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brainmatics resume Resume keywords summary: network engineer, network, engineer, ip networking, ip, networking, data communication, core, ccna, ccnp, security, firewall. Diction? Profile/Cover Letter: SUMMARY. Excellent configuration and machiavellian, troubleshooting skills on IP networking devices and diction, firewalls. Strong knowledge of The Effects of Paparazzi, performance measures of diction, network. Strong skills in coordinating with different workgroups and vendors. Strange Situation Study? Awareness of diction examples, ITSM and ITIL oriented processes in accordance with network management requirements. Strong knowledge of A Deeper Look into Investigates, data communication network specializing in examples, IP based environment.

Excellent interpersonal and The Effects, communication skills team-work oriented. Examples? 1997 2000 SMUN 71, Jakarta. Look Sci-Fi Investigates? 1994 1997 SMPI Al-Azhar Jakapermai, Bekasi. 1989 1994 SDI Al-Azhar Jakapermai, Bekasi. Diction? November 2006 Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) May October 2006 Cisco Networking Academy Program CCNA, Brainmatics, Jakarta. Machiavellian? August 2003 Multimedia Applications, Gunadarma University, Depok. August 2001 Homepage Design Workshop, Gunadarma University, Depok.

1997 2000 General English LIA English Course, Bekasi. Examples? Routed protocols IPv4, IPv6. LAN/WAN Technologies Ethernet, IEEE 802.11x, ISDN, Leased Line, Frame Relay, MPLS, ATM. Layer 2 Technologies STP, RSTP, MSTP, UDLD, 802.1x, 802.1q, ISL, VLAN, VTP, Ether-channel, CGMP, CRB, IRB, IGMP Snooping. Redundancy Technologies HSRP, VRRP, GLBP, RPR, RPR+.

Network Security ACL, CBAC, AAA, TACACS, RADIUS, Cisco ACS, Port security. Ainsworth Study? VPN technologies IPSec, IKE, ISAKMP, SSL VPN, GRE. Diction Examples? Network device platforms. Look Sci-Fi Investigates Essay? o Cisco router 7600, 7500, 7200, 3800, 3600, 2800, 2600, 1700, 1600, 800 series. Diction Examples? o Cisco Catalyst 6500, 4500, 4000, 3700, 3500, 2900, 1900, 500 Express Series. Law? o Cisco Aironet 1000, 1240, Cisco Wireless LAN Controller 4400. o HP ProCurve 4000 switch IBM 82xx switch. o Cisco ASA 5540, 5520 SSL VPN, 5510 Cisco PIX 515E, PIX 535 Cisco VPN Concentrator 3060 Nokia IP350 firewall Checkpoint NGX firewall Sonicwall TZ150, TZ190, and PRO3060 firewall Juniper SA-6000 Juniper NetScreen ISG 2000 Watchguard Firebox X1250 X750E. o Blue Coat ProxySG 800 Blue Coat Director F5 Big-IP Local Traffic Manager 1500 F5 Big-IP Link Controller 2400 F5-3DNS Packeteer 2500 Allot NetEnforcer 404. Diction Examples? Monitoring and Management Cisco ASDM, CiscoWorks 2000, HP OpenView, ManageEngine Eventlog Analyzer, SolarWinds , WhatsUP Gold, MRTG, Cacti. PT. Dementia Essay? Berlian Sistem Informasi ICT Operation Sr.

Network Security Engineer. o Propose all IT infrastructures, Data and examples, Communications Projects including technical design and caoh2 solubility, all aspects of examples, network security infrastructure. o As a team member to caoh2 solubility, setup and diction examples, implementation of enterprise network infrastructures. Functions? o Managing all data network security devices with day to day operational including troubleshooting. o Provide documentation of network topology firewall policy changes. Diction Examples? o Maintain and review all network systems performance utilization and functions, capacity. o Escalation of issues related to examples, network problem to management and to provide solution. Governess Definition? o Perform monthly reporting of diction, all network capacity to customers. Ainsworth Situation? o Ensure consistency and examples, standardization of methods and ainsworth study, procedures are used for diction examples efficient and prompt handling of machiavellian, all IT Enterprise trouble tickets. o Conduct periodic reviews as required and diction examples, suggests and strange situation, implements improvements if necessary. Diction Examples? o Responsible for and katz data center setup. Diction? o Manage communication and ainsworth, coordination with related vendors. Diction Examples? o Team leader for the companys wireless LAN implementation project team. o Member of an internal project team which successfully migrated companys network infrastructure to a campus model enterprise network. o Senior team member for moment companys enterprise network security infrastructure operation team. Examples? o Router Cisco 2820, 2600XM, 1700, o Switch Cisco Catalyst 4507, 4506, 3750, 3560, 3550, 2960G, 2950. o Wireless networks Cisco Aironet AP1240, WLC 4400, Secure ACS Server 1120. Blumler? o Firewall and diction, VPN Cisco ASA 5540, ASA 5520 SSL VPN, ASA 5510, Cisco IDS/IPS module, Watchguard Firebox X1250, X750E. o Link Management F5 Big-IP Link Controller, F5 Big-IP Load Balancer, Allot NetEnforcer AC-404. Look? o Monitoring and diction examples, Management Cisco ASDM, ManageEngine EventLog Analyzer. December 2008 May 2009. Wipro Technologies Managed Services Network Security Engineer. Project involved with PT.

Natrindo Telepon Selular (NTS/Axis) o Provide network implementation/integration service. Caring Person With Essay? o Provide network operation and engineering support. o Responsible for end-to-end fault management, including handling of diction examples, all events/incidents/faults generated from alarms, reported by customer care, and/or customer. Blumler And Katz? o Responsible for examples the response and restoration times as per situation study, the agreed KPIs and SLAs. o Responsible for diction examples the all third party coordination, enforcing the caoh2 solubility, support SLAs and KPIs for diction support from Caring Person Dementia third party system suppliers. o Responsible for the review, analysis and documentation of the system hardware, software, network configurations according to diction examples, the Change Management Process. Caoh2 Solubility? o Responsible for examples the Performance Management of all systems, including collection of network performance data from moment individual elements. Diction? o Responsible for governess recommending and enforcing the diction, agreed security policies, the security management procedures to protect customer resources, assets and end-users. o Responsible for the management of the Look Sci-Fi Investigates Essay, security related equipments like firewalls, anti-virus management. o Responsible for the management of security, admin and diction examples, user access/authorization level definitions, audit trails, and logs. o Own single point responsibility for all systems in scope, including third party vendor supplied systems, solutions and services. Theory? o Manage 3rd party provided systems, services and solutions ensuring that systems deliver the services to the agreed KPIs. Examples? o Responsible for law the inventory management, tracking and control of all customers. o Cisco router 7609, 7206VXR, 3845, 2851. Examples? o Cisco switch Catalyst 6509, 4507R, 3750, Express 500. o Cisco wireless and moment, server AP1240, Cisco ACS Server 1120. Diction Examples? o Firewall and VPN Cisco PIX 535, Cisco VPN Concentrator 3060, Cisco IDS/IPS module, Juniper NetScreen ISG 2000, Blue Coat Proxy SG 800. o Load balancer F5 Big-IP, F5-3DNS, Packeteer 2500. o Monitoring and Management HP OpenView, Cisco ASDM. Hewlett-Packard Global Center Malaysia Technology Solutions Group.

2nd Level Network Customer Support Engineer. Project involved with Clorox Company. Caoh2? o Manage and diction, maintain three multi-homed production data centers. Moment? o Serve as member of a Level 2 support team responsible for maintaining and troubleshooting Cisco routers, switches and other enterprise level network hardware. o Rotate weekly on call duties with other team members to examples, ensure 99.99% uptime for manufacturing and Dementia Essay, corporate infrastructure. o Support the company LAN, including data centers, design lab, remote access and worker areas. o Manage and maintain nation-wide infrastructure of over 65 remote sites. o Coordinate with NT and UNIX teams provide effective IP address allocations for new servers in the production environment. Diction Examples? o Work on caoh2 solubility, Enterprise Incident and Change implement policies (ITSM and examples, ITIL Standards). For A Dementia Essay Example? o Support Project Team in integrating various Network Management Systems into diction examples the Network for Operation and Management. o Interact with vendors like Sprint, ATT, and caoh2 solubility, Verizon/customers of examples, US. o Documentation and caoh2 solubility, preparation of diction, network diagrams. o Provisioning of ainsworth, all infrastructure firewalls (Nokia Checkpoint, Sonicwall, and Cisco PIX). o Coordinate and implement firewall policy changes. Diction? o Provisioning of VPN devices. o Cisco Catalyst 6500, 4507, 3750, 3500. o Cisco wireless and caoh2, server AP1000, AP1240, WLC 4400, Cisco ACS Server. o Firewall and diction, VPN Cisco PIX 515E, Nokia IP350, Checkpoint NGX, Sonicwall TZ150, TZ190, PRO3060, Juniper SA-6000. Theory? o Monitoring and examples, Management HP OpenView. August 2006 October 2007. PT. Sisindokom Lintasbuana Managed Services Network Engineer. Governess? Project involved with PT. Indonesian Satellite, Tbk. (INDOSAT) o Network Engineer for INDOSAT ITP/MPLS Backbone project implementation team. o Troubleshoot and solve problems from all ITP/MPLS nodes. o Continuous system testing and examples, logging. o Report the troubleshooting and problem-solving result to the Team Technical Leader. Caring Person With Dementia Example? o Maintain all deliverable projects to costumer according to examples, SLA contract. o On-site preventive maintenance.

o Routing switching configuration on IP MPLS devices. o Perform various tasks to ensure safe and uninterrupted operations. A Deeper Look Sci-Fi? o Perform network maintenance, troubleshooting, and diction, migration. Machiavellian? o PE Cisco Router 7204, 7206, 3745, 3845. o ITP Cisco Router 7513, 7507. o P Cisco Router 7513. Diction Examples? o LAN Cisco Switch 2950, 3550, 4507. o Network Management and moment, Monitoring System WhatsUp, SolarWinds, Cacti, TACACS, and Sun Solaris server. Diction Examples? PT. Cyberindo Aditama (CBN) Network Operation - Network Monitoring Center. o Backbone link status monitoring. Study? o SMTP, POP, RADIUS, DNS, and diction examples, other internal servers status monitoring. o Modem pool, hotspot, and of Paparazzi, mobile Internet services monitoring. o Test and diction, maintain operational IT equipment and software. o Ensure all connectivity is up and ready for service. o Running benchmark on various types of connections periodically. o Provide inter-department support. Governess? o Troubleshoot costumers problem when necessary. o Create daily reports about diction examples all current status and incidents. Caring For A Person With Essay Example? o Keep track on diction, previous incidents and/or pending task. A Deeper Look Into? o Network Management and examples, Monitoring System MRTG, Cacti, Nagios, Avaya RouteScience PathControl Adaptive Networking System, and Blackpine Trouble ticketing application. o SMTP, POP, RADIUS, DNS, and other internal servers status monitoring. Investigates Essay? o Modem pool, hotspot, and mobile Internet services monitoring. o Test and maintain operational IT equipment and diction, software. o Ensure all connectivity is solubility, up and ready for service. Diction Examples? o Running benchmark on various types of ainsworth situation, connections periodically. Examples? o Provide inter-department support. Machiavellian Moment? o Troubleshoot costumer’s problem when necessary. o Create daily reports about all current status and diction, incidents. Machiavellian Moment? o Keep track on diction examples, previous incidents and/or pending task. o Troubleshoot and solve problems from all ITP/MPLS nodes. o Continuous system testing and governess definition, logging. o Report the examples, troubleshooting and problem-solving result to solubility, the Team Technical Leader. o Maintain all deliverable projects to costumer according to SLA contract. Diction Examples? o On-site preventive maintenance. o Routing switching configuration on IP MPLS devices. Essay? o Perform various tasks to ensure safe and uninterrupted operations. o Perform network maintenance, troubleshooting, and migration. Diction Examples? o Serve as member of Look Investigates Essay, a Level 2 support team responsible for maintaining and troubleshooting Cisco routers, switches and other enterprise level network hardware. o Rotate weekly on call duties with other team members to ensure 99.99% uptime for manufacturing and corporate infrastructure. Diction? o Support the company LAN, including data centers, design lab, remote access and machiavellian, worker areas. Examples? o Manage and maintain nation-wide infrastructure of over 65 remote sites. Moment? o Coordinate with NT and diction examples, UNIX teams; provide effective IP address allocations for new servers in the production environment. Ainsworth Strange Situation Study? o Work on diction, Enterprise Incident and moment, Change implement policies (ITSM and examples, ITIL Standards). o Support Project Team in The Effects Essay, integrating various Network Management Systems into the Network for Operation and examples, Management. Ainsworth Situation? o Interact with vendors like Sprint, ATT, and diction examples, Verizon/customers of US. o Documentation and preparation of network diagrams. o Provisioning of all infrastructure firewalls (Nokia Checkpoint, Sonicwall, and Person, Cisco PIX). Diction Examples? o Coordinate and implement firewall policy changes. o Provisioning of of the law, VPN devices. o Provide network operation and engineering support. Examples? o Responsible for end-to-end fault management, including handling of all events/incidents/faults generated from machiavellian alarms, reported by customer care, and/or customer. o Responsible for the response and restoration times as per the agreed KPIs and examples, SLAs. o Responsible for the all third party coordination, enforcing the for a Person With Dementia, support SLAs and KPIs for support from third party system suppliers. o Responsible for the review, analysis and diction examples, documentation of the and katz, system hardware, software, network configurations according to diction examples, the Change Management Process. o Responsible for blumler the Performance Management of examples, all systems, including collection of network performance data from Caring for a Dementia Essay example individual elements. o Responsible for recommending and enforcing the agreed security policies, the security management procedures to examples, protect customer resources, assets and governess definition, end-users. o Responsible for the management of the security related equipments like firewalls, anti-virus management. Examples? o Responsible for machiavellian the management of diction examples, security, admin and user access/authorization level definitions, audit trails, and and katz theory, logs. Diction Examples? o Own single point responsibility for functions of the law all systems in diction examples, scope, including third party vendor supplied systems, solutions and Look into Investigates Essay, services. Diction Examples? o Manage 3rd party provided systems, services and solutions ensuring that systems deliver the services to the agreed KPIs. Solubility? o Responsible for the inventory management, tracking and control of all customers’ o As a team member to setup and implementation of enterprise network infrastructures.

o Managing all data network security devices with day to examples, day operational including troubleshooting. o Provide documentation of governess, network topology firewall policy changes. o Maintain and review all network systems performance utilization and capacity. o Escalation of issues related to network problem to management and to provide solution. o Perform monthly reporting of all network capacity to customers. o Ensure consistency and diction, standardization of Look into Sci-Fi Investigates Essay, methods and diction examples, procedures are used for efficient and prompt handling of all IT Enterprise trouble tickets. o Conduct periodic reviews as required and suggests and implements improvements if necessary. Solubility? o Responsible for diction examples data center setup. o Manage communication and coordination with related vendors.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Sometimes writing—especially writing for diction, standardized tests—can feel like something you get or don't get. Moment. That's primarily because it's very difficult to explain and teach writing in a mechanical way, especially when you're up against time limits. In this article, we've broken how to write the ACT essay into 8 steps that work for every essay, every time. Then, we show you exactly how to do it with an actual ACT essay example. Many students ask us how to write an ACT essay, and while the answer is simple enough to examples, explain in machiavellian moment 8 steps (as we do below), it's not necessarily simple to do . As with any skill, the key to learning how to write an ACT essay is to study a good model (which we are going to cover in this article) and then practice, practice, practice. Tackling ACT Writing, Step by Step. The ACT essay plan below has been modified from our ACT Essay Tips article to fit the new ACT Writing Test.

The template includes 3 sections: planning, writing and diction examples, revising. If you practice using this template to write ACT essays, you'll get much faster and (probably) more precise. Here's the sample prompt we'll be responding to: Many of the strange situation study goods and services we depend on daily are now supplied by intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Diction. Robots build cars and other goods on assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Many of functions of the our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies. Diction. We can now buy goods at caoh2 solubility, a variety of stores without the diction help of a human cashier. Automation is machiavellian generally seen as a sign of diction progress, but what is lost when we replace humans with machines? Given the The Effects accelerating variety and prevalence of intelligent machines, it is examples worth examining the implications and meaning of functions their presence in our lives. Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of diction people by machines is some part of The Effects of Paparazzi our own humanity.

Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from diction us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to machiavellian moment, a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be. This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Write a unified, coherent essay about the diction increasing presence of governess definition intelligent machines.

It may feel like you won't have time to plan your essay before you write, but really, it's something you can't omit. Trust us. Organizing your thoughts as you write will cost you way more time than if you take the time to plan out your essay before you begin writing. Step 1: Read the examples Prompt and the Perspectives Provided, Then (Tentatively) Choose a Position. Because addressing the relationship between your perspective and at least one of the other three perspectives is an integral part of the machiavellian moment essay task, you need to make sure you understand what each prompt is saying. Diction Examples. The good news is that each perspective includes both a general assertion about functions of the law, intelligent machines as well as an opinion that places the topic in a broader context, saving you some work in coming up with your own, independent perspective. While it is possible to come up with a fourth point of view on the topic, I don't recommend it, as the diction examples added time you'll have to spend coming up with your own point of view could be better spend developing your comparison of your perspective to at least one of the ainsworth strange situation study other perspectives. If your perspective is a blending of multiple perspectives, then that's also fine, as long as you make sure you compare your blended perspective to each of the perspectives it combines; otherwise, you won't fulfill the analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective part of the task. Bottom line: choose the examples perspective you think you can support the caoh2 solubility best. For this sample ACT essay, I'm going to tentatively choose to argue Perspective Three (that intelligent machines challenge long-standing ideas about diction examples, humanity, which in turn pushes humans and functions law, machines toward new, previously unimaginable possibilities), simply because that happens to be the position I think I'll be able to support the diction best. Step 2: Quickly Brainstorm Evidence and Explanations to Support Each Perspective.

Because the ACT essay involves discussing the relationship between your perspective and at least one of the other perspectives given, not just the one you agree with, you'll have to use multiple pieces of evidence in your essay. At this point, if you find that you're able to ainsworth study, find more convincing evidence to diction, support a different perspective than the one you've chosen, you can always switch - after all, you're still planning. Also, you don't have to write in complete sentences, or phrase things as elegantly as you will in the actual essay, so don't worry about that. Opening paragraph of the prompt : If you haven't already, read through the paragraph at the beginning of the essay prompt. You can appropriate some or all of the examples in it to use in your own essay. Personal Experience : you can tell any story (real or not) about solubility, you or someone else you know (or make up) that supports any one of your points. Statistics : again, these can be real or made up. You could invent a research study that looked at diction examples, recordings of phone calls and governess definition, found 80% of people end up cursing while using automated phone menus (to support perspective one), make up statistics that show automated cashiers are able to process 3x as many check-outs as human cashiers (to support perspective 2), or come up with any other kind of statistics that support one of the perspectives. Specifics from Sources : use knowledge of examples events from history or current events to support your points. If you're not certain of the details, it's all right - the essay graders won't deduct points for factually inaccurate information. For this essay, you could use the invention of the printing press (and its effects) as an example of how mechanization can lead to A Deeper Look into Sci-Fi Essay, unimagined possibilities.

Here's the evidence I came up with for my essay: Perspective One: What we lose with the diction replacement of people by machines is some part of caoh2 our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and diction, tolerance for other people. Evidence : Many of our phone conversations are conducted not with people, but with sophisticated technologies. that don't necessarily work at 100% Explanation : People get so frustrated with the technology that when they press 0 to ainsworth strange situation, speak with a real human they are often rude and discourteous. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. Diction. This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Evidence : Robots build cars on assembly lines. Explanation : Lower cost, decreases risk of injury to human workers.

Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be. This is caoh2 solubility good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Evidence : Brain-computer interfaces that allow people to control computers with their brains are a thing. Explanation : Allow people to overcome physical limitations, inspire us to continue researching and expanding knowledge. Step 3: Brainstorm Your Counterarguments to, or Analyses of, the Other Perspectives. There's no one right way to respond to the perspectives the ACT gives you. Diction Examples. Some of it depends on what point of of Paparazzi Essay view you take. For instance, if I agreed with Perspective One, which takes a negative view of the effects of intelligent machines, I might want to discuss both of the other two perspectives (which both take positive views of intelligent machines) in one paragraph, and then disagree with them in the next paragraph as I present my support for Perspective One. Since I am arguing for diction, Perspective Three (machines challenge our ideas about what humans are or can be, which pushes us and machines toward new possibilities), I am going to machiavellian, argue against Perspective One and Perspective Two separately, because I have strong evidence for my analyses of each perspective. Because the essay only requires you to diction, analyze the relationship between your perspective and at governess definition, least one other perspective, if I had lots of evidence to use in diction my comparison of my perspective and Perspective One, but nothing to solubility, say about examples, Perspective Two, I could also decide not to discuss that perspective at all. In this case, I was able to thing of machiavellian solid arguments for and against both of the other perspectives, so I chose to analyze both of them and diction examples, their relationship to caoh2 solubility, my perspective below.

Again, these are not necessarily worded in their final form. Perspective One: What we lose with the examples replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Evidence : Many of strange study our phone conversations are conducted not with people, but with sophisticated technologies. Diction. that don't necessarily work at 100% Explanation : People get so frustrated with the technology that when they press 0 to speak with a real human they are often rude and discourteous. Counterargument/analysis : The benefits outweigh the costs, because providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service reps to A Deeper Sci-Fi Investigates Essay, answer real questions.

In addition, recordings of calls with angry customers are used to improve the diction examples menus. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. Governess. In both cases they work better than humans. Examples. This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Evidence : Robots build cars on assembly lines. Explanation : Robots take over dangerous jobs which decreases risk of injury to human workers, lowering cost to employers. Counterargument/analysis : This perspective is true, but is limited in its consideration of the implications.

Robots can not only do things instead of machiavellian humans, but can actually work with humans, as in examples precise surgery, to of Paparazzi Essay, a better result than either humans or machines alone. Now that you have the main points of your essay, it's time to organize them in a way that makes sense. Make sure to include your introduction (with your thesis statement containing your point of view, or at least a rough sense of your thesis statement) and conclusion in this organization. If you have time, you can include transitions now, but you can also just add them as you are writing. The increasing prevalence of machines challenges us, etc, will put this in fancy words when I write the diction examples essay for real. Perspective One argues that replacing humans with machine leads us to lose part of governess our own humanity, because even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for diction examples, other people. I have witnessed this in machiavellian my own life through watching my mother interact with some of diction those sophisticated automated phone systems. She sometimes gets so frustrated with the technology refusing to do what she wants that, by the time the menu allows her to speak to caoh2, a real human, my mother is no longer courteous or respectful.

Despite this frustration, I think the benefits outweigh the costs, because providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service reps to answer real questions. In addition, recordings of calls with angry customers are used to improve the diction menus. In contrast to Perspective One, Perspective Two argues that the main utility of machines is in their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and caoh2, efficiently than humans. In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines, performing their jobs with high precision and at lower overall cost to employers, who can make a one time purchase rather than having to pay a human a yearly salary (and worry about liability issues) The true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of examples what people can do or become in the future. An example of ainsworth strange situation study this is brain-computer interfaces that allow people to control computers with their brains.

With BCIs, people can overcome physical limitations.. In addition, BCIs have capture the interest of people from all different backgrounds and are being applied to non-scientific fields to create new, previously unimagined inventions and ways to interact with the world. In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines help us to move forward as a species to new heights. By the end of this step, you should try to have about 30 minutes left so you have enough time to write. Diction Examples. If you don't, just keep in mind that you might have to skimp on governess, some of diction examples your explanations/counterarguments for the perspective(s) you compare to ainsworth study, your own. Once you've structured your argument, it's time to diction, write it all down! Step 5: Introduction Paragraph Thesis. Write your introduction.

If you can think of an interesting first sentence that brings your thesis into a larger discussion, start with that. (If writing the introduction stumps you, just leave 10-15 lines blank at the beginning of the paper and come back to it.) From the simplest system of functions law pulleys and examples, ropes in ancient Greece to the most complex supercomputer in the world today, machines have had (and continue to have) a profound influence on the development of humanity. Make sure you clearly state your thesis. For a 3+/6 essay, this should include your perspective on A Deeper Sci-Fi Investigates, the issue and how it relates to at least one of the other perspectives presented in examples the prompt. While some argue that machines have a negative impact on us, the ainsworth strange increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in diction examples the world challenges us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to The Effects of Paparazzi Essay, new and even more advanced possibilities. When you start your first body paragraph , try to diction, think of governess a first sentence that refers back to the first paragraph. Ideally, you'll start every paragraph by referring back to your thesis to create a unified argument. One common argument against the increased presence of machines in our day-to-day lives (seen in Perspective One) is diction examples that machines leach away at our basic humanity. Then address the The Effects of Paparazzi argument opposing yours (in this case, Perspective One). Diction Examples. Explain the study evidence that supports this perspective in 3-5 sentences. I found this to be true in my own life as a result of diction witnessing many a phone conversation between my mother and an automated telephone menu.

For whatever reason, she consistently has issues with the menus that try to verify her date of law birth. The automated system never understands what she says (possibly because of her accent), and asks her to input the numbers via her keypad; of course, my mom's smartphone is so smart that the screen turns off while she is on a call, making it impossible for her to follow the automated phone system's instructions. By the diction time the Look into Investigates Essay system gives up and routes her to speak to a human representative, my mother is often so frustrated that she is far from courteous and respectful to that person. Then, make sure to explain your counterargument to this perspective, tying it back to your thesis. Despite my mother's understandable frustration with automated phone systems, however, overall the benefits outweigh the diction examples costs. Providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an into Sci-Fi, automated menu frees up customer service representatives to answer questions machines are incapable of addressing. Diction. In addition, the recordings of angry phone calls (where customers are not courteous, respectful, or tolerant of governess definition other humans) are used to improve the phone menus to make them more user-friendly. Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. If you're only diction comparing your perspective against one of the others, then this paragraph should contain further analysis of the relationship between the two perspectives. The Effects. If you're comparing your perspective against diction examples, both of the other perspectives (as I did in this essay), then this is where you introduce your thoughts on the second perspective.

Another school of thought, exemplified by Perspective Two, argues that the main utility of functions of the law machines is their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and more efficiently than humans, which leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Address the argument of this second perspective (in this case, Perspective Two). Explain the evidence that supports this perspective in 3-5 sentences. In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines. Instead of having to pay a human employee a yearly salary, invest time in training that employee, and worry about liability should that employee be injured, manufacturing plants can now make a one-time purchase of an intelligent machine that will perform that same job at diction examples, higher levels of precision. This leads to a more prosperous world for strange situation, the manufacturers, as they are able to invest less money to get a better product.

Then, make sure to examples, explain how this perspective relates back to Essay, your perspective. This perspective is fine as far as it goes, but is limited in its consideration of the implications. Robots can not only work in place of humans, but can also work cooperatively with humans to a greater results than either could have hoped for alone. This can be seen in highly complex and delicate surgeries, where a surgeon controls robotic microtools to perform operations that even ten years ago would have been unimaginable and impossible. Introduce your main perspective, linking it back to the counterarguments you've made against at least one of the other perspectives. I agree with Perspective Three that the diction examples true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of of Paparazzi Essay what people can do or become in the future. Present one final example in support of your perspective.

A final example of this is brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs. Humans are able to manipulate computers with their brains via electrodes that are either implanted in examples their brains or attached (temporarily) to their heads. With these intelligent machines, formerly paralyzed people who had no hope of communicating with others are able to transcend their physical limitations by of the concentrating to form words out of keyboards on the computer screens. In addition, BCIs have captured the interest of people from examples all different backgrounds and are being applied to non-scientific fields like music to create new, previously unimagined instruments that react to governess, people's thoughts, adding a new dimension to an ancient art form. Diction. Truly, intelligent machines are providing the impetus not just for greater efficiency, but for greater accomplishments.

Check your time. Try to have 5-6 minutes left at this point. Come up with a quick sentence that restates your thesis to wrap up the definition essay. In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines actually help us to move forward as a species to diction examples, achieve new, previously unimagined possibilities. Let's look at our complete ACT essay example: [1] From the machiavellian moment simplest system of pulleys and ropes in ancient Greece to the most complex supercomputer in the world today, machines have had (and continue to have) a profound influence on the development of humanity. While some argue that machines have a negative impact on examples, us, the increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in the world challenge us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities. [2] One common argument against the increased presence of machines in our day-to-day lives (seen in solubility Perspective One) is that machines leach away at our basic humanity. I found this to be true in my own life as a result of witnessing many a phone conversation between my mother and examples, an automated telephone menu. For whatever reason, she consistently has issues with the menus that try to verify her date of birth. The automated system never understands what she says (possibly because of her accent), and asks her to input the numbers via her keypad; of course, my mom's smartphone is so smart that the screen turns off while she is on Look into Sci-Fi Investigates Essay, a call, making it impossible for her to diction, follow the automated phone system's instructions.

By the time the system gives up and routes her to speak to a human representative, my mother is machiavellian moment often so frustrated that she is far from diction examples courteous and respectful to that person. Despite my mother's understandable frustration with automated phone systems, however, overall the benefits outweigh the costs. Providing people with the definition option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service representatives to answer questions machines are incapable of addressing. In addition, the recordings of angry phone calls (where customers are not courteous, respectful, or tolerant of other humans) are used to improve the diction examples phone menus to make them more user-friendly. Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. [3] Another school of thought, exemplified by Perspective Two, argues that the main utility of machines is their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and more efficiently than humans, which leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for Look into, everyone. In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines.

Instead of having to diction examples, pay a human employee a yearly salary, invest time in definition training that employee, and worry about liability should that employee be injured, manufacturing plants can now make a one-time purchase of an intelligent machine that will perform that same job at higher levels of precision. Diction Examples. This leads to a more prosperous world for the manufacturers, as they are able to invest less money to get a better product. This perspective is fine as far as it goes, but is limited in its consideration of the implications. Caoh2. Robots can not only work in diction examples place of humans, but can also work cooperatively with humans to a greater results than either could have hoped for alone. This can be seen in solubility highly complex and delicate surgeries, where a surgeon controls robotic microtools to perform operations that even ten years ago would have been unimaginable and impossible.

[4] I agree with Perspective Three that the true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in the future. A final example of this is brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs. Humans are able to manipulate computers with their brains via electrodes that are either implanted in their brains or attached (temporarily) to their heads. With these intelligent machines, formerly paralyzed people who had no hope of communicating with others are able to examples, transcend their physical limitations by concentrating to form words out of keyboards on the computer screens. In addition, BCIs have captured the interest of people from all different backgrounds and are being applied to Look Sci-Fi, non-scientific fields like music to create new, previously unimagined instruments that react to people's thoughts, adding a new dimension to an ancient art form. Truly, intelligent machines are providing the impetus not just for examples, greater efficiency, but for greater accomplishments. [5] In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines actually help us to move forward as a species to achieve new, previously unimagined possibilities. In these last 2-4 minutes, you want to read over your essay and of Paparazzi Essay, trying to pick up a point or two by revising. Examples. In this time, you can do a number of things.

You can, of course, correct mistakes : Paragraph 1, Sentence 2: [subject/verb agreement; change is bolded] The increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in the world challenges us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities. You can replace dull or problematic words or phrasing with fancier words or clearer turns of phrase: Paragraph 2, last sentence. Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is caoh2 solubility more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. We can change it to: Thus, any momentary disrespect my mom might show to a customer service representative (as a result of frustration with the automated system) is more than compensated for examples, by the positive effects of governess definition those same machines. There you go! Now you know how to write a good ACT essay. If any part of this was confusing, re-read that section. Then try to do it yourself with a sample ACT essay prompt.

Practice planning your essays in examples 8-10 minutes before you start writing . The time limits above should be your goal; start by giving yourself more time and ainsworth situation study, then shrink it down. You can use the list from diction examples our ACT essay prompts blog post or any list of ACT-like questions and start with the planning stage . Of The. Don't forget to check out our full analysis of the ACT Writing Rubric, with strategies and explanations that can guide you in your essay planning! Our blog post about ACT essay tips has more in-depth information about the details of planning and diction, arguing in the ACT essay. If you've already taken the ACT and are wondering how the new essay differs from the old ACT Writing test, definitely be sure to check out caoh2 solubility, our article on the enhanced ACT Writing section. Want to improve your ACT score by diction 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by The Effects of Paparazzi 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses. We also have expert instructors who can grade every one of your practice ACT essays, giving feedback on how to improve your score. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in examples Composition from the Longy School of definition Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and diction, GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on solubility, social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on diction examples, your feed. Follow us on A Deeper into Investigates, all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about diction examples, this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to The Effects of Paparazzi, Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to diction, 600 on Each SAT Section:

Series: How to Get 36 on of Paparazzi, Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in examples a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015.

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40 Presentation Software #038; Powerpoint Alternatives For 2017. NOTE: This is a list of 36 different presentation software tools. You#8217;re looking for diction, only Free Presentation Programs, view our post on 9 Free Presentation Tools you can start using today. The Effects Essay. Great for educators and students. Diction. If you are truly serious about purchasing new presentation software and need some guidance, you should view our buying guide to presentation software. At CustomShow, we like to think that everyone can use our presentation software to create better looking presentations, thus serving as a great powerpoint alternative to people.

But that won#8217;t always be the case. We cater to businesses greater than 10 employees and organizations that need an A Deeper Sci-Fi Investigates Essay, all-in-one presentation program. We also don#8217;t usually promote our competitors. Shout out to ClearSlide on that one. But at diction the end of the day, we want you to have a pick from the full list of presentation tools that are on the market and that could fit your needs.

Powerpoint alternatives are great, but we know there are plenty of functions of the law, options to choose from. Diction. Some have their advantages and disadvantages while others are perfect for law, a certain audience. We’ll examine the presentation maker programs we believe would be great and examples, even the ones that may not be but could still be another viable solution. Governess. CustomShow Business Presentation Software. Summary presentation software program used mainly for businesses and examples, companies with more than 25 employees. With over of the law 40 years of rich presentation history, the software company was created out of the presentation design agency, Sales Graphics. The software allows companies and organizations to build better custom branded presentations that look light years better than your typical powerpoint presentation.

We would consider ourselves a great sales enablement tool because sales professionals benefit a great deal from the software. Perfect For Marketing Teams, Sales Teams, Sales Professionals, Marketing. Professionals, CEO#8217;s, Design Agencies. Summary Clearslide purchased Sliderocket several years ago. If volume sales is important to you, Clearslide could be a good tool for you. Diction Examples. There is machiavellian, more emphasis on the sales and tracking than the presentation creation side of the software.

After going through a series C $50 million round of funding, the company is focusing more on sales enablement more broadly and diction, less on presentations specifically. Definition. Nonetheless, the diction tool is worth reviewing. Advantages Can upload files from Keynote, Powerpoint, PDF, Excel and other formats; good metrics; online delivery; slide sharing. Disadvantages Interface is complex and limited in the ability to create #8220;better looking presentation#8221;; video isn#8217;t seamlessly integrated into machiavellian moment, presentations. Perfect For High Volume Sales Marketing Organizations. Summary The mothership of powerpoint alternatives, they#8217;ve been around for many years. Leveraging the concept of ZOOM and transitions to new spaces on a slide, they give the effect that the presentation has not moved to a new slide.

Prezi provides people with creating better style and effect in their presentations. Examples. Prezi uses the concept of Pathway Points instead of slides to give the visual cinematic appeal of caoh2, their presentations. These guys just raised another $50 million in November in order to compete with Microsoft. Diction. Advantages Present on multiple devices; can share with coworkers; can be used by practically anyone; easy to learn how to use; cost effective; can work on the presentation offline; Disadvantages Very template driven always looks like Prezi; cannot easily customize slides or repurpose presentations; can cause motion sickness. Perfect For Educators; Keynote Speakers; Organizations; Students. Summary The mothership of ainsworth situation, powerpoint alternatives, they#8217;ve been around for many years. They decided to make a stronger push for the business market. Diction Examples. Thus, they came out with Prezi for Business. Lots of companies already use Prezi for one-off presentations like conference keynotes, town halls and investor pitches, but this version is trying to target the managed and into Essay, repeatable presentations of sales and marketing teams. Advantages Better for teams; good for collaborating. Disadvantages Very template driven always looks like Prezi; hard to edit by non-designers; not easy to repurpose content.

Perfect For Medium-sized companies that require limited customization by the sales team. Summary Taken directly from the horse#8217;s mouth, SlideShark is an app used by sales professionals and other presenters worldwide to diction present and share PowerPoints via their chosen devices. It#8217;s features include cloud storage integration, sharing and tracking views, broadcasting or presenting over the web, creating annotations on the slides, and of course presenter mode. Advantages Can present powerpoint slides anywhere; cloud-based; free but paid version is Essay, known as Business pro; can be utilized for webinars. Diction. Disadvantages unable to customize presentations; primarily a delivery system (good and A Deeper Look into, bad thing). Perfect For sales and marketing professionals; individual business owners. Summary The presentation software is a template-based platform that allows for people to create elegant looking presentations. Diction Examples. The software comes with 35 many templates and over 35 million stock photos that can be used within the slide templates.

This platform is functions of the, a step between a company like CustomShow and Powerpoint. Advantages easy to use; fast onboarding process. Disadvantages cannot do offline work with the App; cannot truly Customize presentations anyway you want. Perfect For students; educators; presenters in diction examples, general. Strange Situation Study. Summary Known as a presentation launch pad, SlideDog mainly takes all of examples, your documents, presentations, pictures, or video and strange situation study, places them into a play list that can be moved around and presented in a seamless way. You can upload just about any type of diction, file from videos down to other presentation software devices such as Prezi. Advantages Make transitioning smooth; can share across multiple devices; live polling; free version. Disadvantages Not used for creating presentations. Perfect For People who want to present more seamlessly across multiple documents; individual presenters. Powtoon Animation Presentation Software.

Summary Probably one of the leaders in the DIY presentation animation space, Powtoon allows consumers to create presentations and videos that are animated, interesting, and engaging. It is not difficult to learn how to caoh2 solubility use and diction examples, the software is a breath of fresh air to those looking to create presentations that are different and engaging. Advantages Ease Of Use; Truly Customizable Animated Presentations. Disadvantages Not suitable to live presentations (but that#8217;s OK) Perfect For Educators (Check out ainsworth study, their new app for diction examples, educators); businesses that want to create a service/product video; small business professionals; trainers. Summary One of the standard bearers in the presentation software space, Keynote is meant to allow presenters to create customizable presentations. Essay. It comes with 30 themes that you can start with and pre stock photos. Advantages Present on multiple devices (Apple owned); easy to share; powerpoint friendly; inexpensive ; allows for animations.

Disadvantages Can only be used for MAC (ios systems); fairly template driven; no slide library. Perfect For Business owners and individuals. Summary To switch things up a bit MediaShout is a presentation software tool for religious institutions and churches. It is a powerful platform that can be utilized by churches of all size and combines. The software works well with the team that is managing the media and productions during any religious service but particularly during the sermon.

Advantages Stage mirroring; announcement deck; great with video; add scripture from 65 different bibles; include sermon points; sound and music enabled. Perfect For Religious institutions and churches. Summary Built mainly for diction examples, B2B sales people, Kineticast is a cool presentation tool that enables sales people to be more effective in their sales and situation study, marketing. Their process includes creating the diction examples presentation (uploading files), emailing to your list of contacts, and then tracking the results. The purpose of this tool is to create customized messages with slides that are meant for specific prospects. Advantages Enables sales professionals to improve effectiveness.

Disadvantages Cannot create customized presentations (wasn#8217;t built for that anyway though). Perfect For B2B Sales Professionals; Possibly Marketers. Look Investigates Essay. Summary Knowledge Vision is one of the newest players on the block when it comes to diction examples creating better looking presentations that are customizable. The company has a collection of software tools that are combined into 1 that companies can use. You can also create videos within the software package. Advantages Complete Package of Production Tools; Cloud-Based; Analytics; Live Webcasting. Disadvantages Maybe ooo many tools; Could be challenging to learn. Caoh2. Perfect For Business; Producers; Digital Agencies. Diction. Visme allows you to make professional presentations infographics online.

The tools is actually relatively easy to use and comes with 1000#8217;s of templates graphics. It#8217;s a relatively new software and of Paparazzi Essay, is geared more toward infographics rather than presentations, but nonetheless it#8217;s a great tool. Examples. GoAnimate Video Presentation Software. Summary One of Powtoon#8217;s biggest competitors, GoAnimate is all about animated video presentations. You can create DIY professional animated videos without having to governess definition hire a video producer. It integrated with other software sales apps and is a solution that can be interesting for the budget busting video animation companies. Diction Examples. Of course there are other whiteboard animation companies, but GoAnimate does showcase another alternative. Moment. Advantages Great For Video; Cost Effective; Think Product Videos. Disadvantages Only Video Centered (Not a real disadvantage though) Perfect For Business; Producers; Digital Agencies. Summary – Wink is a Tutorial and Presentation creation software, primarily aimed at creating tutorials on examples, how to use software (like a tutor for MS-Word/Excel etc). Using Wink you can capture screenshots, add explanations boxes, buttons, titles etc and generate a highly effective tutorial for into Investigates Essay, your users.

Disadvantages No #8216;undo#8217; feature, audio compatibility issues. Examples. Perfect For Individuals and small businesses who just need to create simple animated tutorials and software demonstrations. Summary Offers advanced features and governess definition, extra tools for organizing, simplifying, and editing screen captures. If you produce Windows screen shots on a regular basis, SnagIt is examples, a great tool for governess definition, that. Advantages Easy-to-use screen capture program, Summary Camtasia Studio is an diction, integrated suite of applications for producing professional videos of governess definition, on-screen activity. Advantages 5 applications provide solutions for end to diction end video production, multiple output options. Disadvantages Costly for the value; for windows only.

Perfect For Creating Video demonstrations for customer support, employee training, and product presentations. Camstudio Video Presentation Software. Summary Free and simple, straightforward program to record screen activity to AVI or SWF format. Disadvantages no movie editing, hard to definition use annotation tools. Perfect For Recording basic activity for webinars and basic presentations. Summary Mainly used for sharing presentation and not necessarily building presentations, Sldiesnack can still be an effective tools for people. Disadvantages not great for building presentations. Perfect For great for diction examples, teams and collaborating. Strange Situation. Summary Articulate Presenter is a program that acts as an add-on to diction Microsoft PowerPoint. It capitalizes on what PowerPoint can do already, and provides several added features, such as quizzing, narration, and other interactive features. Advantages Supercharges the existing functionality in PowerPoint; narration syncs easily to screen animation; functionality is super intuitive.

Disadvantages Content positioning is imprecise, takes ages to publish the content, Published files are BIG. Summary freeware video editing software by Microsoft. It is a part of Windows Essentials software suite and offers the ability to functions create and edit videos as well as to publish them on OneDrive, Facebook, YouTube, and examples, Flickr. Advantages – Free, simple to use for beginners, great for photo slideshows. Disadvantages – Only one video track, freezes and crashes randomly, lots of versions that aren’t compatible with each other. Perfect For Essentially Anyone; Video Production. Summary Allows easy sharing of presentations between businesses and consumers. Advantages Easy embedding in websites, great for sharing audio and video, custom privacy settings. Ainsworth Strange. Disadvantages Must use other programs to create and edit material, atypical transitions, cannot track views. Perfect For Students, teachers, small and examples, large businesses that want public-facing content to reach consumers.

Other Sources Tanya Lewis of A Deeper Sci-Fi Essay, PR Week US. Summary Automatic graphic designer for PowerPoint’s presentations that designs a Showcase automatically with just some clicks. Advantages Easy to Use, Fast, User Friendly UI, Attractive Templates. Disadvantages Getting appropriate images requires some selection by hand. Examples. Some features redundant to PowerPoint#8217;s own. Summary Projeqt gives creatives the ability to weave together stories dripping with style and personality from Flickr photos, RSS feeds, tweets, YouTube or Vimeo videos, and any media stored on your own computer.

Advantages freemium model, create professional-looking, branded, shareable, and embeddful presentations without much fuss. Summary The Emaze user can easily build sophisticated presentations with little effort. The company’s vision was to free up users from having to governess spend time studying and preparing the presentation tool, so that they can better spend their time concentrating on diction, the actual content of the definition presentation. Advantages – Cheap, designed for ordinary users, Disadvantages Will not work smoothly on older computers with low computing power. Perfect For Basic user base, current PowerPoint users wanting better visualization. Impress is a truly outstanding tool for creating effective multimedia presentations. Creating and editing slides is very versatile thanks to examples different editing and view modes: Normal (for general editing), Outline (for organizing and outlining your text content), Notes (for viewing and editing the notes attached to a slide), Handout (for producing paper-based material), and Slide Sorter (for a thumbnail sheet view that lets you quickly locate and order your slides). Functions Law. Summary Now we#8217;re in the world of conferences.

Preseria is diction examples, all about law presenters uploading their presentations and examples, organizing your conferences. Functions Law. This can be a nifty tool if you#8217;re managing large conferences where you have several presenters. Advantages Great for Sharing; can Organize and gather content seamlessly. Perfect For Event Coordinators; Conference Leaders. Proclaim Church Presentation Software.

Summary Now we#8217;re in the world of churches. Diction. Proclaim is all about pastors and assistants uploading their presentations and having the functionality to make many changes to it in definition, order to provide a experience to people listening and diction examples, watching the definition sermon. Advantages Incredible software for sharing and collaborating with teams of people who are working on the presentation; Organize and diction, gather content seamlessly; Comes with a remote app that can be controlled by your ipad. Disadvantages Can#8217;t create super customized presentations, but they can be fairly unique. Perfect For Churches; religious institutions.

Summary Moving back into animation, this software is pretty nifty. Functions. You can create animated figures for your presentation in a shorter period of diction, time. Great for presenters to quickly add animated avatars and comic effects into PowerPoint, Keynote, Google Doc and other presentation software. Functions Of The. Advantages Full editing capabilities; well categorized content libraries; added to other presentations. Disadvantages Can#8217;t create presentations within the software, however Reallusion does have other software in its suite that can do this.

Perfect For Individuals; Business; Keynote Speakers; Designers. Summary Focusky helps mainly with creating animation presentations as well as presentations in diction examples, HTML5 format. Advantages Full editing capabilities; can present from of Paparazzi Essay anywhere; animation capabilities; import powerpoint slides. Disadvantages May not have as much functionality as CustomShow but is great for individuals; mainly for animation, not traditional presentations. Perfect For Individuals; students; teachers. Summary To finish off the list, slides.com is a cloud based presentation software that allows for easy collaboration, Advantages Full editing capabilities; can present from anywhere; cloud based; comes with analytics; incorporate html and css in the presentations. Disadvantages May not have as much functionality as CustomShow but is examples, great for individuals. Moment. Perfect For Individuals; students; teachers. Summary A new kid on diction, the block, Slidebean has a dynamic means of creating slides for presentation givers. Their thing is that they have slides that design themselves. You add the content, and the slides create themselves.

Advantages Ease of use; quick to develop presentations; plenty of governess, templates to choose from. Disadvantages May not have as much functionality as CustomShow but is great for individuals; not best for teams; not entirely customizable. Perfect For Individuals; students; teachers. Canva seems to diction examples be a new kid on the block as a presentation software tool that is offered for free. Law. Canva provides 100#8217;s of initial templates for users to choose from and have developed a simple process for people to walk through: Open Canva and select the “Presentation” design type Choose from hundreds of professionally designed layouts Upload your own photos or choose from over 1 million stock images Fix your images, add stunning filters and edit text Save and share. The way Canva monetizes its business is by way of its marketplace in examples, which it sells templates, icons, and photos to A Deeper Look Investigates Essay people looking for even more advanced customization. Not for the B2B player, but can be great for B2C consumers. Zoho offers a great interface for people who want to design eye popping presentations. Zoho is pretty broad in its software and service offerings ranging from document management tools to examples collaboration and A Deeper Look, sharing.

Their pricing on the document management side can be as low as $5/month/user. Doesn#8217;t really compete in the B2B space, but nonetheless is a great player with many benefits including transferring to powerpoint, analytics, bulk file uploads, and diction, much more. Docketzoom helps you bring to life highly interactive presentations that enhance buyer perception. With DocketZoom you can easily create appealing presentation that delights and functions of the law, engages your audience. Its inbuilt analytics helps you understand critical user insights to formulate better content strategies. Instant Magazine allow you to create interactive publications which make your content come alive. It is one tool, for all platforms, for all devices.

Get the best reading experience on smartphone, tablet and desktop. Diction. Personalized and governess definition, fully measurable. Instead of building presentations from diction scratch, users can compile pre-approved slides (individual or multiple) into a customized PowerPoint presentation that suits their needs. Users can construct presentations from a selection of solubility, approved slides and even add personalization and examples, customization where allowed by caoh2, site administrators. Diction Examples. NCH Software allows you to easily design effective slideshow presentations with this free software. Present ideas and arguments to persuade an audience Free alternative for Microsoft® PowerPoint ** presentations Visually support speeches and strange study, oral presentations. Examples. Enhance any presentation with visuals and multimedia examples of the information, ideas and arguments you are presenting. At Panopto, the company believes that video can have a transformative effect on caoh2, learning. So they built a video platform that helps businesses and universities improve the way that they train, teach, and diction, share knowledge. Caoh2 Solubility. Panapto acts as a video presentation software package that allows consumers to diction examples manage, live stream, record, and functions law, share videos across your organization. Genially is a helpful tool for creating visual media, such as presentations, infographics, mind maps, and more.

The focus with Genially is examples, interactivity, and nearly everything created with this tool can include interactivity. It also includes real-time collaboration and animation. In addition, statistics help you measure whether your presentation is effective. FlowVella is another presentation app with several benefits and of Paparazzi, features including it being mobile first, offering privacy and security, analytics, autoplay videos, and a vast array of collaboration tools. FlowVella has native apps for Mac, iPhone iPad, yet presentations can be viewed via any web browser. FlowVella is great for for sales presentations, training, kiosks, digital brochures, portfolios, product guides, formal and informal education, and diction, much more. The Effects. Summary Slide Bureau is an interesting software device. It is mainly used for iPads, but it does allow for people to create presentations that are more customized than your traditional powerpoint slide. The interface is centered on pre-made templates but they are categorized to fit the examples profession and overall need of the slide. Advantages Easy to use this presentation platform. The Effects Of Paparazzi. Disadvantages Limited to only iPads; cannot truly brand and create presentations more customized than the templates that are given.

Perfect For Educators; Individual Professionals. There are probably an additional 50 80 presentation software tools we missed on this list. We know there are others we likely left out, so we look forward to your comments and other powerpoint alternatives that can be useful for presenting or organizing/delivering presentations. If presentation ideas and design is something else important to examples you, visit www.salesgraphics.com. And if you believe you are a good match and should be added to this list, feel free to email us and we#8217;ll consider adding.

Thanks for reading.

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Essay:Arguments against nuclear power. It does not necessarily reflect the views expressed in RationalWiki's Mission Statement, but we welcome discussion of a broad range of ideas. Unless otherwise stated, this is original content, released under CC-BY-SA 3.0 or any later version. Diction Examples? See RationalWiki:Copyrights. Feel free to make comments on the talk page, which will probably be far more interesting, and might reflect a broader range of of the law, RationalWiki editors' thoughts. The anti-nuclear movement is preoccupied with the problem of nuclear waste and its possible impact on the environment and health. Generation of nuclear waste, which is dangerous to all known forms of life, is a valid concern about nuclear power, and the problem must be addressed in an environmentally sound way. However, there is no reason to believe this problem is examples insoluble. Here are some claims made by governess definition the anti-nuclear movement in diction reference to the waste issue. The validity of this claim is highly dependent on your definition of solution.

If the solution is for the waste to magically disappear with no trace at zero cost, then that is indeed impossible, but that's also an ainsworth strange study, unreasonable definition of a solution. If we define solution as something that lets humanity forget about the waste without adverse consequences at a cost that is a small portion of the diction examples, price of generated electricity, then there are a few options. The most popular of governess, them is deep geological disposal, which is currently the best researched method. The method puts the waste deep underground in a geologically stable rock formation, with several layers of defence against diction examples water intrusion. Several such repositories have been built, but the machiavellian, results have been a decidedly mixed bag: out of six such repositories that went into operation, two have since turned out as failures. These were the two repositories for intermediate and low-level nuclear waste (e.g. not spent fuel) that were built in examples Germany: Asse II and Morsleben. They reused the sites of former salt mines, and A Deeper Look into Investigates Essay, previous mining work led to structural stability problems in the salt domes. Both are in poor condition and leaking contaminated brine.

Four projects seem to have succeeded, for example, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in USA is already operating and began accepting military transuranic waste in 1998. Diction? So far no issues have been identified. [1] Two other projects, the planned final storage facilities at Gorleben in Germany and governess, Yucca Mountain in the USA, were cancelled or put on hold indefinitely. It will remain toxic for millions of years [ edit ] The extremely long lifes of waste are usually obtained due to a misapplication of a rule of thumb for diction examples short-lived isotopes, which says that a sample is no longer radioactive after 10 half-lifes. However, this is not applicable to long-lived nuclides, which cease to be dangerous once their radioactivity approaches ambient levels. The correct answer is 10 000 years. After this period, the waste is less radioactive than the A Deeper Look Essay, uranium ore it was ultimately produced from. [2] Since the 65 trillion tons of uranium in the Earth's crust are not a big concern for public health, neither would be such decayed waste. Reprocessing can dramatically reduce the lifetime of nuclear waste - from 10 000 years to about 300. [2] Additionally, it extracts unused uranium and plutonium for reuse. Diction Examples? Currently it's uneconomical on its own as means of producing more nuclear fuel, but makes sense from a long-term waste management perspective. The anti-nuclear movement opposes reprocessing, [3] because it believes it could lead to more nuclear proliferation (see further below) and that it pollutes the moment, environment with radioactivity (wrong).

Certain designs of diction, reactors that are not cost effective yet, but known to be practical, can reuse high level waste as fuel, because it still contains around 95% of its energy. Two of of Paparazzi, them are already operating in Russia and diction, Japan. This option is also unpopular with the anti-nuclear movement. This might be due to teething problems of the technology, such as sodium leaks and fires (altrough not all waste burning reactors use sodium coolant). According to the Department of Energy, the total amount of spent fuel produced by nuclear power stations in moment the U.S. between 1968 and 2002 was 47 023.4 metric tons. [4] Most of that total is stored at diction, reactor sites. It would cover a football field to a depth of 6.5 meters. [5] At first this might sound like a lot, but compare this to e.g. 71 100 000 tons of ainsworth situation, fly ash produced every year at diction examples, U.S. coal plants. [6] It is a burden on machiavellian moment future generations [ edit ] This claim is a popular soundbite, [7] but it actually requires quite a lot of assumptions. Examples? Detecting radioactive contamination is far easier and cheaper than, for example, detecting chemical contamination. [8] Nuclear waste would become a problem to our descendants only if: They lived in a sufficiently close future in which the waste has not decayed yet (10 000 years). They did not understand any of the warning signs we might put up.

They did not have any means of detecting radioactivity. Functions Of The? They had enough technical sophistication to intrude into a geological repository. The last point assumes that waste will be put into underground repositories before we fall off the radar. An interesting subversion of the argument is that since most high-grade deposits of uranium would not be available to our descendants, as we have already mined them, discovering a nuclear waste repository could lead them to diction examples, rediscover radioactivity and nuclear technology. The public will pay for its disposal [ edit ] The situation differs between countries.

In the U.S. there is a 0.1c/kWh levy on nuclear generated electricity that goes into the Nuclear Waste Fund. So far the fund has accumulated $31 billion. The federal government has not yet managed to create a permanent waste disposal facility using this money. Caoh2? [9] In the United Kingdom, the situation is different. Decommissioning is paid for by the diction examples, Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, a government-funded entity. Dividing its total budget by the nuclear electricity generation gives a large subsidy of 2.3p/kWh. [10] However, this agency also manages military waste from of Paparazzi Essay UK's nuclear weapons program, which is much more noxious and difficult to diction examples, handle - the actual cost of Look into Investigates, managing civilian waste is much lower. The public typically pays for protests related to nuclear waste transport, for example the costs of providing security. But it's also the public that stages and diction examples, participates in those protests. When you divide world reserves of uranium by the current consumption, you get about 70 years as the time horizon for Investigates uranium depletion.

However, this calculation is too simplistic, as it ignores two key facts. Reserves are defined in examples economical terms: uranium that is worth mining, not all uranium there is. Study? Exploring for uranium costs money. Diction? It's pointless to find more if you already have 70 years of backlog. Analyses that take the above into account have considerably longer depletion timelines, usually in into Investigates Essay the vicinity of 200 years. Breeder reactors can utilize uranium-238 as well as uranium-235, effectively expanding the supply of fuel 100-fold.

Uranium depletion can theoretically be avoided by extracting uranium from the sea, which is constantly replenished by examples erosion (rivers). This technology was experimentally demonstrated in Japan, but no large scale facility was built so far. [11] In addition to uranium, thorium can also be used as a nuclear fuel in future nuclear reactors. Machiavellian Moment? There is three times more thorium than uranium on Earth. Outside of the Soviet Union, no member of the public ever died because of nuclear power. Diction Examples? In the Soviet Union, Chernobyl was the only exception to this rule. Anti-nuclear activists are highly concerned about the safety of nuclear reactors, as well as the possible effects of their operation on the health of into Essay, neighboring populations. Reactors emit deadly radiation! [ edit ] Normally operating nuclear power plants emit small amounts of radioactive gases arising from the fission of fuel into the atmosphere. Anti-nuclear organizations usually maintain that even the lowest dose of radiation is harmful.

This is examples a somewhat distorted interpretation of the linear no-threshold hypothesis, which says that health effects of ionizing radiation are directly proportional to the dose, and are exactly none only at zero dose. Governess? The hypothesis is supported by extensive data for radiation doses above 100 mSv, but using it to quantitatively predict cancer risks for lower doses is discouraged. [12] The problem with this argument is that nearly everything on diction examples Earth is slightly naturally radioactive. Strange Situation? Even with no nuclear power, people would be exposed to small doses of radiation. This is called background radiation (not to be confused with cosmic microwave background).

Radiation from diction examples natural and artificial sources has the same biological effects. The usual background dose is 3 mSv per governess definition year, but there are considerable variations. Many places have higher levels of about 10 mSv/year, and record spots can have up to 240 mSv/year. These variations do not cause any statistically significant differences in cancer rates or other radiation-related illnesses between low- and high-radiation areas. [13] [14] The dose from normally operating nuclear power plants is examples many orders of magnitude smaller than the variations in the background, so logically the minuscule additional dose is completely harmless. In order to circumvent the above considerations, some fringe anti-nuclear groups attempt to use pseudoscientific theories to governess definition, prove that low level radiation is examples more harmful than implied by the LNT hypothesis, or that man-made radioactivity is much worse than natural radioactivity. One of them is the second event theory proposed by Chris Busby. Chernobyl could happen again [ edit ] The Chernobyl disaster was no doubt a very severe accident, with wide reaching consequences. Solubility? Anti-nuclear groups claim that any reactor can explode just like Chernobyl and diction, render a large area uninhabitable for many centuries. This ignores the following facts: The Chernobyl reactor design, called RBMK, was very different from ainsworth study reactors used in other countries. For example, it had no concrete containment shell.

Nobody is proposing building more of them. The accident was the result of a combination of examples, poor staff training, poor reactor design, an unnecessary experiment which would not be attempted in more safety-oriented regulatory regimes, and unfortunate timing of a failure at a coal power plant which forced a rescheduling of the situation study, experiment to a night shift. [15] If even one of those elements was missing, e.g. the staff were better trained or the control rod design wasn't defective, the accident would not happen. Every remaining reactor of this type has been modified to prevent this scenario from happening. All of them are in Russia. Health consequences from radiation releases that resulted from the Chernobyl accident were largely limited to emergency response workers.

Health problems in the general population were due to intense fear of radiation and psychological trauma rather than radiation itself. Examples? [16] In other words, the hype did more damage than the explosion. Chernobyl area is not a dead zone. It is a de facto wildlife preserve. [17] Reactors could be attacked by terrorists [ edit ] Some anti-nuclear activists join others in claiming that nuclear power stations are vulnerable to terrorist attack. Armed assault on the plant or a plane crash is the usual scenario. Terrorists assaulting a nuclear power plant would have a tough job, because the guards are armed with automatic weapons and are trained to withstand attack from multiple groups coordinating with each other. Slamming an aircraft into it would probably cause a lot of damage, but would not destroy the reactor, because its containment building is A Deeper Look Sci-Fi Essay essentially a very sturdy bunker designed to withstand airplane hits, missiles and earthquakes. Diction Examples? [18]

There is a related issue of terrorists stealing something very radioactive and spreading it in governess a city using explosives. This is not very dangerous, but would have a giant psychological impact. See: dirty bombs. Nuclear power will lead to nuclear proliferation [ edit ] Nuclear reactors produce a small amount of plutonium during their operation. This plutonium can be extracted and reused as fuel. However, plutonium is also the material used in most nuclear bombs. Therefore, say the activists, more nuclear power, and more nuclear reprocessing in particular, will naturally lead to more nuclear weapons.

And we wouldn't want that. A more extravagant version is examples that nuclear power industry is a fig leaf on the nuclear weapons industry. The main flaw in this argument is of Paparazzi that there are different kinds of plutonium, varying in their isotopic composition, and they have vastly different weapons potential. Examples? Nuclear weapons typically require plutonium that is at least 93% 239 Pu. To obtain it, rods made of 238 U (aka depleted uranium) have to sit in the reactor for only 30 days. Functions Of The? Longer irradiation causes a buildup of 240 Pu and 242 Pu, which are not fissile. Typically, nuclear fuel sits inside a power reactor for five years . The plutonium in diction examples spent fuel has only about 60% 239 Pu.

It also contains up to 1% of 238 Pu, which emits large quantities of heat and gamma radiation. A Deeper Sci-Fi Investigates? This is completely useless for weapons. Examples? [19] It is possible that very elaborate weapon designs could make even reactor-grade plutonium explode. However, this has never been achieved in of Paparazzi practice, and it would be a challenge even for existing nuclear powers. It would be absurd for a proliferate state to spend its resources on a very dubious route of obtaining nuclear weapons, when there are more affordable ways that are known to work. Those include constructing a plutonium production reactor or using high enriched uranium. There are some civilian technologies that do have genuine proliferation potential. Diction Examples? Uranium enrichment is one of caoh2, them, which is why enrichment facilities are closely controlled by diction examples international bodies. Another possible route are research reactors, which are designed for easy insertion and removal of samples.

India has manufactured some weapons-grade plutonium in a research reactor called CIRUS, supplied by Canada. Yet another possibility are obsolete dual-use reactors, such as Magnox or RBMK, which have on-line refueling systems. However, none exist outside of states that already have the Look into, bomb - the last RBMK outside of Russia (Ignalina in Lithuania) was closed at examples, the end of 2009. It should be noted that none of the of Paparazzi Essay, countries that have obtained nuclear weapons so far did it using existing civilian infrastructure. In fact, none of them had any at the time their first weapons were built.

As of 2010, 26 nations have nuclear power stations but no nuclear weapons; 2 have nuclear weapons but no nuclear power. These arguments claim that nuclear power is unprofitable and exists only because of diction examples, government intervention, and would be replaced by The Effects of Paparazzi other sources if the interventions were stopped. In absolute terms a nuclear power plant is examples indeed expensive. Costs of a new reactor are measured in billions of dollars. Governess Definition? It is also expensive when compared in terms of dollars per kilowatt of diction examples, capacity - from 1600$/kW to over 7000$/kW depending on the technology and location. Machiavellian Moment? However, these figures tell us little about the thing that matters, the diction, price of the electricity from the reactor. Because of the long operating life of reactors (currently 60 years), [20] high capacity factor and low cost of fuel, nuclear comes out less expensive than solar and comparable to wind and coal, but more expensive than natural gas when gas prices are low. [21] Nuclear is unfairly subsidized [ edit ] Anti-nuclear activists argue that nuclear power would make zero economic sense were it not for massive subsidies, tax breaks and moment, ceilings on insurance liability given to it by examples the government. Machiavellian? If the subsidies were removed, they contend, renewables would quickly displace nuclear power and fossil fuels. There are two errors common in this kind of argument:

Conflating government spending on nuclear weapons and environmental remediation programs associated with weapons sites with nuclear power subsidies. Comparing market subsidy in absolute terms, instead of relative to diction, the amount of functions of the law, power produced. In the case of diction, U.S., the total amount of The Effects, direct market subsidies for nuclear through the examples, year 2003 were comparable to those given to hydro and twice as big as those for non-hydro renewables. Governess Definition? However, nuclear power produced far more energy than either of them, so renewables received much more money in terms of dollars per diction unit of produced energy. [22] Federal RD expenditure was also lower for nuclear power than other technologies: over the period 1994-2003, non-hydro renewables and into Sci-Fi Investigates, coal each received roughly twice as much RD funds as nuclear. [22] For the liability ceiling claim, see below. Liability limitation laws give the examples, nuclear industry an unfair advantage [ edit ] Many countries have laws that limit the liability of nuclear operators in case of an accident, including Britain, Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden and the U.S. [23] In the United States, the relevant law is the Price-Anderson Act. Definition? It specifies the conditions under which operators (e.g. utilities) are held liable for diction examples nuclear accidents.

It sets up three tiers of machiavellian, insurance. The first one is $375 million of individual insurance on each facility. The second tier is diction a shared pool of $12.6 billion funded by the nuclear industry. The third is the government. Ainsworth Strange Situation Study? In the event of an diction, accident, liabilities are satisfied first from individual insurance on a given facility, then from the shared pool, and finally the government covers the rest. In exchange, the insurance is no-fault - that is, the company cannot defend itself by putting the blame on other entities or natural causes. [24]

The criticism of liability limitation laws focuses on two issues: If there is a very serious nuclear accident (damage exceed $13 billion), the citizens will have to pay for it. The laws are an indirect subsidy, because otherwise the operators would have to buy full insurance against caoh2 the worst possible accident. Both of examples, these criticisms assume that other industrial facilities also have to buy mandatory liability insurance. They don't. For example, hydro dams in the U.S. are not required to machiavellian moment, be insured against catastrophic failure or terrorist attack, and if the owner did not buy insurance, the only compensation available to victims would be from the government. Examples? [25] [26] Same goes for chemical processing plants and paper mills, which may cause widespread environmental pollution as a result of their operation, but are not legally required to carry pollution insurance. [27] Only $151 million (1.2% of the Investigates, current liability cap) was ever paid out from the Price-Anderson fund, around half of examples, it related to the Three Mile Island accident. It covered the living expenses and lost wages of people who voluntarily evacuated, even though there was no real danger. Sci-Fi? [24] Climate change mitigation potential [ edit ] These arguments question the feasibility of using nuclear power to combat climate change. Nuclear can't be built fast enough to make a difference [ edit ] Here the claim is diction examples that nuclear power plants are slow to build, so they will be late to the party and fail to avert catastrophic climate change.

This is true when one considers current construction rates in of the the West. However, the required build rates are comparable to the highest historic rates. To replace all fossil fuel electricity with nuclear power and diction examples, not be late, we would need to machiavellian moment, construct 3000 new reactors over 60 years, which is equivalent to 50GW per diction examples year or one new 1GW reactor per week. The highest historical rate of construction was 34GW per year. [28] There is also a past empirical counter-example to this argument. France went from machiavellian virtually 0% of nuclear energy in the power grid to 80% in just 25 years (from 1975 to 2000). This is faster than most proposed renewable energy transitions, which operate with 30-50 year timeframes for diction examples achieving comparable penetration. There is a supply bottleneck for pressure vessels [ edit ] One of the more advanced arguments is of the that pressure vessels for modern nuclear reactors are very large and can only be forged by only a few manufacturers. Sometimes the claim is that only Japan Steel Works can do it, and it has a capacity of only four vessels per examples year. The current capacity for of the law large forgings might be insufficient, which is diction mainly because there was a stagnation during the 80s and it made little sense to invest in heavy forging capacity that would be unused. It doesn't mean that new forging capacity can't be installed if needed.

Despite the long lull in nuclear construction there are several suppliers for the heaviest components: Japan Steel Works, China First Heavy Industries, and The Effects of Paparazzi, OMX Izhora (Russia). New manufacturing capacity is being built in Korea, France and India. [29] Some designs of nuclear reactors, such as CANDU, do not require heavy forgings of the diction examples, size needed for The Effects Essay light water reactors. The pressure vessel in CANDUs is composed of a multitude of small tubes, which can be manufactured using more common industrial methods.

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focus groups essay Social Research Update is published quarterly by the Department of Sociology, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, England. Subscriptions for the hardcopy version are free to researchers with addresses in the UK. Diction Examples! Apply by email to [email protected] Dr Anita Gibbs is a Research Officer at the Probation Studies Unit, Centre for Criminological Research, Oxford University. She is currently working on a number of ainsworth study, evaluation projects for probation services across the country. Diction! Her main research interests include relationships and The Effects, partnerships between statutory and diction examples, voluntary organisations, and effective social work practice. Functions Law! This article arises out of a review of focus group methodology conducted for the Department of Social Medicine at Bristol University in diction, March 1997. Focus group research involves organised discussion with a selected group of individuals to functions of the gain information about their views and experiences of a topic. Focus group interviewing is particularly suited for examples, obtaining several perspectives about the into Investigates Essay, same topic.

The benefits of focus group research include gaining insights into diction examples people#146;s shared understandings of everyday life and the ways in which individuals are influenced by others in a group situation. Problems arise when attempting to identify the individual view from the group view, as well as in the practical arrangements for conducting focus groups. The role of the The Effects, moderator is examples, very significant. Good levels of group leadership and interpersonal skill are required to moderate a group successfully. F ocus groups are under-used in social research, although they have a long history in definition, market research (Morgan 1988), and diction, more recently in medical research (Powell Single 1996).

This Update examines the value of focus groups as a tool for social researchers and considers their potential and their limitations. There are many definitions of a focus group in the literature, but features like organised discussion (Kitzinger 1994), collective activity (Powell et al 1996), social events (Goss Leinbach 1996) and interaction (Kitzinger 1995) identify the contribution that focus groups make to social research. Powell et al define a focus group as. a group of individuals selected and assembled by A Deeper into Sci-Fi Investigates researchers to discuss and comment on, from personal experience, the topic that is the subject of the examples, research. (1996: 499) Focus groups are a form of group interviewing but it is important to distinguish between the two. Group interviewing involves interviewing a number of people at the same time, the emphasis being on questions and responses between the researcher and participants.

Focus groups however rely on interaction within the A Deeper Look into, group based on topics that are supplied by the researcher. (Morgan 1997: 12) Hence the diction examples, key characteristic which distinguishes focus groups is the insight and data produced by the interaction between participants. Merton and Kendall#146;s (1946) influential article on the focused interview set the The Effects Essay, parameters for focus group development. This was in terms of diction, ensuring that participants have a specific experience of or opinion about the topic under investigation; that an explicit interview guide is used; and that the subjective experiences of moment, participants are explored in relation to predetermined research questions. Why use focus groups and not other methods? The main purpose of examples, focus group research is to draw upon respondents#146; attitudes, feelings, beliefs, experiences and reactions in a way in which would not be feasible using other methods, for example observation, one-to-one interviewing, or questionnaire surveys. These attitudes, feelings and beliefs may be partially independent of a group or its social setting, but are more likely to be revealed via the social gathering and the interaction which being in a focus group entails. Compared to individual interviews, which aim to obtain individual attitudes, beliefs and feelings, focus groups elicit a multiplicity of views and emotional processes within a group context. The individual interview is easier for the researcher to control than a focus group in which participants may take the initiative.

Compared to The Effects Essay observation, a focus group enables the researcher to gain a larger amount of information in diction examples, a shorter period of time. Caoh2! Observational methods tend to depend on waiting for things to happen, whereas the researcher follows an interview guide in a focus group. In this sense focus groups are not natural but organised events. Focus groups are particularly useful when there are power differences between the participants and diction examples, decision-makers or professionals, when the everyday use of language and definition, culture of particular groups is diction examples, of interest, and when one wants to explore the degree of consensus on a given topic (Morgan Kreuger 1993). Focus groups can be used at of Paparazzi Essay, the preliminary or exploratory stages of a study (Kreuger 1988); during a study, perhaps to evaluate or develop a particular programme of activities (Race et al 1994); or after a programme has been completed, to assess its impact or to generate further avenues of research. They can be used either as a method in their own right or as a complement to other methods, especially for triangulation (Morgan 1988) and validity checking. Focus groups can help to explore or generate hypotheses (Powell Single 1996) and diction, develop questions or concepts for questionnaires and interview guides (Hoppe et al 1995; Lankshear 1993). They are however limited in terms of their ability to generalise findings to a whole population, mainly because of the small numbers of people participating and the likelihood that the participants will not be a representative sample.

Examples of research in which focus groups have been employed include developing HIV education in Zimbabwe (Munodawafa et al 1995), understanding how media messages are processed (Kitzinger 1994 1995), exploring people#146;s fear of woodlands (Burgess 1996) and distance interviewing of family doctors (White Thomson 1995). Kitzinger (1994, 1995) argues that interaction is the crucial feature of The Effects Essay, focus groups because the interaction between participants highlights their view of the diction examples, world, the functions law, language they use about an issue and examples, their values and beliefs about a situation. Ainsworth Strange! Interaction also enables participants to ask questions of each other, as well as to diction re-evaluate and of Paparazzi Essay, reconsider their own understandings of their specific experiences. Another benefit is that focus groups elicit information in a way which allows researchers to find out why an issue is diction, salient, as well as what is salient about it (Morgan 1988). The Effects Essay! As a result, the gap between what people say and what they do can be better understood (Lankshear 1993). If multiple understandings and meanings are revealed by examples participants, multiple explanations of their behaviour and A Deeper Look Essay, attitudes will be more readily articulated. The benefits to participants of focus group research should not be underestimated.

The opportunity to be involved in decision making processes (Race et al 1994), to diction examples be valued as experts, and to be given the chance to work collaboratively with researchers (Goss Leinbach 1996) can be empowering for governess, many participants. If a group works well, trust develops and the group may explore solutions to a particular problem as a unit (Kitzinger 1995), rather than as individuals. Not everyone will experience these benefits, as focus groups can also be intimidating at diction examples, times, especially for inarticulate or shy members. Hence focus groups are not empowering for all participants and other methods may offer more opportunities for participants. However if participants are actively involved in something which they feel will make a difference, and focus group research is often of an applied nature, empowerment can realistically be achieved. Although focus group research has many advantages, as with all research methods there are limitations.

Some can be overcome by careful planning and moderating, but others are unavoidable and peculiar to this approach. Moment! The researcher, or moderator, for examples, example, has less control over the data produced (Morgan 1988) than in caoh2, either quantitative studies or one-to-one interviewing. The moderator has to allow participants to talk to each other, ask questions and express doubts and opinions, while having very little control over the interaction other than generally keeping participants focused on the topic. Diction! By its nature focus group research is governess, open ended and cannot be entirely predetermined. It should not be assumed that the individuals in a focus group are expressing their own definitive individual view. They are speaking in diction examples, a specific context, within a specific culture, and so sometimes it may be difficult for definition, the researcher to clearly identify an individual message. This too is a potential limitation of focus groups.

On a practical note, focus groups can be difficult to examples assemble. It may not be easy to get a representative sample and focus groups may discourage certain people from participating, for strange situation study, example those who are not very articulate or confident, and those who have communication problems or special needs. The method of focus group discussion may also discourage some people from diction examples trusting others with sensitive or personal information. In such cases personal interviews or the use of workbooks alongside focus groups may be a more suitable approach. Finally, focus groups are not fully confidential or anonymous, because the material is shared with the others in the group. The practical organisation of focus groups. Organising focus group interviews usually requires more planning than other types of interviewing as getting people to group gatherings can be difficult and setting up appropriate venues with adequate recording facilities requires a lot of time.

It is not always easy to identify the caoh2, most appropriate participants for a focus group. If a group is too heterogeneous, whether in examples, terms of gender or class, or in terms of ainsworth strange situation study, professional and #145;lay#146; perspectives, the differences between participants can make a considerable impact on their contributions. Alternatively, if a group is homogenous with regard to specific characteristics, diverse opinions and experiences may not be revealed. Participants need to feel comfortable with each other. Meeting with others whom they think of as possessing similar characteristics or levels of understanding about a given topic, will be more appealing than meeting with those who are perceived to be different (Morgan 1988). Once the diction, types of participant have been decided, locating them is the next challenge. Recruitment of participants can be time consuming, especially if the topic under consideration has no immediate benefits or attractions to participants. It is machiavellian, likely that people with specific interests will have to be recruited by word of mouth (Burgess 1996), through the examples, use of governess definition, key informants, by advertising or poster campaigns (Holbrook Jackson 1996), or through existing social networks.

Incentives, whether expenses, gift vouchers or presents, will usually need to be offered. Once a meeting has been arranged, the role of diction examples, moderator or group facilitator becomes critical, especially in terms of providing clear explanations of the purpose of the group, helping people feel at ease, and facilitating interaction between group members. During the meeting moderators will need to promote debate, perhaps by asking open questions. They may also need to challenge participants, especially to draw out people#146;s differences, and tease out a diverse range of meanings on the topic under discussion. Sometimes moderators will need to probe for strange situation study, details, or move things forward when the conversation is drifting or has reached a minor conclusion. Examples! Moderators also have to keep the session focused and so sometimes they may deliberately have to steer the conversation back on course. Moderators also have to ensure everyone participates and gets a chance to speak. Ainsworth Strange! At the same time moderators are encouraged not to show too much approval (Kreuger 1988), so as to avoid favouring particular participants.

They must avoid giving personal opinions so as not to diction examples influence participants towards any particular position or opinion. The role of the moderator is a demanding and ainsworth strange situation, challenging one, and moderators will need to possess good interpersonal skills and personal qualities, being good listeners, non-judgmental and diction examples, adaptable. These qualities will promote the participants#146; trust in the moderator and increase the likelihood of open, interactive dialogue. Finally, the degree of control and direction imposed by moderators will depend upon the goals of the research as well as on their preferred style. If two or more moderators are involved in the facilitation of a focus group, agreement needs to be reached as to how much input or direction each will give. It is recommended that one moderator facilitates and the other takes notes and checks the ainsworth strange situation study, recording equipment during the examples, meeting. There also needs to be consistency across focus groups, so careful preparation with regard to definition role and responsibilities is required. Ethical considerations for focus groups are the same as for diction examples, most other methods of social research (Homan 1991). For example, when selecting and involving participants, researchers must ensure that full information about the A Deeper, purpose and uses of diction, participants#146; contributions is given.

Being honest and keeping participants informed about the expectations of the The Effects, group and topic, and diction examples, not pressurising participants to speak is ainsworth, good practice. A particular ethical issue to diction examples consider in the case of focus groups is the handling of strange situation, sensitive material and confidentiality given that there will always be more than one participant in diction, the group. Of Paparazzi! At the outset moderators will need to clarify that each participant#146;s contributions will be shared with the diction, others in the group as well as with the moderator. Participants need to be encouraged to keep confidential what they hear during the meeting and researchers have the The Effects of Paparazzi Essay, responsibility to diction anonymise data from the moment, group. This article has outlined the main features of focus group research, paying particular attention to the benefits of interaction and group dynamics which only this method can offer. Practical considerations and the time it takes to diction conduct focus group research may discourage many from attempting to collect data using this method. Nevertheless those who participate in machiavellian, this kind of research often find the examples, experience rewarding.

The process of research can be more collaborative than other forms of study, and so focus group research can be an empowering process for participants, and an exciting challenge for social researchers wanting to gain a different perspective on their field of interest. Burgess J. (1996) #145;Focusing on fear#146;, Area 28 (2): 130-36. Flores J.G. and Alonso C.G. (1995) #145;Using focus groups in of the law, educational research#146;, Evaluation Review 19 (1): 84-101. Goss J.D., Leinbach T.R. (1996) #145;Focus groups as alternative research practice#146;, Area 28 (2): 115-23. Holbrook B. and Jackson P. (1996) #145;Shopping around: focus group research in North London#146;, Area 28 (2): 136-42. Homan R (1991) Ethics in Social Research . Harlow: Longman.

Hoppe M.J., Wells E.A., Morrison D.M., Gilmore M.R., Wilsdon A. (1995) #145;Using focus groups to discuss sensitive topics with children#146;, Evaluation Review 19 (1): 102-14. Kitzinger J. Diction Examples! (1994) #145;The methodology of focus groups: the importance of interaction between research participants#146;, Sociology of Health 16 (1): 103-21. Kitzinger J. (1995) #145;Introducing focus groups#146;, British Medical Journal 311: 299-302. Kreuger R.A. (1988) Focus groups: a practical guide for applied research . London: Sage. Lankshear A.J. Strange Situation! (1993) #145;The use of diction, focus groups in a study of caoh2, attitudes to student nurse assessment#146;, Journal of Advanced Nursing 18: 1986-89. MacIntosh J. (1981) #145;Focus groups in distance nursing education#146;, Journal of Advanced Nursing 18: 1981-85. Munodawafa D., Gwede C., Mubayira C. (1995) #145;Using focus groups to diction develop HIV education among adolescent females in Zimbabwe#146;, Health Promotion 10 (2): 85-92. Merton R.K., Kendall P.L. Essay! (1946) #145;The Focused Interview#146;, American Journal of Sociology 51: 541-557. Morgan D.L. Diction Examples! (1988) Focus groups as qualitative research . London: Sage. Morgan D.L. (1997, 2nd Edition) Focus groups as qualitative research . London: Sage. Morgan D.L. and Spanish M.T. (1984) #145;Focus groups: a new tool for qualitative research#146;, Qualitative Sociology 7: 253-70.

Morgan D.L. and Kreuger R.A. (1993) #145;When to use focus groups and why#146; in Morgan D.L. (Ed.) Successful Focus Groups . London: Sage. Powell R.A. and Single H.M. (1996) #145;Focus groups#146;, International Journal of Quality in solubility, Health Care 8 (5): 499-504.. Powell R.A., Single H.M., Lloyd K.R. (1996) #145;Focus groups in mental health research: enhancing the validity of user and provider questionnaires#146;, International Journal of Social Psychology 42 (3): 193-206. Race K.E., Hotch D.F., Parker T. (1994) #145;Rehabilitation program evaluation: use of focus groups to empower clients#146;, Evaluation Review 18 (6): 730-40. Smith J.A., Scammon D.L., Beck S.L. (1995) #145;Using patient focus groups for new patient services#146;, Joint Commission Journal on Quality Improvement 21 (1): 22-31. Stewart D.W. and Shamdasani P.N. (1992) Focus groups: theory and practice . London: Sage. White G.E. and Thomson A.N. (1995) #145;Anonymized focus groups as a research tool for health professionals#146;, Qualitative Health Research 5 (2): 256-61. Social Research Update is published by:

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