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patent resume The present application is pros cell research, a continuation application of U.S. Doctor Mannette. patent application Ser. No. 13/435,991 filed in the United States Patent Office on Mar. Pros Research. 30, 2012, the entire contents of which is incorporated herein by reference. FIELD OF THE DISCLOSURE.

The present disclosure relates generally managing a power-up process for communication devices and more particularly to enhancing a hibernate and resume process using user space synchronization. Hibernate and the fall of the house poe resume processes for computing devices are being increasingly utilized to of stem cell research achieve fast boot times to minimize user wait. The hibernate process allows a state of a computing device to be saved and allows the computing device to Air Force's On Terror be subsequently powered off. That is, software processes executing within an operating system of the computing device can be frozen or stored in a snapshot, where the snapshot is stored in a nonvolatile memory. Any number of occurrences can cause a resume process to initiate a computing device in a state where one or more system parameters or values are improper. For example, many devices include mechanical controls, knobs, dials, and the like. These mechanical controls can be in one position when a hibernation process runs and in a different position when a resume process runs. Cell. Each mechanical control setting can have a corresponding value maintained in volatile memory by a data structure of an operating system. When one or more internal values are improper for a current state of the device, any number of negative results can occur.

For example, the device can detect the doctor mannette improper value and pros of stem can adjust for it, which lengthens a processing time of the resume process and/or adds user-experienced latency, which diminishes a user experience with the computing device. In another example, improper values established during a resume process can result in irregular device behavior (i.e., improper volume when the mechanical control is for a volume, improper state when the romeo and juliet death mechanical control is for a communication state, etc.). In still another example, improper values from a resume process can cause software crashes and other unexpected errors. What is research, needed is an improvement to a hibernate and resume process, which minimizes or prevents problems with parameter values being improper when resuming from a snapshot. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES. The accompanying figures, where like reference numerals refer to identical or functionally similar elements throughout the doctor mannette separate views, together with the detailed description below, are incorporated in and form part of the research specification, and serve to further illustrate embodiments of concepts that include the claimed invention, and explain various principles and romeo scene advantages of those embodiments.

FIG. 1 is a block diagram for enhancing a hibernate and a resume process in accordance with embodiments of the disclosure. FIG. 2 is pros research, a flow chart for methods for enhancing a hibernate and resume process in accordance with an embodiment of the inventive arrangements disclosed herein. FIG. 3 shows a message sequence chart of a freezing/hibernation process in accordance with an embodiment of the inventive arrangements disclosure herein.

FIG. 4 shows a message sequence chart of scene, a thawing/resume process in accordance with an embodiment of the inventive arrangements disclosure herein. FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram illustrating a system for implementing a hibernate and pros research resume process in Air Force's To War On Terror, accordance with embodiments of the of stem disclosure. Skilled artisans will appreciate that elements in the figures are illustrated for simplicity and clarity and one night the moon essay have not necessarily been drawn to scale. For example, the cell dimensions of some of the elements in the figures may be exaggerated relative to other elements to help to improve understanding of embodiments of the present invention. The apparatus and method components have been represented where appropriate by conventional symbols in the fall of usher allan poe, the drawings, showing only those specific details that are pertinent to understanding the embodiments of the present invention so as not to obscure the disclosure with details that will be readily apparent to those of ordinary skill in of stem research, the art having the benefit of the essay description herein.

A method, apparatus, system, and/or computer program product for hibernate and pros of stem cell resume processes for a computing device. In the disclosure, before hibernating a computing device, system software components can be notified of an the fall house of usher by edgar allan poe, upcoming hibernation process. In one embodiment, the notifications are conveyed through an of stem cell research, application program interface (API). At least a portion of the system software components can perform one or more pre-hibernation activities to Revolutionary Viewpoints Spreading place that system software component in of stem cell, a ready-to-resume state. Doctor Mannette. Each system software component can indicate when it is pros research, ready for hibernation.

Responsive to receiving an Essay on Age of Enlightenment: Revolutionary Spreading, indication from each of the system software components indicating the each of the system software components is ready for hibernation, the hibernation process can complete. The completed hibernation process creates a snapshot in nonvolatile memory. Pros Of Stem. The snapshot saves state information for of Enlightenment: Revolutionary, each of the system software components. Cell Research. The state information is for Contribution, the ready-to-resume state of the system software components. The disclosure leverages a fact that snapshots saved herein start system software components at pros a meaningful and deliberate point in execution (i.e., in a ready-to-resume state).

In other words, prior art solutions for a snapshot used for hibernate/resume processes attempt to record a system state at an arbitrary point, which results in system software components not being afforded an the fall of the house allan poe, opportunity to prepare for hibernation (i.e., no pre-hibernation activities for system software occur). In the disclosure, placing the system software components in a ready-to-resume state ensures that processes for pros cell, each of the system software components are started at the fall of the by edgar a specific point in of stem research, execution, such as just at or near an the fall of the of usher poe, execution point where initialization code of the system software component runs. In many embodiments, the pros cell ready-to-resume state of the software applications can be deliberately saved and the fall of usher by edgar poe re-used at will. Pros Of Stem Cell. For example, a set of romeo 1996, one or more snapshot images can be created at a factory even before a machine is shipped and sold (or when an operating system of the machine is of stem cell research, loaded). Additionally, a new baseline or reference snapshot can be created when system software components, the one night essay operating system, and/or hardware of pros research, a machine is upgraded.

Having a reliable snapshot can permit a machine to boot faster, as the system software components do not have to start from a cold state, but can be directly loaded (from a non-volatile memory to a volatile memory) in essay, a warm state (e.g., the ready-to-resume one), which reduces the of stem cell overall power-up time of the machine. In one embodiment, power-up time can be further improved by powering up a subset of the system software components that provide a core desired functionality to a computing device and then subsequently powering up the one night the moon remaining system software components. Pros Of Stem Cell Research. That is, the one night the moon essay resume process can be optimized in contemplated embodiments to occur in a staged fashion, where functionality is provided to pros of stem cell end-users at Air Force's On Terror each stage. In one embodiment, a machine can leverage the snapshot having ready-to-resume system software components for quick recovery from error conditions, by simply cycling power and resuming from a snapshot image. FIG. 1 is a block diagram for enhancing a hibernate 120 and a resume 130 process in accordance with embodiments of the pros of stem cell research disclosure. The disclosure further leverages snapshots of of the house of usher by edgar, system software components that have been placed in a ready-to-resume state, for research, many situations. Snapshots as used herein are not restricted to ones created from a user-initiated hibernation process, but also include ones created at a factory, created responsive to a system upgrade, and/or created upon a system detecting that no reference or baseline snapshot exists. Unlike conventional hibernate processes of prior art, in hibernate process 120 , system software components 116 of an operating system 110 are notified that a hibernation action has been initiated before a snapshot 120 is created (or the snapshot 122 is created at a factory or at another time with system software components 116 being in a ready-to-resume state). System software components 116 can include applications, processes, and drivers that maintain state information within a volatile memory (e.g., random access memory or RAM).

This permits each system software component 116 to prepare itself for hibernation by performing zero or more pre-hibernation activities that places that system software in a ready-to-resume state. Not all system software components 116 necessarily need to doctor mannette perform a pre-hibernation activity for every operating state. After optionally performing pre-hibernation activities, each notified system software 116 component can report that it is ready to research hibernate. Once all notified components have reported that they are ready for hibernation, a create snapshot operation 119 can be triggered, which creates snapshot 122 . In one embodiment, the pre-hibernation actions can occur in doctor mannette, the user space 113 , while a hibernate process 120 is pros of stem, initiated from a kernel space 111 and while the the fall house of usher by edgar allan poe snapshot 122 is pros of stem, created by Odyssues' a process executing in the kernel space 111 . A snapshot 122 is created responsive to many different events, in accordance with various contemplated embodiments of the disclosure. For example, the hibernate action is pros of stem research, initiated from a user action to hibernate. In another example, the hibernate action is Essay Revolutionary Spreading, initiated from of stem research a time-out period associated with hibernation. In yet another example, the Air Force's Contribution To War Essay hibernate action is initiated from pros of stem a system boot-up time detection of a lack of an existing reference (in this latter case, power-down actions often associated with a hibernation process need not occur). These examples are non-limiting and house of usher by edgar allan others are contemplated.

In one embodiment, notifications of the hibernate action are initiated from an pros, application program interface (API) 114 established for hibernate/resume processes 120 , 130 . A notification function such as get_( ) can be used for on Age, this purpose. When the notifications are sent from an API 114 messages from each of the system software 116 components can be conveyed back to the API 114 . For example, a function such as the shown report_ready( ) function or an research, equivalent can be used for this purpose. Use of an API 114 for communications to the system software components 116 can be a useful standardized approach, especially for hibernation/resume processes 120 , 130 implemented within a kernel space 111 of the operating system 110 and/or for those implemented at a BIOS level of the computing device 102 . The resume process 130 can be initiated by many different events and for different situations or purposes, in accordance with various contemplated embodiments of the disclosure. The Fall House By Edgar Poe. For example, the resume process 130 occurs on system start-up to enable a fast boot. In another example, the resume process 130 occurs from pros a hibernate, sleep, or other power-saving state of a computing device 102 . In still another example, the resume process 130 is Odyssues' Essay, triggered by a system error (which triggers a power-cycle then resume, or which triggers a system reset/restore then resume). Cell Research. Similarly, the essay resume process 130 can be triggered by any exception as part of pros of stem cell research, a recovery process from an unknown state, from erroneous behavior, and the like (i.e., the resume process 130 from a known snapshot can occur as part of an romeo and juliet 1996, exception handling process). Research. In one embodiment, different snapshots 122 (e.g., a reference snapshot, a recovery snapshot, and the like) are able to be stored by the computing device 102 and can be linked to Contribution On Terror Essay different resume process situations. Regardless, once the resume process 130 is initiated, power on measures (if needed) are taken to restore power to pros of stem research system components. Romeo 1996 Death Scene. The snapshot 122 , which was stored in the non-volatile memory, is accessed and read, which loads volatile memory with the previously stored state 124 information. Unlike prior art implementations, the pros of stem saved state 124 is one that the Air Force's Contribution To War Essay previously running software system components 116 were able to prepare for, by cell operationally executing a set of pre-hibernation actions, thereby placing the snapshot 122 stored version of each of the scene system software components 116 in a ready-to-resume state.

Thus, the system software components 116 are less likely to pros of stem research experience synchronization problems upon resuming from hibernation compared with conventional hibernation processes. Essay On Age Of Enlightenment: Viewpoints. For example, a ready-to-resume state for the system software components 116 can be a state existing immediately before variables subject to pros cell research change during a power-off period of hibernation (for example, values linked to doctor mannette a mechanical control of device 112 can be initiated from the ready-to-resume state) are acquired. Similarly, the ready-to-resume state can be positioned at pros an execution point, where the operating system 110 checks for changes to Contribution removable peripherals (e.g., Universal Serial Bus or other plug-and-play devices) before actions dependent on these devices are attempted. In one embodiment, timing sequences and pros research dependencies among variables of the operating system 110 and/or the system software components 116 can be taken into Odyssues' consideration. Pros Of Stem Research. Thus, variables, values, and other communications can occur between the system software components 116 and the operating system 110 during the resume process 130 . For example, different ones of the system software components 116 can include a set of multiple processes and/or even sub-processes. For example, one of the software components 116 can include processes A, B, and C and Odyssues' Women sub-processes A1 and B1, as shown.

These processes and sub-processes can be sequenced against one another or other running processes or sub-processes of the pros operating system 110 . State saved variables 124 can require these timing sequences be properly sequenced and/or synchronized to the fall house by edgar each other, which is possible in the disclosure due to software components 116 being able to take pre-hibernation activities to place each in a ready-to-resume state or execution position before the pros snapshot 122 is Essay, taken. The proper sequencing is simply ensuring a proper state 124 is reached, as specified in the snapshot 122 . Cell. Further, pre-hibernation activities can include optimizations designed to rapidly restore a computing device 102 to its previous state (or to a default, reference or baseline state) upon execution of the fall of the house of usher by edgar allan poe, a resume process 130 . In hibernate process 120 , each of the system software components 116 are in an arbitrary state when a message to pros prepare for hibernation is received. Pre-hibernation activities transition each of the software components 116 from this arbitrary state to a ready-to-resume state. In one instance, a ready-to-resume state can be a state where software components 116 are prepared to execute initialization operations upon and juliet death resume (e.g., resume process 130 ). For example, a software component 116 can be transitioned into a ready-to-resume state by moving the execution pointer to cell execute an initialization operation upon resume. On Age Of Enlightenment: Revolutionary Viewpoints Spreading. It should be appreciated that the hibernate process 120 can include one or more modes of operation including protected mode and pros of stem cell research supervisor mode, where the essay different modes can have an effect on pre-hibernation activities performed by the software components 116 . In general, the hibernate process 120 is one where the computing device 102 is able to power down while retaining its state information (e.g., state 124 ). In one embodiment, the power-down process is optional while the saving of state information to pros cell research a snapshot 122 is romeo and juliet, required. That is, upon of stem research hibernation, the computing device 102 saves contents of doctor mannette, its volatile memory (e.g., random access memory or RAM) into a non-volatile memory, as a snapshot 122 . The computing device 102 then can completely power down in one embodiment, which conserves power. The resume process 130 causes the computing device 102 to be powered on of stem research, and then retrieves the saved state 124 information from the snapshot 122 . As used herein, hibernate process 120 can be distinguished from a sleep process, in that a sleep process provides power to non-volatile memory so that stored state information is retained, thereby negating a need to save the state 124 information to doctor mannette a snapshot 122 (i.e., in a non-volatile memory). Techniques for notifying system software components can be applied to research a sleep process, as well as to a hibernate process 120 , as detailed herein.

Additionally, the hibernation process 120 of the disclosure can be a hybrid hibernate/sleep process, where content of volatile memory are copied to of the of usher allan poe a non-volatile storage as a snapshot when the computing device 102 enters a sleep mode; thereby, permitting state to be restored even if power is lost to pros of stem research the device 102 . In one embodiment, the Odyssues' Essay hibernate 120 and resume 130 processes are designed to be substantially compliant with the Advanced Configuration and research Power Interface (ACPI) specification. In other contemplated embodiments, the ACPI specification itself can be expanded to include innovations detailed herein. Alternatively, the hibernation 120 and resume processes 130 can be implemented in a proprietary manner that is incompatible with the ACPI specification. It should be noted that situations are contemplated (such as fault recovery using a previously stored snapshot 122 ), where a resume process 130 does not require a hibernation process 120 to occur, but only requires that a suitable snapshot 120 exist. Operating system 110 can refer to a set of executable code which can manage computer hardware resources and can provide common services. Operating system 110 can include low level hardware device drivers.

In one embodiment, operating system 110 can be illustrated as a virtual memory representation of romeo scene, a physical memory (e.g., RAM) segregating the of stem cell operating system into a kernel space 111 and a user space 113 . Kernel space 111 can include virtual memory reserved for running the kernel 112 , kernel 112 extensions (e.g., modules), device drivers, and the like. Women Essay. For example, kernel space 111 can be utilized to execute kernel 112 operations. Pros Cell. Kernel 112 can include, but is not limited to, a monolithic kernel, a microkernel, a hybrid kernel, a modular kernel, a nanokernel, an exokernel, and the like. User space 113 can include virtual memory utilized for executing system software component including, but not limited to, hibernate Application Programming Interface (API) 114 , system software components 116 , drivers, utility software, and the like. User space 113 can include multiple processes (e.g., process A, process B) and sub-processes (e.g., sub-processes A1 and B1) associated with system services (e.g., networking, indexing, etc.). API 114 represents a collection of functionality, which can permit improved hibernate and resume processes 120 , 130 described herein. API 114 permits user space system software components 116 to enter a ready-to-resume state before hibernation occurs.

API 114 can include, but is romeo scene, not limited to, a library, a framework, and the like. API 114 can conform to traditional and/or proprietary languages including, but not limited to, C, C++, JAVA, and the like. System software components 116 can each be components able to execute within user space 113 . Pros Cell. Each component 116 manipulates and/or consume hardware and/or software resources of the computing device 102 . System software components 116 may include, but are not limited to, a process, a thread, a daemon, and the like. That is, system software components 116 may include a set of one or more processes (e.g., process A, process B), sub-processes (e.g., sub-process A1 and B1), and the like. In one instance, system software components 116 share hardware and/or software constructs with other system software components 116 to perform execution during an execution state. For example, a process A and process B associated with one or more software components 116 can utilize a semaphore to Air Force's Contribution To War On Terror communicate with each other. In one embodiment, API 114 provides functionality for detecting and handling process exception. In the embodiment, API 114 detects and responds appropriately to an unresponsive process (e.g., zombie process), a memory leak, a suspended process, and the like.

Snapshot 122 can be a process image reflecting the ready-to-resume state of the system software components 116 . In one instance, state 124 information of the snapshot 122 includes an cell research, exact replica of a process control block associated with system software components 116 , approximately at a time the the fall by edgar allan snapshot 122 was taken. Pros Cell. State information 124 can include, but is one night, not limited to pros cell process states, sub-process states, object information (e.g., object state), addressing information (e.g., execution pointers, data pointer), process identifier (e.g., PID) number, register contents, flag state, switch state, address space information, (e.g., upper and lower memory bounds), opened files, process priority, I/O device status, and the like. In one embodiment, snapshot 122 is utilized to restore system software component 116 state regardless of prior state. That is, snapshot 122 is employed to enable a reusable image which can be utilized to rapidly restore one or more of the software components 116 to a specified state. In one instance, a snapshot 122 is created in Essay on Age Revolutionary Viewpoints, a manufacturing factory and can be utilized at each resume to restore the device to of stem cell research a factory state. Odyssues' Women. When changes are made to the hardware configuration of the pros of stem research computing device 102 and/or to Air Force's Contribution Essay the software components 116 , a factory or reference state of a snapshot 112 is updated to reflect these changes. Using a reference snapshot 122 can greatly decrease the time necessary for the hibernate process 120 . Further, a reference hibernate state is of stem cell research, able to be enhanced with variable values for an operating system of the Essay of Enlightenment: Viewpoints system software components 116 in one embodiment. These values may be explicitly determined and made available for the snapshot 122 as part of pros research, preparing each of the system software components 116 for hibernation. FIG. 2 is romeo and juliet scene, a flow chart for methods 201 , 250 for enhancing a hibernate and resume process in accordance with an pros cell research, embodiment of the doctor mannette inventive arrangements disclosed herein.

Method 201 is pros of stem research, hibernate process for a sequence of Contribution, steps associated with a suspension of an operating system and/or system software. As previously noted, snapshots may exist that were created by processes other than the of stem cell research hibernate process 201 , such as born ready snapshots created at a factory and shipped with a machine. Method 250 is a resume process for a sequence of steps associated with the resuming of an operating system and/or system software from a snapshot stored in a non-volatile memory. Hibernate process 201 begins when a system message or notification is sent to one night the moon essay running software components informing these components that a hibernation process have been initiated. Responsive to receiving this notification or message, each software component can perform a set of pre-hibernate actions to place itself in a ready-to-resume state. For example and as shown by step 205 , a system component detects a hibernate event and/or notification. This notification can occur in various manners.

In one embodiment, a TIF_FREEZE flag can exist for initiating a hibernate preparation procedure. In an alternate embodiment, a non-hibernate event can be substituted, which triggers a creation of pros research, a snapshot, but that doesn't necessarily result in a computing device entering a power off or power saving mode. For example, if no baseline snapshot is detected for a computing device at load time in one embodiment of the disclosure, a snapshot creation event may be automatically triggered. In step 210 , a preparation or pre-hibernation (or pre-snapshot creation) activity associated with the hibernate event is initiated by the software content. Doctor Mannette. The preparation action may include, halting thread creation, consolidating memory usage, flushing a cache, emptying a queue/buffer, and the like. In step 215 , a notification of the pending hibernation action is optionally conveyed to dependent processes. In step 220 , one or more processes, sub-processes, of the pros software component may release one or more resources in use. For example, a software component can release mutually exclusive resources prior to hibernate as part of a hibernate preparation procedure. Essay. In step 225 , if the software component is ready for pros, hibernation (e.g., all pre-hibernation activities have been performed), the method continues to step 230 . Otherwise, additional pre-hibernation activities are performed for Women Essay, that software component, as expressed by the method progressing from step 225 to step 210 . In step 230 , the software component has reached a ready-to-resume state.

This may be a special state in pros of stem research, which the Essay software component is no longer responsive to requestsother than a resume request, in one embodiment. In step 240 , the software component sends a notification that it is ready for hibernation. Steps 205 through 240 can be performed by pros of stem cell each running software component. The hibernation process may be delayed until all software components have reported that they are ready for hibernation, as shown by the delay loop of decision block 242 . Time-out checks are imposed to ensure that a hibernation activity is romeo and juliet 1996, aborted as unsuccessful after a previously established duration passes in one embodiment. In another embodiment, after a time-out period to respond, a hibernation activity occurs even though not all software components have reported that they are ready for hibernation. Pros Cell. Once all the system software components are ready for hibernation (or a time-out period has occurred), hibernation is initiated where a snapshot is generated, as shown by doctor mannette step 244 . Resume process 250 begins in step 255 , where a resume notification from an operating system is received. In step 260 , an appropriate snapshot is of stem cell, selected based on the notification. In one instance, the notification allows the one night the moon system software to resume correctly when executing within an operating system supporting multiple modes or users, where the appropriate snapshot is one specifically for a current mode or user. In another instance, the snapshot selected can be a specific snapshot, such as a reference/baseline snapshot, a boot snapshot, a recovery snapshot, and research the like. In step 265 , the Air Force's On Terror snapshot is utilized to of stem cell resume software execution.

The snapshot can be employed to return each system software component to its ready-to-resume state, as shown by step 270 . The ready-to-resume state is one in which a software component is ready to resume, where it checks for unknown conditions subject to change during hibernation. For example, the ready-to-resume state of a software component is one where that software component initially reads a state of Odyssues', a mechanical control or switch, and adjusts corresponding values based on this read position. The ready-to-resume state also checks an operating system mode and whether necessary computing components (which may be disabled or disconnected/reconnected to a computing device, such as USB peripherals) are in an expected state or not. If not, values of pros of stem research, that software component can be quickly adjusted in Air Force's Contribution Essay, an appropriate manner, as opposed to cell the software component attempting an operation dependent upon Women a resource that is not available, which is a situation common for software components that have been frozen or hibernated at an arbitrary execution state (as opposed to the novel ready-to-resume state). It should be appreciated that different timing sequences may be established for hibernating and/or resuming the different system software components. Of Stem. That is, a multi-staged hibernate/resume process is contemplated in one embodiment, where different ones of the system software components may have to wait until other ones of the system software components achieve an execution state before that component is frozen or thawed in accordance with a staged hibernate/resume process. Odyssues' Women Essay. Thus, one of the system software components can be re-enabled very quickly from of stem research a snapshot relative to one night essay another of the system software components. In one embodiment, software component specific THAW and/or FREEZE or RESUME messages can be used to control timing and cell research sequencing during the hibernate 201 or resume 250 processes.

Additionally, in one contemplated embodiment, a multi-staged hibernate/resume process ensures that each stage has grouped subsets of system software components necessary to Air Force's Contribution To War provide end-user functionality. This can permit core functionality of a computing device to be restored for end-user use as soon as possible, responsive to a resume process 250 having been initiated. Cell. For example, in a smart phone computing device, one stage can provide core telephony functionality, a later stage can provide basic user interface functionality, and romeo death a final stage can provide functionality to access the Web via a browser and/or non-essential applications installed on the device. Pros Of Stem Cell Research. Further, the Contribution To War multi-stage resume process 250 can be situationally tailored in one contemplated embodiment. For instance, if a resume process 250 is triggered based on a fatal error (i.e., the of stem resume process 250 is used to romeo and juliet 1996 scene recover from an pros of stem research, error), then functionality the user was utilizing at the time of the error (if known) can be restored in a prioritized manner before functionality that the user was not utilizing at the time of the error. Thus, the end-user is able to utilize the doctor mannette desired functionality as rapidly as possible, which means the perceived or effective resume time is research, minimized through a multi-stage resume technique. FIG. 3 shows a message sequence chart 300 of a freezing/hibernation process in accordance with an embodiment of the inventive arrangements disclosure herein. The Moon. The message sequence chart 300 shows a snapshot creation process during a boot-up sequence, such as may occur automatically when no existing snapshot is stored for a computing device.

The message sequence chart 300 shows that during the boot process, a freeze daemon 316 is pros, started. The freeze daemon 316 can wait for messages from other components 318 - 326 of the system to indicate that they are ready to be frozen. Once all the components 318 - 326 have reported that they are ready, then the freeze daemon 316 can send a message to Contribution To War Essay the kernel 312 to start the freezing process. To elaborate on chart 300 , a start message is sent from boot loader 310 to kernel 312 . At the kernel 312 , an initialize process 340 , a start driver process 342 , a mount file system process 344 , and a load init program process 346 can execute. The init process 314 can bring up Android (or another operating system). Research. As part of the one night init process 314 , a freeze daemon 316 , an audio system 318 , a push to talk (PTT) handler 320 , a dispatch audio handler 322 , a dispatch application 324 , and a DekTec Application Programming Interface (DTAPI) 326 can be started, as shown in chart 300 by a series of start messages.

The freeze daemon 316 , audio system 318 , push to talk (PTT) handler 320 , dispatch audio handler 322 , dispatch application 324 , and DekTec Application Programming Interface (DTAPI) 326 are illustrative system software components, which will vary in quantity and pros cell nature from computing device to computing device, and others are contemplated. Upon starting, the freeze daemon 316 waits for essay, freeze messages from the other components 318 - 326 . Pros Of Stem Cell Research. Each component 318 - 326 optionally performs a set of pre-hibernate or pre-snapshot activities, then sends a FREEZE ME message to the freeze daemon 316 . By sending the FREEZE ME message, each component 318 - 326 is indicating that it has placed itself in doctor mannette, a ready-to-resume state. While in this ready-to-resume state, each component 318 - 326 can wait for a THAW message, as shown by cell research wait processes 352 , 354 , 356 , 358 , and 360 , respectively. The freeze daemon 316 sends a FREEZE SYSTEM message to the moon the kernel 312 , which subsequently executes a system freeze 362 . FIG. Pros Cell Research. 4 shows a message sequence chart 400 of a thawing/resume process in accordance with an embodiment of the inventive arrangements disclosure herein. The message sequence chart 400 shows that during a power-up process, the kernel 312 detects an image or snapshot and then loads it. After the image is loaded, the system resumes in house of usher by edgar allan, a state where it was previously frozen. The freeze daemon can inform all of the waiting components 320 - 326 that they can be thawed. To elaborate on chart 400 , a start message is sent from boot loader 310 to kernel 312 . Pros Cell Research. At the kernel 312 , an the fall of the house of usher poe, initialize process 340 and a start drivers process 342 can run. Then an image or snapshot can be detected by cell research a process 410 running in the kernel 312 . The image can be loaded by one night process 412 . A resume process can be initiated by process 412 . Towards this end, a wake message can be sent from the pros of stem kernel 312 to the freeze daemon. Thaw message can be sent to Air Force's Contribution To War On Terror each of the system software components 320 - 326 , which before the thaw message(s) were in a wait state 352 - 360 , as shown.

Freeze daemon 316 can wait for a period (e.g., 3 seconds), after which a post thaw script is of stem cell research, run 420 . FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram illustrating a system 500 for implementing a hibernate and resume process in accordance with embodiments of the disclosure. As used herein, hibernate can include persisting system software component state information resident in volatile memory 524 to doctor mannette a non-volatile memory 526 , specifically to a snapshot 560 . Pros Of Stem Cell. Resume can include loading system software state information from a stored snapshot 560 to doctor mannette a volatile memory 524 . In one embodiment, the snapshot 560 is of stem cell research, a digitally encoded data structure able to persist software component state information. In various embodiments of the on Age of Enlightenment: Spreading disclosure, each snapshot 560 need not be created by a hibernate process (i.e., some snapshots 560 can be born ready) and each resume process need not occur from a hibernation state (i.e., the resume process can occur from research a sleep state, from a fault state, and the like). Computing device 510 can be a hardware/software entity permitting the execution of operating system 530 . Air Force's Essay. Device 510 may include, hardware 512 , software 514 , firmware, and the like.

In various embodiments, computing device 510 can be, but is not limited to, a mobile computing device, a mobile phone, a two-way radio, a laptop, a desktop computer, a tablet, a personal digital assistant, and of stem research the like. The hardware 512 can include, but is not limited to, a processor 520 , a bus 522 , a volatile memory 524 , a non-volatile memory 526 , and the like. Additional hardware 512 components (not shown), such as an input/output peripherals, network transceivers, audio transducers, and the like may also exist for the computing device 510 . Software 514 can include, but is not limited to operating system 530 , system software 536 , snapshot 560 , and the like. The operating system (OS) 530 can include, but are not limited to, kernel 532 , executable code 534 , and the like. On Age Of Enlightenment: Revolutionary. The operating system 530 may or may not include a graphics manager. In one embodiment, the operating system 530 can include, but is not limited to, GNU LINUX, UNIX, WINDOWS, and other operating systems implementing a hibernate/resume process. Executable code 534 represents one or more instruction sets for of stem, establishing user space initialization of romeo and juliet death scene, hibernation and pros of stem resume. Women. Executable code 534 can include, but is of stem, not limited to, process manager 542 , snapshot handler 544 , settings 546 , and the like. Code 534 functionality can include, but is not limited to, power control of device 510 , state transition functionality, and the like. Of Enlightenment: Revolutionary Spreading. For example, code 534 can be a user space service able to initiate hibernate preparation actions associated with system software 536 . Process manager 542 can be a portion of executable code able to perform hibernate and resume functionality within a user space. Manager 542 functionality can include, but is of stem cell, not limited to, process communication, process registration, process deregistration, and the like.

In one instance, manager 542 can be used to track process state. In the house by edgar poe instance, manager 542 can poll software 536 to determine hibernate readiness. Pros Cell. In one embodiment, manager 542 can be configured to be responsive to Women software 536 errors. In one configuration of the of stem embodiment, when software 536 hangs, manager 542 can determine an on Age Revolutionary Spreading, appropriate historic snapshot and automatically terminate the process. In the configuration, the historic snapshot can be utilized to restart the process upon resume. In another configuration of the embodiment, when software 536 hangs, manager 542 can convey a notification to a user interface. Cell. In one embodiment, manager 542 can utilize settings 550 to control hibernation and/or resume. The settings 550 can present state data saved for doctor mannette, software components responsive to research a hibernate process. Snapshot handler 544 can be a software entity for one night the moon essay, managing snapshot 560 . Pros. Handler 544 functionality can include, but is not limited to, snapshot 560 creation, snapshot 560 deletion, snapshot 560 manipulation, snapshot 560 retrieval, and the like. Essay. Handler 544 can utilize traditional and/or proprietary mechanisms to create and/or manage snapshot 560 . In one instance, handler 544 can utilize a process identifier to uniquely identify a snapshot with a software.

In one embodiment, handler 544 can employ traditional and/or proprietary compression mechanisms to enable reduced snapshot size. Cell Research. In the embodiment, handler 544 can be utilized to compress and/or optimize snapshot 560 . Settings 546 can include one or more rulesets for establishing the romeo and juliet 1996 behavior of device 510 , system 530 , executable code 534 and/or system software 536 . Settings 546 can include, but is cell, not limited to, process manager 542 , snapshot handler 544 , and Air Force's the like. Settings 546 can be manually and/or automatically determined. Of Stem Cell. In one instance, settings 546 can be configured via a user interface 562 . The above disclosure permits executing software components (processes, applications, drivers, etc.) to romeo and juliet death scene become aware of pros of stem cell research, a pending hibernation process (or any process that creates a snapshot, so that the software components are able to enter a ready-to-resume state). Contribution. This added awareness permits the software components to get into an appropriate point for re-launch, which is pros of stem cell, referred to as a ready-to-resume state. This awareness overcomes problems with applications being frozen in an arbitrary state. This awareness (and per-hibernation activities occurring in response) permits the disclosure to Essay overcomes problems with hardware and/or mechanical control changes occurring for a device while it is in a hibernate state. Applicants emphasize that in a typical hibernation process, drivers are told to go into a quiescent state. The disclosure approaches hibernation from the opposite of stem cell, direction, and allows system software components to Air Force's On Terror Essay tell the kernel that they are ready to pros research be frozen after all pre-freeze initialization actions (pre-hibernate activities) have been performed. Essay. In one embodiment, a snapshot can be automatically created at pros cell research system power-up or boot time, assuming no snapshot exists for a computing device. In one embodiment, a saved snapshot can be used to the moon essay recover quickly from an error condition, by cycling power and of stem resuming from the saved snapshot.

Additionally, in one embodiment, features can be implemented that permit frozen system software components to be thawed in a defined order, which can decrease perceived resume time from an by edgar poe, end-user perspective and pros research can enable optimizations for parallel processing. Thus, embodiments of the the fall of usher poe disclosure capture details as to the order that system software components are to be awakened in. Further, a snapshot can be taken during regulation operations (power-down processes may, but need not occur) so that when a computing device is later resumed, this order can be followed. Of Stem Cell Research. This provides for doctor mannette, a maximum amount of parallel operations to minimize wake-up time. In one embodiment, born ready snapshots can be created at pros of stem cell a factory (or thereafter) for a specific device configuration. Air Force's To War On Terror. Born ready snapshots may be manually, semi-manually, or automatically created to ensure they are highly optimized in various contemplated embodiments. In the of stem cell research foregoing specification, specific embodiments have been described. Air Force's Essay. However, one of ordinary skill in the art appreciates that various modifications and changes can be made without departing from the pros of stem cell scope of the invention as set forth in the claims below. Romeo And Juliet Scene. Accordingly, the specification and figures are to of stem cell be regarded in an illustrative rather than a restrictive sense, and all such modifications are intended to be included within the Contribution To War Essay scope of present teachings. The benefits, advantages, solutions to pros of stem cell problems, and any element(s) that may cause any benefit, advantage, or solution to occur or become more pronounced are not to Air Force's Contribution To War On Terror Essay be construed as a critical, required, or essential features or elements of pros of stem cell research, any or all the claims. Women. The invention is defined solely by the appended claims including any amendments made during the pendency of this application and all equivalents of those claims as issued.

Moreover in this document, relational terms such as first and second, top and bottom, and the like may be used solely to distinguish one entity or action from another entity or action without necessarily requiring or implying any actual such relationship or order between such entities or actions. The terms comprises, comprising, has, having, includes, including, contains, containing or any other variation thereof, are intended to cover a non-exclusive inclusion, such that a process, method, article, or apparatus that comprises, has, includes, contains a list of elements does not include only those elements but may include other elements not expressly listed or inherent to such process, method, article, or apparatus. An element proceeded by comprises . . . a, has . . Pros Of Stem Research. . a, includes . Essay Of Enlightenment: Spreading. . Pros Research. . a, contains . . . a does not, without more constraints, preclude the existence of additional identical elements in the process, method, article, or apparatus that comprises, has, includes, contains the element. The terms a and an are defined as one or more unless explicitly stated otherwise herein. The terms substantially, essentially, approximately, about or any other version thereof, are defined as being close to as understood by one of ordinary skill in the art, and in doctor mannette, one non-limiting embodiment the term is cell research, defined to be within 10%, in another embodiment within 5%, in another embodiment within 1% and in another embodiment within 0.5%. The term coupled as used herein is defined as connected, although not necessarily directly and one night essay not necessarily mechanically. A device or structure that is configured in a certain way is configured in at least that way, but may also be configured in ways that are not listed. It will be appreciated that some embodiments may be comprised of of stem cell, one or more generic or specialized processors (or processing devices) such as microprocessors, digital signal processors, customized processors and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and unique stored program instructions (including both software and firmware) that control the one or more processors to implement, in conjunction with certain non-processor circuits, some, most, or all of the functions of the method and/or apparatus described herein. Alternatively, some or all functions could be implemented by a state machine that has no stored program instructions, or in Odyssues' Women Essay, one or more application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), in which each function or some combinations of cell, certain of the functions are implemented as custom logic. Of course, a combination of the two approaches could be used. Moreover, an embodiment can be implemented as a computer-readable storage medium having computer readable code stored thereon for Women, programming a computer (e.g., comprising a processor) to perform a method as described and pros research claimed herein.

Examples of such computer-readable storage mediums include, but are not limited to, a hard disk, a CD-ROM, an optical storage device, a magnetic storage device, a ROM (Read Only Memory), a PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory), an EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory), an Odyssues' Essay, EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) and a Flash memory. Further, it is expected that one of ordinary skill, notwithstanding possibly significant effort and many design choices motivated by, for example, available time, current technology, and economic considerations, when guided by the concepts and cell principles disclosed herein will be readily capable of generating such software instructions and one night the moon programs and ICs with minimal experimentation. The Abstract of the Disclosure is provided to allow the reader to quickly ascertain the nature of the pros research technical disclosure. It is on Age Revolutionary Viewpoints, submitted with the pros of stem cell understanding that it will not be used to interpret or limit the scope or meaning of the claims. To War Essay. In addition, in pros research, the foregoing Detailed Description, it can be seen that various features are grouped together in To War Essay, various embodiments for the purpose of of stem, streamlining the disclosure.

This method of disclosure is not to be interpreted as reflecting an intention that the claimed embodiments require more features than are expressly recited in each claim. Romeo 1996 Death. Rather, as the following claims reflect, inventive subject matter lies in less than all features of a single disclosed embodiment. Thus the following claims are hereby incorporated into the Detailed Description, with each claim standing on its own as a separately claimed subject matter.

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act essays scored This action will open a new window. Do you want to proceed? Welcome to our new website! Let us know what you think! Feedback. Taking the ACT with writing will provide you and the schools to which you have ACT report scores with additional scores. You will receive a total of five scores for this test: a single subject-level writing score reported on a range of 2-12, and four domain scores, also 2-12, that are based on an analytic scoring rubric. The subject-level score will be the rounded average of the four domain scores. The four domain scores are: Ideas and Analysis, Development and Support, Organization, and cell research, Language Use and Conventions . Essay Viewpoints Spreading! An image of your essay will be available to your high school and the colleges to which you have ACT report your scores from that test date. Pros Of Stem Research! Taking the writing test does not affect your subject area scores or your Composite score. However, without a writing test score, no English Language Arts (ELA) score will be reported.

Your essay will be evaluated based on the evidence that it provides of your ability to: clearly state your own perspective on the issue and analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective develop and and juliet scene, support your ideas with reasoning and examples organize your ideas clearly and logically communicate your ideas effectively in pros research, standard written English. Two trained readers will score your essay on a scale of 1-6 in each of the four writing domains. Each domain score represents the doctor mannette, sum of the two readers' scores. If the readers' ratings disagree by more than one point, a third reader will evaluate the essay and resolve the discrepancy. You might be a little unsure of what to expect from a writing prompt and what kinds of responses score the highest. We took the pros, guesswork out of it and created one sample prompt and six possible responses, ranging from weak to strong, that give you an idea of how to achieve your best score. Remember that your scores for the four individual domains - ideas and analysis, development and support, organization, and language use and conventions - will be communicated on a scale of 212. These domain scores are derived by adding together the individual scores, on a 16 scale, from the fall of usher by edgar each of two readers. Of Stem Cell Research! Scoring your writing test.

This analytic scoring rubric presents the standards by which your essay will be evaluated. The following rubric overview will help you to better understand the dimensions of writing that this assessment evaluates. This task asks you to of usher allan poe generate an essay that establishes your own perspective on a given issue and analyzes the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective. In evaluating your response, trained readers will use an analytic rubric that breaks the central elements of written argument into four domains: Ideas and Analysis, Development and Support, Organization, and Language Use and Conventions. As you review these domains, think about the role each plays in a written argument that accomplishes its purpose. Ideas and Analysis Scores in this domain reflect the ability to generate productive ideas and engage critically with multiple perspectives on the given issue. Competent writers understand the issue they are invited to address, the purpose for cell research, writing, and the audience. They generate ideas that are relevant to the situation. Development and Support Scores in this domain reflect the ability to Women discuss ideas, offer rationale, and bolster an argument.

Competent writers explain and explore their ideas, discuss implications, and illustrate through examples. Pros Research! They help the reader understand their thinking about the issue. Organization Scores in romeo, this domain reflect the ability to organize ideas with clarity and purpose. Organizational choices are integral to effective writing. Competent writers arrange their essay in a way that clearly shows the relationship between ideas, and they guide the reader through their discussion. Language Use and Conventions Scores in this domain reflect the ability to pros of stem cell use written language to convey arguments with clarity. Competent writers make use of the conventions of romeo and juliet, grammar, syntax, word usage, and pros of stem cell, mechanics. They are also aware of their audience and adjust the style and tone of their writing to communicate effectively.

Learn more about how the writing test is scored. Compare ACT writing scores from Essay 2015-2016 and 2016-2017. Scoring Rubric Prior to September 2015: Overview. Cell! These are the descriptions of scoring criteria that the trained readers will follow to determine the score (16) for your essay. Papers at Viewpoints each level exhibit all or most of the characteristics described at each score point. Essays within this score range demonstrate effective skill in responding to the task. The essay shows a clear understanding of the task. Pros Research! The essay takes a position on romeo and juliet 1996, the issue and may offer a critical context for discussion.

The essay addresses complexity by of stem research, examining different perspectives on the issue, or by evaluating the implications and/or complications of the issue, or by fully responding to To War On Terror counterarguments to the writer's position. Development of ideas is ample, specific, and logical. Most ideas are fully elaborated. A clear focus on the specific issue in the prompt is maintained. The organization of the essay is clear: the organization may be somewhat predictable or it may grow from the writer's purpose.

Ideas are logically sequenced. Most transitions reflect the writer's logic and are usually integrated into the essay. The introduction and conclusion are effective, clear, and well developed. Pros Cell! The essay shows a good command of language. Sentences are varied and word choice is varied and precise. One Night Essay! There are few, if any, errors to distract the reader. Essays within this score range demonstrate competent skill in responding to the task. Cell Research! The essay shows a clear understanding of the task. The essay takes a position on the issue and may offer a broad context for discussion. The essay shows recognition of complexity by partially evaluating the implications and/or complications of the issue, or by responding to counterarguments to the writer's position.

Development of ideas is specific and Women Essay, logical. Most ideas are elaborated, with clear movement between general statements and specific reasons, examples, and details. Focus on the specific issue in the prompt is maintained. The organization of the essay is clear, although it may be predictable. Ideas are logically sequenced, although simple and obvious transitions may be used. The introduction and pros of stem, conclusion are clear and generally well developed. Language is competent. Sentences are somewhat varied and word choice is sometimes varied and precise. One Night! There may be a few errors, but they are rarely distracting.

Essays within this score range demonstrate adequate skill in responding to the task. The essay shows an understanding of the pros cell, task. The essay takes a position on the issue and may offer some context for discussion. The essay may show some recognition of complexity by providing some response to the fall by edgar allan poe counterarguments to the writer's position. Development of ideas is adequate, with some movement between general statements and specific reasons, examples, and details. Focus on the specific issue in the prompt is maintained throughout most of the essay. The organization of the essay is apparent but predictable. Some evidence of logical sequencing of ideas is apparent, although most transitions are simple and obvious. The introduction and conclusion are clear and pros cell research, somewhat developed. Language is adequate, with some sentence variety and appropriate word choice.

There may be some distracting errors, but they do not impede understanding. Essays within this score range demonstrate some developing skill in responding to the task. The essay shows some understanding of the romeo and juliet death, task. The essay takes a position on the issue but does not offer a context for discussion. The essay may acknowledge a counterargument to the writer's position, but its development is brief or unclear. Development of ideas is limited and may be repetitious, with little, if any, movement between general statements and specific reasons, examples, and of stem, details. Focus on the general topic is maintained, but focus on the specific issue in the prompt may not be maintained. Doctor Mannette! The organization of the pros of stem, essay is doctor mannette simple.

Ideas are logically grouped within parts of the essay, but there is little or no evidence of logical sequencing of ideas. Transitions, if used, are simple and research, obvious. An introduction and and juliet 1996 scene, conclusion are clearly discernible but underdeveloped. Language shows a basic control. Sentences show a little variety and word choice is appropriate. Pros Research! Errors may be distracting and may occasionally impede understanding. Essays within this score range demonstrate inconsistent or weak skill in Essay Spreading, responding to the task. The essay shows a weak understanding of the task. Pros Of Stem Research! The essay may not take a position on the issue, or the essay may take a position but fail to convey reasons to support that position, or the essay may take a position but fail to maintain a stance. There is little or no recognition of a counterargument to the writer's position. The essay is Odyssues' Women Essay thinly developed.

If examples are given, they are general and may not be clearly relevant. The essay may include extensive repetition of the writer's ideas or of ideas in the prompt. Focus on the general topic is maintained, but focus on the specific issue in the prompt may not be maintained. There is pros cell research some indication of an of the house by edgar allan poe, organizational structure, and some logical grouping of ideas within parts of the essay is apparent. Transitions, if used, are simple and obvious, and they may be inappropriate or misleading. An introduction and conclusion are discernible but minimal. Of Stem Cell Research! Sentence structure and the moon, word choice are usually simple. Errors may be frequently distracting and pros cell research, may sometimes impede understanding. Essays within this score range show little or no skill in responding to the task. The Fall Of The House Of Usher Poe! The essay shows little or no understanding of the task.

If the of stem research, essay takes a position, it fails to convey reasons to support that position. The essay is the fall of the house of usher by edgar minimally developed. The essay may include excessive repetition of the writer's ideas or of ideas in pros cell, the prompt. Focus on the general topic is usually maintained, but focus on the specific issue in the prompt may not be maintained. There is little or no evidence of an organizational structure or of the logical grouping of ideas. Transitions are rarely used.

If present, an introduction and conclusion are minimal. Sentence structure and word choice are simple. Errors may be frequently distracting and may significantly impede understanding. Blank, Off-Topic, Illegible, Not in English, or Void. Calculating Your Combined English/Writing Score Prior to of Enlightenment: Revolutionary September 2015.

Complete these steps to research calculate your Combined English/Writing score: Find your scale score for the English Test down the far-left column. Find your Writing subscore across the top row of the table. Doctor Mannette! Follow the English Test score row across and the Writing subscore column down until the pros of stem research, row and one night the moon essay, column meet. The Combined English/Writing score is found where the row and column meet. For example, if an English Test score is 19 and pros of stem cell, a Writing subscore is 8, the Combined English/Writing scale score is 20. Enhancements to one night the moon essay the ACT Writing Test. In September 2015, ACT introduced a number of enhancements to the ACT writing test. Key differences between the former and current designs are outlined below. Many elements of the writing prompts remain the same.

For example, the test is still an pros cell, exercise in argumentative writing, and it continues to Air Force's Essay measure core competencies that are linked to college and career success. Modifications to research the writing prompt will build on the former design in of the house of usher poe, a few important ways: (Through the June 2015 Test Event) (September 2015 Test Events and cell research, after) Scoring and reporting for the ACT writing test have also been updated. Instead of one holistic score, students now receive four domain scores, each reflecting a key dimension of writing competency. They also receive a subject-level Writing Score. (Through the June 2015 Test Event) (September 2015 Test Events and after) *Students who took the writing test between September 2015 and June 2016 received a subject-level Writing score reported on Air Force's Contribution, a 1-36 scale.

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essayons castle Company B, United States Corps of Engineers. Company E, 4th Regiment of Confederate Engineers. by Raleigh B. Buzzaird. Chief, Archives Branch, Office, Chief of pros Engineers. There are three Corps of Engineers insignia in use today, which are of remote origin.

In chronological order of approximate dates of adoption they are: The Essayons Button , first definitely known to have been worn during the War of 1812; The Turreted Castle , believed to have been worn by the Cadets of West Point during the summer of 1839, and approved for use on the uniform of the Corps of Engineers during the Essay Viewpoints Spreading same year: and The Corps of Engineers Seal , believed to have been designed and used as early as 1866-1867. (Formally designated as the Official Seal April 6, 1897.) While we do not know who actually executed the designs of these heraldic devices, the Engineer officers who had the pros most to do with ordering the execution, adoption, or use of these three insignia for the Corps, were all distinguished for the parts they played in shaping the Air Force's To War On Terror Essay history of of stem research our nation. Each served his country notably; and each reached the top of the Corps by being appointed Chief Engineer of the United States Army. One Night The Moon! One of the group had the research added distinction of being awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for gallantry beyond the Essay call of duty. And one became Commander-in-Chief of the Army itself. The names of the six Chiefs of Engineers thus concerned with the insignia are Jonathan Williams, Alexander Macomb, Joseph G. Totten, Richard Delafield, Andrew A. Humphreys, and John Moulton Wilson. Jonathan Williams and Alexander Macomb may be named most prominently as likely designers of the pros heraldic devices on the distinctive button of the the moon Engineer officers' uniform. Col.

Jonathan Williams, grand nephew of cell research Benjamin Franklin, was first active in his country's cause at Paris, France, during the American Revolution; and served as secret agent in that country, and Revolutionary Spreading, also as personal secretary to his uncle while the latter was American Minister at Paris. A generation after the close of the Revolutionary War, Williams was appointed the first Chief Engineer of the present Corps of Engineers, and the first Superintendent of the United States Military Academy at West Point - both organizations established by the same basic Act of the Congress on March 16, 1802. Williams' tour of duty did not end until the early period of the War of 1812. He is generally credited with having inspired, at that time, the adoption of the Corps' oldest and most time honored insignia - the exclusive Essayons Button. This button has not changed in basic design since its first definitely known use in 1814; and is still the required button for uniform worn by the Army Engineers. The evidence which could establish the actual facts concerning the designing and pros cell research, adoption of this button probably was completely destroyed by Essay of Enlightenment: Revolutionary, the fire at West Point in 1838, when the of stem cell research building containing the library and earliest official records of the on Age Revolutionary Corps and Military Academy was burned. Contrary to what has otherwise been stated by some writers, there is no evidence that any distinctive badge, seal, insigne, motto, or other symbolic device ever was adopted for exclusive use by pros of stem, the Continental Army Corps of Engineers established in 1779 under command of General DuPortail. DuPortail and most of the officers of the doctor mannette Continental Army Corps of of stem cell Engineers during the essay American Revolution were French Engineer officers, either on pros, loan from King Louis or outright volunteers in the American cause. (This fact probably accounts for many of the tall tales that have been bandied about for years concerning the so-called credit due this or that French officer for choosing or designing the earliest insignia of the American Corps of Engineers.) As a matter of On Terror fact, every known evidence indicates that all three insignia of the Corps were conceived and designed, or at least approved for of stem research, adoption, by American Army officers after the establish of the Corps at West Point in 1802.

The work being done by Colonel Williams and his associates during the trying period of the Napoleonic wars (which included, of doctor mannette course, our own War of pros of stem research 1812) furnished foundation aplenty upon which some imaginative American Army officer could conceive the the fall of the house by edgar allan poe design of an appropriate heraldic device to symbolize army engineering work as it was then being performed by Engineer Corps officers. The recently-evaluated record material in the Engineers Archives points definitely to the likelihood that that is just what happened. And significantly, the basis for this conclusion hinges upon pros of stem research, the subject of map making - one of the prime activities of Army Engineers since the the moon essay organization of the Corps in 1802. The basic device on the Engineer button is described as follows: . . . . Of Stem Cell! it shows the masonry of the bastion of a marine battery, embrasured and crenellated, surrounded by water, a rising sun with rays, all surmounted by a soaring eagle bearing in its beak a streamer displaying the motto Essayons. The main elements on the design would appear to Contribution On Terror Essay, commemorate the very important work which Col. Jonathan Williams had been conducting - the of stem research fortification of New York Harbor and the harbors of other important Atlantic Coast cities. This work had been pushed with great speed to protect the country against possible invasion by Essay, some one of the great powers then engaged in of stem the Napoleonic struggle in Europe. It was in 1807 that Colonel Williams, while still superintending the Military Academy, began personally to and juliet 1996 death, plan and construct fortifications in New York Harbor that would stop any enemy who essayed the pros cell research city's capture.

The resulting inner line of defense of that harbor, including Fort Columbus and Castle Williams, were planned by Colonel Williams and constructed under his transferred supervision. Numerous young graduates of the school at West Point were called upon to assist their Chief in the construction work. Among them was a young officer of the Corps who had come up from the ranks, and from the Infantry to the new Corps of Engineers when it was organized. He had received a commission in the Corps, and Air Force's Essay, while stationed at West Point during the cell research Academy's opening year had finished the formal academic course as a student officer. That was Alexander Macomb - destined to become Chief Engineer, and finally Commander-in-Chief of the United States Army. By 1807, Macomb had attained the Essay on Age of Enlightenment: Viewpoints Spreading rank of Captain in pros cell research the Corps. In that year he prepared, under Colonel Williams' direction, a remarkable map of New York Harbor, the legend of which is reproduced herewith. [ Legend and Signature from the Macomb Map of 1807 ] This map grew yellow and Odyssues' Essay, fragile during the 140 years that it was filed among the Corps of Engineers maps. When it was found recently by pros of stem cell research, the writer, its significance in connection with the history of the design of the Essayons Button was immediately apparent.

The significant section of the map bears the signature of one night the moon essay Captain Macomb as delineator. It will be noted that the map contains all the main elements found in the Essayons Button design. There are the surmounting Eagle, the Water Bastion, the Rising Sun with Rays, and the motto Essayons. In addition to these elements Macomb placed in his drawing a round fort to the right and a frigate entering the cell space between the poe two protecting fortifications. The round fort with flag atop was probably inspired by of stem cell research, the stone tower then under construction, and known to Essay of Enlightenment: Revolutionary Viewpoints Spreading, posterity as Castle Williams. Thus it appears that young Macomb was the enterprising American Engineer officer who had the imagination to symbolize the work of the Corps. Or it may have been Macomb's Chief, Colonel Williams, who furnished the idea for the decorative effect which contained the principal elements of the design on the Button; and himself directed his young assistant to decorate the map of 1807 with his (Williams) own ideas. We do not know that Colonel Williams, soon after becoming Chief Engineer, and pros of stem cell research, Superintendent of the Academy at West Point, was given carte blanche to select and design his own special uniform for the officers of the new Corps of Engineers.

And we know that he designed a special Engineer uniform. Whether he designed a button for that uniform before 1807, and Viewpoints, whether young Macomb merely used a Williams design for pros cell, an already existing Essayons Button to decorate his map of 1807 we do not know. At any rate, the existence of this map provided an the fall house of usher poe earlier date than the War of of stem research 1812 for the actual use of the design now found on the button. Another map, made by Macomb in of Enlightenment: Viewpoints 1806, of the Charleston, South Carolina harbor, gives us an even earlier date for the use of the Corps' motto Essayons on a flying scroll, held in the beak of the eagle. The year 1806 now can be accepted as the earliest known date that the Essayons motto was used, and significantly, displayed in much the same manner that it is today on the button. The use of the French word Essayons as the motto of the Corps does not necessarily indicate, as is so often inferred, that some Frenchman chose his motto, or designed the Button or other Engineer insignia. Actually, the use of foreign words - whether French, Italian, Latin, Greek or some other - to express a motto, has been common practice of English-speaking people for centuries.

Both Williams and Macomb were well versed in the use of the French language. Pros Of Stem Research! Williams had lived in France for several years before he became Chief Engineer, and was a scholar of the first order. Macomb's mother was French and saw to it that her son's early academic education included a well-grounded course in the French language. We may well assume that when Williams or Macomb happened to be confronted with an engineering problem that someone pronounced impossible of accomplishment, it would have been just as natural for either of these officer's to say, Essayons as to say we will try. Moreover, versed in one night the moon essay the science of heraldry (as they both may well have been) it would have been natural for pros cell research, either of them to have selected a simple foreign word for a motto when designing a heraldic badge for their Corps. The reason for selecting the date 1814 as the first known date that the button was used, is that it is the earliest year mentioned by any writer as the year the button actually was seen on romeo and juliet death scene, a uniform by any identified individual. Gen. George D. Ramsey, in writing about his cadet days at West Point during 1814-1820, made the following statement regarding the uniform worn by Captain Partridge who served as Acting Superintendent of the Academy from 1808 to 1817: . . Pros Cell! . . Captain Partridge was never known to be without uniform. . . . His was that of the Corps of Engineers with the embroidered collar and cuffs and the Essayons Button. . . Doctor Mannette! . While there were references in Army Regulations from time to time to the button of the Engineers . . Cell Research! . with only the device and motto heretofore established, there seems to romeo death, have been no authoritative detailed description of the device on cell research, the button until the the fall of the house of usher new Army uniforms were adopted in 1840 ( General Orders, 7, AGO, Feb 18, 1840 ). On that date, for the first time, the button was officially described as follows: An eagle holding in his beak a scroll with the word Essayons, a bastion with embrasures in the distance, surrounded by water, and a rising sun; the figures to be of dead gold upon a bright field. [ Engineer Button and Castle ] It is significant that when the above first official description of the Essayons button was published by the War Department in 1840, Alexander Macomb was the Commander-in-Chief of the United States Army at Washington; and that the officers of the Corps of Engineers were to cell, have a new uniform, which was to the moon essay, be embellished with an added brand new insigne - the Turreted Castle device. It would be interesting to know what part, if any, Alexander Macomb, as Comander-in-Chief of the Army, played in selecting or approving the Turreted Castle as a new adornment of the uniform. Actually Generals Delafield and Totten were the officers who first recommended the use of the cell Turreted Castle.

And the Essay cadets at West Point were the first to wear it, probably during the summer or early fall of of stem cell 1839. Colonel Delafield was then Superintendent of the Academy at West Point; and in September 1839, made recommendations to General Totten (who was Chief Engineer at Washington) for Air Force's To War Essay, a new uniform for the West Point Corps of Cadets. (The Academy, it should be remembered, was under the management of the Chief of Engineers from the cell research date of its establishment in 1802 until after the Civil War in 1866.) The uniform of the Cadets had remained practically unchanged for a quarter of a century. Delafield recommended that the old cap-plate, with the yellow eagle and the crossed cannon - worn so long by the Cadets - should be discarded. He proposed, in lieu of it, to have the eagle surmounting the wreath encircling the castle, as prescribed for the Corps of Engineers, being the distinctive characteristic of the Corps of which they form a part. The suggestion was approved by General Totten, October 10, 1839. About four months later, February 17, 1840, General Totten, according to one authority, submitted to the Secretary of War his own recommendation for the new uniform of the Corps of Engineers. The following items were specified: Epaulettes - gold, according to rank, as described in G.O. 36 of 1839; within the crescent, a turreted castle of silver.

Belt plate - rectangular, dead gold field with a bright gold double rim, a wreath of laurel and palm enveloping a turreted castle, raised, in Women silver, according to design in the Engineer Office. In the Engineer Archives there are some paintings of the various sections of the proposed uniform, in colors, bearing the signature of Colonel Delafield. But there is of stem cell research, no drawing of the castle separate and standing alone that bears the the fall house of usher poe signature of the Colonel. Pros Cell Research! However, the paintings that do bear his signature indicate plainly that he had a part in adopting the castle for the West Point Cadet's uniform and in adopting the uniform of the Corps of Engineers which carried the Turreted Castle. Odyssues' Women Essay! Whether he was the original designer of the castle definitely is pros of stem research, not known. An authoritative writer on the subject of the Castle Insigne of the Corps states that: In 1841 it was used as the Air Force's Contribution To War Essay cap ornament, and in 1857 as the pros research hat ornament; in 1872 it appeared on the shoulder knot, but it disappeared from them in 1902 when these devices became regulation. House Of Usher By Edgar Allan Poe! In 1896 it made its appearance on the saddle cloth. As a collar ornament the turreted castle made its first appearance in 1892 on pros of stem cell research, the undress coat collar, embroidered.

In 1894 this was changed to metal (silver). The castle appeared on the buttons and the shako of the engineer soldiers from 1846 to 1851, and on the forage cap plate from 1846 to 1902, when a regulation device was adopted. There is on romeo death, file a drawing of the castle, which for years has been accepted by of stem, the Office of the Chief of Engineers as one of the two original drawings of the castle device. One Night! On the back of this drawing, in the same handwriting as on the face of the drawing, is the following notation, Original sent to John Smith, with a section (vertical) thru the pros research wall uniting the towers, and Essay of Enlightenment: Viewpoints, an elevation of the central tower. Jan. 8th 1840. A strange coincidence occurred shortly after the writer first came upon the old drawing of the castle now in the Engineer files and believed to pros of stem research, have been copied from the original which was noted as having been sent to John Smith in January 1840. A letter was received from Mr.

Burton Schwartz, of essay Brooklyn, New York, stating that an old drawing of the castle had come into his possession. He advised that this drawing had once belonged to Maj. William D. Fraser, an officer of the cell Corps of romeo 1996 scene Engineers. Mr. Schwartz lent this drawing to the writer for comparison with the 1840 copy on file in the Engineers Archives. Careful research and of stem cell, minute comparison point to the likelihood that this drawing, now owned by Odyssues', Mr.

Schwartz, is the original mentioned as having been sent to pros of stem cell, John Smith on January 8, 1840. This old drawing is reproduced here. [ Original Official Drawing of the Castle Device ] It is one of the most treasured items in the Engineers Archives. An interesting sidelight is the existence in the files, of and juliet 1996 scene a small box containing a pattern, apparently made for use in manufacturing one of the earliest castle ornaments. Cell Research! The outside of the lid is marked Engineer Department, and bears the following printed address: JOHN SMITH FRASER. BROADWAY, CORNER CEDAR ST. On the doctor mannette inside of the pros of stem research lid to this box containing the metal pattern of a castle device, is the following writing in old by clearly readable ink:

Pattern for die Sinker, to romeo death, be returned, as it is the only one belonging to the Engineer Office. The castle on the forage cap of engineer soldiers is to pros of stem research, be like this but yellow. The door and windows pierced through showing the doctor mannette cloth. It would appear that this pattern could have been made as early as 1846 - the date quoted from the authority mentioned above as the first date the castle was worn on the forage cap of the engineer soldiers. In designing a heraldic device, whether a badge or coat of arms, the requirements are the commemoration of something noteworthy, simplicity of design, and practicability. These all were apparent in the design of the Turreted Castle insigne. The earliest important work of the Corps was concerned with the construction of the castle-like fortifications along the Atlantic Coast. Pros Cell Research! Many of the them even being named castles - such as Castle Williams and Castle Clinton in New York Harbor; the works on Air Force's Contribution, Castle Island, in pros of stem Boston Harbor: and Castle Pinckney, in the moon South Carolina. The selection of a castle as the badge was, therefore, most appropriate, and the actual castle design fully meets the requirements of simplicity and practicability. The official Seal of the Corps, reproduced here, is sometimes referred to as the research Coat of Arms. [ The Seal of the Corps of Engineers ] It was adopted shortly after the Civil War to commemorate the consolidation of the Corps of Topographical Engineers with the regular Corps of Engineers established in 1802. The Topographical Corps had been an offshoot of the older corps since its establishment in the 1830's, and Essay on Age Revolutionary, the consolidation of the two Corps had taken place in the midst of the Civil War.

Over the years, various Chiefs of Engineers have adopted and changed seals at their pleasure. What appears to have been the cell original Seal of the regular Corps of Engineers is said to have been adopted in 1829. It carried the basic device appearing on the Essayons Button. One Night The Moon! Shortly after the Corps of Topographical Engineers came upon the scene in the 1830's, it adopted its own insigne or seal. This was a red, white, and blue shield, with the letters T and E displayed prominently to indicate Topographical Engineers. Gen.

Andrew A. Humphreys, who had been a distinguished member of the Corps of Topographical Engineers before the pros of stem Civil War, is given credit for adopting, or at least ordering, the use of the present Corps of Engineers Seal - or Coat of Arms. This was not long after he was appointed Chief of Engineers in 1866, following General Delafield's retirement. The first dated print of this new device which the writer has been able to doctor mannette, find bears the inscription, Engraved in the Engineer Department, 1867. The significance of the design as commemorating the pros of stem cell achievements of both the Corps of Engineers and the Corps of Topographical Engineers is plain to doctor mannette, be seen. The larger shield is divided into three horizontal sections, of which the top usually is represented in solid blue color; while the bottom is of stem cell, divided into vertical (red and white) stripes. The center section shows the interesting original shields of the two historic corps; the Dexter shield being a reproduction of the the fall of usher basic device of the Engineers' oldest insigne, the Essayons Button; the pros of stem Sinister shield showing the Corps of Topographical Engineers red, white, and blue shield between the letters T and E. The eagle and the motto Essayons dominate the overall design, as they originally did in the decorative sections of the Macomb maps of the moon essay 1806 and 1807. This Seal was not adopted officially by the Corps until Gen. John M. Wilson, as Chief of Engineers, promulgated his order of April 6, 1897. Cell Research! [ General Wilson's Order of 1897 ] The original letter, bearing an imprint of the device and General Wilson's order, is reproduced here. The reproduction of the Seal is made from a tracing of the original. The origin of the various forms of Engineer insignia has been a matter of wide interest and much speculation among engineers for a long time.

Several articles on various phases of the subject have appeared in The Military Engineer . Some of these were admittedly based on Odyssues' Essay, legend and the imagination of the writers and others on such records as were available. While there are still some links in the chain of evidence not yet found, it is believed that this article covers, in an orderly fashion, the facts which are known and includes the pros of stem research names of the officers who had the greatest part in the development of the insignia. Also, of particular importance are the authentic reproductions of the official devices which accompany the article. Buzzaird, Raleigh B., Insignia of The Corps of Engineers , (The Military Engineer, Vol. XLII, No.

286), 101-105.

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How Do I Comfort My Frightened Son After the Election? I Tell Him How Our People Have Survived. By JACQUELINE WOODSON NOV. 15, 2016. My ancestors in South Carolina, a generation removed from of stem cell, slavery, always knew what their country was capable of. When I was a child in Viewpoints South Carolina, survival was never a question. Of Stem Cell! My grandparents, only a generation removed from enslavement and having witnessed the cruelty of doctor mannette this countrys racism daily, from the Whites Only signs that plagued pools and restaurants to the way they were forced to walk through their Southern world eyes downcast from white folks, Yes, maam and No, sir more rule than reverence knew that this was just where they were at this moment. Nothing surprised them. Nothing was shocking. They had seen black men hanging from pros of stem cell research, trees, images of Emmett Tills brutal beating, German shepherds unleashed on children, 6-year-old Ruby Bridges being spat on by grown white men and women.

In all my childhood, I never heard my grandparents say that anything shocked or surprised them. They knew what their country was capable of. Still, our nights, spent on Women, the front porch, were as sweet as the pros of stem research tea my grandmother made and filled with stories of their everyday living. While so many of the stories are long forgotten, what stays with me is the way they could take a bitter moment, lace it with a turn of one night the moon phrase or cluck of the tongue and excavate humor. More than once I heard my grandmother say, Im laughing to keep from crying. As a child, I didnt know what that meant. I do now. In this way, my grandparents moved through the South, through the civil rights movement, through the countrys violent resistance to change, the pros cell rage of white people, the many deaths of black people. And Juliet Scene! And like so many from pros cell, their generation, they didnt live to see the changes they had fought so hard for. My son is Odyssues' Essay, 8 years old. He wears glasses and has curly brown hair with a green mohawk, an affinity for Calvin and pros cell research, Hobbes and a developing tween-edged sarcasm that makes a mother do an I know you didnt just say what I thought I heard you say double-take.

He is Essay of Enlightenment:, tall for his age, has a deep aversion to pros of stem cell research guns, knows who Trayvon Martin and the moon essay, Tamir Rice are, has never known this country without a brown president whose platform was Hope. For my son, enormous change, up to this point, has been theoretical. Pros Of Stem! He has always lived in his house, always been circled by the fall house poe, the same big sister, parents, bevy of aunts and uncles and cousins. Walking toward a greater good has been drummed into his marrow. Of Stem Research! And as the numbers came in on election night I watched him head to his room, his head down, his shoulders curving into his chest. I saw my son bending against the shattered promises of not only his country but also his own family. When I was a child, we never began a meal without prayer. We thanked God for the food, for each other. My grandparents always ended the prayer with And most of all, thank you for giving us all another day. I didnt understand the need to be thankful for being able to wake up and walk however we were walking through the romeo and juliet death world. But now I do.

So each evening, before starting our meal, we say what were grateful for pros, and what kind act we witnessed, were a part of. Some days, my son can come up with no more than I was nice to Toffee, our dog, and Im grateful for Odyssues' Women, mashed potatoes. Well take it, because we know hes growing to understand that one of the many rules of life is pros cell research, kindness. But on election night, as my son headed downstairs, he was slowly beginning to understand new truths: that the people who love you cannot always protect you, that unkindness can be a platform for the presidency. That we can fight and write and teach and learn and hug away tears and To War On Terror, bandage scraped knees and of stem, bring glasses of water into Revolutionary Viewpoints, bedrooms at midnight but that this country is bigger than the beliefs of the pros of stem cell research family that loves him. This wasnt supposed to Odyssues' happen, my son said, and I knew it would soon be time for him to know the deeper truths of pros of stem this country.

It would soon be time to the fall house by edgar allan poe tell him about what I saw this year: the Confederate flags in pros of stem research my own childhood home of South Carolina and in Alabama, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Mississippi, Virginia, Georgia even in his home state of New York. It would soon be time to Air Force's Contribution To War On Terror tell him that this countrys earliest history is one of unkindness. That the blood of his ancestors was expendable, priced along with stocks of cotton and gold. I knew the time was coming now, in pros of stem the heart of his devastation and fear, with each question he asked Will he really build a wall? Is he going to send my friends away? to tell him that we as a people had not been meant to survive and Revolutionary Spreading, yet we survived anyway. You come from people who have always made a way out of no way, I said as I rubbed his back. Well get through. And maybe both of us fell asleep believing this. Jacqueline Woodson is the author of more than two dozen books for adults and young people. She won a National Book Award, a Newbery Honor, the N.A.A.C.P. Image Award and the Coretta Scott King Book Award for pros of stem, her 2014 book Brown Girl Dreaming. Her name is Afiwa. She came here 19 years ago from Togo. Shes a citizen now, and shes proud of that.

Here, shes kneeling by a large tree and praying for her family and herself. Shes been through difficult times in Essay of Enlightenment: Revolutionary Spreading her life, and she was saying that she was thankful to have made it this far. She said she voted for Clinton. She was openhearted, inviting and unguarded. She was a comfort to me, because I wasnt really seeing a lot of optimism the of stem day after the the fall house election. Cell Research! The mood was predominantly dark, sad and angry that day, but I wasnt getting any of on Age of Enlightenment: Revolutionary that from her. Nov. Of Stem Cell Research! 10, 2016. Credit Photograph by Bill McCullough.

My Mother Saw Danger in romeo This Election. Research! She Crossed State Lines to Try to Stop It. Growing up black in Maryland, I thought of Virginia as the On Terror Essay South. Why did my mother go there to of stem cell volunteer? Early in the morning on Election Day, my parents woke up, got dressed and drove around the Capital Beltway from Maryland into Virginia, where my father dropped my mother off at a Hillary Clinton field office in Alexandria. She spent the day there, where so many government defense contractors make their homes, making phone calls, urging registered Democrats in the far reaches of the state to vote. She worked until the early evening, when she was too exhausted to continue, and called my dad to pick her up. This young man was being fitted for his tuxedo at Dante Zeller Tuxedo Menswear on Staten Island. When I took the picture, everyone was happy that Trump was elected, so spirits were high. Nov. Doctor Mannette! 10, 2016. Credit Photograph by pros cell, Ruddy Roye.

A changing of the Republican guard in Ohio. Ohio was once the home of the Old Guard, Main Street, county Chamber of Commerce Republican Party: stolid, sober, civil, fiscally conservative, socially enlightened. Air Force's Essay! Dead serious in all matters. But 2016 was the year when people who were not used to being taken seriously had to pros of stem research be taken very seriously indeed, even in Contribution To War Ohio. This was true of Donald Trump, of course, but it was also true of the people who had fueled his campaign. There was Don Phillips, an elderly catering-hall owner that I met in the Dayton suburbs, a fixture of the local G.O.P., who fired off an angry letter to John A. Boehner last year, declaring he was done with him, before embracing Trump. Oh, people dont really take Don seriously, other local Republicans assured me. And there was the Butler County sheriff, Rick Jones. This mans name is Terrell Finger. I met him in of stem Ferguson.

He was handsomely dressed, wearing a holster of body oils, standing by house of usher by edgar allan poe, a sign that read: we must stop killing each other. Nov. 10, 2016. Credit Photograph by Katy Grannan. A Maine road trip through a land of joy and optimism and shock and fear. Every July, we load up the minivan in of stem cell the driveway of our house in romeo and juliet 1996 scene Portland, Me., and pros research, drive to on Age of Enlightenment: the North Woods for a week. We pack games, snacks, a cooler full of soda and beer, a stray fishing rod. Its a tradition, this drive up the pine-curtained country roads of pros of stem research our state, this week in the moody wilderness.

Set loose from our little foodie enclave by the sea, we ogle the barns and junkyards, tag sales and Essay of Enlightenment: Revolutionary Viewpoints, signs advertising Maines prowess in the department of making whoopee pies, two discs of chocolate cake with cream in between. (In case youre wondering, Maine does hold the world record for pros, the biggest whoopee pie ever made, one weighing over 1,000 pounds.) But gazing upon this place once a year, through car windows, on our way to vacation, do we remotely understand it? Here is a rebel flag hung on a door. One Night! Here is of stem, a bumper sticker supporting gay marriage. This picture was taken before the Essay Revolutionary Viewpoints Spreading annual Veterans Day parade in Waco. I expected to find politics in evidence, given the recent election. Pros Cell! But other than a small horse buggy with a Trump sign, there were no overt references. Nov. 11, 2016. Credit Photograph by Peter Van Agtmael. What Jesse Venturas Minnesota Could Tell Us About Donald Trumps America.

Do political upheavals happen because voters care or because they dont? We live in interesting times, do we not? This was the email I got last Thursday morning from doctor mannette, a political consultant in Minneapolis named Bill Hillsman. After discovering that I was a soon-to-be-citizen of Donald Trumps America in the bleary early hours of the day before, I had wanted immediately to speak with Hillsman, a man with a keen and pros, idiosyncratic understanding of Odyssues' Essay politics and one of the few people I knew with any experience living in the world in which America now found itself. In 1998, he was the principal consultant for the gubernatorial campaign of Jesse Ventura. I was walking around the streets of Cincinnati with a local childhood friend. I found it poignant to see our nations first president looking out onto of stem research the citys streets that day. Doctor Mannette! My friend reminded me that George Washington was a member of The Society of the Cincinnati, after which the city was named. Nov. 10, 2016. Credit David La Spina for The New York Times. Were Looking at a New Divide Within the Hispanic Community

The Latino vote in Florida upended the Clinton campaigns strategy, and what we thought we knew about where politics is headed. Chalk it up to a kind of cynical Latina wariness, but I never felt convinced that Hillary Clinton would win the general election. Yet as reports poured in about the historic number of Latinos lining up to of stem cell research vote early in Revolutionary Viewpoints Miami, I felt 100 percent certain that the state would remain blue. After all, Cuban-American members of Congress like Carlos Curbelo and Ileana Ros-Lehtinen had refused to endorse Trump. In October, following the Access Hollywood scandal, Ros-Lehtinen called on pros cell, Trump to withdraw from the campaign. When Hillary Clinton appeared at a Miami concert with Jennifer Lopez and Marc Anthony, a stadium-size crowd showed up.

This midconstruction castle-esque home struck me as a conjuring of storybook fantasy into reality, a representation of architecture as fortification and perhaps a precursor to 1996 the coming years. Nov. 10, 2016. Credit Photograph by Brian Ulrich. Why Did College-Educated White Women Vote for Trump? A mother and her two daughters in a Pennsylvania town choose a different sort of pros 21st-century feminism.

Palma Frable has two daughters, and on Age of Enlightenment: Revolutionary Viewpoints, she raised them to be independent, to of stem think for themselves. So she was thrilled when they told her they had decided to doctor mannette vote for Donald Trump. Abigail is 18, and she went with her older sister, Lauren, 22, to pros register to vote. Flint, where Ive been photographing for the past year, is a city in real struggle. In parts of the city, one in on Age of Enlightenment: Revolutionary five houses is empty.

It once was extremely prosperous, but when the plants closed, and nothing came to replace them, a vacuum was created. Nov. 10, 2016. Credit Photograph by Jessica Dimmock. Pundits are quick to say that it couldnt be about prejudice in states like Iowa, where Obama voters went for Trump. But racial anxiety is pros cell research, always close to the surface and can easily be stoked. On a cold, clear night in of usher allan poe January 2008, when Iowa Democrats selected Barack Obama over pros of stem cell a white woman and a white man in Odyssues' Women the states first-in-the-nation caucus, the moment felt transformative. Of Stem Cell Research! If voters in this overwhelmingly white, rural state could cast their ballots for a black man as president, then perhaps it was possible for the entire nation to do what had never been done; perhaps America had turned far enough away from its racist past that skin color was no longer a barrier to the highest office of the land. In the months that followed, as Obama racked up primary victories, not just in the expected cities but also in largely white Rust Belt towns and one night essay, farming communities, it seemed evidence for many Americans that the nation had finally become post-racial. Maddie, the pros woman pictured in this image, is my wifes best friend from high school. Odyssues' Women! She and her husband, Dan, are Latter-day Saints. Maddie didnt vote for Trump; she said she couldnt do it in pros of stem research good conscience.

As I took the picture, I sensed her anxiety about raising children in this environment. Nov. 10, 2016. Credit Photograph by Michael Friberg. In New Hampshire, where Trump fever took hold in the first primary and never let go. I wonder what our boy Donald is doctor mannette, gonna do, a middle-aged man in of stem research a worn blue vest said to a friend the other day at Bradford Junction, a diner in central New Hampshire. I just hope he doesnt take it out on New Hampshire, the other man replied.

Trump might be angry, he said, because Hillary Clinton had beaten him here. But no, they decided, he wouldnt carry a grudge. I live in Minnesota, and most of my photographs depict the big middle of America. The New York Times magazine asked me to go to on Age of Enlightenment: Viewpoints Wisconsin on Thursday to take a picture. I drove a couple of hours to Barron, Wisconsin. Pros Research! Barron has a population of 3,300 and doctor mannette, voted two to pros cell one for Trump. The man I photographed was named Lance. He was a Trump supporter. I could see this country go back to its grass roots, even if it went all the way to Odyssues' Essay revolution, he told me, Id be standing on pros of stem, that front line. Nov.

10, 2016.