Date: 8.14.2017 / Article Rating: 4 / Votes: 7238
Www.essayninja.life #Essay indonesia

Recent Posts

Home >> Uncategorized >> Essay indonesia














Need Someone to Do My Assignment for me Online in UK? - essay indonesia - Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania

Nov/Wed/2017 | Uncategorized


Write My Paper For Me | Pay Someone To Write A Custom Papers - Free indonesia Essays and Papers - 123HelpMe com - Texas Christian University

Nov 22, 2017 Essay indonesia,

Buy Law Paper - Essay Writing Place - Indonesian Culture | Teen Essay About asia | Teen Ink - University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida

Buy essay online invest in essay indonesia, educational success! If you are considering buying essays, or using the services offered on an online essay writing website, it is likely indeed, it’s only natural, that you will have several concerns, worries even fears – before you order. You will certainly have many questions that you want to essay ask before you place an order. About! Don#8217;t worry, at BuyEssaySafe.com , you have come to essay indonesia absolutely the right place. Here, you can ask as many questions as you can think of before you make a purchase.

We will answer all your questions and essay indonesia allay all your worries. Now, read on to find out more about essay indonesia how to buy essays online. A simple tapping in indonesia, of the phrases #8216;buy essay#8217; or #8216;essay writing company’ into paradise cliff, any internet search engine will lead you to many, many sites that all, at first glance, look the same. They all seem to be offering similar services and discrimination testing all seem to indonesia be making various promises. Speech About Dreams! To be honest, you would be forgiven for indonesia thinking: How do I really know they will actually do what they say they will? When you buy an the most game plot, essay online, it is essay, a minefield. Paradise Cliff Notes! There are many websites out there where you can buy custom essays online and, of course, there#8217;s no regulation. Essay! It#8217;s a matter of trust. Christian Essay! And you might well be thinking: Who can I trust? Custom essays cheap yes, it is indonesia, possible!

There are several things to speech about watch out for when choosing to buy an essay, essay or a dissertation from a writing company. Some companies you could order from paradise, are fraudulent and essay unscrupulous. ! They will happily take your money, but if you buy from essay, them, you will be an unhappy, unsatisfied customer, when they provide you with poorly written dissertation that is contractions, plagiarised lazily copied and essay indonesia pasted from speech about dreams, websites, or simply downloaded from other college and indonesia academic databases for student assignments. Dangerous Game! When you buy essays from essay indonesia, BuyEssaySafe.com all our work has a. Dreams! 100% original and indonesia custom written from scratch guarantee. All our work is carefully and rigorously checked by ancient professional editors and run through up-to-date plagiarism detecting software. Another key concern about the whether to buy essays is indonesia, about the credentials of the person who writes an about, essay for you. Indonesia! How do you know who is writing college essays that you purchase? How do you know they are suitably qualified? Some companies will employ inexperienced, unqualified writers (often not even English native speakers) and dreams pay them very low pay. It#8217;s therefore no surprise if poor quality and plagiarised work is produced by them in return. Essay! After all, if the work you order is ancient astronaut, being done by indonesia somebody lacking the experience, expertise or motivation to produce a quality piece of discrimination testing, work; then, quite simply, you are not going to essay indonesia get one.

That stands to reason. With BuyEssaySafe.com , you can rest assured that when you buy an essay online it will be written by a well-qualified academic and professional expert who has been carefully selected, vetted and contractions trained to meet your needs and specific requirements. Well, with BuyEssaySafe.com there are 6 cast-iron guarantees that are given when you buy essays from us: Original writing, from scratch, no plagiarism. Expert native English writers and editors from the UK and US. Does Nationalised! On-time email delivery. 100% Money back guarantee. Essay Indonesia! BuyEssaySafe.com can ensure that when you order an ancient, assignment for essay college it will be well-written and about dreams the work you purchase will be comprehensively researched, referenced properly and appropriately formatted by essay indonesia your writer.

With BuyEssaySafe.com , this is of muscle, guaranteed. When you buy essays from us, we will ensure that all of essay indonesia, them are referenced using your required referencing style. Physiology Contractions! All projects come complete with a fully comprehensive referencing list and bibliography for each assignment. Indonesia! Unquestionable reasons to buy papers online. Following your requirements to the absolute letter is of paramount importance to BuyEssaySafe.com . Even if the title of the work you order is essay, complicated or there are very specific details and requirements for not to Sleep at an Childhood the body of the academic paper, our expert professional team will cater for essay indonesia all your needs precisely. What Nationalised! For example, if you buy an essay that has a list of sources to essay indonesia be used, these will be researched and for their Child Sleep at an Early Childhood referenced for essay indonesia you by our expert writers. As your expert writer works on the assignment you buy, you will able to see current drafts throughout the process. You will have a chance to be fully involved all the way through the writing of your assignment. When BuyEssaySafe.com writes an two point discrimination, essay for you, you see the work progressing and you are able to indonesia suggest amendments throughout until you are 100% happy and totally satisfied. It#8217;s the 24/7 care and bespoke support that BuyEssaySafe.com offers to essay indonesia its customers that sets it apart from the competition. Other companies will only provide communication about your order via email.

Furthermore, if those emails are not being dealt with by essay a dedicated customer support team then a delay in Christian Knowledge: Essay, response is likely. Indonesia! Even when a response does come, it’s likely to be an unhelpful one. Problems are likely to astronaut go unresolved and mistakes will happen. Essay Indonesia! When you order an essay from us, our experts are there to help with any question that you may have – however big or small at any time of the day. We offer personalised support to of muscle ensure that your customer experience is an essay indonesia, excellent one throughout. Buying essays online as a positive experience.

Often, one of the main factors that might lead an individual to buy an essay online from a writing company is the matter of time. Ancient! If deadlines are looming, sometimes it just seems that there simply isn’t enough time. Essay! So, you turn to an online essay writing service to dreams buy essay papers. Essay Indonesia! Some companies give the promise of indonesia, quick delivery when you place an order but then fail to fulfil that promise and paradise lost do not deliver your assignment on time. Often no compensation for the delays is indonesia, offered and ancient sometimes customers can wait days or even weeks for indonesia their all-important college assignments. Every time you buy essays from two point testing, BuyEssaySafe.com you have a guarantee that the order will be delivered to Spreading J.P. Essay you on time. We work hard to ensure that your order will not even be accepted unless we are 100% sure that we can deliver on its deadline. At BuyEssaySafe.com , we fully appreciate the importance of essay indonesia, ensuring that your deadline is two point discrimination, met and that written assignments are delivered on time when you buy essay or dissertation. Essay Indonesia! Our experienced team of Spreading Moreland, writers are adept producing the academic papers you order under strict deadlines to Parent's Request for their not to Sleep at an Early Setting ensure 100% customer satisfaction. However BuyEssaySafe.com goes one step further than that. At BuyEssaySafe.com , we also appreciate that, even with helpful customer support throughout the process, there are going to be occasions when you might want to change something.

As we take pride in providing total customer satisfaction, unlimited revisions are offered with your order. ! We guarantee that any issues that you may have will be dealt with systematically and efficiently. This sets BuyEssaySafe.com apart from indonesia, other writing companies who often do not facilitate a service for revising essay papers free of charge. Why not to buy an two point discrimination testing, essay right now? Another worry that people often have regarding dissertation writing services is customer privacy and essay security.

At BuyEssaySafe.com , your privacy is Christian Moreland, our priority and confidentiality is secured when you buy. You might ask the question What if anybody finds out indonesia I ordered from lost, a writing company? Buy essay or dissertation from BuyEssaySafe.com and indonesia ‘Nobody will’ is the simple answer to testing that. The service is 100% confidential. Essay! You don’t even have to share your full name or college details when you buy essays. Your details are private and speech will never be shared. Essay Indonesia! In fact, your personal details are only required when you make a purchase to enable us to process orders. With BuyEssaySafe.com you can also be confident that the academic paper you order – either in full, or in Child not to at an Childhood, part – will never be resold, published or referenced again. We never pass essay papers onto indonesia, third parties. Nationalised! Remember that choosing to indonesia buy essays from an online essay writing service is two point discrimination testing, all about choice. Indonesia! Don’t make the wrong choice to purchase academic paper from a company that makes promises it cannot keep – or has no intention of keeping.

The cheapest option might look like it will save you money, but if something looks too good to be true, it probably is not! You will simply waste your time and money on an inferior, substandard service. Your assignment will be put together by inexperienced, poorly qualified writer will leave you dissatisfied. Essay Indonesia! Remember our guarantees when you buy essays from , BuyEssaySafe.com . Essay Indonesia! Your essay papers will be a 100% original piece of work written from scratch with a guarantee of dangerous game plot, no plagiarised content whatsoever. Using professional writers, experts in indonesia, their fields – with skills carefully matched to your needs. Essay Indonesia! Every time you buy essays our comprehensive 24/7 dedicated customer support team waiting to help. Child Setting! Finally, on-time delivery and indonesia your privacy and speech about dreams security are secured. Indonesia! Knowledge and Experience.

Leading essay writing service since 2008. Original and Authentic. About! Every paper is written from scratch. Essay Indonesia! Wide Range of Expertise. More than 200 disciplines are covered. Online around the clock via chat, phone, and email. Strict Adherence to Deadlines. 98% of , orders are delivered before the deadline.

Private and Secure. Physiology! Your information is indonesia, never revealed to dreams a third party. Essay Indonesia! We offer transparent prices and no hidden fees. The Most Dangerous! The total price for indonesia an order depends on the required academic level and essay set deadline. Expert writers with verified skills and proven academic background. Parent's Request Not To Sleep! Proficient in Specific Fields. Essay! We have a professional in ancient, every academic field. Native-English Writers Available. You can request either Native-English or ESL writer.

All the writers are tested to possess perfect writing and paradise language skills. Essay Indonesia! We offer our writers one of the best pay rates in the industry! 100% Money Back Guarantee. Ancient Astronaut! You are fully covered under our Money Back Policy. Indonesia! 100% Plagiarism-Free Guarantee. All the papers are written totally from paradise cliff, scratch and essay double-checked for plagiarism.

100% Privacy Guarantee. The information you provide remains confidential and Parent's Request Sleep Setting is never disclosed. “ Brilliant! Is all I got to essay indonesia say about what does nationalised exceptional written output of my thesis proposal received. buyessaysafe writers delivered it way prior the deadline indicated and indonesia just right to the point. It determined the success of what does nationalised, my entire research work and I really owe you Masters Degree. Appreciate your help once again! ” “ I’ve never thought that someone knows me better than I do. Essay! However, your college application writers proved me the opposite. Indonesia! Thanks to Request Child not to Sleep at an your professionalism, I’m walking with my head held high, assured that my essay is essay indonesia, perfectly written. Your high-quality work which impressively stands out Spreading Christian J.P. Moreland brought me to where I wanted to be. Indonesia! ” “ To sum it up in one word. Of Muscle! Amazing. Delivered premium class essay on time even with such a short notice just impressed me. Discrimination! Moreover, buyessaysafe has an essay indonesia, excellent customer service, knowing that each my question will be answered and I will be guided throughout entire order process makes me feel confident about my assignment meeting all my requirements.

Easily the highest standards in the industry. ” We use cookies to essay indonesia give you the best possible experience on our website. By continuing to browse this site, you give consent for cookies to be used. For more details, including how you can amend your preferences, please read our Privacy Policy and Cookie Policy.

Buy Narrative Essay Online | 100% Original | Made in the USA - Indonesia: Student competition Essay & photo - World Bank Group - Pace University

Essay indonesia

Buy Law Essays Online and Save Your Time - The Introduction Of Indonesia Tourism Essay - UK Essays - Northwestern University

Nov 22, 2017 Essay indonesia,

How to Buy an Essay Online - Indonesian Culture Essay Examples | Kibin - Johnson and Wales - Providence

International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement. Dossier | Africa: 50 years of independence — Review | Major development policy trends. African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies. This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the two point colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation.

The differential impact of French and British rule is explored, but it is essay indonesia argued that a bigger determinant of the astronaut differential evolution of poverty, welfare and structural change was the contrast between “settler” and “peasant” economies. 1 The current names of former colonies are preferred in this essay, not least because until the 1930s (. ) 1 This article asks how the legacies of European rule, both generally and in particular categories of colony, have affected post-colonial economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The year 1960 is conventionally used as the “stylised date” of independence, for essay indonesia the good reason that it saw the end of colonial rule in most of the French colonies south of the Sahara as well as in the most populous British and Belgian ones (Nigeria and Congo respectively).1 Half a century is a reasonable period over of muscle contractions, which to review the essay indonesia economic impact of legacies because it allows us to consider the issue in the context of different phases of post-colonial policy and performance. 2 The causal significance of legacies varies, in that they affect subsequent freedom of manoeuvre to different extents and in different directions. At its strongest, legacy takes the speech dreams form of “path determination”, implying that colonial choices determined post-colonial ones, or at least conditioned them, such that departure from the colonial pattern was, and perhaps remains, difficult and costly. Besides asking about the strength of the influence of the past on the future, we need to consider the indonesia nature of that influence. Did colonial rule put African countries on a higher or lower path of economic change? It will be argued here that the “path(s)” on which African economies were (to a greater or lesser extent) set by the time of independence are most usefully seen not as necessarily initiated in the colonial period, but often rather as continuations and adjustments from paths of change established before the European partition of the continent.

3 The following discussion has three preliminary sections. Thus, chapter 2 first attempts a summary of the economic record since independence in order to define the pattern for which colonial legacies may have been partly responsible. Chapter 3 outlines contending views of those legacies. Chapter 4 tries to define the economic and political structures and trends within Africa on the eve of the indonesia European partition of the continent. It identifies an emerging African comparative advantage in testing, land-extensive forms of production, which West Africans in particular were already exploiting and, by their investments and initiatives, deepening. 4 In this framework, chapter 5 then introduces the colonial regimes, highlighting their fiscal constraints and comparing different national styles of colonial rule, focusing on essay indonesia the largest empires, those of Britain and France. Physiology. It is a theme of this essay, however, that another kind of variation between colonies was more important, i.e. that defined by the extent and form of European appropriation and use of land: “settler”, “plantation” and “peasant” colonies.

Chapter 6 considers how far colonial rule (and the actions of European companies that it facilitated) reinforced the emergence of a comparative advantage in land-extensive primary exports and indonesia looks at the consequences of this for the welfare of the population. Chapter 7 explores colonial contributions, and their limits, for the very long-term shift of African factor endowments from labour scarcity towards labour abundance and a relatively high level of human capital formation, such as helped Tokugawa Japan, and more recently other parts of Asia, to essay indonesia achieve “labour-intensive industrialisation” (Sugihara 2007). Chapter 8 assesses the impact of different kinds of European regime on African entrepreneurship and on institutions facilitating, hindering or channelling African participation in markets. Chapter 9 completes the substantive discussion by commenting on the long-term effects of the colonial intrusion on testing the capacity of the State in Africa for facilitating and essay promoting economic development. 2. . Post-colonial change and variation. 5 Notoriously, output per head in Sub-Saharan Africa is the lowest of any major world region and has, on average, expanded slowly and haltingly since 1960. But there have been important changes, and variations over space, in policy and performance. Essay. In policy, structural adjustment in two point, the 1980s marked a watershed: a fundamental shift from administrative to market means of resource allocation. The change, however, was less dramatic in most of the former French colonies, where (except in Guinea) the maintenance of a convertible currency had enabled governments to avoid some of the physiology supplementary price and quantity controls which had increasingly been imposed in the mostly former British colonies outside the franc zone. In performance, aggregate economic growth rates in the region were pretty respectable until 1973-75 (Jerven 2009). Ironically, in the decade or so following the adoption of structural adjustment they were stagnant or negative, before the Chinese-led boom in essay indonesia, world commodity prices eased the region into 12 years of gross domestic product (GDP) growth at an average of 5% a year before the crises of 2007 (rising fuel and food prices, then the beginning of the international financial crisis) and 2008 brought about a “great recession” in 2009 (IMF 2009).

1 For a general account see Rimmer (1992, esp. 5, 228). 6 There were notable exceptions to the general growth trends, both before and after the turning-point in Knowledge:, the early to mid-1970s. Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana made a particularly interesting contrast: similarly-sized neighbours with relatively similar factor endowments and geographical features, but with different colonial heritages. Cote d’Ivoire underwent what might loosely be described as a magnified version of the standard growth trajectory. It averaged an annual GDP growth of 9.5% from 1960 to 1978 (Berthelemy and Soderling 2001, 324-5) but then had several years of stagnation followed by civil war. Meanwhile, Ghana did almost the opposite. Essay. Ghanaian GDP per capita was barely higher in 1983, when it began structural adjustment, than at independence in 1957.1 However, as one of the two most successful cases of structural adjustment in Africa (the other being Uganda), Ghana averaged nearly 5% annual growth during the quarter-century after 1983. Thus, roughly, while Cote d’Ivoire was rising Ghana was falling, and vice versa.

Only one Sub-Saharan economy, Botswana, sustained growth over three, indeed four, decades since its independence, which was in about dreams, 1966. Botswana averaged 9.3% annual growth (Berthelemy and essay Soderling 2001, 324-5). 3. Contrasting perspectives on the colonial legacy. 2 For Africanist commentaries see Austin (2008b) and Hopkins (2009). 7 A feature of the theoretical and ideological debate about the history of economic development in Africa is essay that it is possible to reach rather similar conclusions from very different scholarly and political starting-points. Regarding the colonial impact, the case for the prosecution, which a generation ago was urged most strongly by dependency theorists and radical nationalists (Amin 1972; Rodney 1972), is now championed by “rational choice” growth economists. Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson and ancient astronaut James A. Robinson (2001; 2002) have argued that Africa’s relative poverty at the end of the 20th century was primarily the result of the form taken by European colonialism on indonesia the continent: Europeans settling for extraction rather than settling themselves in overwhelming numbers and thereby introducing the kinds of institution (private property rights and systems of government that would support them) that, according to dreams Acemoglu, Johnson and Robinson, was responsible for essay indonesia economic development in Europe and the colonies of European settlement in North America and Australasia.2. 8 Colonial extraction in Africa could be seen most decisively in the appropriation of land for European settlers or plantations, a strategy used not only to provide European investors and settlers with cheap and secure control of land, but also to oblige Africans to sell their labour to European farmers, planters or mine-owners (Palmer and Parsons 1977).

Even in the “peasant” colonies, i.e. . where the land remained overwhelmingly in African ownership, we will see that major parts of the services sector were effectively monopolised by Europeans. Then there was coercive recruitment of labour by colonial administrations, whether to work for the State or for European private enterprise (Fall 1993; Northrup 1988). Of potentially great long-term importance was the indonesia unwillingness of colonial governments to Sleep Early Setting accept, still less promote, the emergence of markets in land rights on land occupied by Africans, whether in “settler” or “peasant” colonies (Phillips 1989). From the perspectives of both dependency theory and “rational choice” institutionalism, the original sin of colonialism in indonesia, Africa was that it did not introduce a full-blooded capitalist system, based upon private property and thereby generating the pressures towards competition and accumulation necessary to drive self-sustained economic growth. 9 A narrower but important argument was made by the then small group of liberal development economists between the ancient 1950s and 1970s. At a time when development economists (especially but not exclusively those writing in French) tended to favour a leading role for the State in the search for essay development in mixed economies (Hugon 1993; Killick 1978) P. T. Bauer (1953; 1972) attacked the late colonial State for introducing statutory marketing boards and about dreams thereby laying the foundation of what he considered to be deadening State interventionism. 10 Explicitly positive overviews of colonial rule in Africa are rare (but see Duignan and Gann 1975).

Many studies, though, mention the suppression of intra-African warfare, the abolition of internal slave trading and slavery, the introduction of mechanised transport and discrimination investment in infrastructure, and the development of modern manufacturing in the “settler” economies and in the Belgian Congo. Excited by the late 20th century wave of economic “globalisation”, some economic liberals have argued that the British empire pioneered the process through its general opposition to tariff protection (1846-1931) and by other pro-market measures (Ferguson 2003; Lal 2004). With respect to tariffs, this case would apply less strongly to French colonies because of the protectionism of the Parent's at an Setting French empire. It is also much less true of the final 30 years of British rule in indonesia, Africa, which saw not only tariffs but also the creation of marketing boards. From the perspective of institutional change, a fundamental observation applicable to the region generally was highlighted by John Sender and Sheila Smith (1986). Writing in the “tragic optimist” tradition of Marx’s writings on British rule in India, they emphasised that wage labour was rare at the beginning of colonial rule and increasingly common by the end of it. For them, as for Bill Warren (1980), imperialism was the “pioneer of capitalism”. 11 Besides optimism and pessimism, a third view of colonial rule, and by implication of its legacy, is that its importance has been over-rated.

There are different routes to the most this conclusion. Many historians are struck by the brevity of colonial rule south of the Sahara, i.e. about 60 years in essay, most of tropical Africa (Ajayi 1969), and by the weakness of the colonial State (Herbst 2000). In this setting it can plausibly be argued that whatever went well in the “peasant” economies (and cash crop economies expanded greatly) was mainly the responsibility of Africans, through their economic rationality and entrepreneurship, a position epitomised by Polly Hill (1997). More ambivalent are the arguments of Jean-Francois Bayart (1989; 2000). . Building on the familiar observation that rulers in Africa have usually found it hard to raise large revenues from domestic sources, Bayart argues that, during colonial rule and since, African elites became clients of colonial or overseas States. Thereby they forged relations which, though unequal, benefited themselves as well as the essay foreigners. Whereas dependency theory emphasised the primacy of foreign agency in determining historical outcomes, Bayart insists that African elites played a calculating and dangerous plot key role in establishing the “extraverted” pattern of African political economy. 4. A pre-colonial perspective on colonial legacies. 12 To evaluate the colonial legacy, we need to distinguish it from the situation and trends at the beginning of colonial rule, which in most of Sub-Saharan Africa occurred during the European “Scramble”, from 1879 to circa 1905.

At that time the region was, as before, characterised generally (not everywhere all the time) by an abundance of cultivable land in of muscle, relation to the labour available to till it (Hopkins 1973; Austin 2008a). Indonesia. This did not mean “resource abundance” as much of Africa’s mineral endowment was either unknown or inaccessible with pre-industrial technology or was not yet valuable even overseas. For example, many of the major discoveries (notably of oil in Nigeria and diamonds in Botswana) were to occur only during the period of decolonisation. Moreover, the fertility of much of the ancient astronaut land was relatively low or at least fragile, making it costly or difficult to pursue intensive cultivation, especially in the absence of animal manure. Indonesia. Sleeping sickness prevented the use of large animals, whether for ploughing or transport, in the forest zones and much of the savannas. The extreme seasonality of the annual distribution of rainfall rendered much of the dry season effectively unavailable for farm work. Sleep At An Early. The consequent low opportunity cost of dry-season labour reduced the incentive to Spreading Moreland raise labour productivity in craft production. Conversely, the characteristic choices of farming techniques were land-extensive and labour-saving; but the thinness of the soils constrained the returns on labour (Austin 2008a).

All this helps to essay indonesia explain why the productivity of African labour was apparently higher outside Africa over several centuries, cf. the underlying economic logic of the external slave trades which in turn, ironically, aggravated the scarcity of labour within Africa itself (Austin 2008b; Manning 1990). 13 Within Africa, the structure of incentives encouraged a high degree of self-sufficiency, and by the middle of the 20th century it was widely assumed that pre-colonial economies had necessarily been overwhelmingly subsistence-oriented. Spreading Moreland. The last half-century of research has progressively changed this assessment, especially for West Africa where a strong tendency towards extra-subsistence production was evident in essay, the 16th and 17th centuries. While damaged by the aggravated “Dutch disease” effects of the Atlantic slave trade (Inikori 2007; Austin, forthcoming), this tendency was strongly resumed from the Knowledge: J.P. Moreland first decade of the 19th century when that trade began to be abolished, with West Africans producing on a wider and larger scale for internal as well as overseas markets. Given the relative scarcity of labour, and in the absence (generally) of significant economies of scale in production, it was rare for indonesia the reservation wage (the minimum wage rate sufficient to persuade people to sell their labour rather than work for themselves) to be low enough for for their Sleep at an Childhood a would-be employer to afford to essay pay it. About. Hence the labour markets of pre-colonial Africa mainly took the form of slave trading (Austin 2005, chapters 6, 8; Austin 2008a).

14 The same abundance of land made political centralisation difficult to achieve and about dreams sustain (Herbst 2000). Political fragmentation had facilitated the Atlantic slave trade, in that larger States would have had stronger incentives and capacities for essay indonesia rejecting participation in it (Inikori 2003). This fragmentation later facilitated the European conquest. Ethiopia was the exception that proved the rule, with its fertile central provinces and large agricultural surplus supporting a long-established and physiology of muscle contractions modernising State that, alone in Africa, had the economic base to essay indonesia resist the “Scramble” successfully. 2 The historiography is too complex to game be summarised here. But it can be said that, although the moti (. ) 15 By no coincidence,2 most of Sub-Saharan Africa was colonised at a time when the industrialisation of Europe was creating or expanding markets for various commodities that could profitably be produced in Africa. The land-labour ratio, the environmental constraints on intensive agriculture and also the specific qualities of particular kinds of land in various parts of the continent gave Africa at least a potential comparative advantage in land-extensive primary production.

By the time of colonisation, especially in West Africa, the indigenous populations were increasingly taking advantage of the combination of these supply-side features and of access to expanding overseas markets. Indonesia. From Senegal to speech about Cameroon thousands of tonnes of groundnuts and palm oil, and from the 1880s rubber, were being produced for sale to European merchants (Law 1995). 5. Essay Indonesia. Colonial regimes: similarities and variations. 16 Colonial rule in Africa was intended to be cheap, viz. for taxpayers in Europe. The British doctrine was that each colony should be fiscally self-supporting. Physiology. Thus, any growth in government expenditure was supposed to be financed from higher revenues, as it was in Ghana in the 1920s when Governor Guggisberg was able to fund the creation of what became the country’s best-known hospital and school, as well as a new harbour and more railways and roads, from customs proceeds that had been fuelled by the colony’s increasing exports of cocoa beans. In practice the physiology of muscle French were equally committed to covering costs. In French West Africa too there was a major programme of public works in the 1920s, although, as also in indonesia, Ghana, within a few years expenditure had to be curtailed when export prices fell and the growth of revenue ended (Hopkins 1973, 190). 17 After retrenchment during the 1930s Depression, and especially during the Second World War, colonial administrations found themselves (for a variety of reasons) entering the post-war era with a new public commitment to be seen to promote actively the development of the economies over which they presided. “Developmental” language was partly redeemed by greater spending. In principle this came partly from the metropolitan taxpayer.

However, in indonesia, the French case Patrick Manning (1998, 123-5) has calculated that the government continued to receive more in tax from Africa than it spent in Africa. In British West Africa the new statutory export marketing boards accrued substantial surpluses by keeping a large margin between the price paid to producers and the price that the boards received for the crop on the world market. Ancient Astronaut. The surpluses were kept in London, in essay, British government bonds, as forced savings from African farmers (Rimmer 1992, 41-2), which assisted the British metropolitan economy to recover from the post-war dollar shortage. 18 The particular identity of the colonial power made some difference to the lives of those subjected to European rule. Contrasts between the two largest empires in Africa are traditionally made with reference to greater British reliance on African chiefs as intermediaries (“indirect rule”) and discrimination the French doctrine of assimilating a small minority of Africans into French culture and citizenship. On the whole it is indonesia arguable that, in economic terms, the similarities were much greater than the differences, except when the latter arose from the composition of their respective African empires. French rule, like British, relied on Request for their Child not to at an African intermediaries, including chiefs, even though France was much more insistent on abolishing African monarchies (as in Dahomey, in contrast to the British treatment of the structures and essay indonesia dynasties of the States of Buganda, Botswana, Lesotho and, after an abortive attempt at abolition, Ashanti). In West Africa the French made much greater use of forced labour, but that was primarily because the French territories were, from the essay start, relatively lacking in cash-earning and therefore wage-paying potential. That specific policy, Corvee and its use to benefit white planters rather than African farmers, made a difference to the colonial legacy in Parent's for their not to Sleep at an Setting, Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire. It meant that African cocoa farming took off much more quickly and dramatically in the former, so that Ghana was much wealthier at independence, when Cote d’Ivoire was in the process of catching up (and overtaking) after a late start (Hopkins 1973, 218-9), which it proceeded to do by the 1980s.

3 This is essay indonesia also the case for Madagascar, which is beyond the scope of the discussion here. 4 Gross national incomes in PPP terms averaged USD 918 in Spreading Christian Knowledge: J.P. Essay, the former British colonies and USD 1,208 i (. Essay Indonesia. ) 19 The contention here that the differences between the legacies of British and French rule in Africa are primarily attributable to variations in the composition of the African empires concerned may need to be qualified in the light of valuable recent research by Thomas Bossuroy and Denis Cogneau (2009). They examined social mobility in five African countries and found that in the former British colonies in their sample, Ghana and Uganda, “the links between origin, migration, education and occupational achievement appear much looser” than in the former French colonies they examined, i.e. Cote d’Ivoire and Guinea3 (Bossuroy and Cogneau 2009, 2). In explanation, they emphasise the importance of greater investment in education in the British colonies than the French colonies in their sample. This is a novel and important line of inquiry. I suspect that the favourable conclusion about the Parent's Child Sleep Early Childhood former British colonies also partly reflects the fact that Ghana and indonesia Uganda, for reasons that are only partly and indirectly connected to their respective British legacies, were the the most two major growth successes of structural adjustment in Africa, therefore perhaps offering greater opportunities for educational, physical and occupational mobility from the mid-1980s, which was early enough to be partly reflected in the data and which coincided with economic stagnation and then civil war in Cote d’Ivoire.

Finally, the contrast may also partly reflect the legacy of the era of Corvee and “settler” agriculture in essay, Cote d’Ivoire, before the economy took off in the 1950s and 1960s. As of 1990, helped by the legacy of the Ivorian “miracle”, in a sample of 26 former British and French colonies in tropical Africa (so excluding southern Africa) it was the former French colonies that had the higher per capita incomes in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) terms, by over 30% (Bossuroy and Cogneau 2009, 45, citing World Bank data).4. 6. Colonial rule and Africa’s specialisation in primary product exports. 20 The “extraversion” and “monoculture” of African economies is Child not to Sleep Early Childhood Setting widely lamented and condemned as a victory of colonial interests over African interests. The risks entailed in extreme specialisation, however, need to be set against the long-run income gain to be expected from the exploitation of comparative advantage. But again, although the location of a colonial economy’s comparative advantage could be identified, sooner or later the task of capitalising on essay it raised the speech dreams question of what investments might profitably deepen that advantage and, above all, of how the costs and benefits would be distributed.

Conflicts of ideology, and especially the balance of power between different interest groups, worked out variously across the range of African colonies. The most fundamental difference was between the “peasant” and physiology of muscle “settler” economies. Let us consider the contrasting cases of export agriculture in the former, notably in West Africa, and mining in the latter, most obviously in South Africa. 21 We have noted that, by the eve of the European partition of the essay indonesia continent, Africa had already revealed an emerging comparative advantage in export agriculture. In West Africa in particular it was in the joint interests of the population, European merchants and the colonial administrations to further this. In Ghana British planters were initially allowed to enter to grow cocoa beans. But lacking the discriminatory support from the government that their counterparts enjoyed in Kenya and southern Africa, they failed in commercial competition with African producers (Austin 1996a), just as French planters were later to be eclipsed by African ones in Cote d’Ivoire following the abolition of Corvee . Colonial reliance on the efforts of African small capitalists and peasants in the growing and local marketing of export crops paid off in two point, what became Ghana and Nigeria, with more than 20-fold increases in the real value of foreign trade between 1897 and 1960 (Austin 2008a, 612), benefiting British commercial interests as well as (via customs duties) the colonial treasury. The efforts of W. H. Lever, the Spreading Essay soap manufacturer, to win government permission, along with the necessary coercive support, to establish huge oil palm plantations in Nigeria continued from 1906 to 1925, but they were always rebuffed in favour of continued African occupation of virtually all agricultural land.

Ultimately this was because African producers literally delivered the goods (Hopkins 1973, 209-14) through land-extensive methods well adapted to indonesia the factor endowment. They rejected the advice of colonial agricultural officers when it conflicted with the requirements of efficient adaptation (Austin 1996a). The positive contribution of the administrations was to the most dangerous plot reinforce and permit the essay indonesia exploitation of these economies’ comparative advantage in export agriculture. They did this partly by investment in discrimination testing, transport infrastructure, investment to which African entrepreneurs also contributed (Austin 2007). Equally important, although the essay colonial administration never really established a system of land titling, in Ghana (for example) it upheld the indigenous customary right of farmers to ownership of trees they had planted, irrespective of the outcome of any later litigation about the physiology contractions ownership of the land the trees stood upon. Thus, African producers enjoyed sufficient security of tenure to feel safe in investing in tree crops on a scale sufficient to create, in the case of Ghana, what became for nearly 70 years the world’s largest cocoa economy (Austin 2005, chapters 14, 17). 22 South Africa had gold and diamonds, but their profitable exploitation required that the cost of labour be reduced far below what the speech about physical labour-land ratio implied.

C. H. Feinstein’s quantitative exercise indicates that without such coercive intervention in the labour market, most of South Africa’s mines would have been unprofitable until the end of the gold standard era in essay indonesia, 1932 (Feinstein 2005, 109-12). If South Africa eventually obtained a “free market” comparative advantage in mining, it was only Spreading Knowledge: Essay, after several decades of using extra-market means to repress black wages, notably through land appropriation and measures to stop Africans from working on European-owned land except as labourers rather than tenants. 23 Comparison of the economic legacies of European rule for poverty in “settler” and “peasant” economies is complicated by the many variations between individual colonies. However, some generalisations are possible. It is clear that the distribution of wealth and essay income was, and has remained, much more unequal in the “settler” economies than in the most plot, the “peasant” ones. Preliminary findings by Sue Bowden, Blessing Chiripanhura and Paul Mosley (2008) support the proposition that possession of land put a floor under real wages in the “peasant” colonies, enabling labourers migrating into indonesia export-crop growing areas to share in the gains from exports that were otherwise divided between European firms, African and Asian middlemen and African farm-owners (see also Austin 2005).

Bowden, Chiripanhura and Mosley find real wages beginning to rise from the physiology 1920s and 1930s in essay indonesia, the “peasant” colonies of Ghana and Uganda respectively and not falling back afterwards to the 1914 floor. The Most Dangerous Game Plot. In contrast, it was only in essay indonesia, the 1970s that the real wages of black gold-miners in South Africa began a sustained rise above their early 20th century level (Lipton 1986, 410). In the sample taken by Bowden, Chiripanhura and essay Mosley it was only in the “pure settler” economies, South Africa and Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia), not in the “peasant” colonies of Ghana or Uganda nor even in the intermediate case of Kenya, that there were declines in rural African living standards over periods of longer than 15 years within the 20th century. This pattern in real wages, together with the long-term expansion of African export agriculture which underpinned the dangerous growth of real wages in the “peasant” colonies, was reflected in the earlier onset of falling infant mortality in Ghana and Uganda compared to Southern Rhodesia and South Africa. 24 It should be added that many African colonies were short of both known mineral deposits and the kinds of land suitable for profitable export agriculture. Astronaut. These were not selected for European settlement, nor were their economies driven by strong African rural-capitalist and peasant production.

They had to essay indonesia rely on seasonal exports of male wage labourers, and on growing the less lucrative cash crops such as cotton, the timing of whose labour requirements conflicted with those of food crops, thereby creating risks to food security (Tosh 1980). A current wave of research, led by Alexander Moradi, uses height as a measure of physical welfare. The average height of African populations rose during the colonial period in Ghana and even in the “semi-settler” economy of Kenya (Moradi 2008; 2009). When this research is extended to poorer colonies such as southern Sudan, Tanganyika (mainland Tanzania) or those in essay, the West African Sahel, it would be no surprise if welfare improvements there are found to have been smaller than in the better-endowed economies studied so far. It was particularly in (selected areas of) the less favourably-endowed economies that colonial governments sought to raise productivity through very large-scale, capital-intensive and authoritarian projects, notably the massive irrigation scheme of the Office du Niger in ancient astronaut, Mali and the mechanisation campaign of the East African Groundnut Project in Tanganyika. Both were spectacular failures in indonesia, their own output and physiology contractions productivity terms, not least because they were inefficient in relation to indonesia the prevailing factor ratios and physical environments (Hogendorn and Scott 1981; Roberts 1996, 223-48; Van Beusekom 2002).

25 Poor as was the record of “settler” colonialism for the living standards of the indigenous population, it was in colonies where Europeans appropriated land on a large scale, for settlers or for companies, that the contractions earlier and larger beginnings were made in modern manufacturing. 26 Where industrialisation has occurred in Asia, it has tended to follow a more labour-intensive route than in Europe and North America, substituting longer working hours for additional machinery where possible (Sugihara 2007) and generally having a higher proportion of labour to capital at indonesia, any given level of output. A region in which labour as well as capital was scarce in relation to land, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, was not well suited to physiology contractions follow either route in the early 20th century. 5 In Katanga, in contrast to South Africa, the black labour force was “stabilised” from the essay 1920s onw (. ) 27 Yet, South Africa, followed on a smaller scale by Southern Rhodesia, acquired a substantial manufacturing sector by the time most of the rest of Africa achieved independence. The “artificially” low cost of black labour helped, but only in unskilled jobs because the skilled ones were anyway reserved for whites and the choice of technique was generally capital-intensive. Manufacturing growth was made possible by tariff protection, where locational advantage (as with brewing and cement manufacture) did not suffice. Crucially, mining provided the import-purchasing power to the most dangerous plot cover the import of capital goods and, where necessary, raw materials. It was also the direct or indirect source of much of the revenue used by governments to invest in manufacturing, whether directly or through the provision of infrastructure. The large European populations were a source of both educated workers and capital, but arguably their most important contribution to industrialisation was the political commitment to support it even at the cost of consumer prices that were often above world market levels (Austen 1987, 181-7; Kilby 1975; Wood and Jordan 2000). Essay. Moving up the value chain became an ambition of substantial proportions of white voters where they controlled governments, as in South Africa after 1910 and to a large extent in Southern Rhodesia from 1923, as well as of African voters since independence. In South Africa the “Pact” government of the National and Labour parties, elected in 1924, embarked on a policy of promoting import-substituting industrialisation through tariffs and State investment in electricity and steel (Feinstein 2005, 113-35).

Southern Rhodesia followed in the 1930s, partly in dreams, response to the challenge of the new South African customs regime (Phimister 2000). Besides these “settler” colonies, there was a third case of precocious growth of modern manufacturing, i.e. the Belgian Congo. This was absolutely not a case of settler independence or autonomy. As in southern Africa, however, mines provided a favourable context for import-substituting industry, providing infrastructure, import-purchasing power and part of the essay indonesia market.5 South Africa remained the flagship of manufacturing in the region, but the scope for about further expansion was increasingly restricted by the high price of skilled labour in of muscle contractions, an economy where only a minority of the essay population had access to secondary education and by the limited market for mass-produced goods that resulted from the low level of black wages. If the radical school was right about the contribution of repressive racial policies to economic growth in essay, the early 20th century (Trapido 1971), the liberals were right about the period preceding the fall of apartheid, i.e. the system was now a brake, not a booster, on the development of the economy (Moll 1990; Nattrass 1991; Feinstein 2005). 6 Actual GDP was surely greater because of the likely underestimation of the informal sector. This im (. ) 28 Back in 1960 modern manufacturing in speech about, South Africa was large but not very competitive internationally. In the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa it was much smaller. Essay Indonesia. There were only about, two countries in which manufacturing accounted for more than 10% of recorded or officially-estimated GDP,6 i.e.

Southern Rhodesia (16%) and essay the Belgian Congo (14%). Next, on 9.5%, the about dreams “semi-settler” economy of Kenya tied with Senegal (Kilby 1975, 472). The latter was a “peasant” colony but, as the administrative and commercial centre of French West Africa, had an exceptionally large resident European population, which increased the supply of people with managerial experience, technical expertise and access to capital (Kilby 1975, 473, 488-90). In West Africa even these low 1960 levels of manufacturing represented a very late surge, propelled by post-war developmentalism (government subsidies for manufacturing in the case of Senegal) and decolonisation, which led European firms to essay indonesia establish local factories to protect their existing markets (Kilby 1975, 475, 490-507; Boone 1992, 65-77). 29 Given the Parent's Request for their not to Childhood relative scarcity of labour and the small markets, together with the comparative advantage in land-extensive primary production, it is essay not surprising that there was not much more manufacturing by the end of the colonial period. About Dreams. Where there were opportunities, colonial governments were rarely interested in upsetting the status quo in which colonial markets for manufactured goods were supplied largely by monopsonistic European merchants, selling goods disproportionately produced in Christian Knowledge: Moreland, the European metropolitan economy concerned (Brett 1973, 266-82; Kilby 1975). But given that, despite rising population, the factor endowments of even the larger African economies were not suited to industrialisation in 1960, the more important question is perhaps whether colonial rule, directly or indirectly, laid foundations on essay indonesia which Africa might later develop the conditions for a much larger growth of manufacturing. 7 As of 1950 Dakar’s electricity was the most expensive in the world (Boone 1992, 66, 67n).

30 Asian experience suggests that this would most plausibly take a labour-intensive form. Speech About Dreams. In the long term the most fundamental change of the colonial period was probably the start of sustained population growth, which in aggregate can be dated from the end of the 1918 influenza pandemic, although local timing varied. How far the demographic breakthrough was the result of colonial actions, such as the suppression of slave raiding, the post-1918 peace within Africa and essay indonesia public health measures that reduced crisis mortality, is speech about dreams difficult to determine (Iliffe 1995, 238-41). The Sub-Saharan population is estimated to have doubled to about 200 million between 1900 and 1960 (for references see Austin 2008a, 591). So the indonesia demographic conditions for Christian Knowledge: Essay cheaper labour were beginning, but only beginning, to be established. But labour-intensive industrialisation also requires investment in energy supply and labour quality. Essay. It needs workers who are disciplined and perhaps have specific skills or are trained to facilitate the acquisition of new ones (Sugihara, forthcoming). School enrolment rates rose during the colonial era from low or non-existent levels and in many countries doubled or tripled between 1950 and game plot 1960.

This was especially helped by African politicians gaining control of domestic budgets during the essay transition to independence, such as in Nigeria where primary enrolment was raised from 971,000 to 2,913,000 and secondary enrolment was raised from 28,000 to 135,000 (Sender and Smith 1986, 62). Physiology Of Muscle. In 1957 annual electric power output stood at 2,750 million kilowatts in the Belgian Congo and at 2,425 million kilowatts in the Central African Federation (within which most of the electricity was produced in Southern Rhodesia). In contrast, according to essay figures for the previous year, French West Africa produced a combined total of 138 million kilowatts,7 Nigeria 273 million kilowatts and the rest of British West Africa 84 million kilowatts (Kamarck 1964, 271). Hence, despite the popularity of industrialisation with nationalists, the newly-independent countries were not well equipped to dangerous game embark on labour-intensive industrialisation in the 1960s. Those that sought to industrialise opted for capital-intensive methods (subsidising capital, protective tariffs) and the factories tended to became creators of economic rents rather than of profits from competitive success (Boone 1992). 8. Markets and African entrepreneurship. 3 For examples from each era respectively for Nigeria see Shea (2006), Wariboko (1998), Hopkins (197 (. ) 31 African entrepreneurship has driven changes in the choice of products and in the means and organisation of production in various contexts before, during and since colonial rule.3 This has been particularly conspicuous in West Africa, whose 19th century pre-colonial economies tended to be regarded as more market-oriented than those of the other major regions of Sub-Saharan Africa (Austin, forthcoming).

The colonial impact on dangerous plot African entrepreneurship and on the markets in which they operated again turned to a large extent on whether there were large-scale appropriations of land for the use of Europeans, be they individual settlers or corporations. 32 This familiar division between “settler” and “plantation” colonies, on one hand, and “peasant” (and rural capitalist) colonies, on essay the other, was far from purely exogenous to ancient African economic history. Where African producers were able to enter export markets early and on a wide scale, before European exporters really got going, their success was sufficient to tip the balance of the argument among colonial policy-makers in favour of those who thought it economically as well as politically wisest to leave agricultural production in African hands. As we saw in speech about dreams, chapter 6, British West Africa was the major example of this. In South Africa, Southern Rhodesia and Kenya African farmers responded quickly to opportunities to grow additional grain to supply internal markets.

But the governments reacted by trying to drive Africans out of the produce market and into the labour market by reserving land for Europeans, while either prohibiting Africans from essay, leasing it back or (as in inter-war Kenya) limiting the time that African “squatters” could work for themselves rather than for their European landlords (Palmer and Parsons 1977; Kanogo 1987). African production for the market proved resilient, however, and Spreading Knowledge: J.P. Moreland Essay the governments eventually accepted this and shifted to indonesia imposing controls on agricultural marketing that favoured European producers rather than trying to displace African ones. In Kenya it was only in the mid-1950s, during the Mau Mau revolt, that the government lifted restrictions on astronaut African production of high-value cash crops (Mosley 1983). Speech Dreams. Thus, to the extent that African production for the market in the late 19th century was greater in indonesia, what became the “peasant” agricultural-export economies than in what became the “settler” economies, that contrast was reinforced by government actions in the latter over the following decades. 33 Not that the not to at an Early maintenance of African ownership of land necessarily entailed support for two point discrimination testing African capitalism. Admittedly, we have seen that the colonial State in essay, Ghana protected the property of agricultural investors, in the sense of preserving the ownership of a farmer over trees or crops that he or she had planted, irrespective of the outcome of legal disputes about the ownership of the land on which they stood.

But in “settler” and “peasant” colonies alike colonial governments were hesitant and usually hostile to the emergence of land markets in areas controlled by Africans. This policy eventually changed in Southern Rhodesia and Kenya, with selective promotion of land registration, in response to the de facto emergence of land sales and ancient individual proprietorship (cultivable land having become increasingly scarce in the areas left to Africans) and with African land-owners being seen as a politically conservative force in the context of Mau Mau (Mosley 1983, 27-8; Kanogo 1987). In West Africa, without the settler pressure on African access to land, and given the expansion of cash crops that occurred early in the colonial period and again in the 1950s, neither the political case nor the economic case for compulsory land titling was as yet compelling (Austin 2005). 34 African entrepreneurs, like European ones, needed to Parent's for their Child at an Early Childhood be able to hire labour. Indonesia. In this context the colonial record was one of gradual, mostly reluctant, innovation. Dreams. Sooner or (often) later, they legislated against slavery.

But in West Africa, the astronaut region with evidently the largest slave population at the start of the 20th century, the replacement of the slave market by a wage labour market depended very much on the progress of African cash crop agriculture (Austin 2009). During the inter-war decades the continued use of forced labour by colonial administrations came under sustained pressure from the International Labour Office in Geneva. The embarrassment of this contributed to further reluctant and gradual reform. By the end of the Second World War, as Frederick Cooper (1996) has shown, British and French authorities had accepted that wage labour had become a regular occupation for Africans, rather than a seasonal sideline from farming. Indeed, Cooper went on to show that in London and Paris the long-run fiscal implications of having to give workers in Africa the same rights as workers in Europe contributed to dangerous game plot the decisions to withdraw from tropical Africa. For African societies the end of slavery and the rise of wage labour was arguably a condition of continued large-scale participation in astronaut, international trade. As early as 1907 the chocolate manufacturer Cadbury had moved its cocoa-buying to Ghana following bad publicity about “slave-grown” cocoa in the Portuguese colony of Sao Tome, where it had been buying before (Southall 1975, 39-49). By 1960 slavery was generally no longer acceptable among trading partners. In this way colonial abolitionism, however gradual, contributed to the “modernisation” of labour institutions in Africa.

35 Colonial rule facilitated the indonesia import of capital into this capital-scarce continent. But only in mining, and to some extent in “settler” and “plantation” agriculture, did this happen on a large scale. The survey by Herbert S. Knowledge: Essay. Frankel (1938) of external capital investment in white-ruled Africa remains the only comprehensive study for essay indonesia the colonial period. According to Frankel, in gross and nominal terms, during 1870-1936 such investment totalled GBP 1,221 million, of which 42.8% was in South Africa. This meant GBP 55.8 per head in South Africa, but only GBP 3.3 in the French colonies and GBP 4.8 in British West Africa.

Public investment constituted 44.7% of the grand total and almost 46% of the non-South Africa total (Frankel 1938, 158-60, 169-70). Governments, and to some extent mining and plantation companies, invested in the transport infrastructure required for the development of, mainly, the export-import trade. In Nigeria and Ghana Africans also took a leading role in building motor roads and pioneering lorry services (Heap 1990). In institutional terms the colonial period saw the eventual abolition of human pawning, with its replacement by promissory notes and, in those areas of West Africa where it was possible, by loans on the security of cocoa farms. Indonesia. It also saw the introduction of modern banking, but the dangerous plot banks were much more willing to accept Africans’ savings than to offer them loans, partly because of the colonial governments’ non-introduction of compulsory land titling (Cowen and Shenton 1991). 36 Like shipping and indonesia the export-import trade, banking in , colonial West Africa had a strong tendency towards cartelisation (Olukoju 2001-02; Austin and Uche 2007). The initial imposition of colonial rule and boundaries itself disrupted intra-African networks of exchange, and the increasing presence of European merchants in the interior relegated many African traders further down the essay chain of intermediation between shippers and farmers (Goerg 1980; Nwabughuogu 1982). Organised resistance to European cartels mostly emerged later and was largely confined to dangerous particular colonies, given the tradition of cocoa “hold-ups” with which African farmers and brokers confronted successive European merchant cartels in Ghana and the indigenous banking movement in essay indonesia, Nigeria (Miles 1978; Hopkins 1966). Until the advent of independence it remained the case in the “peasant” colonies that the markets dominated by Europeans were cartelistic, whereas the markets populated by Africans were characterised by extreme competition (Hopkins 1978, 95). At least, much more than in the “settler” colonies, African entrepreneurs were able to operate in the export-import as well as in two point discrimination, the domestic exchange sectors.

Though largely confined to the lower levels of the commercial pyramids, they benefited from the overall expansion of the economies, especially in West Africa (Hopkins 1995, 44). The monopolistic arrangements were shaken a bit by decolonisation (Austin and Uche 2007), but the old African sector became the “informal” sector, the old European sector the indonesia “formal” one (Austin 1993). At independence, new governments were faced with the speech dreams familiar problems of this financial dualism, notably lack of cheap credit from the formal sector for informal enterprises. 37 Despite asymmetric competition, the more economically successful “peasant” colonies saw the continuation of a tradition of entrepreneurship and mostly (but not always) small-scale accumulation in agriculture, crafts and essay trade. The result, as John Iliffe (1983, 67) noted, was “a strong contrast between West Africa, with its long-established capitalistic sector and its entrepreneurs from artisanship and trade, and eastern and southern Africa, where entrepreneurs had emerged chiefly through (…) Western education and modern sector employment”. Early post-colonial policy did not always build on this, for example in Christian J.P. Moreland, the case of Ghana, with high taxation of export agriculture and the creation of State monopolies in certain sectors (Austin 1996b).

38 It is widely accepted that States have a critical role in essay, economic development, at least in enforcing the rules of economic activity and providing physical public goods. Therefore, we should ask how colonial rule affected the historic constraint on political centralisation in Africa, namely the difficulty of raising revenue. Beyond this we need to consider the size of the State and the nature of authority and legitimacy, i.e. whether colonisation was responsible for fragmenting Africa, as is often said, or whether, as the colonial rulers themselves claimed, they were a modernising force, bringing the State to the “Stateless” and indonesia replacing patrimonial authority by bureaucratic authority. 39 Colonial administrations themselves suffered acute budgetary constraints. Essay Indonesia. Although European empires introduced to Africa the possibility of raising loan finance (at least in , an impersonal, law-governed though undemocratic way), the colonial administrations were restricted in their resort to money markets by the metropolitan insistence that each colony be fiscally self-sufficient and balance its budget. The introduction in each colony of a single currency as legal tender probably reduced net transaction costs (although in some cases the demonetisation of existing currencies hurt Africans holding them). But the metropolitan treasuries denied their colonial subordinates the autonomy to print money (Herbst 2000, 201-13).

The French colonies used the French franc. In British West Africa a colonial pound was issued, but the rules ensured that it was always convertible at par with the metropolitan pound. Essay Indonesia. It was only at independence that the new African governments had the option of creating national currencies, an option the former French colonies mostly declined while the former British colonies soon accepted. 40 Given that they faced much the same practical constraints as the African States that had preceded them, colonial governments generally continued the reliance of pre-colonial kingdoms upon taxes on trade and essay people, rather than on land or agriculture. It was the above-mentioned discovery, during the Second World War, that the export marketing board could be a major revenue-raiser, which was the discrimination major fiscal innovation of colonial rule. Indonesia. As independence approached, this unintended consequence of a wartime expedient offered African politicians unprecedented opportunities to, for example, transform educational opportunities for Christian Moreland Essay their populations. The marketing board as a fiscal instrument was an important colonial legacy, and its possibilities and implications were only beginning to be understood. By the 1980s the limits of the device had become clear, as ordinary traders and producers could evade it by trading on parallel markets (Azarya and Chazan 1987). 41 Smuggling brings us to one of the more notorious legacies of the speech about dreams colonial partition of Africa: the imposition of boundaries dividing people of shared culture, the delineation of some States so small as to be of questionable economic viability and the creation of some States so large as to ancient astronaut be potentially ungovernable.

There is much in these criticisms, but recent research has shown that the essay borders were not necessarily so arbitrary in their origin and that at least some of them have subsequently acquired social reality and even popular legitimacy (Nugent 2002). Again, while the colonial legacy includes several very small States, most colonies (even the small ones) were larger than the pre-colonial polities on which or in place of which they were imposed; and some of them formed parts of larger regional units (notably French West Africa). While the colonial borders have been largely preserved, colonial attempts to introduce Weberian bureaucracy have proved much less durable (Bayart 1989). One reason for, or manifestation of, this is the salience of ethnicity in most African countries for political competition over resources. 42 From the late 1970s onwards a generation of historians and anthropologists tended to contractions argue that ethnicity in Africa, far from being “primordial”, was created, or at least greatly entrenched, by colonial strategies of “divide and rule” (seminal contributions included Iliffe 1979, 318-41, and Ranger 1983, although the thesis was pursued beyond those cautious initial statements). Speech About. Recent historiography has shown that the essay emphasis on the capacity of colonial States to invent and manipulate traditions, including those relating to ethnicity and chieftaincy, was partly justified, but it underestimated the capacity of African elites and peoples to influence the outcomes themselves (Spear 2003). By no means all ethnic divisions originated in the colonial period (Vansina 2001), although they were usually deepened and reified by the interaction of colonial and essay African elites (Prunier 1995).

Whatever the precise division of responsibility in this interaction, there is general agreement among scholars that ethnicity has been a more important organising principle of political association and conflict since colonial rule than before it. Ancient. This matters for economic development because ethnic divisions are often seen, by public opinion and by some economists (notably Easterly and Levine 1997), as primarily responsible for rent-seeking rather than growth-promoting policies in post-colonial Africa. However, that approach has been criticised on various grounds (notably by Arcand, Guillaumont and Jeanneney 2000), and it is arguable that the salience of ethnicity in African political and economic life is as much a response to as a cause of the difficulties of enlarging the economic cake in African conditions and of the essay indonesia continued weakness of State capacity. 43 Amidst the varying and/or poor growth records of post-colonial African economies, Botswana has stood out. Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson and James Robinson (2002a) argue that it is an exception that proves the rule, i.e. About. that while Botswana did not have the beneficial institutional legacy characteristic of the essay indonesia “full settler” colonies like Australia, it was exceptionally lightly ruled by Britain and physiology as a result escaped the worst of the extractive propensities that they see as generally characteristic of non-“settler” colonialism. In my view two considerations point to a different conclusion. First, without the discovery of diamonds, it is hard to see how post-colonial Botswana could have grown dramatically faster than colonial Bechuanaland. Indeed, during the first three decades of indendence the non-diamond mining sector of Botswana did no better than Zambia (Jerven 2008).

Second, British rule was relatively intense, rather than the opposite, in Bechuanaland. By the criterion of the number of Africans per administrator, circa 1937 it was fifth out of 33 African colonies (Richens, forthcoming). 44 The limited revenue-generating potential of African colonies (especially before some of the more spectacular mineral discoveries) helps to explain the decisions of the French and British governments, faced with rising popular expectations channelled into growing nationalist movements, to accept early decolonisation. Simultaneously French firms were apparently becoming less interested in colonial economies (Marseille 2005). If so, it is ironic that the French government remained closely involved with its former colonies after their independence, not least through the franc zone. Again, in the 1950s British firms on the spot expressed concern about physiology of muscle contractions their future under independent African governments, but they failed to attract much notice from the decolonising authorities (Tignor 1998; Stockwell 2000). The irony of the latter case is that a few years later the British government’s attitude to the Biafran secession was influenced by the interests of British oil companies (Uche 2008). 45 This article has considered the issue of colonial legacies in relation to the longer-term dynamics of economic development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region, characterised by simultaneous shortages of labour and the most dangerous plot capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market exchanges, especially in West Africa, and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation. Discrimination. Colonial governments and European firms invested in both infrastructure and (especially in southern Africa) in essay indonesia, institutions designed to develop African economies as primary-product exporters. In both cases the old economic logic for coercing labour continued to operate, i.e. the continued existence of slavery in early colonial tropical Africa and the use of large-scale land grabs to promote migrant labour flows in “settler” economies. . But there were changes and variations.

While we have noted differences between French and British policy, for example in West Africa, the bigger contrasts were between “peasant” and “settler” colonies. 46 In British West Africa in essay, particular there was a genuine coincidence of interest between African farmers, European merchants and colonial governments in enlarging and exploiting West Africa’s comparative advantage in land-extensive agriculture. The resultant income at least enabled many of the slave-owners to become employers instead. Testing. In these cases the British government (and the essay French in Cote d’Ivoire after 1945) correctly recognised where their own self-interest lay when they supported African investment in export agriculture. It was in those “peasant” colonies that were best endowed with lands suitable for producing the more lucrative crops that African populations experienced significant improvements in purchasing power and had the most improvement in physical welfare.

In the same countries, however, colonial rulers, partly because of fiscal constraints as well as a probably realistic assessment of the short-term economic prospects, did little directly to prepare the economies to move “up the value chain”. Thus, the first generation of post-colonial rulers presided over economies which were as yet too short of educated (and cheap) labour and sufficient (and sufficiently cheap) electricity to embark successfully on industrialisation. It has taken post-colonial investment in essay indonesia, education and other public goods to move West African economies, and tropical Africa generally, closer to the prospect of a substantial growth of labour-intensive manufacturing, if international competition permits it. 47 “Settler” colonies had a worse record for poverty reduction, especially considering the two point testing mineral resources of South Africa and Southern Rhodesia, but they had a better one for structural change. The large-scale use of coercion was the basis for the construction of white-ruled economies that, especially in South Africa, eventually became profitable enough for a partly politically-impelled policy of import-substituting industrialisation to essay indonesia achieve some success. Thus, the rents extracted from African labourers were channelled into structural change, although the process became self-defeating as it progressed, contributing to the fall of apartheid. 48 As promoters of market institutions, the colonial regimes had a very mixed record; but probably in all Sub-Saharan countries there was far more wage labour, and a lot more land sales, and a lot more people more deeply dependent on markets, by 1960 than there had been in 1890 or 1900. A final legacy of the colonial period has a rather unclear relationship to colonial policy, i.e. the indonesia sustained growth of (total) population since 1918 has progressively transformed the dreams factor ratios and, on the whole, increased the long-term economic potential of the continent. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Essay. Robinson. 2001. The colonial origins of comparative development: An empirical investigation.

American Economic Review 91, no. 5: 1369-1401. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. 2002a. An African success story: Botswana. CEPR Discussion Paper 3219. London: Centre for two point Economic Policy Research. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and essay indonesia James A. . Robinson. 2002b.

Reversal of fortune: Geography and institutions in the making of the modern world income distribution. Quarterly Journal of Economics 117, no. 4: 1231-94. Ajayi, J. F. Ade. 1969.

Colonialism: An episode in African history. In Colonialism in Africa, 1870-1960 , vol. 1, The history and speech politics of colonialism, 1870-1914 , ed. L. H. Gann and Peter Duignan, 137–46. Essay. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Amin, Samir. 1972. L’Afrique de l’Ouest bloquee . Paris: Editions de Minuit.

Arcand, Jean-Louis, Patrick Guillaumont, and Sylviane Guillaumont Jeanneney. 2000. For Their Child Not To Sleep At An Childhood Setting. How to make a tragedy: On the alleged effects of ethnicity on indonesia growth. Spreading Christian J.P. Essay. Journal of International Development 20, no. 7, 925-38.

Austen, Ralph A. 1987. African economic history: Internal development and external dependency . London: James Currey. Austin, Gareth. Indonesia. 1993. Indigenous credit institutions in West Africa, c.1750-1960. In Local Suppliers of Credit in the Third World, 1750-1960 , ed. Gareth Austin and Kaoru Sugihara, 93-159. London: Macmillan. Austin, Gareth. 1996a. Mode of production or mode of cultivation: Explaining the failure of European cocoa planters in competition with African farmers in colonial Ghana.

In Cocoa pioneer fronts since 1800: The role of smallholders, planters and merchants , ed. W. Dangerous Game. G. Clarence-Smith, 154-75. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan. Austin, Gareth. 1996b. National poverty and the “vampire state” in Ghana. Essay Indonesia. Journal of International Development 8, no. 4: 553-73. Austin, Gareth. 2005.

Labour, land and capital in of muscle contractions, Ghana: From slavery to free labour in Asante, 1807-1956 . Rochester: Rochester University Press. Austin, Gareth. 2007. Labour and land in essay indonesia, Ghana, 1879-1939: A shifting ratio and an institutional revolution. Australian Economic History Review 47, no. Discrimination. 1: 95-120. Austin, Gareth. 2008a. Resources, techniques and strategies south of the essay indonesia Sahara: Revising the factor endowments perspective on African economic development, 1500-2000.

Economic History Review 61, no. 3: 587-624. Austin, Gareth. Spreading J.P. Essay. 2008b. The “reversal of fortune” thesis and the compression of history: Perspectives from African and essay indonesia comparative economic history. Journal of International Development 20, no. 8: 996-1027. Austin, Gareth.

2009. Cash crops and freedom: Export agriculture and the decline of slavery in colonial West Africa. International Review of Social History 54, no.1: 1-37. Austin, Gareth. Forthcoming. Markets, slaves and States in astronaut, West Africa . Essay. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Austin, Gareth, and Chibuike Ugochukwu Uche.

2007. Collusion and competition in colonial economies: Banking in the most game plot, British West Africa, 1916-1960. Business History Review 81 (1): 1-26. Azarya, Victor, and Naomi Chazan. 1987. Disengaging from the State in Africa: Reflections on the experience of Ghana and Guinea. Comparative Studies in Society and History 29: 106-31.

Bauer, P. T. 1953. West African trade: A study of competition, oligopoly and monopoly in indonesia, a changing economy . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bauer, P. T. 1972. Dissent on development . Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Bayart, Jean-Francois. 1989. L’Etat en Afrique: la politique du ventre . Paris: Librairie Artheme Fayard.

Bayart, Jean-Francois. 2000. Africa in the world: A history of extraversion. African Affairs 99, no. 395: 217-67. Berthelemy, Jean-Claude, and Ludvig Soderling. 2001. The role of capital accumulation, adjustment and structural change for economic take-off: Empirical evidence from ancient astronaut, African growth episodes. World Development 29, no. 2: 323-43.

Boone, Catherine. 1992. Merchant capital and the roots of State power in Senegal, 1930-1985 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bossuroy, Thomas, and Denis Cogneau. 2009. Social mobility and colonial legacy in five African countries. Unpublished working paper, Paris: Paris School of Economics and Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement. Bowden, Sue, Blessing Chiripanhura, and Paul Mosley, 2008. Measuring and explaining poverty in indonesia, six African countries: A long-period approach. Parent's Request Child Early Childhood Setting. Journal of International Development 20: 1049-79. Brett, E. A. 1973.

Colonialism and underdevelopment in East Africa: The politics of economic change, 1919-1939 . London: Heinemann. Cooper, Frederick. 1996. Decolonisation and African society: The labour question in French and British Africa . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cowen, M. Christian Knowledge: J.P. Moreland. P., and essay indonesia R. W. Shenton. 1991. Astronaut. Bankers, peasants and land in British West Africa, 1905-37. Journal of Peasant Studies 19, no. 1: 26-58. Duignan, Peter, and essay indonesia L. H. Gann.

1975. Economic achievements of the Parent's Request Child not to at an Childhood Setting colonisers: An assessment. In Colonialism in Africa, 1870-1960 , vol. 4, The economics of colonialism, 1870-1960 , ed. L. Essay Indonesia. H. Gann and Peter Duignan, 673-96. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Easterly, William, and Ross Levine.

1997. Africa’s growth tragedy: Policies and the most plot ethnic divisions. Quarterly Journal of Economics 112, 1203-50. Fall, Babacar. 1993. Le travail force en Afrique occidentale francaise, 1900-1945 . Paris: Karthala. Feinstein, C. H. 2005.

An economic history of South Africa: Conquest, discrimination and development . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ferguson, Niall. 2003. Empire: How Britain made the modern world . London: Allen Lane. Fetter, Bruce. 1976. The creation of Elizabethville, 1910-1940 . Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Forrest, Tom. 1994. The advance of African capital: The growth of Nigerian private enterprise . Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Frankel, S. Speech. Herbert. 1938. Capital investment in Africa . London: Oxford University Press. Goerg, Odile. 1980. La destruction d’un reseau d’echange precolonial: L’exemple de la Guinee. Journal of African History 21, no.

4: 467-84. Heap, Simon. Essay. 1990. The development of motor transport in the Gold Coast, 1900-39. Physiology. Journal of Transport History 11 no. 2: 19-37. Herbst, Jeffrey. 2000. States and power in indonesia, Africa: Comparative lessons in authority and control . Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Hill, Polly. Parent's Request Early Childhood Setting. 1997. The migrant cocoa-farmers of southern Ghana: A study in rural capitalism . Hamburg: LIT and indonesia Oxford: James Currey (orig. pub. Christian Essay. Cambridge 1963). Hogendorn, J. S., and K. M. Scott. 1981. Very large-scale agricultural projects: The lessons of the East African groundnut scheme. Essay. African Economic History 10, 87-115. Hopkins, A. . G. 1966.

Economic aspects of political movements in Nigeria and the Gold Coast, 1918-39. Journal of African History 7 no. 1: 133-152. Hopkins, A. G. 1973. An economic history of West Africa . London: Longman. Hopkins, A. G. 1978. Innovation in a colonial context: African origins of the Nigerian cocoa-farming industry, 1880-1920. Indonesia. In The Imperial Impact: Studies in the economic history of Africa and India , ed. Clive Dewey and A. G. Hopkins, 83-96, 341-2. London: Athlone Press.

Hopkins, A. G. 1995. Les entrepreneurs africains et le developpement de l’Afrique: Une perspective historique. In Entreprises et entrepreneurs africains , ed. Stephen Ellis and Yves-A. Faure, 37-51. Paris: Karthala. Hopkins, A. Contractions. G. 2009. Indonesia. The new economic history of Africa. Journal of African History , 50 no. 2: 155-77. Hugon, Philippe.

1993. Les trois temps de la pensee francophone en economie du developpement. Request At An Setting. In Etat des savoirs sur le developpement , ed. Essay. C. Choquet, O. Dollfus, E. Le Roy et M. Dangerous Plot. Vernieres, 43-74. Paris: Karthala. Iliffe, John. Essay Indonesia. 1979. A modern history of Tanganyika . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Iliffe, John. 1983. Spreading Knowledge: J.P. Essay. The emergence of African capitalism . London: Macmillan. Iliffe, John. 1995. Africans: The history of a continent . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. IMF (International Monetary Fund).

2009. Regional economic outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa - Weathering the essay indonesia storm . Washington: IMF. Inikori, Joseph I. Dangerous Game. 2003. The struggle against the transatlantic slave trade: The role of the State. Essay. In Fighting the speech about dreams slave trade: West African strategies , ed. Sylviane A. Diouf, 170-98. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press.

Inikori, Joseph I. 2007. Africa and the globalisation process: Western Africa, 1450-1850. Journal of Global History 2, no. 1: 63-86. Jerven, Morten. 2008. Indonesia. African economic growth reconsidered: Measurement and of muscle contractions performance in East-Central Africa, 1965–1995.

Ph.D. dissertation, London School of Economics. Jerven, Morten. 2009. The quest for the African dummy: Explaining African post-colonial economic performance revisited. Essay Indonesia. Journal of International Development 21 (published early online: DOI: 10.1002/jid.1603). Kamarck, A. M. 1964. Dreams. The development of the economic infrastructure. In Economic transition in Africa , ed. Melville J. Herskovits, and Mitchell Harwitz, 263-75. London: Routledge and essay Kegan Paul. Kanogo, Tabitha.

1987. Astronaut. Squatters and the roots of Mau Mau: 1905-63 . London: James Currey. Kilby, Peter. 1975. Manufacturing in colonial Africa. In Colonialism in indonesia, Africa, 1870-1960 , vol.

4, The economics of colonialism, 1870-1960 , ed. L. H. Gann and Peter Duignan, 470-520. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Killick, Tony. 1978. Development economics in action: A study of economic policies in Spreading Christian J.P. Essay, Ghana . London: Heinemann. Lal, Deepak. 2004. Essay. In praise of empires: Globalization and order . New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Law, Robin (ed.). 1995. From slave trade to “legitimate” commerce: The commercial transition in nineteenth-century West Africa . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lipton, Merle. 1986. Capitalism and apartheid: South Africa, 1910-1986 . 2nd edition. Astronaut. Aldershot: Gower/Maurice Temple Smith. Manning, Patrick.

1990. Slavery and African life: Occidental, Oriental and African slave trades . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Manning, Patrick. 1998. Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa . 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Marseille, Jacques. 2005. Empire colonial et capitalisme francais: Histoire d’un divorce . 2nd edition. Paris: Albin Michel. Miles, John.

1978. Rural protest in indonesia, the Gold Coast: The cocoa hold-ups, 1908-1938. In The imperial impact: Studies in the economic history of Africa and India , ed. Clive Dewey and A. G. Hopkins, 152-70, 353-7. London: Athlone Press.

Moll, Terence. 1990. From booster to brake? Apartheid and economic growth in comparative perspective. In The Political Economy of South Africa , ed. N. Speech. Nattrass and indonesia E. Ardington, 73-87. Speech About. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Moradi, Alexander. 2008. Confronting colonial legacies: Lessons from human development in Ghana and indonesia Kenya, 1880-2000.

Journal of International Development 20, no. 8: 1107-21. Moradi, Alexander. 2009. Towards an objective account of nutrition and health in colonial Kenya: A study of stature in indonesia, African army recruits and civilians, 1880-1980. Journal of Economic History 6, no. 3: 719-54. Mosley, Paul.

1983. The settler economies: Kenya and Southern Rhodesia, 1900-1963 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nattrass, N. 1991. Controversies about capitalism and apartheid in essay indonesia, South Africa: An economic perspective. Knowledge: J.P. Moreland. Journal of Southern African Studies 17: 654-77. Northrup, David. Indonesia. 1988. Beyond the bend in the river: African labor in eastern Zaire, 1865-1940 . Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press. Nugent, Paul.

2002. Smugglers, secessionists and loyal citizens . Oxford: James Currey. Nwabughuogu, Anthony I. 1982. From wealthy entrepreneurs to petty traders: The decline of African middlemen in eastern Nigeria, 1900-1950. Journal of African History 23, no. 3, 365-79. Olukoju A. 2001-02. “Getting too great a grip”: European shipping lines and British West African lighterage services in the 1930s.

Afrika Zamani , 9 10: 19-40. Palmer, Robin, and Neil Parsons, eds. . 1977. The roots of rural poverty in Central and Southern Africa . London: Heinemann. Phillips, Anne. 1989. The enigma of colonialism: British policy in West Africa . Essay. London: James Currey. Phimister, I. 2000.

The origins and development of manufacturing in Southern Rhodesia, 1894-1939. About Dreams. In A. S. Essay Indonesia. Mlambo, E. S. Pangeti and I. Phimister (eds), Zimbabwe: A History of Manufacturing, 1890-1995 , 9-30. Harare: University of Zimbabwe Publications. Prunier, Gerard. Spreading J.P. Essay. 1995. The Rwandan tragedy: History of a genocide, 1958-1994 . London: Hurst. Ranger, Terence. Essay Indonesia. 1983. The invention of tradition in colonial Africa. In E. J. Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger (eds), The Invention of Tradition , 211-62. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Richens, Peter. Forthcoming. The economic legacies of the “thin white line”: Indirect rule and the comparative development of Sub-Saharan Africa. London: London School of Economics, Working Papers in Economic History. Rimmer, Douglas. 1992. Staying poor: Ghana’s political economy, 1950-1990 . Oxford: Pergamon Press and the World Bank. Roberts, Richard L. 1996. Two worlds of cotton: Colonialism and the regional economy in the French Sudan, 1800-1946 . Stanford: Stanford University Press. Rodney, Walter.

1972. How Europe underdeveloped Africa . London: Bogle-L’Ouverture. Sender, John, and Sheila Smith. 1986. The development of capitalism in Africa . London: Methuen. Shea, Philip J. 2006. Big is sometimes best: The Sokoto Caliphate and economic advantages of size in the textile industry. African Economic History 34: 5-21. Southall, Roger J. 1975. Parent's Request For Their Not To At An Early Childhood. Cadbury on the Gold Coast, 1907-38: The dilemma of a “model firm” in a colonial economy.

Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham. Spear, Thomas. 2003. Neo-traditionalism and the limits of invention in British colonial Africa. Journal of African History 44, no. 1: 3-27. Stockwell, Sarah. 2000.

The business of decolonisation: British business strategies in the Gold Coast . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Sugihara, Kaoru. 2007. The second Noel Butlin lecture: Labour-intensive industrialisation in global history. Indonesia. Australian Economic History Review 47, no.

2: 121-54. Sugihara, Kaoru. Forthcoming. Labour-intensive industrialisation in global history. In Gareth Austin and Kaoru Sugihara (eds), Labour-intensive industrialisation in global history . London: Routledge.

Tignor, Robert L. Parent's Child. 1998. Capitalism and nationalism at the end of empire . Princeton: Princeton University Press. Tosh, John. 1980. Essay Indonesia. The cash crop revolution in tropical Africa: An agricultural reappraisal.

African Affairs 79, no. 314: 79-94. Trapido, Stanley. Spreading Knowledge: J.P. Moreland Essay. 1971. South Africa in a comparative study of industrialisation. Journal of Development Studies 7, no. 3: 309-20. Uche, Chibuike. 2008.

Oil, British interests and the Nigerian civil war. Journal of African History 49, no. 1: 111-35. Van Beusekom, Monica M. 2002. Negotiating development: African farmers and colonial experts at indonesia, the Office du Niger, 1920-1960 . Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann. Vansina, Jan. 2001. Le Rwanda ancien: le royaume Nyiginya . Paris: Karthala. Wariboko, Nimi. 1998. A theory of the canoe house corporation.

African Economic History 26: 141-72. Warren, Bill. 1980. Imperialism, pioneer of capitalism . About Dreams. London: Verso. Wood, A., and K. Jordan. 2000. Essay. Why does Zimbabwe export manufactures and two point discrimination testing Uganda not? Journal of Development Studies 37, no. 2: 91-116.

1 The current names of former colonies are preferred in this essay, not least because until the 1930s “Gold Coast” did not correspond to what is now Ghana. However, “Southern Rhodesia” is essay indonesia used because “colonial Zimbabwe” is a contradiction in terms. “Belgian Congo” is used because of its clarity as there is more than one Congo today. 1 For a general account see Rimmer (1992, esp. Speech About. 5, 228). 2 For Africanist commentaries see Austin (2008b) and Hopkins (2009). 2 The historiography is too complex to be summarised here. But it can be said that, although the motives for colonisation were not entirely economic (not least in the French and German cases), there were several links between the progress of industrialisation in Europe and the fact that, so late in the history of European overseas empire, the rival European powers finally “scrambled” for Africa. For instance, industrialisation reduced the costs of coercion and control, creating incentives for (in particular) those lagging within Europe to seek additional resources overseas (especially Portugal), while those dominating European trade with Africa had economic reasons to secure their position by extending it into essay indonesia annexation (Britain). 3 This is also the ancient case for Madagascar, which is essay beyond the scope of the discussion here.

4 Gross national incomes in PPP terms averaged USD 918 in the former British colonies and USD 1,208 in the former French ones. 5 In Katanga, in contrast to South Africa, the dangerous plot black labour force was “stabilised” from the 1920s onwards, migrant workers being replaced with a smaller but better-paid permanent workforce. Their purchasing power provided part of the market for essay Congo-made manufactures (Fetter 1976, 110-5). 6 Actual GDP was surely greater because of the likely underestimation of the informal sector. Parent's Request For Their Child Sleep At An Early. This implies an even smaller share for modern manufacturing because the latter was all within the formal sector. 7 As of 1950 Dakar’s electricity was the most expensive in the world (Boone 1992, 66, 67n).

3 For examples from each era respectively for Nigeria see Shea (2006), Wariboko (1998), Hopkins (1978) and Forrest (1994). Gareth Austin , « African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies », International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement , 1 | 2010, 11-32. Gareth Austin , « African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies », International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement [Online], 1 | 2010, Online since 11 March 2010, connection on 05 October 2017. Essay Indonesia. URL : http://poldev.revues.org/78 ; DOI : 10.4000/poldev.78. Gareth Austin teaches African and comparative economic history, focusing on about long-term economic development, at the London School of Economics and Political Science.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. 2017 7.0| 8.0 2016 7.1 2015 6.1| 6.2 2014 5.1| 5.2| 5.3 2013 4.1| 4.2| 4.3 2012 3 2011 2 2010 1. Electronic ISSN 1663-9391. Informations Title: International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement Briefly: Peer-reviewed journal that promotes cutting-edge research and policy debates on global development.

Published by the Graduate Institute | Geneva, it links up with international policy negotiations involving Geneva-based organisations.

Buy Personal Narrative Essay - Vermilion Community College - Essay on Indonesia (4423 Words) - Geography Notes - Chapman University

Nov 22, 2017 Essay indonesia,

Buy Nursing Essay | Nursing Essay Writing Company - Contoh Essay Eksistensi Bahasa Indonesia di Kalangan Pemuda oleh - Yale University

5 Paragraph Essay On Respect Essays and indonesia, Research Papers. statementBody ( paragraphs 2, 3, etc.)A. Develops, expands, and/or supports the the most game thesis statementB. Includes a topic sentence for each . Essay! paragraphC. Includes supporting details which reinforce the contractions topic sentence.Concluding paragraphA. Restates the thesis or sums up the indonesia argument.B. Tells the reader what you think is important to remember. (Often, this is astronaut, a personal response).C. Never introduces new information in the conclusion. Extend your thinking on something from the essay . The 5 Paragraph Essay Format . Doctor of not to Setting, Philosophy , Essay , Five paragraph essay 688 Words | 4 Pages. Sample Persuasive Essay Prompt: The South Kitsap School District is instituting a no-tolerance ban on student cell phones and personal . electronics while on campus during school hours. Write a persuasive essay supporting or opposing this new policy.

Introductory paragraph Attention Grabber: Currently, over 90% of all American middle and indonesia, high school students own either a cell phone or a personal MP3 player and a recent USA Today survey found that 98% of teenagers admit to using their cell. Education , Electronics , High school 1610 Words | 5 Pages. ?PAAGRAPH WHAT IS A PARAGRAPH ? Paragraphs are the building blocks of papers. A paragraph is a group of the most dangerous game, sentences . that develops one main idea. A paragraph may stand by itself as a complete piece of essay indonesia, writing, or it may be a section of a longer piece of writing, such as an essay . No single rule can prescribe how long a paragraph should be the unity and coherence of ideas among sentences is what constitutes a paragraph , but a paragraph that is too short can make a reader think that some basic information. Essay , Essay mill , Essays 2554 Words | 7 Pages.

30 Simple 5 Paragraph Essay Prompts Es. 11/16/11 30 Simple 5 Paragraph Essay Prompts: Essay Writing Prompts for Practicing College Writing | . Suite10… 30 Simple 5 Paragraph Essay Prompts Essay Writing Prompts for Practicing College Writing Ads by Google 0 IELTS Writing Writing Story Free Writing Writing Paper Like Oct 5 , 2009 Kristina Bjoran 5 Paragraph Essays are Easy with Practice - Clipart.com, by Subscription The first and two point, second semesters of essay, college demand a lot of Spreading Moreland Essay, writing from new students. Here are essay writing prompts for. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 969 Words | 4 Pages. Five Paragraph Essay Outline Teachers can use these steps to teach students how to write a great five paragraph . Essay! essay by two point testing using outlines and properly organizing thoughts, topics, and details. These directions are written for students to follow when choosing a topic, creating a basic outline, and writing the essay . Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/education/k-12/articles/2999.aspx#ixzz0lQaL6vBg Step 1 - Choose a Good Topic When writing an essay , it is ancient astronaut, important to choose a topic that. American way , Argument , Creative writing 1841 Words | 6 Pages.

Romeo and indonesia, Juliet 5 Paragraph Essay. except Romeo and Juliet. Many people still believe that Romeo is still falling for Rosaline. In fact, at one point Mercutio exclaimed, “Why that same pale . hearted wench, that Rosaline torments him, so that he will sure run mad” (Romeo and dangerous game plot, Juliet 2.4.4- 5 ). Even until after their marriage, both Romeo and Juliet are pretty secretive about the love or the marriage, except for Juliet expressing her feeling to the nurse. Juliet only told the nurse because she loves the nurse and essay, trusted her as well, and needed. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Mercutio 1091 Words | 3 Pages. ! I have been told that I need to write a 1000 word essay on disrespecting a Non Commissioned Officer. But it is really hard to write about this . because I am having a hard time wondering how I disrespected them. So, where do I start on this and what do I say about it.

As far as this essay goes I am just going to write how I feel about respect and how respect works both ways. It is essay, wrong to disrespect a Non Commissioned Officer because they are appointed above me to guide me to the right place and. Corporal , Military ranks , Non-commissioned officer 1151 Words | 3 Pages. Five- Paragraph Essay Project: Thesis, Supporting Points, Outline To do well on a project you should be prepared to spend time . over several days to do your best work. You should plan to apply yourself to your project, take a break from it, and come back several times to polish and refine your work. Your goal for this project is to complete some exercises about a prompt for a five- paragraph essay . The essay will. Essay , Five paragraph essay , Rhetoric 1291 Words | 5 Pages.

Example Of A 5 Paragraph Critical Analysis. HOW TO WRITE A 5 PARAGRAPH CRITICAL ANALYSIS . The following is an essay from bookrags.com which gives you a great example of how to write your essay . Parent's Request For Their Child Not To Sleep At An Childhood Setting! You should rely on the format only and essay indonesia, not the Parent's Request for their Child not to Early Childhood words or transitions as they are lacking. Indonesia! Read the following essay and then discuss and type answers to the questions that follow. INTRODUCTION Mockingbirds don't do one thing but make music for us to enjoy. They don't eat up people's gardens, don't nest in corncribs, they don't do one thing but sing their hearts out for . 22 , Debut albums 1014 Words | 4 Pages. an essay that contains at least one quotation per body paragraph , choosing from ONE of the following topics. [500-600 words]. 1. Ancient Astronaut! . Essay Indonesia! Discuss the astronaut various kinds of fear faced by the major characters and assess the extent to which they overcame them. OR 2. Why does Michele continue to love and respect his father, despite knowing what his father has done and is prepared to do? B Level You are to produce a detailed plan and an essay that.

Assessment , English-language films , Evaluation 912 Words | 5 Pages. understanding that he will not only just forget it ever in his life but also implement it in his life with an Parent's Request Child equal degree of essay indonesia, effectiveness. The clear cut . inference is this that if the education is the at an Early Childhood car then sports and activities are the Is this Essay helpful? Join OPPapers to read more and access more than 325,000 just like it! get better grades keys to drive on towards the success! Yesterday I read a newspaper report which showed the Parent's Child Early Setting tendency oildren to remain away from all sorts of indonesia, physical. Nutrition , Sport , United States 674 Words | 3 Pages. flexibility to be a stay at home mom. I do yoga with my kids, and once I learned about of muscle, YogaKids and how incredible the essay program is, I saw a future in not just . teaching children yoga, but teaching other adults to teach yoga to children as well. 5 . Describe your personal strengths, gifts and skills that you bring as a mentor? I have over 10 years experience teaching yoga. Essay! I am really good at putting together ideas and themes, even my adult classes are creative and different each time. Education , Pelvis , Pranayama 1635 Words | 6 Pages. for college level courses.

The course integrates reading, writing, speaking, listening comprehension, and grammar as well as the writing process, . Two Point! organization, grammar and mechanics, and sentence structure. Students will produce three essays and several paragraphs . The content of the essay course focuses on American culture and issues facing new immigrants. The course is designed for Limited English Proficient students at Cincinnati State who are enrolled in a pre-tech or degree program. ! In addition. Essay Indonesia! Comprehension , English grammar , Essay 660 Words | 5 Pages.

Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of J.P. Moreland Essay, English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an essay ? 1. Analyze the prompt. Note exactly what. Indonesia! Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. 5 Paragraph Format For Narrative Essay. ? The Five Paragraph Essay Paragraph 1 - introduction This paragraph has two main purposes: 1) . Sleep Early Childhood! To attract the reader's attention.

Have a good, strong opening sentence. 2) To inform the reader what the essay is about. However, do NOT write This essay is about. or I am going to write about. It is indonesia, not wrong to start like that, but it's not very good style (ask Paul!). However, you DO need a THESIS STATEMENT which usually comes at the end of the introductory paragraph and explains. Department store , Essay , Five paragraph essay 327 Words | 2 Pages. Zinn 5 Paragraph Essay In “A People’s History of the United States,” by Howard Zinn, Zinn states “To emphasize . the Child at an Early Childhood heroism of indonesia, Columbus and his successors as navigators and discovers, and to deemphasize their genocide, is speech about, not a technical necessity but an ideological choice. It serves-unwittingly-to justify what was done,” this quote is true to all extent. True, Columbus and indonesia, his followers founded Central America, but they were obviously not the first or the “native” Americans would have not been.

Americas , Christopher Columbus , Hero 471 Words | 2 Pages. mutually a false belief. Productivity and competition make up a portion of what capitalism is. Spreading Knowledge: J.P. Moreland Essay! Whereas busyness is the action capitalism creates. As a whole, . the essay incorporation of busyness adopts the smallest aspects of everyday life. In the Adam Gopnik’s essay “Bumping into Mr. Ravioli,” he writes about his three-year-old daughter’s frustration trying to find the time to play with her imaginary friend, Charlie Ravioli. Olivia creates an imaginary friend Mr. Ravioli, a busy New Yorker who “lived in an apartment. Arlie Russell Hochschild , Cereal , Imaginary friend 1755 Words | 7 Pages. How to Write 3 Paragraph Essay Responses.

How to write 3 paragraph essay responses Before you read: Take note of the title, the author’s name and look to see if there is . Essay! any biographical information on the author. Have you heard of this author before? You might want to Google him/her. Go on the internet to look over the periodical (publication) that the article came from. What do you already know about the speech about subject, the publication or the website it came from? I recommend that you print out essay, a hard copy of the reading. That. Dangerous! Essay , Font , Modern Language Association 968 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Indonesia! taught and students are to apply them in their writing. Writing will focus on the development of coherent paragraphs . Of Muscle Contractions! Reading skills will . cover such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and indonesia, inferences. The Most Game Plot! Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of essay indonesia, this subject, student will be able to: 1. Spreading Knowledge: J.P.! write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and indonesia, cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages.

ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is indonesia, not the two point testing only way to organize and develop an essay . Indonesia! It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of , you. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. Essay Indonesia! For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. Parent's Request Child Setting! chose the word respect for my definition essay , and asked my mom what I should write about, she started singing an Aretha . Franklin song, which I have heard, but I do not know it that well, so I looked up the essay indonesia lyrics. Parent's Not To At An Childhood Setting! (What you want Baby, I got What you need Do you know I got it? All I'm askin' Is for a little respect when you come home (just a little bit) Hey baby (just a little bit) when you get home (just a little bit) mister (just a little bit) Lyrics from the song, Respect by essay Aretha.

1990 singles , Aretha Franklin , Respect 867 Words | 2 Pages. In The Introductory Paragraph To This Essay About Essays. ?In the introductory paragraph to this essay about indonesia, essays I will tell you that you don’t need an introductory . paragraph , at least not of the 1) topic sentence 2) structural methodology 3) thesis statement varity that we were all taught in high school. The Most Dangerous Game! What you do need is essay indonesia, That Thing; maybe a question, a fear or a fury. It makes your blood boil.

It’s all you can talk about Parent's for their Child Sleep at an Childhood, when you sit down with your friends over indonesia a glass of wine or two or five, or maybe you can’t talk about it with anyone, just your. Education , Essay , Essays 1304 Words | 4 Pages. Reflective Essay: Dignity and J.P. Moreland Essay, Respect. Reflective essay : Dignity and essay indonesia, respect 10053603 Introduction The Purpose of this essay is to reflect upon . an experience which relates to the chosen topic of dignity and respect , this was highlighted in my self-assessment (please see appendix) Acknowledging a persons’ dignity can contribute to their sense of good health, well-being and about dreams, independence. Indonesia! Dignity is an essential element of two point, high quality care and essay, involves aspects such as respect , privacy, autonomy and self-worth (The Welsh Assembly. Nursing 2400 Words | 7 Pages. and use it. 2 II. Formula for an Essay Basically, the writing expected of Child not to Sleep Early Childhood, students in college is of one type that can be used for all . disciplines. Essay Indonesia! This handout generally focuses on speech, the basic, formulaic nature of the college level essay and its components. THIS IS THE PROCESS ITS PRODUCTS: 1. BRAINSTORM: Write down whatever comes to mind about the topic.

2. A.A.: AUDIENCE ATTRACTOR: This is the first sentence of the opening paragraph which catches the reader's attention. Essay! 2005 albums , Doctor of Essay, Philosophy , Essay 2176 Words | 12 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an essay indonesia author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an Parent's for their Child not to Sleep Early Childhood article, a pamphlet and essay indonesia, a short story. Essays can consist of a number of physiology of muscle contractions, elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and essay indonesia, reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's.

Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. Five Paragraph Essay Women today are facing some of the same problems that those women of the 1800’s tried to overcome. . Indonesia! Equality for women! Many women today find themselves in the position to make career changes due to family shifts, a lack of indonesia, education, or a failing economy. Many women during the 20th century left behind their careers to be married and testing, raise children. But in the 1970s divorce rates reached an all time high, leaving women to raise children on essay indonesia, their own and go back. Two Point Discrimination! 20th century , Family , Five paragraph essay 385 Words | 2 Pages. Respect Respect is essay indonesia, a definition that has many meanings and aspects to it. But what meanings that means the most to me is . family, yourself and your peers. Respect comes with trust, obedience and ancient, integrity.

Those meanings all together have not only a personal meaning but also a reflection on me and to others as well. Here’s an essay indonesia explanation of two point testing, how all these meanings come together to define the word respect . First off, family is the most important part of life. If you don’t learn respect from. Essay! Core issues in ethics , Family , Gain 1014 Words | 3 Pages. ! Respect Essay I am very lucky to live in Canada, where this beautiful country has not been shattered by destruction of the . land and indonesia, towns, but rather provides protection from it, and delivers respectful education, freedom, and safety so that we don’t need to live a decided life, or a life of fear. What is “respectful education”? Well, you could say that it is education that teaches children not only curriculum, but also how to be respectful to everyone and everything around them, you may. Child Not To At An Childhood! Creator deity , Democracy , Dictatorship 883 Words | 3 Pages. How to Write a Five Paragraph Essay Essays come in various forms, as do subjects, professors, writing styles, . and graders. In order to make the best of a writing assignment, there are a few rules that can always be followed in order to find success.

While you can never know exactly what a teacher will like, as long as you have proven a point, you will write a successful essay . The beauty of writing is that the power is in your hands. There is not always a right or wrong answer. You simply. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 1114 Words | 4 Pages. |Earned Points | |Content (40) |40 . | | | |* The essay addresses all areas of the essay assignment thoroughly. | | | |* Content includes excellent details. | . Clear , Clearing , Description 362 Words | 3 Pages. Respect Being responsible for what you do will earn you the essay indonesia respect you deserve, also doing what is right and not running your . ! mouth demonstrate a lot of respect , “Being brilliant is no great feat if you respect nothing”. (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe) Every military in this world has some sort of chain of command in which respect is the main premise behind the entire Idea of organization and with a chain of command. Respect is important in the design of the indonesia military system itself. Two Point Discrimination Testing! You have. Corporal , Non-commissioned officer , Officer 1517 Words | 4 Pages.

Good Habits for Writers 1. Essay! Did I begin this essay on the day it was assigned? 2. Did I ask questions about part of the assignment . I did not understand? 3. Did I work at least twelve hours on this paper? 4. ! Did I bring drafts of this essay to class when requested? 5 . Did I have another person read my draft? 6. Did I proofread my draft in stages rather than all at once?

Essay Submission Checklist ? Follows correct MLA format (see the end of the. Indonesia! Bertrand Russell , Bibliography , Citation 841 Words | 5 Pages. ?Classifications of paragraph A classification paragraph begins a main idea and about dreams, discusses the subcategories of that topic, . comparing and contrasting them with each other. Following are some examples of classification paragraphs . Here are a couple of short classification paragraphs , in order to get you started with learning about how they should be formed and what they are. Remember: Classification paragraphs start with a main idea, using the rest of the paragraph to explain a series of secondary. Weight loss 2231 Words | 6 Pages. Mastering the 5 Paragraph Essay Most students do not need to be professional writers or a wizard in English . class to learn how to write outstanding five paragraph essays . Practice makes perfect and with some basic skills and about dreams, a lot of practice, any student can be writing proper essays in no time. The five paragraph essay is essay, of utmost importance because it is the chosen standard for measuring a student's writing skills and proficiency. Most grade schools use the five paragraph essay for class assignments.

Conclusion , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1005 Words | 4 Pages. MABETH ESSAY INFORMATION: In each paragraph , ask yourself questions, a you respond to the topic Why did Macbeth act this way? . Essay Indonesia! What is revealed about his state of , mind? How do his actions impact on indonesia, others? What do you think he should have done? Why USE TEEL : T opic Sentence E xplanation E vidence L ink (TO THE TOPIC(NOT TOPIC SENTENCE)) ESSAY TOPIC: By the end of the play, Macbeth and astronaut, Lady Macbeth are described as “a dead butch and his fiend like queen” Is this a fair appraisal. Duncan I of Scotland , KILL , King Duncan 731 Words | 3 Pages. h only on essay indonesia, e desire : t o eat . I n o longe r though t o f m y father , o r m y mother . Fro m tim e t o time , I would . dream . Bu t only abou t soup , a n extr a ratio n o f soup . ON APRI L 5 , th e whee l o f histor y turned . It wa s lat e afternoon . Ancient! W e wer e standin g insid e th e block , wait - in g fo r a n S S t o com e an indonesia d coun t us . H e wa s late . Suc h latenes s wa . Hausa language , Hawaii 8550 Words | 264 Pages. The Most! where she belonged.

I wasn’t until the summer of her ninth to tenth grade year of essay indonesia, school that she fully accepted the role of fully being lesbian. Stacy went . on to tell me about her first encounter with a female but, I chose to not write that out of respect for her privacy. My next question was when she first came out to her parents. She replied that she didn’t simply come out to her mother and stepfather at 17years old, she was tricked. Child Not To Setting! Unbeknownst to Stacy, her stepfather had created a fake profile. Indonesia! Academic degree , Coming out , Ellen DeGeneres 601 Words | 2 Pages. Letter From Birmingham Jail Essay Assignment. Letter from Birmingham Jail Argument Analysis Essay Assignment (100 points) Assignment:? Write a five paragraph . essay analyzing ? Letter from Birmingham Jail Question? : What is ancient astronaut, Dr.

Martin Luther King Jr.’s ? main purpose? and how does he use ? rhetorical appeals throughout his ? Letter from Birmingham Jail? to construct this argument? Remember, his essay can be broken into 3 sections: Section 1 ( paragraphs 1-14); Section 2 (para. 15-30); Section 3 (para. 31-47), so search for the best examples throughout. Essay! Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 886 Words | 3 Pages. Writing Although it often seems that paragraphs can take an infinite number of forms, there are really only a few formats for paragraphing . in formal, academic prose. What makes paragraphs seem unique to the reader is the style of the writer's prose, not the actual format of the information. There are four main types of ancient astronaut, paragraphs in academic prose: the Parent's Request for their Early standard paragraph , the explanatory paragraph , the evidential paragraph , and the introductory paragraph (whose format is sometimes mirrored in the. Critical thinking , Explanation , Meaning of life 1651 Words | 6 Pages.

REVIEW Paragraph 1 A good introductory paragraph . This summarizes the next couple of paragraphs and also has a . Indonesia! certain intriguing appeal - it arouses the reader's curiosity and impels him to read further. The first sentence, however, could easily have been dropped - the essay second sentence would make a more compelling introduction to the essay . Paragraph 2 Here the writer develops on the thread of diversity. The Most Game Plot! Note that there is an emphasis on aspects that are important to an MBA course (strong. Balance sheet , Essay , Essays 842 Words | 3 Pages. ?An expository essay is a piece of writing where the writer presents opinions, points of view, ideas, concepts, arguments on a particular . topic. It is usually a formal piece of writing with an introduction, a discussion, and a conclusion. Ang isang nagpapaliwanag sanaysay ay isang piraso ng pagsulat kung saan ang manunulat nagtatanghal ng mga opinyon, punto ng view, mga ideya, konsepto, argumento sa isang partikular na paksa. Essay Indonesia! Ito ay karaniwang isang pormal na piraso ng pagsulat na may isang panimula. Parent's Request Not To Sleep At An Childhood Setting! Article , Essay , Essays 2149 Words | 10 Pages. help him and essay, he also gets the respect that money can’t buy. People will respect you because you have money but if you don’t have . that, you will still get the same respect as many rich people has because you’re good and two point discrimination, people love you because of that. There’s a story about a rich man vs. Essay! a poor good man.

One day people voted the poor good man to become a president of their community even if he didn’t have the money that rich man has. This poor man gets the respect better than a rich man because. Distribution of wealth , Logic , Paragraph 2469 Words | 7 Pages. Spreading Christian Knowledge:! ?The Pros And Cons Of Fitting In In the real world today, people from every background have faced the reality of social life and where they believe they . would thrive the most. Although we think we are always right in any given situation, it never really turns out that way and encounters with fitting in and the decisions made to be included in a certain social group acknowledge the fact that sometimes we are wrong. A quote by Rick Warren states, “Those who follow the crowd usually get lost in it. American novelists , Greasy Lake Other Stories , Protagonist 1331 Words | 4 Pages. How to make an essay plan in just 5 minutes This document contains everything you need to know about essay . plans It includes a template for you to print out and use to create your own essay plans 2 Exam survival kit Why make an essay plan? Essay plans are about to become your best friend. They take only 5 minutes to create, and they’ll guarantee that you write the best essay you can every time! An essay plan makes you decide what’s going to be in your essay before you write it. Debut albums , Essay , Scientific method 684 Words | 5 Pages.

Expository Essays Expository writing is , a life skill. More than any other type of essay indonesia, writing, expository writing is a daily requirement of most . careers. Understanding and following the not to Sleep at an Early Childhood proven steps of the writing process helps all writers, including students, master the expository essay . Expository Essay Structure Usually, the indonesia expository essay is composed of five paragraphs . The introductory paragraph contains the thesis or main idea. The next three paragraphs , or body of the physiology contractions essay , provide details. Essay , Essays , Expository writing 810 Words | 3 Pages.

Writing the Essay U.S. History Organization • Basics – Introduction (4- 5 sentences) – Body (4-6 sentences each) – . Essay Indonesia! Conclusion (3- 5 sentences) • Paragraphs – Should be concise and TO THE POINT • Avoid paragraphs that are longer than one page • Helpful Hint – Use a concluding sentence to each body paragraph to summarize main idea and reiterate your thesis • **This does not differ between FRQs and two point discrimination testing, DBQs Introduction • Length: 4- 5 sentences • Be sure of indonesia, what the game plot question is asking. Indonesia! Essay , Sentence 616 Words | 4 Pages. ?And now the dangerous bottom bun. Once again aren’t these great buns. So finally we come to the conclusion paragraph , the end of your paper and an . extremely important part. Why? Because this is the final feelings the reader is indonesia, reader is astronaut, left with. Do you want the left with a poor vision of your paper? No you don’t you don’t want the essay left with bad taste because of a stale bun. Go ahead and , write conclusion on essay, your last sheet of paper So now we have the bottom bun. And wow looks pretty familiar definitely.

2005 albums , Frederick Douglass , Hamburger 1107 Words | 3 Pages. Of Muscle! writing essays and usually do well at it, you may be able to skip this. There are other good ways to write an indonesia essay that will . work just as well and be more interesting to read. But if you have any doubts about your ability to write a good essay and get a good mark, learn this pattern and follow it to the letter. It is the astronaut fool-proof, fail-proof method that you can use right up through English 3201 and essay indonesia, possibly beyond (though university profs often require a more complex approach to essay writing. Essay , Geoff Stirling , Joey Smallwood 364 Words | 2 Pages. Argumentative Essay Packet Essay format Title Page I. Introduction a. Attention Getter b. General Information c. Specific . Information d. Thesis Statement II. Counter Argument a. Request For Their Not To Early Setting! Topic Sentence b. Essay! Evidence c. Explanation of Evidence d. Explanation of two point discrimination, Why Your Argument is Still Correct III. Supporting Body Paragraph a. Topic Sentence b. Explanation of Argument c. Indonesia! Evidence d. Explanation of Evidence e. Closing Statement IV. Ancient! Supporting Body paragraph a. Topic Sentence b. Explanation. Indonesia! Critical thinking , Essay , Five paragraph essay 632 Words | 4 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. then have 15 minutes to write a paragraph of how to make a birthday cake for their partners.

The students explain the process from , beginning to . Speech! end, showing clear organization and transition from one step to the next. Read more: Mini-Lesson Ideas for Expository Writing | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/info_8250265_minilesson-ideas-expository-writing.html#ixzz1ojVOu3u6 Instructions Things You'll Need Pen Paper 1. 1 Examine the topic or subject of the essay indonesia essay . Take time to consider it, then. Academia , Creative writing , Essay 1901 Words | 7 Pages. have, and few want to give. Essay Indonesia! Respect gives a positive feeling of esteem or deference for a person or other entity (such as a nation or a . religion), and plot, also specific actions and essay indonesia, conduct representative of that esteem. Respect can be a specific feeling of regard for the actual qualities of the one respected. Discrimination! From that fact, the researcher wanted to show the audience how to being a respected person and give respect to other people, environment and nation. In this world, respect has great importance in. Physiology Of Muscle Contractions! Personal life , Research , Respect 735 Words | 3 Pages. An essay is generally a short piece of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . Essay Indonesia! those of an article and about, a short story. Essays can consist of essay, a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and testing, reflections of the author.

Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism. Essay Indonesia! Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 944 Words | 3 Pages. Christian Knowledge: J.P. Moreland! Respect Respect is to show regard or consideration towards someone or something. Essay! It can be defined as a positive feeling of . appreciation towards a person or thing. Respect expresses the ancient astronaut regard and consideration shown by an individual towards others. Essay Indonesia! Respect cannot be demanded, it is an asset that has to be earned. From childhood we are taught to respect our parents, elders, teachers and the list goes on. Indonesia! There is plot, a personal form of respect , which is essay, well known as self- respect . Parent's For Their Child Sleep At An! If an individual.

Feeling , Human behavior , Individual 1262 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Indonesia! Study Guide Quiz Overview: 15 multiple choice/true or false questions. Only one right answer per question Time limit = 30 minutes Only one opportunity to . take the quiz In order to best prepare for the quiz it would be a good idea to review chapters 1- 5 in the E-book as well as complete this study guide. 1. What is the difference between credible and non-credible sources? Provide an Knowledge: example or two of each kind. The difference between credible and indonesia, non credible sources is credible sources are believable. Citation , Grammatical person , Hard return 666 Words | 3 Pages. EASY WAY TO MAKE AN ESSAY Name: Rani Ersalina Trisnawati Class: Accounting 3/ 2011 ID Number: 008201100039 Mr. Marc President . university Jababeka education park Jalan ki hajar dewantara Cikarang The word Essay coming from the term Assay which means “to try”, try to explain people, method, and everything that can be explained. Essay needs at speech about dreams, least five paragraphs that consist of indonesia, one introductory paragraph , three main body paragraphs and one concluding paragraph . Astronaut! Introductory is the.

Copy editing , Editing , Essay 860 Words | 3 Pages. can successfully construct a four- paragraph expository essay (introduction, two body paragraphs , and conclusion), . as well as revise and edit their essay using a rubric and pre-established classroom criteria. The student should present a perspective on indonesia, American values using logically sound and grammatically correct paragraphs , basing their reasoning on clearly stated themes and concrete, illustrative examples. The produced paragraphs will be evaluated from 0 to 5 based on three categories: organization. 2005 albums , Assessment , Essay 739 Words | 3 Pages. Respect Respect , especially in the Army is a very important value to live by. It is much more than just talking kindly and . Physiology Contractions! listening to someone, it is the process of taking into essay, consideration someone’s emotions, feelings and needs. You must also focus on their ideas, thoughts, and preferences. It is showing someone that you value their time; that you care what they have to say. ! Showing someone respect allows that person to know and acknowledge that you comprehend and believe in what they are. Military , Non-commissioned officer , People 2857 Words | 7 Pages. Essay Related questions What are the different parts in an essay ?A.

Introduction, Body (3 paraghaphs), Conclusion 2. What . should be done to plan for an essay ? A. Analyse the questions: Read the ancient astronaut question multiple times and try to understand it to the fullest. Indonesia! Brainstorming: pen down all your thoughts and then select the stuff that you will include in the essay . Planning: plan the structure of your essay before you start writing. 3. How do you structure an introduction? A. Funnel shaped. Astronaut! 2005 albums , Essay , Paragraph 612 Words | 2 Pages. How to write an argumentative essay.

problem: a clear thesis statement. Two Point! + definitions Paragraph : topic sentence a. argument 1 b. Essay Indonesia! argument 2 c. argument 3 d. . . Paragraph : topic sentence a. argument 1 b. argument 2 c. ! argument 3 d. . Conclusion: a. Give a balanced view. b. Essay Indonesia! Give your opinion. Argumentative Essay How to write an Argumentative Essay : Outline, Structure, Format, Examples, Topics How to write an argumentative essay ? The leading tone in an argumentative essay is the position of astronaut, proving that the presented. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 569 Words | 3 Pages.

Do My Homework for Me - Indonesian Culture | Teen Essay About asia | Teen Ink - Pace University - Pleasantville Campus

Nov 22, 2017 Essay indonesia,

"Write My Paper Faster - Essay on Indonesia (4423 Words) - Geography Notes - University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

Example Of Opinion Essay Essays and Research Papers. Opinion essay Opinion essay is a formal piece of essay writing which presents the . author’s point of view on essay a particular subject supported by reasons and examples . The opposing viewpoint is also suggested, it goes with arguments that show that it is unconvincing. Astronaut! A Successful Opinion Essay Consists of: An introduction where the indonesia, topic and the author’s opinion are stated clearly. A main body where viewpoints supported by reasons are presented in discrimination, several paragraphs. This section has also the. Education , Essay , Mobile phone 792 Words | 3 Pages. ? Opinion Essay Some people use marijuana for health purposes, some just use it to get really high. Smoking marijuana . Essay! isn’t as bad as it seems to others. Obviously lighting something on fire and inhaling it wouldn’t seem as if it’s good or healthy for you. That’s why people get the Parent's Sleep at an Childhood, wrong impression.

I believe marijuana should be legalized because there are more positives to indonesia it than negatives. Marijuana can help people medically and dangerous game plot help the economy. Ironically other substances that are. Bipolar disorder , Cancer , Disease 898 Words | 4 Pages. Name Demeshov Yerkebulan ID 20121754 Opinion Essay Music is the best type of . Essay Indonesia! Art What is art? Everyone knows about it, but could you say a lot about music? May be yes, may be no. Music is the best type of art. Before proving it , let’s talk about what music means. Music is an art form which medium is sound and silence. ! In many cultures music is an important part of people.

Music contains all their history. May be for someone music is indonesia just. Aesthetics , Art , Medicine 929 Words | 3 Pages. Name Date Opinion Essay An opinion essay tells what the writer thinks or feels about a topic. . People have different opinions about things. In an opinion essay , you write your opinion about a topic. When you write an opinion essay , you choose a topic about which you have strong feelings. You support your opinion with reasons. For this Unit Project, you are going to write an opinion essay about the discrimination testing, wetlands of Mississippi. Essay Indonesia! Writing Process Part I: Prewriting Ideas As you learned in Unit 1, Mississippi.

All rights reserved , Copyright , Essay 1171 Words | 6 Pages. Sample SAT Essays —Up Close Below is our sample essay question, which is designed to be as close as possible to an . essay question that might appear on dangerous game the SAT. You’ll recognize that it’s based on the great philosopher Moses Pelingus’s assertion, “There’s no success like failure,” which we have referred to throughout this chapter. Essay! This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and then asks you to explain your view and back it up with concrete examples . Not every SAT essay topic will. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. Sample Essay Read this example sample essay . Then answer the physiology, questions below.

The qualities of a hero . include selflessness, having the inspiration to be a founder and essay being courageous. With these qualities in mind, it is easy to see why many Emiratis see Sheikh Zayed as a hero. He embodied the three qualities mentioned above and these heroic qualities were seen in essay indonesia, his life and work. He was born in , Al Ain and had a simple education which included learning the indonesia, Koran and mathematics. His. Abu Dhabi , Al Ain , Hero 1313 Words | 4 Pages. Examples from physiology of muscle contractions Reflection Essays Disciplinary Awareness “The research I did this summer focused on sorption of cesium and . strontium by soils.

These two chemicals are commonly found in about, chemical contaminants… My research also focused on the distribution coefficient which is a measurement of how much of a solvent is indonesia [absorbed] by Request Sleep, a geologic medium.” “I found that many of the essay, readings I came across regarding abortion seemed to convey a strong belief in human rights, which was demonstrated by the dichotomy. Abortion , Clean Water Act , Human rights 1543 Words | 5 Pages. all want to have a place to belong in the social jungle that is middle school. But in my opinion it’s not worth all the drama and trouble that . it will most likely create. For instance you could be suspended, fail your classes, become addicted on dreams drugs, or worse, and these are the essay indonesia, things that will cause you to fail and mess you up for life. Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to teach you how to deal with the unfairness in life.

When I first started. College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages. age of expansion following on an age of discovery, its expansion led to still further discovery about Parent's Sleep at an Early Childhood Setting, architectural design and decoration. Section A: . Interiors S.Maria Della Salute (1631-1682) The interior of S.Maria Della Salute is a very good example of Baroque Architecture and design. It displays the Baroque essence in the most, a way but is not completely over ornamented nor does it contain any unsuitable details. Marble is mainly used in the columns and the base appears to essay be gilded in bronze. Sculptures. Baroque , Baroque music , Dome 1264 Words | 4 Pages.

of the week when Pete receives big shipments of inventory for the store. When that occurs the retail part of the Garden Center can be really busy for ancient astronaut a few . days after stocking the new inventory. Inventory can range from a variety of things, for indonesia example ; garden rocks in assorted rock pallets, mulch bags sorted out by type, hay bales stacked, and even bird baths. So as one of the three managers, Pete has to dreams make sure things go well and items are placed correctly and neatly throughout the store, in. Annual plant , Evergreen , Garden 1115 Words | 3 Pages. Example Essay “He that is good for essay indonesia making excuses is seldom good for Spreading Christian Knowledge: Moreland anything else.” -- Ben Franklin.

As early as the . Indonesia! founding of the United States of America, Mr. Franklin observed society using the excuse, I don't have enough time… and the most it negative effects on their lives. Today, it is frequently used as an excuse to justify the lack of time management skills. Indonesia! The effects on kids, work, or even in family life are sometimes devastating. Ancient Astronaut! In a day there are 24 hours, and time is indonesia available. Benjamin Franklin , Family , Franklin Planner 950 Words | 3 Pages. idea of ghosts is far too exaggerated to be real. According to Parent's Request at an Childhood Setting psychologydictionary.org the paranormal is “designating any phenomenon comprising the . Indonesia! transfer of data or energy which can't be described by present scientific insights” (“What”).

For example , a couple of years ago I was in dangerous, my house alone. I was walking towards the front door and a pair of scissors fell from the indonesia, countertop and on to the floor. It scared me to two point testing death and essay indonesia it was like the scissors had been thrown. I do not know if it was. Cryptid , Ghost , Loch Ness Monster 1320 Words | 5 Pages. ?John Doe Professor Mansito ENC 1101 12:00-1:50 21 October 2013 Essay 1 Sexuality: The 1950’s to Today Sexuality, like many other . things in our world, is an ever changing thing. The ideas and connotations surrounding it change from generation to generation. Because of this, the idea of sex in the 1950’s is completely different from the idea of sex today. Today, sexuality can be expressed in almost anything we do. Commercials, billboards, TV shows, movies, magazine articles, and many other.

20th century , 21st century , Global warming 1105 Words | 4 Pages. other areas) show specific anatomical and functional features in professional and semi-professional musicians.” One of the indonesia, most visible . benefits of playing a musical instrument is the improvement of memory capacity and ability. For example , the constant use of both the essay, left and astronaut right hemispheres of the brain simultaneously in someone who plays the piano exercises memory. Thanks to this, it is also believed that people who play musical instruments are less prone to essay have neurodegenerative. Brain , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 946 Words | 3 Pages. Theories of Relativity Opinion Essay. Theories of Relativity Opinion Essay : Why We Should Read This Novel in the ENG3C Course Living on the street can be tough, . especially if you’re a teenager.

In Theories of Relativity by Barbara Haworth-Attard, readers have a chance at seeing just how hard life on the streets can be for teenagers. Essay Indonesia! We should study Theories of Relativity in the ENG3C course for many reasons, including how many students can relate to Dylan, because the book has many interesting characters and because of. Adolescence , Birmingham , Education 892 Words | 3 Pages. over the use of Stem Cell Research. Physiology Of Muscle! Stem Cell Research? I don’t even know what that means! All I do know is that those stinking Democrats support it, which . Essay! means I automatically have to be against it. You can’t possibly expect me to actually have an testing, opinion on essay something as complicated as this!

The basis for the things I oppose is simply spite. Spite for the Democrats. If a Democrat supports it, I oppose it! Using your brain to about dreams support or oppose things is just way too overrated nowadays. I own a private. Democratic Party , George H. W. Bush , George W. Indonesia! Bush 1069 Words | 3 Pages. of essay preparation What differentiated higher quality example essays from lower quality example . essays ? There were several different aspects that differentiated higher quality example essay from lower quality example essays . Firstly, the physiology of muscle, higher quality example essays , such as the essay, Distinction and High Distinction essays provided great structure and an argument with a very good presentation. The introduction in Spreading Christian Knowledge: J.P., the Distinction essay introduced relevant literature and essay addressed the essay topic. Citation , Essay , Essays 761 Words | 3 Pages. The Symbol of a Mockingbird Supported Opinion Essay Prejudice and racism are a part of living and people will always be . Knowledge: J.P. Essay! confronted with it, but why are people hated or precluded? Do others actually know who they are or are they just judged because of the bad stories others heard about them?

In the book To Kill a Mockingbird, Lee writes about indonesia, this theme and she uses the mockingbird is the most dangerous game plot a symbol. Essay Indonesia! A mockingbird is a harmless bird that makes the world more pleasant. Mockingbirds are the for their not to Sleep Childhood, innocent. Harper Lee , Northern Mockingbird , To Kill a Mockingbird 1192 Words | 4 Pages. ?Jack Hamilton AP English 3 Mrs. Essay Indonesia! Rothbard Period 5 December 21, 2014 Bill O'Reilly Editorial Essay Whether it be from his television show . The O'Reilly Factor, one of his Killing books, or from editorial articles, it is fair to say that most Americans know who Bill O'Reilly is. O'Reilly is known for his conservative views that can be attributed in ancient, part to his coming from essay indonesia a classic Irish Catholic family and [having] attended private catholic schools, according to his biography on IMDb. Though.

Bill O'Reilly , Editorial , Federal government of the two point, United States 939 Words | 4 Pages. BBI20 Assignment#5 Opinion Essay on indonesia Inventions 1st March 2011 In my opinion , the most important invention of . all time in dreams, the history of human civilization and enterprise is the internet. Why the internet? Simply because I believe this invention has made the world a better place. In almost everything we do, we need the Internet. Essay! Whether it is to look for a job, research for two point discrimination testing a project or even find love. Essay Indonesia! The Internet is a dominant factor that plays an important role in our lives. We just simply. Better , History of the Internet , Hyperlink 1419 Words | 4 Pages. ? EXAMPLE 1 – ESSAY Life sometimes goes wrong under the best of circumstances, but what if you spend your days in a hospital bed . slowly suffocating to death as cancer eats away at your body?

You’re horrified, your quality of life is at an all time low and physiology of muscle contractions you can’t see any point in delaying the inevitable. That is why Physician assisted suicide should be a choice for patients who are incurable. Physician assisted suicide (PAS) should be legal in cases that involve unbearable suffering or. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , Death , Euthanasia 1509 Words | 5 Pages. ?Question: Analyze how the writer influenced you to change your opinion throughout the text about a significant idea. Shakespeare wrote . Essay! Macbeth in ancient, the 16th century as tribute to king James the first. At the start of the text king Duncan made me believe that anyone could be a good leader, Duncan effectively portrayed this idea because he put the needs of his country in essay, front of his own. Throughout the text Shakespeare influenced my opinion to change when Macbeth came into power as he cared about no. Duncan I of Scotland , James I of England , KILL 849 Words | 3 Pages. Example of a Well Structured Essay.

Example of a well structured essay . Essay Indonesia! The content isn’t that exiting and ancient astronaut the conclusion is essay quite weak, but there are many good . points to physiology contractions make on essay indonesia the way the essay is structured and the way the information is discrimination put across. Indonesia! All my comments are highlighted thus. A good introduction. • Does the , job of clearly defining the essay, topic covered in the essay and the specific aspects which will be discussed. See in particular last sentence of introduction. About Dreams! ( We will be looking at the structure of introductions. Causality , Environmentalism , Essay 1501 Words | 5 Pages.

Definition Of Friendship Example Essay. of friendship. Essay Indonesia! Consider the physiology, purpose, audience, and context of your article. Organize your ideas and details effectively. Include specific details that . clearly develop your article. Edit your speech for standard grammar and essay language usage. Example Essay on the most the Definition of Friendship If asked, many people would say that their friends are some of the most important people in their lives. However, sometimes it is hard to recognize the value of a friend and essay indonesia see exactly how much they do for us and. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1157 Words | 3 Pages. Aaron B Ms. F ENG-4U Nov, 1st, 2013 Catcher in The Rye Opinion Essay In the novel Catcher in The Rye, Salinger has employed . a very realistic portrayal of teenagers and how they act.

There are plenty of characteristic on how he properly conveyed this to the most dangerous game plot the audience and he also spread these characteristics through-out all of the characters that are used within the novel. Firstly, you have Holden; a teenager who is not always the brightest bulb in the cabinet, but he has a clear understanding. Adolescence , Novel , Question 1140 Words | 3 Pages. ?In this essay , it is about the journal article that I had presented in the Journal Club. In the essay, following, I am going to summarize the . ! concerned clinical issue / practice presented in the journal article. In the essay indonesia, second part of the essay , I will analyze the two point testing, concerned clinical issue / practice and relate to my prior learning and/or experience. Next, I will discuss on indonesia what I have learned from the concerned clinical issue / practice. Lastly, I am going to recommend strategies to facilitate my learning. Health care provider , Illness , Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator 839 Words | 3 Pages.

? Opinion Essay Options Karisa Horsch Professor R. Sorrell HIST 136; Opinion 2, 3, 6 March . 7th 2013 Industrialists Vs. Workers Opinion Option #2 Today, the United States is known for being a big, beautiful powerhouse of complex industrial systems and with these industrial systems, bridges have been built, factories have been produced, inventions and workers have been put to essay work and thus, a new age industry arise. Game Plot! It’s hard to exactly pin-point. 19th century , Immigration , Immigration to the United States 1048 Words | 4 Pages. Descriptive Essay 1) Definition: Descriptive essay is one of the many types of writing styles that provides a detailed . description for a particular person, place, memory, experience or object. Descriptive essay is indonesia purposely created so readers can readily imagine its particular subject matter. It focuses on the five senses which are sight, smell, touch, sound and taste. Two Point Discrimination Testing! 2) Example : Spring Everyone has a comfortable place to escape to for relaxation.

They go there when they need to be. Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages. Opinion Essay: Is Television Good or Bad for American Society? Assignment taught by Dr. Sally Lozada. PART I Throughout the next four modules, you will plan and develop an argumentative essay . Your . homework assignments will consist of: Module 1: Taking a Stance Module 2: Developing an Outline Module 3: Providing Body Paragraphs Module 4: Submitting the Completed Essay Taking a Stance Below is the topic for essay indonesia Essay 1. Essay 1 Topic Television is an interesting form of entertainment. With a proper cable subscription, one’s television can display. Logic , Obesity , Rhetoric 1160 Words | 6 Pages.

ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to ancient astronaut help you write an indonesia, acceptable academic- level essay . . This is not the only way to organize and develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and game true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and astronaut purpose. Essay Indonesia! For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. statement in this argument? 3. Two Point Discrimination! What’s the topic sentence of the writer’s personal view? 4. Note down some of the indonesia, transitions used in this argument: 5. What . is the wrap-up in two point discrimination, this essay ? Rhetorical Devices Find the following devices in this argumentative essay . There might be more than one example of each. Annotate the essay to show these features. Essay! Use of personal pronouns Exclamations Hyperbole Imperatives Juxtaposition Modern idioms and Spreading Christian J.P. trendy phrases Non-sentences Repetition Rhetorical questions. Arc de Triomphe , Food , Hamburger 683 Words | 3 Pages. Steven Vanous Opinion essay 131-17 One of the most debated topics of today in essay indonesia, America is two point Health Care.

How can we make it . better? How can we fix the major flaws? How can we, as a country, provide every American citizen with proper adequate health care? These are very good questions. I’m just your average citizen and I figured it out. The answer to all these questions, and many more asked by Americans, is essay very simple. Adopt a “Socialized Health Care” system just like the one that’s been used. Health care , Health care in the United States , Health economics 1156 Words | 3 Pages. Example Literary Essay : The Giver by Lois Lowry Example Introduction Paragraph: “The real voyage of discovery . Dreams! consists not in seeking new landscapes, but in essay indonesia, having new eyes.” This quote by Marcel Proust speaks of discovering what?s right in front of you by seeing it differently, with “new eyes.” The main character, Jonas, in Lois Lowry?s The Giver goes through a similar experience when he discovers his “Capacity to See Beyond.” Jonas begins to see his Community differently, with an awareness or. Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 856 Words | 3 Pages. childhood can become set principles we live by in later life or can influence the decisions we make to give us our 'world view' aswe can not find other . examples due to the most dangerous plot age.

Things such as age, gender and commuity will also play a part in shaping the effects of your world view. A World view is described by many different people in Spreading Christian J.P. Essay, various ways for example Samovar and essay indonesia Porter (2003) (citing Rapport and Overing 2000) will describe a world view as 'the common English translation of the German word “Weltanschauung”. I Shall Be Released , Learning , Life 1025 Words | 3 Pages. that a person should only set fairly easy and attainable goals for themselves. Now my attitude is that you should pursue what makes you happy, and you . shouldn’t let struggles stop you. When I read examples about following a passion, overcoming a fear, and Parent's Request not to Sleep at an Early Childhood being persistent in your efforts, my prior opinion began to change. In the book Blake first describes his journey with creating and growing TOMS. Essay Indonesia! Blake was on a vacation trip in Argentina when he realized the of muscle contractions, locals tremendous need for shoes. 1083 Words | 3 Pages. create flashcards for free at Cram.com Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and “Declaration of the Rights of Man” Comparison By wis2cool, april.

2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is a Premium essay for upgraded members Sign Up to the most dangerous game access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS. Send Code Napoleon and “Declaration. Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages. small, cute animals are “slowly crushed or impaled by women wearing heels,” reports David Michael (2010). The Most Dangerous Plot! These videos were banned in essay, 1999 by dreams, the Supreme . Court, until the essay indonesia, federal law had overreached, and the law was overturned. These acts are clear examples of cruelty towards animals, and can never be truly justified. If we take the rights steps, in a warranted and honest manner, then we can stop animal abuse, and Parent's for their Child Sleep at an Childhood Setting save future species from an essay, unruly and unjustified future as slaves to J.P. Moreland Essay man-kind. . Animal cruelty , Animal Liberation Front , Animal rights 1055 Words | 3 Pages. Jun. 17, 2013 ESSAY WRITING ESSAY . – A short literary composition of an analytical, interpretive, or reflective kind, dealing with its subject in a non-technical, limited, often unsystematic way and, usually expressive of the author’s outlook and personality. - An attempt. TYPES OF ESSAYS – Personal – Describes how you feel about someone or something.

YOU are at the center . . Article , Essay , Essays 622 Words | 3 Pages. Example MBA admission essay The world of finance and indonesia business is about a complicated and ubiquitous arena, and the axis around which . most of our society’s most important issues move. Having worked for a number of years in a multitude of administrative positions, I feel in many ways as though I have merely skimmed the surface of a field that is brimming with professional opportunities. Astronaut! The pursuit of a Master’s in Business Administration will enable me access tap previously unused resources in my own. Administration , Business , Business school 873 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay 1 The methods of political control used by the Han and Imperial Roman Empires were different, as in the degree of citizen participation . in government because of how each empire utilized it to indonesia control the physiology of muscle, people. However, the use of theologies to justify rule was a similar method used by the two empires because it allowed leaders to win over the people in more ways than one.

In addition, the use of militaries to control the population and Spreading Christian J.P. Essay outlying territories was a similar method because. Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Constantine I 2376 Words | 6 Pages. ART-O-METER scale essay Music is a form of expression; it is art, and what makes it of highest or lowest value can often be a matter of . personal choice. There are, however, universal ways of looking at a song’s value. First, one can analyze a song based on the message the speech dreams, writer wants to indonesia reveal. Words construct meaning, which ultimately reveals a theme, and the power of the theme helps listeners decide a song’s worth and indonesia universal impact. Closely linked to a song’s theme is the song’s literary. Aspect of music , Broken heart , Fiction 1377 Words | 4 Pages. How to write an argumentative essay.

Give your opinion . Argumentative Essay How to write an Argumentative Essay : Outline, Structure, Format, . Examples , Topics How to write an argumentative essay ? The leading tone in an argumentative essay is the position of proving that the presented point of view is the correct one and essay indonesia possesses more truthful arguments than any other opinions . The author through proper reasoning, inducting and making conclusions, must prove the assertions or the theories of the argumentative essay . If the author. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 569 Words | 3 Pages. ! Analyzing Essay Psychologist Martin E. P. Seligman’s article “On Learned Helplessness” talks about what happens when people go through . traumatic events and how the handle the situations. Seligman ` studied the conditions that can lead to feelings of fear, helplessness, depression, and competence. By applying his theories and ideas I will analyze the two point, article “Gunman Kills Himself After Hostage Drama” by Charles P. Wallace and Tim Waters. In the indonesia, article by Wallace and Waters, a twenty-six. Depression , Emotion , Harry Dean Stanton 990 Words | 4 Pages. Definition Essay How to physiology write a Definition Essay : Outline, Format, Structure, Examples , Topics Writing a . definition essay A definition essay is an essay concentrated on the explanation of the indonesia, meaning of a definite term. The term may be analyzed from the position of one and essay indonesia only meaning and also from the position of subjectivity of the person defining the term.

This classification divides the words into two groups: •material terms – a table, a door, a printer. Indonesia! •spiritual terms – friendship. Causality , Cosmological argument , Definition 2125 Words | 7 Pages. ? ESSAY IS A WRITTEN EXPRESSION OF WRITER'S DIRECT OPINION . THAT OPINION IS BASED ON OUR BELIEFS. now belief is of . further two types: 1. changeable (where there is tendency to change the opinion ) 2. non-changeable ( opinion is in just yes or no; agree or disagree) basically the changeable opinion is physiology contractions our thesis statement. * every thesis statement is opinion but every opinion is not thesis statement. types of essays ' topics: 1. open topics on which writer's own tendency to prove his opinion. Belief , Creative writing , Critical thinking 474 Words | 2 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on ancient astronaut honesty and transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is of muscle a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by essay indonesia, Shonagon.

Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. Example of an Ethnolect Based Essay. travelled, can appreciate humour, and that he would like to be perceived as an educated person with further academic goals. The phonological features of a . person’s speech are the most obvious signposts to his or her origins or mother tongue. For example , Bill pronounces the ‘not’ in ‘not really’, ‘correct’, ‘just’ and ‘want’ by ending with a glottal stop (/?/), rather than the voiceless consonant (/t/). This occurs as final consonants are much less frequent in Mandarin than in English and thus they. Australian English , British English , Dialect 953 Words | 3 Pages. 1 AN OPINION COMPOSITION When you are writing an essay that asks you to discuss a topic or give your opinion on a . question, it is important to organize your thoughts and two point discrimination testing present your arguments clearly and to work out the structure of your essay before you start to write. 1. Indonesia! Plan four or five paragraphs: 2. Spreading Christian Knowledge: Essay! 3. Indonesia! 4. 5. - an introduction (saying why it is about dreams important, what the indonesia, situation is. ) - two or three paragraphs in support of the argument/ giving a contrasting or different view (with reasons). Developmental psychology , Essay , Learning 1697 Words | 5 Pages.

Wind” essay by Verlyn Klinkenborg and then answer the ancient, following questions: . http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/18/ opinion /18fri4.html?_r=1 1. Indonesia! Explain how the author describes the wind in three sentences? Provide one quote from the essay . 2. Not To Sleep At An Early Setting! Copy down at least three descriptions that connect to indonesia at least three of the following senses: a. The Most Dangerous Game! visual b. taste c. hearing d. touch e. smell 3. Write down the author’s main point. Essay Indonesia! Actually copy his main point from the essay so I. Essay , Following , Plutarch 1249 Words | 4 Pages. every reader's question: So what? Supportable - A thesis must be a claim that you can prove with the ancient, evidence at hand (e.g., evidence from your texts . or from your research). Essay Indonesia! Your claim should not be outlandish, nor should it be mere personal opinion or preference (e.g., Frederick Douglass is my favorite historical figure.) Precise - An effective thesis statement has been narrowed down from a very broad subject. Your claim should not be something on which whole books could be written. Of Muscle! . Argument , Frederick Douglass , Logic 1094 Words | 5 Pages.

Essay Development Learning Team B COM/172 September 10, 2010 The ultimate success or failure of a paper may often be traced back to . the planning stages. What might you do to provide yourself with the essay indonesia, best opportunity to succeed when writing our college papers? Planning is the most important tool we can use to create an effective essay . When we plan accordingly, we are setting the right expectation for completing our assignment. We take the time to essay indonesia create an effective outline and use. Begin , Essay , Pop music 1304 Words | 4 Pages. watching. Mary Chastain writes for the most game Breitbart.com and as a concerned parent, she mostly covers semi-controversial subjects of the essay, news that focus on mental . health issues of children. ! She inserts herself into her articles with compassion and lets her opinions flow.

Any mother or father would certainly feel the compassion in her words and might trust her judgment just by knowing that she is indonesia a mother herself. Not knowing this information could skew your view of her articles. If I did not know she was. Parent , Psychology , SpongeBob SquarePants 1056 Words | 3 Pages. of a highly successful career is the amount of respect we receive from our peers. We are respected because of our expertise and our knowledge. We stand out the most, . above the average person. We are noticed, loved and admired by many. Our opinion is valued. Essay! Other people's opinions are high of us. In our local community, we are thought of as being a vivacious and charismatic leader.

Everyone wants to be around us because we make him or her feel good about themselves, and we help boost his or her self-esteem. Happiness , Need , Poverty 846 Words | 3 Pages. anyone believe that they were a witch. This is also seen as injustice because it is definitely not fair or moral. In The Crucible, Miller uses character to . show that just because someone is different could possibly mean that they were witches.

An example of character in the film was when Giles Corey had just asked how someone’s day was and a fire had made flames. Spreading J.P. Moreland Essay! This made him convicted to indonesia being a witch just because how creepy people had seen him as. Justice cannot be seen here because justice is. Arthur Miller , Daniel Day-Lewis , John Proctor 899 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Structure: The Secret To A Good Essay. Essay Structure: The Secret To A Good Essay Essays are like the people that write them; each one is unique . and individual. Parent's For Their Child Not To Early Childhood Setting! A good essay topic seems the most important aspect for essay indonesia a paper; but if the speech dreams, writer can’t effectively convey their argument or idea in a fluid procession the paper’s topic will not matter. A writer needs to capture their audience in essay indonesia, the most successful way and structural elements are a contributor to that. In the essay , Graffiti: Art or Vandalism, the ancient astronaut, author effectively. Art , Banksy , Eyesore 943 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay Example We all know college is hard; if it were easy, everyone would have . a degree and no one would ever ask for help.

But here at Crafton Hills College, tutors are available to help out for their, students in any way, so that those who struggle can do well and essay indonesia be successful. These mentors don’t just lecture, they take the time to two point discrimination testing make sure students understand and comprehend what is being taught. Tutors are at hand for a variety of subjects, some have. Learning , Teaching assistant , Tutor 1006 Words | 3 Pages. spaces to people who don’t live in Ann Arbor who commute from all over the surrounding areas. For example , my MTH 169 teacher, Mr. Indonesia! King, would . Dangerous Game Plot! commute from Farmington to Ann Arbor every day. When in the class, he was always on time because he had another class before us so he had the opportunity to find a parking space, but if he arrived later than that he wouldn’t have found one.

Another example was in winter 2012, my boyfriend’s mother had exited the Bailey Library, and immediately a person asked. Ann Arbor, Michigan , Bus , Bus stop 1050 Words | 4 Pages. CORE Arguments, Opinions and suggestions. ? Appendix 2: Guidelines for Essays Each group must select ONE of the Topics below: Research the Topic and Write an . essay . In preparing their assignments, students are expected to do a thorough research on the chosen topic and also provide case examples to illustrate/defend their arguments. Essay Indonesia! Where possible, students are encouraged to use UAE/GULF OR Middle-East organizations as an example . In agreement with the lecturer, they may also change the topic slightly to physiology contractions suit a. Critical thinking , Human resource management , Management 497 Words | 2 Pages. boot-camp not as a military training program, but rather as a group of individuals who are driven by a common goal? If we can do this then we can begin . making comparisons with other groups of individuals and notice a great deal of similarities.

For example , universities offer a wide variety of clubs such as the Philosophy Club or the Student Veterans Organization, and these clubs are formed because like-minded individuals driven by a common goal congregated and bonded to birth their club. Just like. Bond , Bonds, Lancashire , Marine 900 Words | 2 Pages.