 minutes to analyse the seismic data following an of fort earthquake. The system comprises a real-time network of seismic stations, bottom pressure recorders (BPRs), and 30 tide gauges to detect tsunamigenic earthquakes and article critique, monitor tsunamis. Many regions in India are highly vulnerable to natural and of fort sumter happen, other disasters on account of geological conditions. Article Critique Example? Disaster management has therefore emerged as a high priority. Going beyond the historical focus on relief and rehabilitation after the catastrophe, there is a need to look ahead and plan for disaster preparedness and mitigation. So, the development process needs to be sensitive towards disaster prevention, preparedness as well as mitigation to ensure that periodic shocks to development efforts are minimised. About 60 per cent of the causes of the iranian revolution landmass in India is susceptible to earthquakes and over 8 per cent is prone to article critique example floods.

Of the causes nearly 7,500 km long coastline, more than 5,500 km is prone to cyclones. Around 68 per cent area is also susceptible to drought. Journal Article Critique Example? All this entails huge economic losses and sociology, causes developmental setbacks. However, India’s commitment to mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into critique the process of development planning at all levels so as to happen achieve sustainable develop­ment is yet to be carried forward across sectors through actionable programmes for achieving the desired result. Tenth Five Year Plan Strategy and Approach : The Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-07) recognised disaster management as a development issue for the first time.

It was prepared in the backdrop of the Orissa super cyclone (1999) and the massive Gujarat earthquake (2001). Later the Tsunami in the Indian Ocean which devastated coastal communities in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Puducherry and journal article critique example, Andaman in 2004 became the tipping point for initiating a series of steps by the government. Way Feudal Europe Was Different Feudal Japan?? India became one of the first countries to declare a national commitment to set up appropriate institutional mechanisms for article critique more effective disaster management at the national, state and district levels. The Disaster Management Bill was subsequently adopted unani­mously. The Plan devoted a separate article to sample goals administrative disaster management and made a number of important prescriptions to mainstream disaster risk reduction into critique the process of sociology development. The prescriptions were broadly divided into three categories: I. Journal Critique Example? Policy guidelines at macro level to inform and guide the preparation and what is one way feudal was different than feudal, implementation of development plans-across sectors. II. Operational guidelines for integrating disaster management practices into development plans and programmes, and. III.

Specific developmental schemes for prevention and mitigation of disasters. The significant initiatives on disaster management taken during the Plan period included the following: i. The Disaster Management Act, 2005 was enacted for establishing requisite institutional mechanisms for drawing up and monitoring the implementation of disaster management plans, and for undertaking a holistic, coordinated, and prompt response to any disaster situation. ii. Setting up of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) as an apex body responsible for laying down of policies, plans and guidelines on disaster management so as to ensure timely and effective response to disasters. iii. The guidelines on management of earthquake, chemical disasters, and chemical (industrial) disasters were finalised during the Plan period. iv. Article Critique Example? Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Mizoram, Puducherry, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh have constituted State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs).

The other states and UTs are in the process of constituting the from to a Bustling same. v. Journal Article Critique Example? An eight battalion-strong National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) was set up comprising 144 specialised response teams on causes, various types of disasters of which around 72 are for nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) disasters. vi. Revamping of the journal article critique example civil defence set-up to in an Odyssey to a strengthen local efforts for disaster preparedness and effective response. Fire services also strengthened and modernised to a multi-hazard response force.

vii. A comprehensive Human Resource Plan for disaster management was developed. viii. Inclusion of disaster management in the curriculum of middle and secondary school education. The subject has also been included in the post-induction and in-service training of civil and police officers. Modules have also been identified to include disaster management aspects in the course curriculum for engineering, architecture, and medical degrees. ix. The National Institute for journal article critique Disaster Management (NIDM) was established as the sample goals administrative apex training institute for disaster management in India. x. Model-building by-laws for town and country planning legislations, land use zonation, development control legislations were finalised.

xi. The Bureau of Indian Standards issued building codes for construction of different types of buildings in critique example, different seismic zones in renaissance literature, India. The National Building Code was also revised, taking into consid­eration the natural hazards and risks of article various regions of India. xii. Implementation of the National Programme for Capacity Building of Engineers in Earthquake Risk Management to train 10,000 engineers and 10,000 architects on safe construction techniques and architectural practices. xiii. A web-enabled centralised inventory of resources was developed to minimise response time in emergencies. Over 1, 10,000 records from 600 districts have already been uploaded. xiv. Sale construction practices and “dos” and “don’ts” for various hazards were also disseminated for creating public awareness. Eleventh Plan Strategies and Initiatives : The Eleventh Plan (2008-2013) aims at consolidating the entire process of disaster management by giving impetus to american renaissance literature projects and programmes that develop and article critique, nurture the culture of safety and integration of disaster prevention and mitigation into the development process.

To assist the Planning Commission in appraisal of projects, broad and generic guide­lines which are not disaster or theme specific have to be adopted. Conceptualisation of hazard scenarios and associated vulnerability and risk assessments in a given situation will necessarily have to depend on sample administrative, available maps, master plans and building and land use regulations, National Building Code of India, and the various Safety Standards and journal critique, Codes of the Bureau of Indian Standards. The guidelines will cover the following aspects in the Eleventh Plan: i. Multi-hazard prone area/district recognised by the NDMA will be reported in the revised National Building Code of is one way feudal than feudal japan? India of the Bureau of Indian Standards. ii. A project/scheme should be based on a detailed hazard and risk assessment and wherever required, environmental clearance will also be taken. iii. All major stages of project/scheme development, namely, plan­ning, site investigations and designs, will be subject to journal example a process of rigorous peer review and will be accordingly certified. iv.

All schemes for generating basic input data for hazard and vulnerability impact analysis to sociology be made operational. v. Mainstreaming disaster reduction into already approved projects in sectors of education, housing, infrastructure, urban development, and the like. Design of school buildings under the programme would include hazard resistant features, in multi-hazard prone (earthquake, cyclone, flood), high-risk areas. Similarly, existing infrastructure like bridges and roads will also be strengthened and journal article critique example, upgraded to mitigate disaster at goals administrative a subsequent stage. Outside the framework of Plan schemes, many innovative measures will also be adopted to encourage disaster risk reduction measures in the corporate sector, non-government organisations, and journal critique example, among individuals. Fiscal measures like rebates on income and revolution, property tax for retrofitting unsafe buildings, compulsory risk insurance for bank loan on journal article example, all types of why did the battle of fort sumter happen properties will also be introduced to mobilise resources for safe construction and retrofitting of existing constructions in all disaster prone areas. Many innovative measures for promoting public-private-community partnership for disaster risk reduction will also be taken up during the Plan period. An “Extended Disaster Risk Mitigation Project” has been identified for being taken up for preparation of a ‘Project Report’ during the Eleventh Plan. This will be supplemented by activities under various other national/state level mitigation projects. Leave a Reply Click here to article cancel reply.

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The 7-Step Business Plan for Writers. As you’ve probably heard, there’s no such thing as “only being a writer” any more, and while many might not want to handle the business side of things, to give ourselves and our books the best chance of success, we must. In May 2012, when Becca Puglisi and I self-published The Emotion Thesaurus: A Writer’s Guide to Character Expression , we had quite a few challenges. Living in different countries, we needed to create a formal partnership, set up businesses, and figure out how revenue would work. We had to critique example, learn publishing and take on marketing and promotion. Neither of american renaissance us had a business or marketing background, so we relied heavily on critique example research and intuition, and did our best to make the book discoverable. A Lamb Hill: Themes From A Garden To A Bustling? (You can read about our initial marketing plan here.)

Our unusual book on example showing character emotion created buzz among writers, igniting word of mouth. Suddenly our lives went from busy to renaissance, crazy as we tried to keep up with the journal example, burst of attention, writing guest posts, teaching workshops, and sample goals administrative providing interviews. Books sales continued to journal critique, strengthen, and we sold foreign rights. A few universities listed the book as required reading, and causes iranian revolution publishers began approaching us. At this point, Becca and I realized how far the book could go, but because we were being pulled in so many different directions, we didn’t know how to best take advantage of article these opportunities. The need for a business plan became our No.

1 focus. Fortunately, my husband is a management consultant who creates plans for many of of the his clients. With his help, we identified three areas that would help us grow in the year ahead: improving our professional image and brand credibility : creating a website, presenting at conferences and hosting workshops providing new product for our audience : writing two new descriptive thesaurus books expanding into the education sector : contacting colleges and universities to spread awareness of our writing resources. The roadmap we created allowed us to avoid distractions and focus on critique what would help us grow. As we near the end of the year, Becca and I now have a professional website, three writing resource books that have collectively sold nearly 50,000 copies, and we increased our credibility through speaking engagements, teaching at A Lamb Hill: Themes from Bustling City conferences, and hosting workshops. In the near future we are looking to create awareness of our books at the collegiate level, rounding out our business plan objectives. Since much of our productivity and growth are a direct result of forming a business plan (and sticking to it), I want to share steps you can take to create your own.

Imagine your year ahead and what you would like to journal article, accomplish as a writer. What will help you reach your goals, whether it’s publication, releasing more books, beefing up your online visibility, or honing your craft? Write down everything that you want to accomplish, and don’t forget smaller goals, as these are necessary steppingstones to achieving larger ones. Also, choose goals that are within your power to make happen. Is One Than? For example, while you might really want representation, “getting an agent” is not necessarily something you can attain yourself; the journal critique, agent decides whom they represent.

However, “researching and querying all suitable agents” is a goal you can set and meet. Read through your list and look for bigger themes. Are there several goals that fit into sample administrative, a similar area of focus, like platform building or writing improvement? Grab some highlighters and group these together. Then, choose a name or tag line that summarizes each theme or area of critique focus. Common themes might include. Social networking improvement (platform building and connection) Education (attending workshops, finding a critique partner, improving one’s craft, studying the sample administrative assistants, industry, etc.) Publishing (trying for an agent, working towards a traditional contract or self-publishing) Marketing visibility (researching and implementing ads, hiring a publicist, finding one’s audience online, soliciting reviews, etc.) Now that your goals are organized into different focus areas (themes), step back and journal article critique look at the big picture. Administrative Assistants? Based on where you are now, which areas are the journal critique example, highest priority?

For example, querying agents (publication related) and intersectionality honing your writing skills (education related) might both be areas you’d like to focus on, but if your writing still needs work, it will be a waste of journal critique example time to query agents immediately. Literature? Likewise, if you are winning notable contests and trusted critique partners are hard-pressed to see how you can improve, likely you should make getting your work in front of agents and editors a priority. This step involves soul-searching and article critique honesty. A Lamb And A Hill: Themes In An From A Garden Bustling City? Sometimes desire (wanting to be published right now, for example) can get in the way of what we actually need (to hone our craft further). To be objective, set emotion aside. Ask yourself hard questions about what your career really needs. Article Critique Example? If it helps, pretend you are advising a writer friend. If they were in your shoes, what important things would you suggest they work on to get ahead? Step 4: Pick Two or Three Main Goals. Now comes the was different than feudal japan?, hard part: choosing which goals to pursue. Which two areas of focus did you mark as being the critique example, most critical?

These two themes (say “Education” and “Networking”) should be the primary focus of your business plan. Pick specific goals that will help you most in these areas. Once you choose a goal, think about the europe than feudal japan?, steps you must take to journal article, achieve it. Sociology? For example, if your goal is to “Build a Platform” you might have action items like open a twitter account and build a following , take a class on social networking, and join a group blog . For inspiration, look at the highlighted lists you made. Chances are you’ll find smaller goals listed there that will help you achieve your larger one. Two primary areas of focus or main goals are good for a business plan, but if you have a third area you’d like to article, tackle, list it as a secondary goal. Do the same exercise as above and Hill: Themes to a City list out journal, tasks (action items) that must be carried out to achieve this goal.

When making these decisions, think carefully about why did happen, your time. We all have roles and commitments outside of writing, and these things require a lot of energy. Article? Business goals should be achievable, so don’t take on more than you can handle. Step 5: Set a Timeline for Each Goal. Stick to what way feudal europe was different than, your plan by setting timelines that fit your schedule. Becca and I chose a seasonal timeline, so we knew which goal to pursue at which time of the example, year. Is One Europe Was Different Than Feudal? This helped us meet completion dates. If you are unsure how much time a certain task will require, set a deadline with a fallback date.

This way you won’t be discouraged if you miss the initial deadline, and you’ll have a buffer if needed. Step 6: Bring It Together in a One-Page Plan. A visual helps when it comes to following a business plan. Journal? By condensing your plan on one page, it will force you to be succinct in is one was different feudal what must be accomplished to meet each goal. You can use a spreadsheet or table to do this (Excel, Google spreadsheet, a piece of paper, etc) or download this template. Here’s the business plan Becca and I created for ourselves: When your spreadsheet is filled out, print and display it where you write. This will remind you of what you should be doing and help you make good use of your time.

Step 7: Commit and Challenge Yourself Daily. Once your plan is complete, stick to it. When new opportunities come up, see if they fit your plan. It’s important to take advantage of potential windfalls, but only article example if they further your goals and you have the time. Before you print your business plan, type this statement in goals administrative bold at article example the bottom: Is what I’m doing or about to do helping me achieve my goals? Before you commit time and of the revolution energy to new projects, challenge yourself with this question to evaluate if it’s worthwhile. In today’s publishing landscape, writers must become master jugglers, wearing many hats. Whether you’re published or pre-published, having a business plan is article critique example one of the smartest things you can do to is one europe was different than japan?, keep yourself on track, maximize your time, and ensure that you reach your milestones. Angela Ackerman is a writing coach, international speaker, and co-author of the journal, bestselling book, The Emotion Thesaurus: A Writer’s Guide to Character Expression , as well as four others, including the literature, newly minted Urban Setting and Rural Setting Thesaurus duo. Her books are available in article example five languages, are sourced by US universities, and are used by novelists, screenwriters, editors, and psychologists around the world. Angela is is one europe was different japan? also the co-founder of the journal critique, popular site Writers Helping Writers, as well as One Stop for of fort sumter happen Writers, an innovative online library built to help writers elevate their storytelling.

106 Comments on example The 7-Step Business Plan for of the iranian revolution Writers This is FANTASTIC and just what I needed to see this morning! Great post and I love your books Angela. They continue to help me hone my craft. Thanks so much, Adrienne. I really hope this plan helps you map out your best path forward. Journal Article? Happy writing (and business planning!) […] Angela is at Jane Friedman’s blog, sharing a 7-Step Business Plan for Writers, because in sample goals administrative assistants this new world of journal article publishing, it is more important than ever for writers to engage in […] Yes, this isn’t meant to take the place of a full scale plan–I wanted to share something that both pre-published and published authors could use as a starting point, especially those who might find the intersectionality, idea of journal article critique example a creating a business plan daunting. Unfortunately writers can no longer “just write,” and sociology intersectionality so it’s necessary to become more business-minded (even if this isn’t something that comes naturally). Critique? Thanks so much for and a Hill: Themes Odyssey a Garden City the comment!

You’re welcome #128578; If you ever plan on publishing a blog post about expanding this with the financial aspects, let me know and I’d be happy to write a guest post about it (I’ve written more than one complete business plan in my life, both for myself and others). Sounds good–thanks for offering, Saoirse. I will keep this in mind! #128578; You can contact me at saoirse.omara (at) gmail dot com (just realised that my name isn’t clickable lol). Thanks for sharing ideas for a business plan.

I need to article, save this one! Happy this will help you Linda. Goals? #128578; Have a great week! Although I don’t need a business plan right now, I want to journal article example, thank you for american The Emotion Thesaurus! I bought if first on journal Kindle, then realized I’d like to have a paper copy, too. It’s been an immense help when my editor says, “More emotion, Eleanor, dig deeper,” a refrain I hear often. So, thanks for helping me mine my own and my characters’ emotions! Eleanor Sullivan, Graven Images, A Singular Village Mystery. I am thrilled that The Emotion Thesaurus is helping you!

Writing character emotion is such a struggle, because we want it to literature, feel authentic, but tend to get trapped in reusing the same descriptors to show it. Hopefully the journal article, entries in the book offer you a path to spark your brain quickly so you can stay in the flow and write the sociology, scene. Thanks for the comment! Awesome suggestions, Angela! Love the chart! And this is a good time of the year to focus on goals and new beginnings! Sue, it is the perfect time, isn’t it? Now more than ever, being a writer is about being willing to grow and evolve. The good thing is that there is article critique so much content out there to help us find our way.

I hope the chart helps you. #128578; Thank you so much Jane for having me here today. I just finished watching your Google hangout with CEA, and revolution can’t wait for journal example the next installment! Thanks so much for the great summary of the shifting writing landscape. Angela, This is an well-thought-out and doable plan. I love that you included plans to get training where needed as well as being open to traditional and self-publishing. Your post made me remember that I have taken many webinars and workshops over the years.

Before I take another one I need to go back and sociology intersectionality review all the content on marketing, building a platform, etc. that I’ve already gathered. Thank you. Very happy to help. Journal Example? As writers, we are in constant development, but if we try to focus on everything, or too much on one thing, then we aren’t making the best use of our time. Sometimes sitting down and looking hard at what we want for ourselves, both long term and short term, is a healthy step to moving forward more productively. #128578; I’m so happy to american renaissance literature, hear about all your success, Angela. If anyone’s worked hard and deserves it, you do. (And how nice to be married to a business consultant, right?) Thanks for all the tips. #128578; Haha, Lexa, yes his brain has come in example handy, although I appreciate the fact that he hasn’t tried to A Lamb and a Hill: Themes in an Odyssey Bustling City, “take over” and only offers help if I ask. His business world and my publishing world have some overlap, but there are also things that work very differently between the two, so I need to understand my world enough to know what advice might work, and what will not. (And thank you–I feel so grateful to have such great supporters like you!) So practical and thoughtful! Makes great sense, and I can implement it immediately.

Also use for article my ‘other’ passion, genealogy, and A Lamb Hill: Themes in an from a Garden Bustling my goals there as well! I appreciate the journal critique example, clear language and straightforward style in this post as well. Yes Celia, this business plan can really be used in sociology intersectionality any area. Example? even one’s personal development. #128578; I am happy it will be of is one way feudal feudal japan? use to you. Thanks for the visit. Great post, Angela. Journal Article Critique? I had to giggle because I wrote on the exact same topic just yesterday on my blog! And we weren’t far off in our advice. It’s so important for sociology writers to consider their where they are going with their careers–not just with their books. They need a good map, and a business plan is just that, with concrete and quantifiable goals broken down into action steps to get them where they want to go. Done correctly, it will help them brand themselves and become successful. And I love your template!

Thanks for that. Branding is a big topic. It is probably easier for NF writers than fiction authors to brand themselves. Article Example? It grows harder if a person writes in many genres. I know one writer who has 4 pseudonyms plus her own name to cover all the genres she writes in, and so she find it impossible to promote herself.

I can see why. Hmmm. This has sparked thoughts for a blog post. Sample Goals Administrative? Might just use you as an critique, example, if that’s okay! Agreed Nina. After reading this blog I can feel a new post bubbling up. Too bad that I posted yesterday about writer’s critique groups.

Please keep me updated. @ernestosangiacomo:disqus, Since you asked: http://writenonfictionnow.com/4-branding-tips-for-nonfiction-writers-and-authors/. And it does, indeed, feature @angelaackerman:disqus! Read the previous post to find my advice on business plans for sample administrative writers. Journal? I have other posts on business plans for american literature books.

Although it’s nonfiction based, I’ll check it out. Is it really necessary to lock oneself into a “Genre Box”? My unabashed independent spirit refuses to comply. Maybe I’ll create a new genre called Story-Telling through Authorship #128578; Thanks for the post Angela. […] is at Jane Friedman’s blog, sharing the ins and outs of creating a business plan. This was a hugely important endeavor for us; […] Thanks for the visit Traci! #128578; Okay, now I’ve got some place to start!

Happy to help you Bish! It might seem daunting, but I think this is an exercise everyone should sit down and do. It is good to look forward and see where we want to be, and it also helps us to journal critique, evaluate if what we’ve been doing to this point is working the way we need. Renaissance Literature? Have a great week! A great post! I was doing some of this already, but I love the template and how you’ve outlined it so clearly! That’s great Mindy!

I find having the “Plan on a Page” right on my office wall really helps me stay focused. It’s a constant reminder of what I should be working towards, and critique as I tick action items off the list, it gives me a greater sense of accomplishment! Great job, Angela! If only we’d had such a succinct explanation of how to write a business plan when we were writing ours. Intersectionality? That would’ve been helpful, lol. Thanks for hosting her, Jane! […] Angela Ackerman (Jane Friedman) with The 7-Step Business Plan for Writers […] […] Ackerman’s guest post at Jane Friedman’s site – The 7-Step Business Plan. Journal Critique Example? Read the why did the battle sumter, full post for a quick explanation for journal critique each step summarised below: […] […] Angela Ackerman (Jane Friedman) with The 7-Step Business Plan for A Lamb a Garden to a Writers […] […] at Jane Friedman‘s blog, Angela Ackerman has written a post, “The 7-Step Business Plan for Writers”, which is doable.

It’s a bit like Selznick’s building an exchange in that […] […] out journal article, author Angela Ackerman’s 7-step business plan for causes iranian […] post, Angela. Shared it with my daughter. I chuckled when I saw that. your husband is a business consultant. Writing has become a new form of. family business in my case too. Website design, editing, and article critique example marketing.

skills in my family have proved enormously beneficial. Jane, as usual, has attracted another helpful, succinct post that lays groundwork for all of us. Thanks Shirley! And yes, being writers means we do seep into other aspects of family life. The Battle Of Fort Happen? The kids always bring me their assignments to read and journal article have actually used the content on my blog to help them write better description (be still my beating heart!).

And having a hubby in consulting means a lot of american business technique language tends to rub off on me. Win-win! A veritable resource for a beginner. Your seven points forces the creation of a “Big Picture” I was also glad to journal article critique, realize that I was already doing some of those practices. Angela and Becca have not only been smart about their business, they’ve been generous. Susan Quinn’s book about indie publishing had great advice about making short term goals, as well as 1 year and 5 year goals. Hill: Themes In An From A Garden Bustling? I’d never thought that far ahead when it came to article critique example, publishing!

[…] The 7-Step Business Plan for Writers by @angelaackerman via @janefriedman […] I truly love this article. What Is One Europe Feudal? Thanks so much for sharing. This will be great for article critique example my blog and my writing group. This is such an excellent, helpful post! It helps me think about way feudal europe was different feudal, all the things I often push away because I don’t know enough–the business part of writing. Journal Critique? I’m close to the publishing phase of why did sumter self-publishing a book and this really lays out the business arc of what I need to think about. The template brings clarity and focus to article critique example, what can be bewildering and overwhelming to causes of the, a novice writer.

Thank you so much for journal example sharing your process. Really great piece. I need to Themes in an a Garden City, get focused about my writing goals and journal article this is a great start. Also, I love a good template. […] via The 7-Step Business Plan for a Garden to a Bustling City Writers by Angela Ackerman. Article Critique? […] […] Angela Ackerman (via Jane Friedman) with The 7-Step Business Plan for Writers […] The Emotion Thesaurus is what europe feudal a cool, useful book.

[…] need to have a plan of action in place for marketing your book – a Book Promotion Plan. The competition is critique example fierce on Amazon and […] […] Ackerman on Jane Friedman The 7-Step Business Plan for Writers “Imagine your year ahead and sample administrative assistants what you would like to accomplish as a writer. What will help […] […] and I hope you are all well rested, sober, and ready to tackle 2014. Have you created a simple Business Plan For Writers to help you define areas of development and to keep on track when it comes to your […] Thank you so much for sharing this. I’m coming late to example, this post, but it’s very timely for the start of my new year and organizing my writing goals for the year. I can’t wait to why did happen, give it a whirl and see where I end up. […] read this excellent article; although not officially part of the above […] Great info and breaking it down step by journal critique, step!

Thanks Angela. […] Awesome post: The 7-Step Business Plan for Writers […] […] Angela Ackerman (Jane Friedman) with The 7-Step Business Plan for Writers […] […] need to have a plan of action in place – a Book Promotion Plan. Sociology Intersectionality? The competition is fierce on journal article example Amazon and if your book is not […]

[…] and I are big fans of career planning and have shared our own business plan at Jane Friedman’s site in hopes of encouraging others to become more structured and causes of the […] I just LOVE this, and really appreciate the image of the chart. It saves time rather than having to figure things out from scratch. Seeing what works is SO helpful. Thank you, ladies! Thank you for sharing. This will be very helpful as I build my business. Hey friends i have a very unique and cool idea for Your. Business. Example? It helps you to Promote your Business.

Make an app for all android and iphones,we. have very unique and interesting app ideas. This app helps you for booking ,showing. something and avail offers to sociology, the customers. You can make your app in just 3.

steps at very cheap rates. Thanks for sharing this post. It is journal article critique very descriptive and of the iranian revolution very useful advice. This post helps the people to take the proper decision of business. Last week I have taken the service from journal example OGS Capital for taking proper business plan. The service of this company is very high quality and literature I am very benefitted with its service. […] If we’re not sure what your priorities should be, Angela Ackerman (of Emotion Thesaurus fame) shared this 7-step plan for brainstorming and figuring out what matters to example, us. […] […] Learn how to make your business plan here. […] […] The 7-Step Business Plan for causes of the iranian Writers […]

[…] Get the full story at Jane Friedman. […] Daily edition: Receive emails that include the full text of each new post Weekly digest: Receive a Sunday weekly e-mail digest of new blog posts. I have more than 20 years of journal article critique example experience in the book and magazine publishing industry, with expertise in digital media and the future of causes of the iranian authorship. I speak around the world at events such as BookExpo America, Frankfurt Book Fair, and Digital Book World, and have keynoted writing conferences such as The Muse The Marketplace. Read more.

I write and journal article publish The Hot Sheet, the essential industry newsletter for authors.

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accordion essays Articles and Essays Featuring Classical Free-Reed Instruments and Performers. Critique Example? Leo Niemi: An Artist Among Accordion Technicians. Goals Administrative Assistants? A man who works with his hands is a laborer; a man who works with his hands and his brain is a craftsman; but a man who works with his hands and his brain and his heart is an artist. -- Louis Nizer, American lawyer (1902-1994) May 1999: A few weeks ago, while practicing a Clementi sonatina for my forthcoming third compact disc, I discovered that one or two passages didn't quite sound right. My technique was fine, but my accordion was beginning to subtly go out of tune. I tried to ignore it and thought, perhaps correctly, that no one would notice it; after all, everything else sounded perfectly well. It was just a couple intervals which sounded off; and only when I used the bare-bones reed combination of clarinet in article critique example, the right hand and single-note free-bass in the left.

But after a few days, I sadly came to the realization that it was time to get my accordion tuned. Other instrumentalists might laugh at causes of the revolution the hesitation I exhibit about tuning. Article Critique Example? After all, violinists and wind players (and even harpists) tune their instruments every time they play, even between movements of a symphony. Even concert pianists have their pianos tuned before every concert. But concert accordions are a different matter. They are like pipe organs, which are very difficult to sociology tune and journal example require one or two days labor from american, a trained technician. Consequently, the price is not cheap. Journal Article Critique Example? My Victoria accordion has 462 reeds: 352 for the right-hand manual (44 keys x 4 ranks) and 110 for what europe feudal japan?, the left-hand manual (one rank: 4? octave range). Some instruments, like the concert bayan, may have 744 reeds, due to a greater pitch range and more reed ranks. Journal Article? To tune an accordion properly, the technician must test each reed separately, then take the reed block out of the accordion, tune it by scratching the Hill: Themes in an Odyssey a Garden Bustling City, reed with a file, insert the reed block back into the accordion, and test it again.

If the reed is still not exactly perfectly in journal article critique example, tune, the process must be repeated. Some tuners save time and aggravation by A Lamb and a in an Odyssey from to a Bustling City, placing the reed block over a mechanical bellows so they don't have to keep inserting and removing the reed block from the instrument each time they tune a reed, but this can be less accurate as the air currents and pressure may differ and journal article example consequently affect the pitch. This effect is practically unnoticeable for most jazz or folk applications, but it may be critical for is one way feudal europe japan?, classical accordionists who demand more exact pitches. Once I tried to tune one low bass reed that had somehow drifted flat. It took me nearly an hour before it was fixed! A professional tuner, however, due to his or her experience, should be able to progress a lot faster! After I had decided that my accordion needed a tune-up, I called my friend Leo Niemi from journal article critique example, Sudbury, Ontario, and scheduled an appointment for the next week.

Some accordionists ship their instruments by bus, but I always personally chauffeur mine in my car. This is certainly more expensive and time consuming -- especially so considering that Leo lives some 545 miles (877 kilometers) from is one way feudal europe was different than feudal, me -- but I know that my accordion will be treated like a princess! Why do I make a twenty-hour round-trip drive to get my accordion tuned? Aren't there other technicians closer? There are, of course, but my experience with some of them has been frustrating. In 1989, when I first purchased by secondhand 140-bass Victoria (Emperor Model free-bass with stradella convertor built in 1975) from Antonio Nellie Peruch, a concert accordionist from Alberta Canada, the article critique example, tuning was unsuitable for my purposes. The violin stop was much too wide for classical work and is one europe was different feudal japan? the overall pitch was too high. I wanted the instrument tuned to standard concert pitch (A = 440) so I could play with other classical musicians.

Accordions are routinely tuned to A = 441 or higher in the factory as a matter of journal, tradition. Although I can understand why a polka or musette player would want an instrument which is what europe was different, tuned sharp to journal article critique example cut through the why did the battle, texture of a dance band, I cannot, for the life of me, comprehend why manufacturers produce instruments for article critique, classical accordionists which are out-of-tune with the chamber musicians they perform with. But where was I to find a tuner? In 1989 I did not know any, as I had been out-of-touch with accordion circles for many years. I asked bayan virtuoso, Peter Soave, who I met at renaissance literature the annual American Accordion Musicological Society competition in journal article, March 1989, where he got his instrument tuned. What Europe Feudal? He candidly said, I take my bayan twice a year to Italy for servicing. Journal Article Critique? Taking my instrument to Italy was not an option for me due to causes the expense. I decided to article call my friend and colleague, Stanley Darrow from renaissance literature, Westmont New Jersey (who introduced me to the classical accordion), and ask him to recommend a tuner. He implied that skilled tuners were as rare as hen's teeth, but he did suggest I contact a man in critique example, Brooklyn, New York who tuned Stanley's own accordion and was famous as an accordion technician: Mr.

Emil Baldoni. What Was Different Feudal Japan?? (The book The Golden Age of the Accordion devoted an entire chapter to him). Although Mr. Baldoni was retired (he was born in 1913, therefore he must have been 76 years of age at the time) he kindly agreed to tune my Victoria. After several weeks (and 400 US dollars) I picked up the instrument and played it. Sadly, I could not tell if any work had been done; it sounded the same. It seemed that Mr.

Baldoni had passed his prime. I was disappointed, to say the least. Journal Article Example? (Mr. Is One Europe Than Feudal Japan?? Baldoni passed away in 1991.) What to example do? I knew a tuner nearby in way feudal than japan?, Cleveland Ohio -- John Buday (b. Journal Article Critique? 1918), who also had a chapter in renaissance literature, The Golden Age of the Accordion about journal himself. However, I had met him already the previous year and was disappointed with his alleged tuning of a bass accordion for the battle of fort sumter, my student ensemble; the high reeds were as out-of-tune as ever. Journal Critique Example? It was rapidly becoming obvious to me that most accordion tuners (perhaps due to advanced age?) might be able to satisfy polka players, but they could not tune an accordion well enough to play with a classical symphony orchestra. I would get laughed off the stage by the musicians! As a last resort, I decided to call Canadian concert accordionist, Joseph Marcerollo and ask him for a solution to my problem. He instantly replied, Leo Niemi, from sociology, Sudbury Ontario, is your man! I promptly scheduled an appointment with Leo and drove 600 miles from the journal example, Appalachian foothills of Moundsville, West Virginia (where I lived at the time) to the white birch forests and blue glacial lakes of Sudbury (the home of the largest nickel mine in the world).

I was instantly impressed with Leo's hospitality and humbleness. Truly unassuming, he seemed to have a real love for people, as well as the accordion. He was born September 18, 1930, in Beaver Falls, a small town near Sudbury, and learned to play the is one way feudal than feudal, button-box by journal critique, ear at an early age. Shortly before his thirteenth birthday, he purchased his first piano accordion and goals administrative assistants decided to take formal lessons. After six months he quit lessons, and began playing professionally at parties and dances. At the age of 16 he quit high school and journal article critique example began teaching accordion on his own.

His studio was very successful and sample assistants he sponsored concerts by Charles Magnante, Anthony Galla-Rini, John Molinari and others. In 1955 he married Lois, one of his more attractive accordion students. As the years passed and his students gradually began vanishing during the decline of the accordion's popularity in the late 1950s and early 1960s, he turned more and journal article critique example more to accordion repair. Although Leo still performs today -- most notably as accordion accompanist for the Finnish Chamber Choir (he performed for the President of Finland in 1998) and of the iranian the Italian Montessori Choir, his greatest gift to the world (in my opinion) is his tuning. Leo took my sad-sounding instrument and within two days time turned it into article, a singing nightingale. Sociology? The intonation was perfect, the tone velvety, and the violin register a beautiful and gently pulsating tremolo, perfectly suitable for sophisticated classical music. And he brought the instrument down to A=440, a very difficult feat for any technician. Leo spoke to me about his secret, I'm not in this business for journal example, the money; I'm in it because I love the A Lamb Themes Odyssey from Bustling City, accordion.

No one in their right mind would become an accordion repairman for the money, because there's precious little of it in article critique, this business! No, I work on accordions because I have a great love for the accordion, and for of the revolution, the people who play it. Leo continued, There was a time in my life when I battled with alcoholism and my life was falling apart at the seams. Little did I know at the time that I was to learn my greatest life lesson from this experience. When I hit the bottom, I learned to pray. I made a promise to critique example The Creator: if he would help me overcome my addiction, I would repay Him by helping others.

To this day I have tried my best to fulfill that promise. When I see an accordion I have worked on before, it is like seeing an causes of the iranian, old friend. Accordions are not simply inanimate chunks of wood and metal; they possess a subtle energy from their owner. A little of the owner's personality is transferred to the accordion. It is a type of vibration.

I can tell a little about the owner by examining his or her accordion, but I also prefer not to journal article example work on an instrument unless I know the owner to a certain extent. It makes a difference in causes of the, how I handle the instrument. Truly Leo loves his work. Article? Perhaps a little too much, his wife complains. Lois explained, Leo works so hard and why did of fort happen he charges so little. Article Example? He needs a vacation; as a matter of fact, I need a vacation also! We both need a vacation! We are planning to go visit Finland as soon as I can get a good airline rate. But Leo can't say no to a customer. He doesn't advertise, he doesn't look for business, but people hear about him from word-of-mouth. What Way Feudal Europe Was Different? He works for the greatest classical accordionists in Canada.

He built a custom accordion for Joseph Petric and he services accordions for Joseph Macerollo from Toronto and for Marin Nasturico from journal article critique, Montreal as well as for sociology, Claudia Vena from article, Quartetto Gelato. His basement workshop is filled with accordions, and yet Leo charges less than half of what europe was different than feudal, what his services are worth! I worry about him working too hard. Critique? I hesitated to write this article, because the last thing Leo needs is more business, but I also wanted to share his talents with the world; to make a personal tribute to A Lamb Themes from a Garden him. Article Critique? Without a doubt there are other great accordion technicians in europe than, other parts of the world, but Leo Niemi is my man! Thanks a lot, Leo! I appreciate your wonderful contribution to article critique classical accordion lovers of the world.

For more information contact: 46 Strathmere Crescent. Date: Wed, 12 May 1999 12:45:15 -0400. From: Doug Cumming -- [email protected] Subject: Leo Niemi. Thanks for writing the article on Leo Niemi; I've had my accordion overhauled by causes iranian revolution, him and his work is great!

I never actually met him, however, as my parents drove up to Sudbury [with my accordion] a few years ago and managed to have him look at my accordion while they vacationed. I was unable to make the trip myself. My parents enjoyed meeting with Leo and appreciated the fact that he was able to work on critique, my accordion while they were visiting Northern Ontario. I still don't like to send any instrument via bus [unaccompanied] -- you never know what can happen; I appreciate the fact that my parents agreed to take my accordion to Leo. Their comments [about meeting Leo] echo those in your article; each accordion having the personality of the player who owned [played] it, etc. Of The Revolution? Leo's name is well-known in Canadian accordion circles; I know several musicians who have entrusted their instruments to Leo. Journal? It was through word-of-mouth that I was put in contact with Mr. Administrative? Niemi [actually through my former teacher, Laurie Rosewarne, who studied with Joseph Macerollo, etc.]. Journal Article Critique? I'm glad to see that he will get more exposure thanks to the WWW and your interesting Article. Incidentally someone else was asking me about an accordion tuner recently -- all I could say was to contact Leo Niemi in Sudbury. Of The Revolution? There are some people who do isolated tuning work in my area; however, nobody of the expertise of journal critique example, Leo, a person who can be trusted to do a fine job with accordions.

Hopefully, some of the tuners frequenting the Squeezebox newsgroup will look your article up. Sociology Intersectionality? So long and critique thanks. Date: Sun, 13 Jun 1999 18:12:38 -0400. From: [email protected] (Leon Lee Zukowski) Subject: Leo Niemi review. In your review of Leo Niemi, you said: To tune an accordion properly, the technician must test each reed separately, then take the reed block out of the accordion---etc. During final (precise) tuning, most reeds are accessible without removing the why did the battle sumter, reed blocks. They can and critique example *are* tuned *inside* the sociology intersectionality, accordion. The halves of the journal, accordion (treble or bass) must be lifted free of the sociology, bellows so that the tuner can approach the reed he's working on. For the journal article critique, reed tongues that are on the inner side of the block, tuners have retrievers (that they make themselves) for tuning those reeds without removing the block. In cassotto accordions and/or bayans,those blocks are an exception. Otherwise, it is administrative, only the small, high-pitched reeds that may require block removal in most accordions.

The above process is journal article critique, necessary to fine-tune the intervals. On a lighter note---and in reference to of the iranian yours about journal article faster tuning by Pros: It was before WWII that I tuned chromatic pitch pipes. Each contained the 13 reeds of one inclusive octave. I was alloted 60 seconds to tune each pitch pipe, i.e., 60 per hour. 480 (times 13 reeds each) was my required quota per 8-hour day! But that's another story.

Date: Sun, 30 Oct 2005. To: Henry Doktorski. Subject: Hello Again! Thanks so much for the information that I got from your web-site, especially about the accordionist/repairman/tuner, Leo Niemi. As I'm sure you're aware, my accordion is an what way feudal europe than japan?, early model Hohner Gola. It was in very rough shape when I purchased it, but I was able to see it's potential.

An accordion craftsman in Winnipeg, Wasyl Honcharenko, worked on it. He did a great job of journal, putting it back in shape! Unfortunately he has since passed away. Now, however, it needed tuning. When I saw Leo's name on causes revolution, your web-site, and knowing that you are a perfectionist when it comes to tuning an instrument, I took my accordion to journal critique example him. He couldn't work on it immediately as he had a number of rush jobs and he was also not feeling all that well. As I was not in intersectionality, a hurry, the critique, time factor was not important. When I finally got my accordion back from sociology, him, I was amazed at the fabulous tuning job he did! What a great sound it has now!

And I also must say, Leo and Lois are great people! They treated us very well during our visit to journal critique example Sudbury. I'm very happy with my accordion now, and it's all thanks to you Henry for your referral!

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Contoh Business Plan “Green Warnet” “Green Warnet” merupakan warnet (warung internet) yang di desain ramah lingkungan dengan konsep go green yang mengacu kepada isu global warming yang semakin mengkhawatirkan. “Green Warnet” didirikan atas kerjasama beberapa pihak yang memiliki kesamaan tujuan. Journal Critique Example! Dalam konsep bisnis ”Green Warnet”, warnet harus menjadi tempat multiguna bagi orang yang ingin merasakan nikmatnya menjelajahi dunia maya dan menjajal teknologi digital terbaru. A Lamb And A Hill: From! Jadi, selain surfing, browsing, e-mail, dan chatting, diwarnet ini orang juga bisa melakukan cetak foto digital secara langsung, entah itu dari kamera digital atau ponsel. Article Example! Selain layanan warnet yang komplet, yang membuat ”Green warnet” berbeda, dia juga menawarkan suasana yang cozy, khas kafe-kafe. American Renaissance Literature! Suasana berbeda langsung mencuat begitu kita melewati pintu masuknya.

Tak ada stasiun-stasiun yang dibatasi partisi sempit dan sumpek yang menjadi suasana khas warnet biasa. Critique! Semua peralatan digital di situ ditata apik, dipadu interior yang gaya, menghadirkan suasana santai dan kesan luas. ”Green Warnet” memiliki 32 PC, penataan dengan model sekat, sehingga untuk setiap pengguna bisa berinternet ria dengan nyaman, tak terganggu dengan yang lain. American Literature! Untuk prospek pengembangan usaha diadakan pelatihan edukasi gratis seputar dunia IT (Information Technology), sebulan sekali. Sumber dana ”Green Warnet” berasal dari bisnis owner dan beberapa pihak yang memiliki tujuan dan kepentingan yang sama dengan si bisnis owner. Article Critique Example! Dengan adanya tarif akses data dari penyelenggaraan jaringan dan jasa Internet yang lebih rendah; meningkatnya kebutuhan akses bagi kalangan yang tidak memiliki sarana akses Internet di rumah, kantor, atau sekolah serta dukungan regulasi yang lebih kondusif memungkinkan usaha warnet mengalami pertumbuhan yang baik dan memiliki prospek yang bagus ke depannya.

2. Literature! LATAR BELAKANG PERUSAHAAN. 1. Critique Example! Nama Perusahaan. 3. Intersectionality! Jenis Produk / Jasa. Jasa Akses Internet. 4. Journal! Alamat Perusahaan. Jl. Renaissance! Puspiptek Raya No. Critique! 99. 5. Is One Way Feudal Was Different Feudal Japan?! Nomor Telepon. 3. Example! Tempat dan Tanggal Lahir. German, 01 Oktober 1987.

Jl. American Literature! Puspiptek Raya. 5. Journal Critique! Nomor Telepon. 8. Sumter! Pendidikan Terakhir. S1 Electrical Engineering. Meskipun teknologi berkembang dengan cepat, pemenuhan akan akses Internet yang murah dan cepat saat ini hanya bisa diberikan oleh warnet. Article Critique! Beberapa teknologi akses Internet yang sekarang diberitakan berbiaya murah pun, jika diperhatikan, ternyata tetap mahal.

Harga perangkat komputer, baik perangkat keras maupun lunak, masih tidak terjangkau oleh sebagian besar masyarakat kita sehingga kebutuhan akan warnet akan selalu ada. Semakin maraknya penggunaan Internet membuat para pebisnis atau investor melirik peluang ini sebagai usaha yang menjanjikan. Way Feudal Was Different Than Japan?! Tak hanya konsultan atau pebisnis spesialis, pengusaha tanggung yang hanya memiliki modal pas-pasan pun dapat membangun bisnis ini dengan segenap usaha penekanan terhadap biaya. Seperti yang kita ketahui bahwa investasi awal pada proyek yang berhubungan dengan IT (Information Technology) adalah investasi yang sangat besar. Journal Example! Investasi awal yang ditanam pada pembangunan warnet ini meliputi pembuatan jaringan serta instalasi perangkat keras dan perangkat lunak. Why Did Happen! Tidak ketinggalan izin usaha yang merupakan poin penting. Bukan hanya dana yang diperlukan pada pembangunan warnet, rencana yang matang dan tidak setengah-setengah perlu dipersiapkan dengan baik pula. Critique Example! Biasanya, persiapan membangun warnet kurang lebih 3 bulan, mulai dari pencarian tempat, pencarian SDM yang andal, pembelian alat-alat dan perlengkapannya, pengurusan jasa provider untuk koneksi Internet, juga pengurusan badan hukumnya.

Menggunakan jasa konsultan untuk membangun dan mengelola warnet sah saja dilakukan sepanjang modal yang dimiliki mencakup untuk itu. Sumter Happen! Biasanya jasa konsultan perlu digunakan selama tahun pertama operasional. Journal! Lebih dari 1 tahun, pengusaha dapat lebih mandiri dalam pengelolaannya. Tempat (Sewa/Beli) : merupakan biaya yang dikeluarkan selama warnet berjalan meskipun renovasi seperti pengecetan ulang, pembersihan ruangan, dan menaikkan daya listrik (bila diperlukan). Of The Iranian! Server : Diusahakan memiliki spesifikasi yang lebih baik dari client. Journal Example! Server dapat digabung dengan komputer kasir. Sociology! Untuk client, dapat digunakan komputer-komputer bekas dengan catatan, diperiksa dahulu secara keseluruhan. Perangkat Jaringan : Hub/Switch yang menghubungkan antarclient, jumlah portnya dapat disesuaikan dengan jumlah client. Journal Article Critique! Modem digunakan bila koneksi dilakukan melalui saluran telepon atau ADSL.

Access Point dan antena akan diperlukan jika koneksi Internetnya menggunakan wireless. Administrative Assistants! Panjang kabel UTP dan jumlah RJ45 disesuaikan dengan hasil pengukuran dari setiap client ke hub/ switch dan perhitungan jumlah client. Article Critique Example! Untuk penyatuan kabel dan RJ45, digunakan crimpping tool dan bila perlu, gunakan LAN tester untuk mengetahui penyatuan kabel yang dilakukan berhasil atau tidak. Furniture yang diperlukan meliputi meja-kursi kasir (bisa sekaligus merangkap admin) dan meja-kursi client. The Battle Sumter! Fasilitas tambahan dapat diperhitungkan, seperti printer, scanner, minuman atau makanan ringan. Untuk anggaran belanja dibuat dengan serinci-rincinya agar tidak ada hal-hal yang terlewatkan.

Membuat laporan keuangan tentang pemasukan dan pengeluaran setiap bulannya dilakukan secara benar dan teliti. Kepraktisan bisa jadi bahan pertimbangan untuk koneksi Internet di warnet. Journal Article Example! Penggunaan wireless saat ini mendominasi sebagian besar koneksi ke warnet. Sociology Intersectionality! Kondisi ini sudah berlangsung beberapa tahun yang lalu dan semakin meluas sejak penggunaan frekuensi 2,4 Ghz dibebaskan dari biaya lisensi. Journal Article Critique! Meskipun demikian, penggunaan frekuensi radio ini ada batasan-batasan teknis. Sample Administrative! Namun dalam beberapa tahun ke depan, bisa dipastikan penggunaan wireless Internet link akan tetap menjadi primadona kecuali terjadi perubahan biaya akses via kabel/fiber optic yang signifikan. Article Critique Example! Sebab walau bagaimanapun, mutu akses melalui kabel atau fiber optic lebih bagus dibanding melalui jalur wireless. Administrative Assistants! Secara teknis, ini menunjukkan kemampuan orang Indonesia dalam memanfaatkan teknologi yang ada untuk memenuhi kebutuhan akan akses Internet yang murah dan cepat. Apapun pilihan untuk koneksi Internet, jangan lupakan untuk memperhitungkan bandwith (kecepatan), biaya pengadaan, biaya koneksi dan layanan technical support yang disediakan provider agar masalah cepat teratasi begitu ada masalah. Pengadaan game center untuk game jaringan bisa menjadikan tambahan pemasukan selain warnet yang berfungsi untuk browsing, e-mail, dan chatting.

Selain tidak memerlukan pengeluaran biaya untuk akses Internet, game jaringan mempunyai peminat yang tidak sedikit dan biasanya, pemain pesertanya adalah kelipatan empat atau delapan. Model game center lainnya adalah yang mengakomodir game yang memerlukan akses Internet, seperti yang sangat terkenal adalah Ragnarok (biasa disingkat RO), dan biasanya ditempatkan terpisah dengan ruangan warnet. Critique! Bisa juga menjual voucher game ini untuk pemasukan tambahan. “Green Warnet” memiliki dana lebih dan bekerjasama dengan orang-orang yang peduli serta memiliki rasa tanggung jawab terhadap dampak keseimbangan sosial, “Green Warnet” dapat mendidik dan mencerdaskan masyarakat sekitar warnet. Odyssey Bustling City! Caranya antara lain dengan menyediakan e-Learning dan pelatihan cuma-cuma yang menghasilkan konsep pencerdasan serta menyeimbangkan antara hiburan (game center, chatting), informasi (surfing, e-mail) dan edukasi. Journal! Website http://warungilmu.cjb .net adalah salah satu contoh konsep pencerdasan yang dapat diterapkan sebagai bentuk kepedulian pembelajaran di bidang IT. Tarif merupakan bagian terpenting dalam billing. Sociology! Kecanggihan suatu billing ditentukan oleh bagaimana kelengkapan fasilitas serta kemudahan proses konfigurasi dan penggunaannya, baik oleh kasir maupun pengguna warnet. Example! Tarif juga merupakan salah satu strategi marketing. Keuntungan pemakaian program billing adalah memudahkan dalam melakukan perhitungan keuangan, pencatatan waktu lebih akurat, dan pengawasan.

Dengan begitu dapat mengurangi kecurigaan terhadap kasir, dan menjalin hubungan kemitraan dengan penyedia jasa program ini. “Green Warnet” menggunakan software legal dengan mengikuti aturan dan harga yang tinggi. Menjadi warnet yang multifungsi dan ikut berperan mencerdaskan anak bangsa. Menjadi warnet yang ramah lingkungan. Menghasilkan konsumen yang berwawasan luas dengan adanya pelatihan gratis yang bermutu tinggi. Membangun sumber daya manusia Indonesia melalui akses internet cepat dengan fasilitas lengkap dan beredukasi. CERDAS (Cepat, Efektif dan Efisien, Ramah, Disiplin, Akuntabel dan Simpatik). Turut Mencerdaskan anak bangsa dengan akses internet cepat. Produk berupa jasa akses internet dikemas secara user friendly, dengan cita rasa yang disesuaikan dengan selera dengan spesialisasi kebutuhan pasar, dan bertujuan m embangun sumber daya manusia Indonesia melalui akses internet cepat dengan fasilitas lengkap dan beredukasi. Beberapa warnet telah mempertimbangkan untuk beralih ke OS open source seperti Linux dan FreeBSD. Sociology! Tapi, kendala yang dihadapi cukup beralasan untuk masih menunda penggunaan OS open source tersebut.

Alasan-alasan tersebut antara lain belum terbiasanya user/ pelanggan dalam menggunakannya walau sebenarnya kompatibilitas dan keandalannya dapat dibilang cukup user friendly. Critique Example! Ada juga yang beralasan, komunitas open source adalah komunitas yang eksklusif, dan pelit untuk berbagi ilmu ke masyarakat pengguna komputer. Sample Administrative Assistants! Namun, ada jalan supaya OS open source menjadi familiar yaitu dengan semakin seringnya membiasakan masyarakat menggunakan OS open source. Ini seperti istilah ‘apa yang lebih dulu, telur atau ayam?’ Apakah menunggu OS open source menjadi familiar buat orang banyak atau kita yang mem-familiarkan OS open source? Beberapa warnet diketahui telah berani mengambil langkah untuk migrasi ke penggunaan OS open source. Journal Article! Ada beberapa warnet yang sukses, namun ada juga sebagian dari mereka yang akhirnya tutup atau berbalik menggunakan Windows keluaran Microsoft. Sociology Intersectionality! Namun, untuk menggunakan software legalpun dibutuhkan kocek besar dan kantong tebal. Article Critique! Tidak hanya membeli sistem operasinya saja, seperti Window XP Professional yang dijual seharga US$ 295, namun software-software pendukung Internet lainnyapun harus dibeli dengan harga yang cukup tinggi pula.

The Patch Warnet. 1. Of Fort! Merupakan nasional brand. 2. Critique! Memiliki citra merk yang bagus pada konsumen. 3. Why Did The Battle Of Fort! Untuk segmen kelas menengah atas. 1. Critique Example! Layanan yang kurang ramah. 1. In An Odyssey From To A Bustling City! Memiliki beberapa cabang. 1. Critique! Ruangan tak bersekat, privacy kurang. Berdasarkan wilayah geografis, segmen pasar yang dituju adalah anak-anak sekolah, mahasiswa, pegawai, dan masyarakat umum yang berada di sekitar ”Green Warnet” pusat maupun ”Green Warnet” cabang yang tersebar di Jabodetabek. !–[if supportFields] MACROBUTTON Space_OK o ![endif]–!–[if supportFields] ![endif]– STRATEGI PEMASARAN. O Penataan ruangan yang artistik, efektif dan efisien.

O Membina hubungan yang baik dengan pelanggan menggunakan member card. O Penambahan fasilitas dengan pelatihan edukasi gratis yang diadakan satu bulan sekali. O Optimalisasi keunggulan dengan konsep ”go green” yang tampil beda. !–[if supportFields] MACROBUTTON Space_OK o ![endif]–!–[if supportFields] ![endif]– PENGEMBANGAN WILAYAH PEMASARAN. O Wilayah pemasaran akan diawali dari Jabodetabek.

O Pemasaran dikembangkan melalui jaringan asosiasi warnet. !–[if supportFields] MACROBUTTON Space_OK o ![endif]–!–[if supportFields] ![endif]– STRATEGI PENETAPAN HARGA. Tarif billing warnet di hitung per the battle sumter happen, Kbps akses data yang dilakukan si pelanggan. KEGIATAN PEMASARAN DAN PROMOSI YANG AKAN DILAKUKAN. !–[if supportFields] MACROBUTTON Space_OK o ![endif]–!–[if supportFields] ![endif]– ADVERTISING / IKLAN. Iklan/promosi dilakukan di media-media cetak dan non cetak. Bentuk-bentuk iklan menggunakan bahasa yang mudah dimengerti semua kalangan. 1. Journal Article Critique Example! Hitung bisnis plan dengan baik, komponen penting yang harus diperhatikan adalah:

Investasi yang terdiri dari beberapa komponen utama seperti komputer, peralatan LAN, printer, perangkat lunak, meja kursi dan biaya marketing. Sociology Intersectionality! Sebagai gambaran perkiraan umum jumlah komputer akan menjadi biaya utama investasi. Journal Article Critique! Biaya operasi bulanan yang meliputi gaji operator, office boy, satpam, akses internet, biaya telepon, listrik, air. What Way Feudal Europe Was Different Japan?! Pemasukan yang berupa iuran bulanan bagi akses e-mail dan / atau akses Web. 2. Critique! Survey ke lapangan untuk melihat potensi pasar – beberapa patokan sederhana yang perlu diperhatikan adalah: Populasi orang muda yang berada di sekitar wilayah warnet (paling mudah jika berada di dekat kampus / sekolah). Sociology Intersectionality! Kemampuan finansial orang-orang muda tersebut (minimal sekali mereka sebaiknya mampu mengeluarkan uang Rp. Journal Article Example! 10-20.000 / bulan untuk akses Internet).

Kuasai teknologi Internet WARNET. Lakukan survey kondisi jaringan telepon tempat WARNET tersebut, jangan sampai kecepatan data yang akan diperoleh sangat rendah. Sociology Intersectionality! Sebaiknya diusahakan agar kecepatan dapat mencapai 56Kbps di siang hari. Setelah yakin kita menguasai teknologi WARNET, jaminan pasar cukup baik dan secara bisnis memungkinkan maka langkah selanjutnya adalah melakukan instalasi dan kegiatan pemasaran. Critique Example! Pada saat kegiatan instalasi ini waktu yang dibutuhkan relatif singkat mungkin hanya sekitar 1-2 minggu-an saja jika ruangan telepon telah tersedia.

Sisanya hanya melakukan instalasi komputer dan LAN yang dibutuhkan. Hal yang paling sulit adalah mendidik operator / penjaga warnet, karena dibutuhkan kemampuan komputer dan juga nantinya menjadi semacam customer care bagi pelanggan warnet yang belum tentu semuanya mengenal Intenet bahkan tidak mustahil sebagian besar belum mengenal Internet. A Lamb And A Themes In An To A! Oleh karena itu pada tahapan perencanaan orang / calon operator warnet tersebut di didik dulu masalah Internet sebelum di terjunkan sebagai operator warnet. Pada tahapan ini secara teknologi WARNET telah beroperasi dengan lancar, adapun yang perlu dikembangkan lebih lanjut pada saat operasi WARNET adalah: Marketing / penetrasi pasar.

Baik itu melalui leaflet yang relatif sederhana. Journal Article Critique! Maupun menggunakan metoda-metoda marketing yang lebih kompleks, misalnya mengadakan acara-acara diskusi Internet di warga sekitar, talkshow melalui radio dan lain-lain. A Lamb Hill: From A Garden! Sering kali yang menjadi masalah adalah ketidak tahuan calon pengguna akan keuntungan yang diperoleh melalui internet – misalnya untuk usaha kecil menengah, untuk entertainment, dll. Journal Article Critique Example! Usahakan untuk memberikan wadah bagi pengguna agar menjadi jelas keuntungan yang akan diperoleh dari Internet. A Lamb And A Hill: Odyssey A Garden To A! Yang mungkin akan menarik juga adalah dengan menggabungkan dengan kursus-kursus penggunanan Internet. Journal Article Example! Membangun masyarakat melalui forum-forum diskusi misalnya melalui mailing list di Internet. A Lamb And A Hill: In An Odyssey From A Garden To A! Ada cukup banyak saat ini mailing list di Internet juga dijelaskan dalam buku saya “Teknologi Warung Internet”. !–[if supportFields] MACROBUTTON Space_OK o ![endif]–!–[if supportFields] ![endif]– STRATEGI PEMASARAN. O Iklan/promosi dilakukan di media-media cetak dan non cetak.

O Bentuk-bentuk iklan menggunakan bahasa yang mudah dimengerti semua kalangan. O Penataan ruangan yang artistik, efektif dan efisien. O Membina hubungan yang baik dengan pelanggan menggunakan member card. O Penambahan fasilitas dengan edukasi gratis yang diadakan satu bulan sekali. O Optimalisasi keunggulan dengan konsep ”go green” yang tampil beda. !–[if supportFields] MACROBUTTON Space_OK o ![endif]–!–[if supportFields] ![endif]– STRATEGI MERK. Dalam rangka menanamkan brand image warnet yang ramah lingkungan, ”Green Warnet” memberikan member card kepada setiap pelanggan, yang telah berkunjung lebih dari tiga kali. Article Example! Member card tersebut terbuat dari kertas daur ulang yang dimodifikasi.

8. Sample Administrative! 1 DAMPAK TERHADAP MASYARAKAT SEKITAR. !–[if supportFields] MACROBUTTON NOMACRO – [Dampak pemasaran terhadap masyarakat] ![endif]–!–[if supportFields] ![endif]– Masyarakat menjadi tahu bahwa ada warnet yang ramah lingkungan. !–[if supportFields] MACROBUTTON NOMACRO – [Dampak produksi dan teknologi terhadap masyarakat] ![endif]–!–[if supportFields] ![endif]– Masyarakat menjadi bertambah wawasannya dengan adanya pelatihan edukasi gratis. !–[if supportFields] MACROBUTTON NOMACRO – [Dampak produksi dan teknologi terhadap lingkungan]![endif]–!–[if supportFields] ![endif]– Lingkungan dapat terselamatkan dari akibat global warming, karena “Green Warnet” memiliki ruang lingkup taman yang ditanami tanaman penetralisir kebocoran ozon, tanaman dibudidayakan secara professional di sekitar “Green Warnet” oleh pakar biologi yang juga turut mendukung keberadaan “Green Warnet”. Kegiatan yang meminimalkan resiko usaha warnet, yang perlu diperhatikan diantaranya: 1. Journal Article Example! Kecepatan, jangan sampai konsumen terlalu lama dalam membuka situs, sangat cepat lebih baik, karena biasanya konsumen terburu atau ingin cepat mengerjakan beberapa PR yang telah disiapkan. 2. Of The! Fasilitas, fasilitas ini penting karena menunjang betahnya konsumen berlama-lama bermain internet.

Seperti minuman, makanan, ruangan ber-AC, headset dan camera, makin lengkap makin baik. 3. Journal Critique Example! Area komputer tertutup, Bila tidak tertutup konsumen tidak begitu privasi dalam bermain. American Renaissance Literature! Alih-alih menghindari konsumen membuka situs porno, sehingga dibuatlah area bermain internetnya yang terbuka. Critique Example! Untuk area tertutup sangat disarankan untuk membuat tulisan pelarangan melihat situs porno. In An From A Garden To A! Memberi kebebasan pada konsumen akan meningkatkan omset. 4. Article Example! Bonus, berikan bonus untuk konsumen setiap pemakaian yang lama, misalnya setiap 2 jam bonus 1 jam dst. 5. In An From A Garden City! Musik, sediakan lagu-lagu yang lengkap agar konsumen bisa enjoy otaknya dengan lagu-lagu kesukaannya.

Berarti harus menyediakan lagu-lagu yang lengkap dari berbagai aliran musik. Journal Critique! Dijamin laris manis, konsumen bebas memilih lagu dan mendengarkan via head setnya. 6. Of The! Film, jarang ada warnet yang menyediakan film-film terbaru, jadi begitu konsumen mulai jenuh ia bisa melihat film untuk jeda sebentar.