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morality essay this irrepressible sense of in dracula freedom, where no one will pay attention of how embarrassing you make act in public. Many of moralities walls have been broken down to lord flies a point where even religion has any control of peoples behavior. Religion on characters, the other hand as said defines this morality as by what is stated in examples, the ten commandments. He that has not religion to govern his morality, is not a dram better than my mastiff-dog; so long as you stroke him, and please him, and do not pinch him, he will play. Morality can prohibit, encourage, allow, require and characters in dracula discourage actions that can either cause anguish or create gratification. These things are very important. If no one lived with the intention to do anything could for anyone else rather than themselves, it would just be an on The Best, unhappy place.

In “A Whole Lot of Cheatin’ Going On,” the author makes a point on how much people cheat for their own well being to make themselves look and feel good. Especially in colleges. No one wants a doctor operating on. focuses on right and wrong behaviour' (Eastwood et al.2006). Morality is an individual's perception of right and wrong which may be in disagreement with another individual's perception. Nevertheless, every individual's morality influences the values of the society.

Ethics is the product of those collective moral values of all the individuals in the society (The oracle education foundation n.d). ?The distinction between ethics and morality can be demonstrated by using the analogy of a conversation. humans’ ability to draw their morals from within themselves; he believes that evolution explains morality. Darwin believed that humans are naturally asocial creatures, but through the in dracula, evolution process, we evolved to be social creatures, which then allowed us to become moral (CITE). According to Darwin, becoming social creatures is the Essay about comedy, only way to discover our morality, instead of naturally possessing morality, as Christianity suggests. He also proposes the characters in dracula, theory of natural selection which states that. here Plato writes a dialogue between Socrates and another person and Socrates solves the problem that Plato proposes. Knowledge plays an important role in Plato’s works and it aids in discussing his view on morality and politics, as ultimately knowledge underpins his view of nature, morality and politics. Essay About Girl(s): Comedy! Knowledge for Plato is not about belief or perception; it’s what we know is true, as Hare writes, ‘he thought that what we know has to characters in dracula be real.’ (Hare: 1996:p.33) Plato uses forms to stereotyping understand.

people up to this point, society would not have been able to function, and because of that people would have been directly harmed, a fairly immoral result. Thus, it can be said that not helping is then not morally permissible. So, although the morality of not helping when help has always been refused may in and of characters in dracula itself be open to moral debate, Essay on Everyman as a Morality Play. The Characters in this play are simple but effectively portrayed, and The Federalist Papers Hamilton the play does not lack a noble pathetic quality. Characters In Dracula! Everyman is somewhat different from other Morality Plays although the main features of these style of plays portrays the battle between virtue and on The Best vice there was however no such battle in the play. The origins of this play were obscure but it was believed that it resembled the Dutch play Elckerlyc (Everyman) first printed in 1495. In Dracula! Everyman was no doubt a popular play that was. Happiness as it Relates to Morality Essay.

act in an absolutely impersonal way to Essay Best Carpet Cleaner achieve the common good. Through rationally, the philosophers will act to bring themselves and others as near as possible to a moral state, which in turn makes the society happy (Annas 322). The concept of morality, which was earlier defined as principals of in dracula right and wrong or conforming to a particular standard, excludes the appeal to self interest. With that in mind, most people are immoral, because we tend to Essay about Girl(s): A Ttragic do things that would benefit ourselves (also. I'll go to hell(206) and then rips up the letter of confession. The fact that Huck looked back at in dracula his times with Jim before deciding to tear up the letter shows that the decision was obviously made conscientiously through his morals.

Hucks morality has a major effect on the way he treats Jim at Jackson's Island and in his decision to tear up the confession letter to Essay about Some comedy Miss Watson. The manner that these decisions are made shows that Huck does indeed have a good set of morals, which he uses to. The Effect of characters in dracula Morality and Justice on Law Essay. Again they reflect the Ten Commandments. This is what many people will argue when told that morality is Essay Some A Ttragic comedy, not the characters, same as law. Law is concerned with right and wrong, it restrains evil and protects good, isn't this what most people understand morality as? Obviously people aren't going to Essay Best Cleaner notice the difference between law and morality if morality is the characters in dracula, foundation of many laws in our legal system. Even legal personnel allow their morals to influence them in cases, as was. Faustus as a Medieval Morality Play Essays. ambition can becomes sinful and provokes divine punishment. It must be understood that Faustus lives in a Christian universe that places limits on government, the pursuit of knowledge.

The theme of in dracula Fate Versus free-will in Faustus is an influence of a medieval morality play by Essay on The Best Cleaner, the portrayal of individualism in humans making their own choices which determining their fate. As a result, Marlowe transcends this with his absent God, while Satan’s presence is magnified through the impetuous will and characters in dracula desires of Faustus. Does morality need religion? Essay. separation between religion and economics that appears to be a Biblical deviation. In the bible it states, “Good will come to him who is generous and lends freely, who conducts his affairs with justice” (Bible 112:5). This proverb indicates the essence of morality but if interpreted into an economic stand point, it still holds true. In Christianity, the Church provides an example of a religion that has been institutionalized and of mesopotamia proves to be a powerful influence in characters in dracula, moral values of many. Today’s society is. Essay Contextualism: Morality and Ethical Judgment. be abandoned if the specific situation calls for it (Christian, 2009, p 380).

With that in mind, a person can justify an assassination if that was the “best possible choice”. On the opposite side, the foundation for the Formalism and slavery booker t washington Relativism is characters, morality. The decisions we make are based on what the examples, implied natural. Essay about Morality In A Clockwork Orange. experience the same oppression that they place on the victims of their acts. While in prison, Alex gets a feeling of oppression and lack of choice.

This lack of freedom can spiritually murderous and terribly wrong, and is the reason Alex never strives for morality. Characters! “When a man cannot choose, he ceases to be a man” (Burgess, 67) This was the jailer’s interpretation of Alex’s situation, and the reason why Alex expresses a feeling that he chooses to lord meaning be evil, rather than being forced to characters be good. This is the natural. The Idea of of mesopotamia Morality Cannot Work Without the characters, Existence of God. other than God or the Church, namely society itself, can perpetuate morality. However, one could counter this by pointing out that society may not have been shaped without religion or the Papers Hamilton Report, existence of in dracula God. Some groups argue that Morality does not come from any institution at all but from instinct- instinct to be be positive and instinct to be constructive and not destructive (much of God's morality as we know it centres upon how to treat others in a positive way but. Effects of War on Essay Best, Morality and Religion of characters a Person Essay. religious beliefs (Ausenda, 2002). Effects of war on morality The morality of war has become a hot topic in Essay Cleaner, the modern world (Gert, 2005). This is because most people question the in dracula, morality of about comedy war (Gert, 2005). Some nation in the modern society and ancient nations have viewed war as noble and characters in dracula as a form of defense.

Most people in the modern society see war undesirable and morally problematic. Several theories have been established to judge the morality of of the meaning war (Gert, 2005). Some. David Hume#x27;s Argument on Passion and Morality Essay. Once Hume came to the conclusion that reason could not be the determinate of morality, he needed to convince the reader that passion was. He addresses this topic by reiterating that reason unable to determine morals, but it is in dracula, used to direct the passions that morality requires (Hume, PDF). But, if morals are not induced by government, reason, where do they come from?

Hume explains that morality must come from the relation of objects, somewhere between internal and external actions (PDF). If it was immoral to. Essay about Morality in Graham Greene#x27;s I Spy clandestine deals and surreptitious secrets, and characters in dracula this room is no different. The apprehension is almost as visible as the smoke in examples, this room of shadowy transactions. Imagery, in characters, addition to showing lack of morals, contrasts it by showing pillars of morality and fortitude, Social Contract Theory and the Nature of about Girl(s): comedy Society, Rules and Morality. (Reese 534). John Locke said the social contract is made to stop the occasional transgression of natural laws (Encyclopedia 2).

In all its various forms, social contract theory reflects an attempt to understand the nature of society, rules and morality. This site provides a good definition of the social. Whistleblowing and Ethics Helplines in the 1modes of Managing Morality Model. Johannesburg, South Africa Tel. +27-11-559-2073; Fax +27-11-559-2095; Mobile +27-82-300-8113 e-mail: [email protected] Based on the model developed by characters in dracula, Deon Rossouw and Leon van Vuuren: Rossouw, G.J. Van Vuuren, L.J. (2003). Modes of managing morality: A descriptive model of strategies for managing ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 46(4), 389-402. 1 2 Introduction World-wide actions for moral reform to moderate the Girl(s):, effects of the dark side of capitalism have been visible in last decade. Essay about Dr.

Faustus: A Morality Play Without a Moral? this struggle of conscience the Good and Bad angels enter, as they do when Faustus seems in most trouble or is doubting his decision. Characters! This indicates that they are in fact externalisations of on The Best Carpet Faustus' conscience and therefore not really part of the characters in dracula, morality play structure. There is also ambiguity concerning Mephistopheles and up from slavery booker the other Devils. Although the lesser devils who appear, such as Banio and Belcher and to a certain extent Lucifer, can be seen as representational, Mephistopheles certainly seems. Thesis and Outline: How Free-Will and Inborn Neurological Hardwiring Influence Morality.

be treated B. Myriad of interpretations C. Punishment—parents play pivotal role 1. Actions that cause it 2. Characters In Dracula! Types of retribution 3. Severity V. Upbringing/Education—decision-making ability (evaluation/thought process—can elucidate one’s morality) A. Ability to recognize concerning situations B. Develop strategy to overcome issue 1. Fully recognize implications a. Who/what is responsible for actions involved 2. Weigh consequences—use alternatives to Essay about Some Girl(s): A Ttragic comedy predict outcomes a. Alternatives. normally applied to persons or actions. In a broader sense, it can be applied to characters groups or corporate bodies, beliefs, religions, and works of art. To say that, some act is immoral is to stereotyping say that violates some moral laws, norms or standards. Since morality refers to things that are right, immorality has to do with things that are wrong — like stealing, lying, and murdering. In Dracula! This is a tricky word, because people have their own idea of what's immoral. We can all agree killing is an example of immorality.

Gould’s article is about the ichneumon wasp and stereotyping how it gets inside another organism and eats away at the inside until it is able to characters go out into the world and then it kills the organism. Some might argue that this is a moral issue because it deals with life and death. But in all actualities, the ichneumon wasp and the way it develops are nothing but acts of nature. Best Carpet! People cannot control the wasp and what it does, it just does it in order to survive and reproduce. This would be an example of Darwin’s. Famine, Affluence, and Morality Essay. utilitarianism, which is a moral theory according to characters in dracula which welfare is the flies meaning, fundamental human good. This Welfare can be referred to the happiness or well being of individuals (Utilitarianism, 2007). I agree with Singer’s article, Famine, Affluence, and Morality. I think that it’s our moral responsibility to do more to characters in dracula help other. Charity should be our duty not our just something we do half hearted.

I believe that if we possess the power to effect change in the lives of other and we should do so to the best. The Relationship Between Religion and Morality Essay. religion correlates with morality, how can Gwen’s murder happened in a predominantly Christian community? For my research project, I would like to examine if religion correlates with morality and is religion necessary for morality. Throughout the The Federalist and The Hamilton Report, age of humanity many people have come to believe that one cannot be moral without religion. Even though there is an overwhelming amount of evidence, studies, and in dracula research that denies the correlation between religion and government morality; the religious community. Nietzche#x27;s Master and Slave Morality Essay. self-denial, modesty, patience and acceptance of in dracula one’s fate. Government! Slave morality does not aim for self-ascension or self-gratification. Its aims centre on utility: the characters in dracula, reduction of suffering for the greatest number of people.

It sees evil in about Some Girl(s): A Ttragic comedy, the self-aggrandizement and characters the ruthlessness and violence of the government, master. Where master morality is for in dracula, the elite few, slave morality is a value system for the masses. The values inherent in slave morality, not coincidentally, are almost synonymous with Judeo-Christian. The Morality of Lord of the government of mesopotamia, Flies Essay. He established a crude democracy, where everyone had a vote for their leader. This election by majority ensured that more than fifty percent of the boys would grant governance to Ralph, and they were willing to concede some of their freedom for the sake of the group. Like in most democracies, with a majority also comes a minority; minorities are necessary to keep the majority in check by a natural form of competition. Characters In Dracula! Most were content with Ralph's leadership, but Jack despised him for it. As a.

Christian, Jews, Muslims and stereotyping others have taken this exclusivist position. Characters! The underlying difficulty is there is simply no rational justification for preferring one religion to another. All religions are based on faith, that is, a subjective feeling reflecting a personal preference. If faith is the basis for one’s religious beliefs, then no one religion has any greater claim to truth than another. Up From Slavery T Washington! But from the standpoint of the fundamentalist, articles of faith are magically transformed into universal. Morality and Destiny in Othello Essay. Iago first voices his discontent for the general when Othello passes him up for characters, promotion in favor of a more scholarly man, Cassio. His complaints do not fall on deaf ears in of the meaning, the character of Roderigo, for Roderigo's hatred of the general already exists.

He is already insanely jealous of this Moor who has captured Desdemona's heart. Iago's destruction of Othello thus begins as an insincere bonding with Roderigo and continues to build throughout the duration of the performance. . Essay on The Morality of Assisted Suicide. A prescription for a deadly overdose runs about thirty five dollars… the patient won’t consume any more health care dollars”(Marker 46). Whenever the economy was involved there was always a major hill to climb. In Dracula! Not to long ago patients were told to come in to get check ups that were not necessary. All the about Girl(s): A Ttragic comedy, hospitals and clinics got paid back for everything they did to the patient. Finally, people became smarter and started to say no the unnecessary treatments. Now their income relates to the. Terrorists seek to achieve higher sensations to get as much of a public response as possible. “The more devastating the damage, the more inhumane, the more avidly is characters, it sought by about Some Girl(s): A Ttragic comedy, strategists, ideologues, and theologians of terror.” (p. 90) Suicide bombings are a life wasted for a cause – real or imagined.

With hostage taking and child warriors, our focus shifts from acts of characters murder and mass murder to acts that violate human dignity. As hostages and child warriors, human beings are transformed. Essay on Morality and Whistle Blowing. Richard De George argues that whistle blowing is a healthy thing that protects harm. De George restricts his argument to three specific types of whistle blowing: nongovernmental, impersonal, and external. De George states that there are basic moral considerations on when you may be required to blow the whistle (i.e., safety or prevention of of mesopotamia harm). External whistle blowing you have to characters in dracula deal with the issue of loyalty versus the prevention of lord harm and know when to do one over the other.

According. The Morality of Capital Punishment Essay. A world in which each of us is in dracula, permitted to judge guilt and execute punishment, in which revenge and blood feuds are permitted, is likely to up from t washington be the one Hobbes described-in which the life of man is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short(1). Characters! It will be a world given over to injustice. When, therefore, the state executes a convicted murderer, it is essential that we not think of this as responding to Essay on The Best the desires of characters family or friends of the murderer's victim(s). We are all aggrieved when. Essay on Macbeth: Changin in Morality. Once his. Lady MacBeth heard about the prophecy through MacBeth and wanted him to take action.In the beginning, MacBeth was skeptical about going out with the whole plan. Lady Macbeth then proceeds to of the question his manhood by in dracula, telling him “When you durst do it, then you were a man” (Braunmuller, 1997 2.2.34).Lady MacBeth just showed one of the immoralities she committed. They did not take the stereotyping, blame upon themselves, but instead they choose to smear Duncan’s blood on the chambermaids while they are.

Essay about The Morality of Torture. Therefore, could the topic of torture be seen through a utilitarianism perspective? According to in dracula Alan Dershowitz, torture is right when executed through justifiable law, which exceeds completing the action unlawfully. Meaning, Dershowitz believes that there should be an stereotyping examples, issued warrant when wanting to use torture amongst a human being. Dershowitz makes a valid point regarding the legal basis of torture being justified. However, in my opinion looking at torture through a legal stance creates a skeptical. The Morality of Assisted Suicides Essay. Why is it accepted that an animal should be relieved of pain by euthanizing it but society still views it wrong to alleviate human suffering? Another argument for physician-assisted suicide is a large number of in dracula citizens believe the flies, right to have a physician-assisted death should be a personal choice and in dracula that is why some states have already legalized it.

According to the Associated Press (2007), More than 68 percent of Americans believe there are situations when a patient should be allowed to die Morality and Punishment of Criminals Essay. Therefore, those inducing punishment on on The, individuals do not make an ethical decision to do so, but rather carry out a pre - determined action under the illusion of having free will. Characters In Dracula! It is irrational to talk of our 'rights.' In a sense sociological and psychological studies support the hard deterministic view by investigating the subconscious and looking for motivations for our actions. However, such studies may be rejected as unscientific and subsequently unreliable. A counter argument to that could be that several couples as well are not responsible enough, do not have the maturity/financial means/family support, etc that are necessary to raise a happy healthy child, so they try to be ‘safe’ when engaging in sexual activities but end up pregnant and cannot ‘handle’ a child so they have an abortion. The Federalist Hamilton! Some would believe that abortion is in dracula, a better alternative than to flies give the child an improper upbringing. I can understand the characters in dracula, logic behind such a statement, a concern. Essay on Power, Morality, and Terror.

There is little doubt that many Muslims have genuine grievances against the US and lord meaning that our hands are by no means clean. Even well-founded complaints such as these do not justify the in dracula, taking of innocent civilian lives, but they do give us insight into government what drives a person to terrorism and, as we shall see later, may give us insight in effectively fighting terrorism. A second question we must ask ourselves as we attempt to understand the mind of a terrorist is: could it be that the dominant state’s. Morality of Disobeying Laws Essay. However, now that he is on the other side of the laws, it doesn’t mean that it is time to start disobeying them. After all the laws have done for him, why should he turn his back and in dracula defy them? After all, it wasn’t the laws that have wronged him, but his fellow men.

He finishes his arguments with the Laws speaking to him explaining why he should obey them and not do as Crito requests. In “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” King is government, responding to a statement that called his actions, “unwise and. Morality in Uncle Tom#x27;s Cabin Essay. Many of Shelby's slaves on the plantation also risked their safety in accordance to assist Eliza and Harry. While retrieving the horse to be ridden by Mr.

Haley, a beechnut was placed under the saddle, so when sat upon, a great annoyance would be caused to the horse. The two slaves assigned to in dracula aid Haley in his search also did their part to help the fleeing mother and child by leading him across stray paths that they didn't think Eliza and Harry would have traveled. Through this aid, Eliza was. Essay on The Ethics and Morality of Eugenics in Society. Also, it will show that we have a semblance of up from slavery eugenics already within our society that is subtly promoted by characters in dracula, politicians. Source 1 and 2 have common ground in that they show how certain groups are being affected by eugenics, with source 1 discussing the disabled and source 2 discussing minorities and the decrease in discrimination. Source 2 -Eugenics and Economics in the Progressive Era, written by Thomas C. Leonard. This source will be helpful in my essay because it comments on race in the scheme. Morality of Animal Testing Essay example. That money could have been used to try to find treatments through another, more humane way.

Likewise, the military also uses animals for testing. Since 1971, the National Cancer act has wasted billions of dollars looking for the cure for cancer. The major reason they have not found the cure is lord of the meaning, because cancer in animals develops and progresses different from it does in humans. Characters In Dracula! Apart from animal testing being expensive, the tests are often unreliable. Results from testing on an animal can not always.

Physician Assisted Suicide and Morality Essay. The United States federal government prohibits euthanasia because it is considered to be general homicide but there are no laws concerning assisted suicide because those are generally dealt with at a state level (, 2014). Essay About Some A Ttragic! In the United States, only four states have legalized PAS – Montana has legal PAS via a court ruling and Oregon, Vermont and Washington have legalized PAS via legislation. The option is not open to the general public but the legislation has made eligibility requirements. Justice and characters Morality in Plato#x27;s Republic Essay. However, Plato fails, throughout the dialogue, to explicitly justify this unusual and complex formula.

But he clearly believes that people do act against their own immediate interests for the sake of justice, and for Papers Report, the sake of the good of the civic community as a whole. He does not think that the only motive for in dracula, acting justly is to increase one's own happiness. Of Mesopotamia! Plato recognizes that a tension between duty and self-interest is certainly conceivable; that duty and self-interest are two independent. Antigone: the Obedience of characters in dracula One#x27;s Morality Essay. It is human nature to fear death, and this overwhelmed Peter's desire to adhere to all godly laws.

Such was not Antigone's case; no doubt ever entered her mind as to what she was to do. Antigone is an almost superhuman example of steadfastness and control. While someone under similar circumstances might decide to examples defy Creon, as Antigone did, few would not be unnerved by characters in dracula, the barrage of obstacles hurled at Antigone. The only person she let into her confidence, Ismene, her only possible source of. Essay on Justice and Morality in Plato#x27;s Republic. If we make errors of judgement with respect to justice and lord of the the collective good, then we will also be in error when we make decisions about how we ought to act in relation to other people, and it is this which comprises the foundation of the moral life.

Our moral judgements will be defective, precisely because those judgements are not grounded in what is truly just. We may therefore act in accordance with only the appearance of justice unless we have a clear and distinct understanding of the characters, reality. Terrorism and Morality by Haig Khatchadourian Essay. In proving that terrorism is always wrong, Khatchadourian first eliminates the idea that ‘freedom fighting’ as a form of terrorism is morally ethical. Khatchadourian states that this form of Essay A Ttragic comedy terrorism, though it is for a suspected good cause, participates in in dracula, the “maiming, killing or coercing of non-innocents,” as a non-innocent is a person who is Essay Best Cleaner, directly related to the injustice in which the terrorist seeks to characters avenge (293). Therefore, if this type of government terrorism is ethical then “considering political.

Morality in in dracula, the Judicial Process Essay examples. Depending on the academic school they find convincing, a justice’s understanding of the on The Carpet Cleaner, same clause of the constitution might be starkly different. Another choice the justice can make is to apply a legal philosophy. For example, a justice might choose to characters prefer upholding existing precedent rather than overturning it by up from slavery booker, a new argument – the doctrine known as ‘stare decisis.’ A justice might also show deference to the judgment of the legislature, applying a presumption of characters in dracula constitutionality to a questioned.

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1988 apush dbq essay Few events in world history have shaped the world in such a way as did the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan at the close of the Second World War. The decision to drop the characters in dracula bombs, one made my United States President Harry S. Truman, the up from slavery t washington newly sworn in commander-in-chief following the death of Franklin Roosevelt, has been one scrutinized not only for the sheer destruction of the act, but has also been scrutinized in itself for the actual motive of the decision. Was the decision to use the Atomic Bombs one to speedily and quickly end the war to save American lives? Or did Truman do his best to prevent Soviet influence in East Asia, to try and scare the Soviets from making any kind of territorial claims in Japan or her former Empire? As far as historical record goes, there is ample evidence for both points of view. It's impossible to declare one to be the case while both have good evidence, so it's likely Truman acted in such a way to end the characters war quickly, avoid massive American deaths, and intimidate the Soviet Union. This was the genius of Truman's decision, it was able to end the parasite of war plaguing the world's nations for nearly six years, while also doing much to prevent another war from occurring in the future, ensuring peace in the process.

For evidence of up from slavery booker t washington this, we need only to look to our own time, in which we've seen no Atomic warfare or any thing near the scale of the Second World War. Is it possible that the Atomic bombings of Japan truly did stabilize the world, and now acts as a preventative measure against future World Wars? To answer this question, a need to look into the decision itself is characters necessary, the decision made by Truman to use the Atomic Bombs on Japan. The traditional view of the decision is that Truman authorized the Atomic Bombings because he was tired of the Second World War. Most Americans shared in his plight, and years of war had caused a want for normalcy in the United States, not to mention the fatigue of American soldiers, many of which had been in battle in the Pacific for nearly four years at this point. The alternate plan for the defeat of Japan was a proposed invasion of the Japanese homeland, Operation Downfall, which was to of mesopotamia, take place in the Spring of in dracula 1946, with fighting continuing onwards until the end of that year. Soviet assistance would be needed as well, with Soviet troops invading Japan from the Northern Japanese islands. This, however, was ruled out by Truman with the decision to drop the bombs. The casualties to be expected from such an invasion would be staggering, on both the American and Japanese fronts. Secretary of War Henry Stimson notes: …there was a very strong possibility that the Japanese government might determine upon lord of the flies meaning, resistance to the end, in all areas of the Far East under its control… (Document A) This could be expected with Japanese conduct of the war thus far, as Japanese soldiers and even civilians living in in dracula, areas of the lord Empire would display a code of Bushido not seen since the days of the Samurai, fighting to the end and never giving up until they could carry on no longer.

An American invasion would have produced a veritable insurgency in the Japanese islands, one not unlike the Filipino insurgency following the Spanish-American War of 1899. Stimson also mentions the sheer number of casualties the American forces could expect while in in dracula, Japan, while at Essay on The the same time giving a rough estimate for the amount of time the war would take to put down such an characters in dracula, insurgency in Japan: …We estimated that if we should be forced to carry this plan to its conclusion, the major fighting would not end until the latter part of 1946, at the earliest. I was informed that such operations might be expected to cost over a million casualties, to American forces alone. Lord Of The Flies. ( Document A) This gives steam to Truman's reasoning for using the Atomic Bombs on in dracula, Japan in order to The Federalist Papers Hamilton, bring the Second World War to a close and to lessen American casualties. In effect, the in dracula Atomic Bombs could have also lessened Japanese casualties, which could have rose into the millions if the flies invasion and in dracula, an insurgency had popped up in Japan following Operation Downfall. For more insight on this aspect of the decision, Truman himself should get a chance to speak, figuratively, of course. In his own words, the American President: …We have used it in slavery booker, order to shorten the agony of war, in order to save the in dracula lives of thousands and thousands of young Americans…We shall continue to use it until we completely destroy Japan's power to government, make war. Only a Japanese surrender will stop us… ( Document H) From the President's own mouth come the words he uses to justify the use of the Atomic bombs. Truman notes that using the bombs will shorten and characters in dracula, end the war and save many, many American lives.

He also speaks of the continued use of the Atomic Bomb, if Japan refuses to surrender, meaning that he had such a desire to avoid further war, he would stop at nothing to stop such war from continuing into the future. The argument that Harry Truman used the Atomic Bomb as a way to end the lord of the flies war and halt casualties, both American and characters in dracula, Japanese alike, and to shorten and effectively end the Second World War is one that has been accepted universally as the reason for Hamilton, the end of the Second World War since it's inception. While it holds a lot of truth, it cannot be counted as the only reason Truman used the Atomic Bombs and authorized the utter destruction of two cities. New historical evidence now coming to light helps create a new picture of Truman's reasoning behind the use of the bombs - one that does not contradict his words, but simply expands upon them. There should be no debate as to in dracula, whether or not Truman wished to halt American casualties or ease and end the burden of war on the American people, because that much we know, from people like Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson and the President himself. Best. However, is it possible that Truman had a secondary motive in characters in dracula, the use of the Atomic Bomb?

Did Truman drop the bomb to intimidate the Soviets into backing off of East Asia? With the of mesopotamia aforementioned new evidence, it seems that the President was planning on characters in dracula, killing the proverbial two birds with stone in defeating the Japanese Empire and The Federalist Hamilton Report, silencing and intimidating the ever-growing Soviet Union. Before discussing this, however, the agreements made at Yalta under the Roosevelt Administration must be noted. At the characters Yalta Conference, the Allied Powers, most notably the Big Three (consisting of meaning Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin) met to decide the fate of East Asia following the in dracula defeat of Japan. Roosevelt and flies meaning, Churchill, weary of the intentions of Stalin, cut a deal to allow for in dracula, Soviet entry into the war with Japan upon the restoration of former Soviet territories taken during the Russo-Japanese War of forty years prior, most notably the island of Sakhalin ( Document D) . This provision allowing Soviet entry into the war would include the planned 'Operation Downfall' to be carried out by Allied Powers. If historical precedent was to be noted, it was very possible that the Soviets would claim more land than they were entitled, as was the case in Eastern Europe, in which they annexed the Baltic republics of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. General Eisenhower, advising President Truman in 1945, told the of mesopotamia President, …It was my personal opinion that no power on earth could keep the Red Army out of that war unless victory came before they could get in… ( Document C). It was obvious to Eisenhower that the Soviets could prove a problem in East Asia, and in characters in dracula, order to repel them and stop any sort of division in stereotyping examples, Japan akin to that in Korea or the future state of Vietnam, that the Red Army and the Soviets at large should not be allowed to set a foot on Japanese soil. The magic panacea for victory?

You guessed it. Truman soon found that the only way to prevent Soviet influence in East Asia was to use the Atomic Bomb, as a way to keep the Red Army out of characters Japan and to show the Soviets that the United States would allow no further expansion by of the flies meaning, the Soviet Union. In addition to keeping the in dracula Soviets out, Truman sought to intimidate Stalin in such a way he'd be afraid to stereotyping, act out in a way that would trigger a Third World War. From the planning stages of Operation Downfall, it was known to most in the military chain of in dracula command that Japan would be defeated quickly, because of the utter lack of resources to lord flies meaning, wage war as it was. General H. H. Arnold, Commander of the American Army Air Force, noted in his memoirs that. …The surrender of Japan was not entirely the result of the two atomic bombs…Accordingly, it always appeared to characters, us that, atomic bomb or no atomic bomb, the Japanese were already on the verge of collapse… ( Document B) Japan was racked by Essay about A Ttragic comedy, fire bombings, mine field blockades, and a general destruction of much of characters in dracula their own industrial capacity. Like General Arnold states here, it was virtually impossible for the Japanese to …carry on a large-scale war… ( Document B) . An invasion of the Japanese islands would only drive the up from slavery booker Japanese remaining into a hit-and-run insurgency, not a well organized fighting force capable of characters taking down the slavery booker Allied forces at any rate. Did the government of the United States know this when the bombs were dropped? Or was it just a thing discussed in military circles of that time?

According to Nuclear physicist Leo Szilard, this is not the case - citing a meeting between future Secretary of State James Byrnes and a group of scientists: …Mr. Byrnes did not argue that it was necessary to use the characters bomb against the cities of Japan in order to win the war. He knew at t washington the time, as the characters in dracula rest of the Government knew, that Japan was essentially defeated and that we could win the war in another six months… ( Document F) And it wasn't just the Papers Hamilton Report United States that knew of the secondary reasoning for the usage of the Atomic Bomb, as British Prime Minister Winston Churchill also expressed similar views: …It is quite clear that the United States do not at in dracula the present time desire Russian participation in the war against Japan… ( Document E) . The evidence itself builds up and shows the decision in dropping the lord bomb in another light, providing ample evidence for the reasoning of keeping the Soviets out of East Asia via intimidation by characters, use of the Atomic Bombs. Taking it further, however, is it possible that Truman also sought to prevent further war with the use of the Atomic Bomb, and not just keep the Soviets on their toes? Scientists working within the government of mesopotamia Manhattan Project personified this opinion greatly in characters in dracula, a Report to the Secretary of War in June of 1945: …Those who advocate a purely technical demonstration would wish to outlaw the use of atomic weapons, and have feared that if we use the weapons now our position in future negotiations will be prejudiced. Others emphasize the Report opportunity of saving American lives by immediate military use, and believe that such use will improve the international prospects, in that they are more concerned with the prevention of war than with the elimination of this special weapon… ( Document G) While some of the scientists were thoroughly opposed to the use of the in dracula Atomic Bomb, others shared the view that their own President might have been trying to reinforce with his decision to Papers Hamilton, authorize the use of the Atomic bombs. The use of the Atomic Bombs, they said, would do enough to characters, scare the Soviets and keep them from trying to expand into East Asia while also keeping tabs on Papers and The, future wars from breaking out. Upon analyzing the evidence, it can be said that this, in fact could be true.

In the years since the Second World War, the in dracula world itself has seen no war on the scale of the Second World War, and conflicts between the Great Powers have effectively been ruled out with the dawn of the Atomic Age and stereotyping examples, greater cooperation amongst nations. The use of the characters in dracula Atomic Bombs also unleashed and showed the horrors of Atomic weapons to the world, making nations less apt to stereotyping examples, using them left and right, something we haven't seen, for characters in dracula, there has been no sort of Atomic weapons used since the lord of the meaning bombing of Nagasaki in 1945. While President Truman wished to end the Second World War and keep American casualties to an absolute minimum, he also wanted to show what years of research had produced and what was in store for the Germans - had they not been defeated. The Japanese became the target of the first Atomic weapons ever used in history, and their earth shaking effects changed the face of warfare forever, helping to eliminate major war as an option for characters, the world's Great Powers. The Soviet Union took note in this as well, backing away from Japan and allowing the United States a buffer against further expansion from the Soviet Union.

In this way, the Soviets decided to retreat for the day, leaving Japan to instead concentrate on developing it's own Atomic weapons and try to gain the edge over the United States in the game of Tug Of War that was the Cold War.

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Combined effects of characters, precipitation and nitrogen deposition on native and invasive winter annual production in California deserts. Primary production in deserts is limited by soil moisture and N availability, and thus is likely to be influenced by both anthropogenic N deposition and precipitation regimes altered as a consequence of climate change. Invasive annual grasses are particularly responsive to booker increases in in dracula, N and water availabilities, which may result in competition with native forb communities. Additionally, conditions favoring increased invasive grass production in arid and semi-arid regions can increase fire risk, negatively impacting woody vegetation that is not adapted to fire. We conducted a seeded garden experiment and a 5-year field fertilization experiment to investigate how winter annual production is altered by increasing N supply under a range of The Federalist, water availabilities. The greatest production of invasive grasses and native forbs in the garden experiment occurred under the highest soil N (inorganic N after fertilization = 2.99 g m ?2 ) and highest watering regime, indicating these species are limited by both water and N. Characters? A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis on the multi-year field fertilization study showed that winter annual biomass was primarily limited by November–December precipitation. Biomass exceeded the threshold capable of carrying fire when inorganic soil N availability was at least 3.2 g m ?2 in pinon-juniper woodland. Due to of the flies water limitation in creosote bush scrub, biomass exceeded the fire threshold only under very wet conditions regardless of in dracula, soil N status. Slavery Booker T Washington? The CART analyses also revealed that percent cover of invasive grasses and native forbs is primarily dependent on the timing and amount of characters, precipitation and secondarily dependent on and The Hamilton Report soil N and site-specific characteristics. In total, our results indicate that areas of high N deposition will be susceptible to grass invasion, particularly in characters in dracula, wet years, potentially reducing native species cover and increasing the risk of fire.

Communicated by Louis Pitelka. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00442-009-1516-5 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to Papers and The Report authorized users. Climate change models indicate that many regions will experience an increase in the severity of extreme climatic events such as droughts, heat waves, and floods (Solomon et al. In Dracula? 2007 ). Government? These climate changes will cause vegetation distributions to characters in dracula shift, such as in California where the extent of of mesopotamia, arid grasslands is predicted to increase due in part to increased fire size and frequency (Lenihan et al. 2003 ). Many studies from arid and semi-arid regions have shown a linkage between climate and fire (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000 ; Harris et al. 2008 ; Drury and Veblen 2008 ; Miller et al. 2009 ). Fire may also be promoted by characters in dracula invasions of non-native species (D’Antonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ), which themselves are associated with increased disturbance, including climate change, land use change, and N deposition (Dukes and Mooney 1999 ). Slavery? In western North America, invasion by non-native grasses has resulted in increased fire frequency and intensity (Zouhar et al.

2008 ). This so called “grass-fire cycle” occurs because the invasive grasses create a persistent and continuous fine fuel load that allows fire to carry between widely spaced shrubs (D’Antonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ). Characters In Dracula? The invasive grasses recover more quickly than shrubs, increasing fire frequency until the shrubs are lost from the landscape. Up From Slavery T Washington? This type-conversion has occurred in several ecosystems including sagebrush, coastal sage scrub, and creosote bush scrub (Minnich and Dezzani 1998 ; Menakis et al. 2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ; Zouhar et al. In Dracula? 2008 ). An increase in stereotyping, fire size and frequency has been observed in the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts resulting in reduced shrub density and diversity (Brown and in dracula Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Berry 2006 ; Hereford et al.

2006 ). Fires in these deserts often occur in Essay Carpet Cleaner, years with below-average precipitation but that are preceded by characters in dracula 1–2 years of above-average rainfall (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000 ; Lenihan et al. 2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ). The years of high rainfall result in high production by stereotyping examples native and in dracula invasive annuals thereby increasing the fine fuel load (Brown and Minnich 1986 ). Arid land winter annuals have also been found to government be sensitive to within-season precipitation timing, which differentially affects germination of invasive grasses and native forb species (Beatley 1974 ; Brooks 1999 ; Lundholm and Larson 2004 ; Sher et al. 2004 ). While several large native annuals produce persistent fuel beds (Minnich 2008 ), the fuel components of greatest concern are invasive annual grasses red brome ( Bromus madritensis ), cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum ), and characters in dracula Mediterranean split grass ( Schismus barbatus and Schismus arabicus ) that may increase in productivity in about Some Girl(s): A Ttragic, years of high rainfall (Brooks 1999 ; Brooks 2003 ; Salo 2004 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). No threshold of characters, fine fuels has been determined for desert biomass, although thresholds for fine fuels needed in grass-dominated systems are estimated to be 70–150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ). In the desert this range is more likely to be reached under high invasive grass abundance because grass litter does not disarticulate as rapidly as native forb litter (Brooks and stereotyping examples Minnich 2006 ). Additionally, invasive grasses are responsive to both increased precipitation and increased N availability (Monaco et al. 2003 ; Fenn et al. In Dracula? 2003a ; Salo et al. 2005 ). After precipitation, N is considered most limiting to plant production in arid and semi-arid regions (Hooper and Johnson 1999 ). In arid regions downwind of government of mesopotamia, major urban or agricultural centers, dry N deposition is increasing and is likely influencing plant communities through fertilization effects (Brooks 2003 ; Fenn et al.

2003b ; Allen et al. 2009 ; Rao et al. 2009 ). The co-limitation of production by N and water suggests that the build-up of fine fuels sufficient to carry wildfires would most likely occur when both N deposition and above-average precipitation are present. Thus, the hypothesis addressed by this study is: N and characters in dracula precipitation interact such that the biomass produced by annual vegetation exceeds the fire threshold more frequently under N deposition. We tested the hypothesis using a seeded garden experiment and a multi-year (2004–2008) field fertilization of natural vegetation to evaluate the stereotyping examples, interactions between N fertilization and water availability on biomass production. By using classification and regression tree analysis (CART) on the long-term fertilization experiment results, we were able to examine the data for thresholds of soil N and consider the implications of uncertainty regarding fine fuel thresholds. Additionally, we examined the response of total annual production, native forb cover, and invasive forb cover to changes in precipitation timing to better determine the effects of characters in dracula, within-season precipitation variability on production and winter annual community composition. General soil characteristics for the garden and field fertilization of natural vegetation experiments.

Rock and gravel (%) Total soil N (g m ?2 ) Extractable P (ppm) a. Bulk density (g cm ?3 ) N deposition (kg ha ?1 ) b. Joshua Tree National Park. Means presented with SEs in parentheses where available. PJ Pinon-juniper woodland, CB creosote bush. Stereotyping Examples? NA not applicable. a Olsen-P extraction method. b Total wet + dry N deposition measured in 2005 using throughfall and interspace bulk resin collectors (M. Fenn, personal communication) c Gravel only, rocks 2 cm excluded during sample collection.

There were five replicates of each water treatment, for a total of fifteen 1.7 ? 2.5-m plots that were subdivided into six 0.65 ? 0.6-m subplots with a 20-cm buffer around each subplot. In Dracula? Three subplots were planted with A. tessellata and three subplots with B. madritensis in a randomized manner, with each species fertilized with either 0.5, 3.0 g N m ?2 , or left unfertilized as a control. Fertilizer additions were chosen to be comparable to the JTNP field fertilization experiment. We took one 8-cm-deep soil core from each subplot prior to fertilization for extraction with 1 M KCl and about A Ttragic comedy colorimetric determination of NO 3 ? and NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments, Tarrytown, NY). After the in dracula, first rain and before seed planting, N fertilizer was added as granular NH 4 NO 3 . We collected seeds from The Federalist Papers, multiple areas within JTNP where both species were abundant. Characters? Within 1 week of the first rain seeds were planted to achieve a density of 150 plants m ?2 . After establishment, average densities were 110 and 29 plants m ?2 for B. Flies? madritensis and A. tessellata respectively, which were within observed field densities (Hunter 1991 ). All plants that germinated naturally from the seed bank (primarily Pectocarya sp., Schismus sp., and Erodium cicutarium ) were removed by hand-weeding. Our three water treatments included low (or drought), intermediate (or average precipitation), and in dracula high rain. The drought precipitation regime was achieved by installing rainout shelters that were modeled after the design by Yahdjian and Sala ( 2002 ) and constructed to intercept 80% of incident precipitation. Shelter roofs were constructed from strips of clear corrugated plastic and were removable in order to up from slavery t washington reduce shading of treated and nearby plots. In Dracula? We installed 25-cm-deep plastic lined trenches around the plot perimeter to prevent movement of water into the plot. A gutter collected rainwater and channeled the water to a 38-l storage unit.

Collected rainwater was applied to the high-rainfall plots, which were also trenched and lined to prevent movement of water out of the plot. All plots contained ECH 2 O volumetric soil water sensors (Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA) that were field calibrated by relating actual volumetric water content to sensor millivolt readings. Rainout shelter roofs were not installed on the shelters until the seedlings established, and the threat of a storm was imminent. Only one storm occurred after establishment and so the rainout shelter roofs were used for a total of 1 week. Because of a lack of The Federalist Papers and The Report, rain during the late winter and early spring, water was added to the intermediate and high-rainfall plots.

Yucca Valley tap water was used to water the plots and contained 3.5 mg NO 3 ? l ?1 with non-detectable amounts of characters, NH 4 + . Intermediate rain plots received three applications of of mesopotamia, water equivalent to 0.25 cm of precipitation per application and in dracula high-rainfall plots received six applications of 0.84 cm of stereotyping, water. Characters In Dracula? In total, the plots received 16, 11, and 9 cm of natural + artificial precipitation in the high-, intermediate-, and low-water treatment plots, compared to up from t washington the 70 year mean ± SD of 10 ± 8 cm of winter precipitation as determined from in dracula, a nearby weather station. We harvested eight individual B. madritensis plants from Essay about Some, each subplot 4 times throughout the spring (Online resource 1). Because of the small number of in dracula, A. tessellata that germinated, an allometric relationship between plant width and height and Hamilton plant weight was developed for each harvest period using a total of 15 individuals. Characters? The harvest-period specific allometric equations were used to calculate the weight of slavery t washington, eight individuals from each treatment for characters in dracula, which height and width were measured. At the final sampling eight individual A. tessellata plants were harvested from each subplot. All plants were oven dried at 60°C to constant mass and up from slavery t washington weighed.

Flowers or seed heads from characters in dracula, red brome were counted and weighed separately from the government, shoots. The average shoot biomass from the eight individuals harvested from each subplot was used as one data point in subsequent analyses. Field fertilization of characters, natural vegetation. We established fertilization plots at four sites within JNTP. Two sites were in creosote bush (CB) scrub located in the lower elevation Sonoran Desert (33°49?52.2?N, 115°45?26.6?W; 33°56?36.5?N, 116°23?44.3?W). The other two sites were pinon-juniper woodland (PJ) in the higher elevation Mojave Desert (34°2?13?N, 116°4?29.6?W; 34°0?48.7?N, 116°18?39.9?W). In each vegetation type one site was located on the western edge of the park, which was subjected to high levels of N deposition (high N), and one site was located in up from slavery, the interior of the park where there were low levels of N deposition (low N; Allen et al. 2009 ). Selected site characteristics are listed in Table 1 and site-specific vegetation data are in Allen et al. ( 2009 ), with general descriptions in Keeler-Wolfe ( 2007 ) and Schoenherr and Burk ( 2007 ). The dominant shrub at the CB sites was Larrea tridentata with an understory of characters in dracula, native forbs and invasive annual grasses, S. arabicus and examples S. barbatus (hereafter Schismus spp.). Total live shrub cover was 9.5 ± 2.7 and 18.1 ± 3.8% for CB-low N and CB-high N, respectively. The dominant trees/shrubs at the PJ sites were Juniperus californica and Pinus monophylla with an characters understory of Papers Hamilton Report, shrubs, native forbs and invasive annual grasses, B. madritensis , B. tectorum , and Schismus spp.

Live tree + shrub cover was 20.8 ± 0.9 and 22.7 ± 1.4% at PJ-low N and PJ-high N, respectively. Annual invasive forbs, primarily Erodium cicutarium , were not a major component of the cover at any of the sites (Allen et al. 2009 ). Cumulative winter precipitation (mm) for the years in which vegetation was sampled at the four Joshua Tree National Park sites: creosote bush (CB)-low N ( a ), CB-high N ( b ), pinon-juniper woodland (PJ)-low N ( c ), and PJ-high N ( d ). The 70-year average winter precipitation for each site is indicated by the dashed line. Shading indicates years that did not receive sufficient precipitation to elicit germination and thus were excluded from the statistical analyses.

We centered each plot on an individual tree or shrub, with the plot size determined by the shrub or tree size (6 ? 6 m for creosote bush, 8 ? 8 m for characters in dracula, juniper, and The Federalist Hamilton 10 ? 10 m for pine). Two levels of fertilizer were used, 0.5 and characters in dracula 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 , plus unfertilized controls. Up From T Washington? In the winter 2005, a lower fertilization treatment (0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 ) was added because the 0.5 g N m ?2 year ?1 treatment had significant effects on biomass in the spring 2005 and characters in dracula we were interested in determining if a lower N threshold existed. The fertilization levels bracket the observed range of N deposition found in this region (Sullivan et al. 2001 ; Tonnesen et al. T Washington? 2007 ). In addition, the high level of fertilization was chosen to be comparable to other desert fertilization studies where 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 has induced responses by the invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ). Ten replicates of each shrub or tree species were fertilized and characters selected across the landscape in a randomized block design, with the exception of PJ-low N where the government, limited availability of trees and shrubs resulted in nine blocks. Characters In Dracula? At the PJ sites, both pine and junipers were fertilized with 0, 0.5, and 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 in each block, but only juniper 0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 plots were added to each block in stereotyping examples, 2005 due to limited numbers of pines at these sites. Plots were fertilized with granular NH 4 NO 3 each December beginning in 2002.

We sampled vegetation each spring (March–May) at the peak of production, which varied by site and year depending on temperature and precipitation. Percent cover of invasive grasses and native forbs was determined in a 1.0 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat placed outside the drip line of each shrub (i.e., just outside the edge of the shrub canopy) on in dracula the north- and south-facing sides. Biomass was calculated from the Papers Hamilton, percentage cover data using equations developed for one CB site and characters in dracula one PJ site relating percent cover to biomass using 0.25 ? 0.5-m clipped plots. Biomass relationships were determined in 2005 and of mesopotamia 2008 for fertilized and unfertilized plots, with the 2008 data applied to all years except 2005 due to characters the very high amounts of precipitation received during the 2004–2005 growing season. Percent cover was generally a good predictor of biomass with R 2 -values ranging from 0.77 to 0.97 (2005 regressions n = 11, 2008 regressions n = 21).

A relationship between percent cover at Carpet Cleaner the drip line and the percent cover in the interspaces (i.e., the spaces outside the characters, influence of the shrubs) was developed using 2008 cover data from PJ-high N. Government Of Mesopotamia? Because interspace vegetation carries fire through the desert by characters creating a continuous fine fuel source between shrubs and is the basis for the fire thresholds, it was necessary to convert all drip line percent cover values to interspace cover estimates. Of Mesopotamia? Percent cover, measured in 1 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat in the interspaces of a subset of PJ plots was found to be 0.76 of the percent cover on the south side of the shrub. This conversion was applied to characters in dracula all sites and treatments in all years and biomass calculated from the interspace cover estimates. Prior to fertilization, we took soil cores to a depth of lord of the flies, 5 cm from interspace areas in in dracula, all plots for extractable soil N analysis. Lord? Soils collected in 2003 and 2004 were extracted with 1 M KCl and analyzed colorimetrically for NO 3 ? and NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments). Beginning in 2005, soils were sent to the DANR Analytical Laboratory for NO 3 ? and NH 4 + determination based on published protocols ( ). Extractable soil N was converted to an aerial basis using average site rock content and bulk density measurements and characters summing the measured soil N with the N fertilizer added. In the cases of outliers or missing data, the The Federalist Papers Hamilton, mean value from all plots in a treatment was used in the statistical analyses. The shoot weight from the garden experiment was analyzed using a residual maximum likelihood ANOVA to account for the split-plot design. Characters? The ANOVA was run for each species and sampling period to determine the effect of N, water availability, and of mesopotamia the N ? water interaction on biomass using JMP version 7 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Significant effects were determined with post-hoc Tukey’s honest significant difference test using an ? = 0.05.

All data were transformed as necessary to meet requirements for equal variance and normal distribution of error. For the field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment, CART was conducted using JMP version 8 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). We chose to use regression tree analysis due to its ability to handle non-linear combinations of predictor variables and identify thresholds (De’Ath and Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. Characters? 2000 ). In CART, decision trees are generated through recursive partitioning of the data set into subsets that are more homogeneous in terms of the response variable (Breiman et al. 1984 ). Regression trees can be advantageous over lord flies meaning, traditional linear techniques because they allow for interactions and characters in dracula non-linearity when numerous predictors are present (Prasad et al.

2006 ). In addition, CART is robust with respect to outliers and lord meaning does not require that the in dracula, data be normally distributed (De’Ath and Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. 2000 ). Variable descriptions used in regression tree analysis. For vegetation type analyses only; identifies the Essay on The, site location in each vegetation type (low N or high N) For PJ only; identifies the in dracula, species of tree or shrub about which the plot was located. Amount of precipitation that fell during September and October. Amount of precipitation that fell during November and December. Amount of lord, precipitation that fell during January and February. Amount of precipitation that fell during March and characters April.

Amount of soil N measured prior to fertilization each winter + the amount of fertilizer added, converted to lord of the meaning g m ?2. Total interspace biomass calculated from in dracula, % cover of invasive grasses and Essay about A Ttragic native forbs measured outside the in dracula, shrub dripline and multiplied by a reduction factor. Average percent cover of Some, invasive (exotic) grasses measured outside the dripline of the north and south sides of in dracula, shrubs. Average percent cover of native forbs measured outside the dripline of the north and south sides of up from, shrubs. The 2007–2008 winter rain season in characters, the Yucca Valley region was characterized by four precipitation events; one each in December and January, and two in Essay on The, February (Online resource 1). After the water treatments were applied, the low-water plots showed a decrease in volumetric water content (VWC), approaching zero in early April. The decrease in VWC in the control plots was more gradual due to three applications of water and approached zero in mid-April. In the high-water plots the VWC was above that of the two lower water treatments until the water applications were stopped in mid-April and VWC decreased to zero by the final harvest. Average individual plant biomass (g per plant ± SE) for each harvest of Amsinckia tessellata ( a ) and Bromus madritensis ( b ) across the water and soil N treatments.

At the end of the growing season the largest individuals were found in characters, the high water, high-N ( black bars ) treatments. Asterisks indicate the most significant response. ANOVAs on stereotyping examples biomass of B. madritensis at each harvest also showed a significant effect of N throughout (in all sampling periods P 0.0001). In Dracula? In all cases the 2.99 g soil N m ?2 plots had larger plants, with no difference in plant size between 0.95 and 1.54 g N m ?2 . The only harvests with a significant water effect were the last two, where the plants in the high-water treatment were larger than those in about Some Girl(s): comedy, the intermediate and low-water treatments (1st, P = 0.54; 2nd, P = 0.46; 3rd, P = 0.0002; 4th, P 0.0001). In all N treatments the plants reached the in dracula, maximum size by second harvest in the low- and intermediate-water plots; in the high-water plots individuals continued to Girl(s): grow until the characters, final harvest (Fig. 2 b). No N ? water interactions were observed at any harvest for Girl(s): comedy, either species.

Field fertilization of natural vegetation. Summary of regression tree results. Total SS explained by each variable a (%) NDP = 76.8, SOP = 16.9, SoilN = 1.8. JFP = 88.8, NDP = 7.0, SoilN = 2.7, SOP = 1.5. NDP = 78.5, SOP = 19.2, SoilN = 1.4. SOP = 88.5, SoilN = 6.5, MAP = 5.1.

SOP = 94.6, SoilN = 5.4. NDP = 95.4, SOP = 4.6. NDP = 87.1, SOP = 8.8, SoilN = 4.0. NDP = 69.1, SoilN = 15.6, JFP = 9.9, MAP = 3.3, SOP = 2.1. Site = 79.1, SOP = 15.1, NDP = 4.2, SoilN = 2.1. NDP = 58.3, SoilN = 23.1, Site = 10.6, SOP = 7.9. JFP = 85.3, SOP = 10.3, SoilN = 4.4. SOP = 82.8, SoilN = 12.2, MAP = 4.9.

SOP = 76.9, SoilN = 23.1. SoilN = 56.9, NDP = 39.4, Species = 3.7. n-Cal Number of in dracula, plots in calibration dataset. n-Val number of plots in validation dataset. NV number of explanatory variables in final model. NTN number of terminal nodes in final model.

a Percentage of government of mesopotamia, total SS explained by each variable in the representative final tree, See Tables 1 and 2 for other abbreviations and variable definitions. Regression tree results on total biomass for each vegetation type. Predictor variables (see Table 2 ) in ovals , threshold value and percentage of model variance explained by that variable under the oval. In Dracula? Mean value of the response variable in rectangles , number of up from slavery booker t washington, observations falling within that class shown under the mean. Biomass above the fire-carrying threshold indicated by shading. Asterisks indicate when multiple variables explained equal SS. Individual regression trees for native forb and invasive grass cover at the low- and high-N-deposition CB sites had fewer terminal nodes than those for the combined sites (Table 3 ). For both invasive grass and native forb cover at characters in dracula CB-low N, precipitation explained the Essay Carpet, majority of the model variance. In both cases there were several precipitation periods that explained equal variance (as indicated by asterisks in Fig. 3 and Online resources 2 and 3); the most frequently occurring variable from the cross-validations is characters in dracula presented in the figures. At CB-low N, soil N was a significant explanatory variable for both invasive grasses and stereotyping examples native forbs, but at characters in dracula CB-high N, only examples precipitation was found to be significant in explaining invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover was primarily explained by precipitation, with soil N explaining 4% of model variance and resulting in characters in dracula, greatest cover when soil N 3.8 g m ?2 (Online resource 2). The combined and individual site regression trees for PJ generally explained less variance than the CB regression trees (Table 3 ). The regression tree on joint-site total biomass indicated that precipitation was the primary explanatory variable, with NDP and JFP precipitation having equal explanatory power for the first split.

Soil N explained 15.6% of the model variance, and when late fall-early winter precipitation was high and soil N 4.2 g m ?2 , biomass exceeded the fire threshold. Except for two other cases, average biomass was less than the lord flies meaning, fire threshold (Fig. 3 ). The first split of the joint-site regression tree for invasive grasses was on the site variable, while native forb cover was primarily influenced by winter precipitation (NDP and JFP with equal variance explained for the first split) and was maximized when soil N was between 0.37 and 0.67 g m ?2 . The site-specific PJ regression trees revealed that the greatest cover of in dracula, invasive grasses occurred with JFP 15 mm at PJ-low N and Papers and The Hamilton high fall rains (SOP 50 mm) and soil N (between 1.4 and in dracula 3.5 g m ?2 ) at PJ-high N (Online resource 3). Overall, these models explained relatively little of the Essay on The Best Carpet Cleaner, total variance in invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover at PJ-low N was more responsive to characters soil N than invasive grasses; the Hamilton Report, greatest cover of forbs occurred with between 3.4 and 4.0 g m ?2 or greater than 0.5 g m ?2 of soil N depending on the timing and amount of early and late season precipitation (Online resource 2). Native forb cover at PJ-high N was greatest under the characters in dracula, influence of pine trees when soil N between 0.37 and 0.42 g m ?2 . The CART results indicate that the of the flies meaning, primary limiting factor for production at these arid sites is characters water, with the on The Cleaner, first split occurring on precipitation and explaining 77 and 69% of model variance in in dracula, CB and The Federalist Papers and The PJ, respectively.

The greater explanatory power of precipitation at CB is likely because CB occurs in areas with less mean annual precipitation (Rowlands 1995 ); at our sites the mean winter precipitation in PJ was 17 mm greater than in CB over the study period. Studies in characters in dracula, arid systems have shown that water availability is most limiting for annual production (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Beatley 1974 ; Patten 1978 ; Gutierrez et al. The Federalist Papers And The Hamilton? 1992 ; Brooks 2002 ). However, while some researchers have found that annual production exhibits secondary limitation by N (Whitford and Gutierrez 1989 ; Gutierrez et al. Characters In Dracula? 1992 ; Hooper and Johnson 1999 ), the results are not always straightforward. Often the response to increased soil N is species or site specific, depending on antecedent soil N conditions (Gutierrez and Whitford 1987 ; Ludwig et al. 1989 ; Brooks 2003 ). In our CART models, soil N is Girl(s): comedy a significant explanatory variable for both CB and PJ biomass, but only weakly so in CB (2%) compared to PJ (16%). Again, this is likely because CB is more water limited than PJ. Characters In Dracula? However, we have a limited dataset (2004–2008) and do not include the severe drought year of examples, 2007.

Given the in dracula, importance of precipitation timing on production and population dynamics (Went 1948 ; Bowers 1987 ; Brown 2002 ; Levine et al. 2008 ), additional years of data would be needed to Some fully understand the characters, interacting effects of soil N and precipitation on lord of the flies production. An additional factor that may confound our results is that the four sites are spread throughout JTNP in areas with different soil textures, amounts of rock cover, and long-term patterns of precipitation and N deposition. These site characteristics are known to characters in dracula impact community composition (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Wood et al. 2005 ; Kelly and Goulden 2008 ), the effect of which is observed through the PJ CART analyses where Site is a significant explanatory variable of stereotyping examples, both exotic grass and native forb cover.

In spite of differences between the sites, there are consistent results regarding the in dracula, response of lord flies, native forb cover to soil N. Native forb cover is greatest at characters in dracula all sites except PJ-high N when soil N is less than 3.8–4.0 g N m ?2 (Online resource 2), suggesting that above this soil N level native forbs are either directly harmed or outcompeted by stereotyping nitrophilous species such as invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ; Salo et al. 2005 ). Characters In Dracula? At PJ-high N, the greatest percent cover of booker, native forbs occurs under low-N conditions (0.4 g m ?2 ) and in the influence of pine trees. The second highest cover of characters, native forbs at this site is under intermediate soil N levels, 1.5 g m ?2 N 3.8 g m ?2 , which is consistent with the threshold identified at Essay on The Best Cleaner the other three sites. The garden experiment also indicates that native forbs benefit from inputs of N between 1.5 and in dracula 3 g m ?2 , supporting the examples, findings from characters in dracula, other studies showing that native forbs in arid environments are N limited (Romney et al. 1978 ; Mun and Some Girl(s): A Ttragic Whitford 1989 ; Salo et al. 2005 ). Exotic grass cover is more influenced by in dracula precipitation than native forb cover (Online resource 3), particularly at PJ-low N and stereotyping CB-high N where there is in dracula inherently low grass cover. When grass cover is high, soil N concentrations as low as 0.9 g m ?2 promote increased grass cover but no threshold of soil N emerged as with the lord, native forbs.

It is unclear whether the lack of a soil N threshold is due to an inherent property of the exotic grasses or because soil sampling occurred at individual points, resulting in high within-treatment variability and obscuring threshold identification. Understanding the factors promoting grass invasion is particularly important given that exotic grasses are associated with increased fire frequency in the deserts due to their persistent standing litter on the landscape through the dry season when fire threat is greatest (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Our CART analysis is also useful for in dracula, investigating the factors influencing biomass production and stereotyping fire thresholds in the desert. Characters? There is currently a great deal of uncertainty regarding the amount of fine fuel needed to carry fire through arid landscapes. Studies of examples, fire thresholds in characters in dracula, grass-dominated systems have shown that the amount of fine fuel needed to government carry fire is between 70 and 150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Minnich and Dezzani 1998 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ). Characters? As a first approximation, we set the fire threshold for both ecosystem types at 100 g m ?2 and found that the conditions leading to biomass production above this threshold are high amounts of rain in CB, and high amounts of stereotyping, rain combined with high amounts of soil N in PJ (Fig. 3 ). Although years with greater fine fuel buildup increase the fire risk in in dracula, both vegetation types (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Rogers and Vint 1987 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ), PJ is more prone to burning than CB due to up from booker greater amounts of woody fuels (Brooks and characters Matchett 2006 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Booker T Washington? Thus, it is in dracula likely that the fine fuel threshold is closer to the low range (70 g m ?2 ) in of mesopotamia, PJ and characters the high range (150 g m ?2 ) in CB. Up From Booker? When we re-evaluate the CART results with these adjusted fire thresholds, we find that the only case when the fire threshold is exceeded at CB is when SOP is greater than 1 mm and NDP is greater than 93 mm. The precipitation record from the past 75 years indicates that this precipitation pattern occurred 17 times, primarily in the late 1930s–1940s and the late 1960s to early 1980s.

This is consistent with the findings of Brown and in dracula Minnich ( 1986 ) who determined that fires in CB increased during the late 1970s, which they attributed to Essay on The Best Carpet Cleaner increased rainfall and exotic grass invasion in that period. Brooks and in dracula Matchett ( 2006 ) examined factors influencing fire spread in Best, the Mojave Desert and characters in dracula showed that the lord flies, high-elevation woodlands and characters desert montane zones show little change in the size distribution of fire in response to rainfall amounts because of the amount of woody biomass in these zones. In the middle elevation zone they found that native fuels are generally just below the threshold allowing fire spread and thus are influenced by increased precipitation. Our PJ sites are in between the high-elevation woodlands and mid-elevation zone examined by Brooks and Matchett ( 2006 ) indicating that there is Papers and The Report likely a fine fuel threshold for in dracula, our sites that may be as low as 70 g m ?2 . There are four cases when biomass exceeds this threshold; three are when NDP is greater than 73 mm and one is The Federalist Papers Report when precipitation is intermediate but soil N is high, greater than 3.2 g m ?2 . In the in dracula, garden experiment invasive grass biomass was greater in all water treatments when soil N was 3 g m ?2 , although the greatest biomass was observed under the highest precipitation and N. Similarly, a field fertilization experiment in the Mojave by Brooks ( 2003 ) showed that invasive grass biomass was largest when 3.2 g N m ?2 was added in the year with 300% above-average December precipitation, whereas no effect was observed when that amount of N was added in a year with average December precipitation. Together these results indicate that, in average years, soil N must be greater than 3 g m ?2 for the fire threshold to be reached.

Studies of fire in other arid and semi-arid regions have linked fire frequency with wet years that were followed by Best Cleaner periods of characters in dracula, below-average precipitation (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grassino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000; Harris et al. 2008 ). Of The Meaning? Thus, with the exception of areas under very high N deposition loads, PJ in transitional mid- to in dracula high-elevation zones may be unlikely to up from burn in in dracula, the absence of a period of wet years. One purpose of the CART analysis was to Cleaner understand the influence of precipitation timing on invasive grass and native forb cover. Climate change models indicate that precipitation variability is likely to increase across the southwestern United States and that the timing of precipitation may also shift (Lenihan et al. 2003 ; Bell et al. 2004 ; Bell and in dracula Sloan 2006 ). Such changes in the precipitation regime may favor either invasive grasses or native forbs if there are differences in the responses to precipitation timing by these two groups. Germination studies have shown that the common invasive grasses at our sites tend to germinate rapidly with small inputs of rain and without strict temperature requirements (Beatley 1974 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Salo 2004 ). In contrast, native winter forbs have strict germination requirements, generally needing at government of mesopotamia least 25 mm of precipitation and cold nighttime temperatures (Juhren et al. 1956 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Levine et al. 2008 ). In Dracula? The exception is a small group of summer-germinating plants that flower during the following spring (Went 1948 ). Papers And The? In years of in dracula, late-August early-September rains, individuals from this species group can grow very large and make up a significant portion of the biomass (Went 1948 ). The CART model for Essay Girl(s): A Ttragic comedy, CB native forb biomass indicates that NDP 28 mm provides conditions favorable for native forb cover, with the greatest cover observed in combination with SOP 56 mm. These results lend support to the findings that fall precipitation of at least 25 mm allows desert native plants to germinate, and that under conditions of early fall precipitation summer-germinating spring-flowering annuals can greatly increase native cover.

For CB invasive grasses, JFP and MAP have equal explanatory power for the first split, indicating that invasive grasses are favored not only by in dracula a wet winter, but an extended rainy season. The Federalist Papers And The Report? Our garden experiment resulted in an extended growing season in the high-water plots since natural precipitation ended in late February. Characters In Dracula? The results from this controlled experiment show that by prolonging the growing season, the individual biomass of B. madritensis continues to increase, which translates to increased cover in the field. Unlike in CB, PJ native forb cover is more influenced by late fall (NDP) and early winter (JFP) rain, while invasive grasses are influenced by SOP in the high-N site and NDP/JFP at the low-N site. Essay Best? The reason for the virtual flip in the seasonality effects on characters invasive grass and native forb cover between CB and PJ may be due to the influence of temperature. The high-elevation PJ sites are much colder than the low-elevation CB sites, and as such exhibit later season maturation of native forbs in the spring.

Temperatures are rarely cold enough to Some A Ttragic result in in dracula, decreased survival of native forb seedlings once they have germinated (Juhren et al. 1956 ), but having sufficient moisture in Girl(s):, the late winter months appears to allow the rosettes to grow, resulting in larger individuals and total cover at peak. The invasive grass cover in our PJ sites is primarily governed by site effects, making it difficult to draw generalizations based on our data. Additional plot-scale measurements on characters soil and landscape characteristics might be useful in further understanding the factors controlling invasive grass cover in flies meaning, this region. We combined a garden experiment, where the characters, invasive grass B. madritensis and stereotyping the native forb A. tessellata were grown in characters in dracula, monoculture, with a multi-year field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment to examine the stereotyping examples, interaction between soil N and water availability on in dracula production of desert winter annuals.

We found that while native forbs and slavery invasive grasses are limited by water availability, the characters in dracula, response to flies increased soil N is dependent on factors such as the degree of water limitation, site characteristics (e.g., soil texture, soil C), and degree of grass invasion. In Dracula? However, our results also show that in some cases added soil N increases production above the fire threshold, thereby increasing the risk of lord, fire in some polluted areas. In addition to increasing fire risk, increased soil N promoted invasive grasses and decreased native forb cover at some sites. These results provide further evidence that native forb and shrub communities, and the associated wildflower displays, may be threatened by non-native grass invasions particularly in characters in dracula, areas such as JTNP that are subjected to increased N deposition. This research was funded by the National Park Service PMIS no. 72123, National Science Foundation DEB 04-21530, the Community Foundation of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, and a grant from the University of California, Riverside Graduate Division. The manuscript was substantially improved by comments provided by C. Barrows and L. Santiago, as well as three anonymous reviewers. Thanks also to M. Fenn for providing N deposition values, the Foote family for allowing L. E. R. to use their property in Yucca Valley for the garden experiment, and to the members of the E. Essay Some A Ttragic Comedy? Allen laboratory, especially Chris True and Robert Steers, for field and lab support.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Leela E. Rao 1 3 Email author Edith B. Allen 1 2 1. Center for characters, Conservation Biology University of government, California Riverside USA 2. Department of Botany and Plant Sciences University of California Riverside USA 3. Air Resources Board Emission Research Section El Monte USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at characters in dracula your fingertips.

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Guidelines for writing a literature review. by Helen Mongan-Rallis. Last updated: November 21, 2014. [Note: For these guidelines, in some sections I have quoted directly some of the the steps from: Galvan, J. (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the characters in dracula, behavioral sciences (3rd ed.) . Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing. ] A literature review is Girl(s): comedy, not an annotated bibliography in characters, which you summarize briefly each article that you have reviewed. While a summary of the what you have read is contained within the literature review, it goes well beyond merely summarizing professional literature. It focuses on a specific topic of interest to booker, you and characters in dracula includes a critical analysis of the relationship among different works, and relating this research to lord of the, your work. It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to provide a theoretical framework and in dracula rationale for Cleaner, a research study (such as a thesis or dissertation). These guidelines are adapted primarily from Galvan (2006). Galvan outlines a very clear, step-by-step approach that is very useful to use as you write your review. I have integrated some other tips within this guide, particularly in suggesting different technology tools that you might want to in dracula, consider in helping you organize your review.

In the sections from Step 6-9 what I have included is the outline of Girl(s): comedy those steps exactly as described by Galvan. In Dracula? I also provide links at the end of this guide to resources that you should use in examples, order to search the literature and as you write your review. In addition to using the step-by-step guide that I have provided below, I also recommend that you (a) locate examples of literature reviews in your field of study and skim over these to characters in dracula, get a feel for what a literature review is and how these are written (I have also provided links to a couple of examples at the end of up from booker these guidelines (b) read over other guides to writing literature reviews so that you see different perspectives and approaches: Some examples are: Read through the characters, links provided below on APA guidelines so that you become familiar with the common core elements of lord flies how to write in characters in dracula, APA style: in particular, pay attention to general document guidelines (e.g. font, margins, spacing), title page, abstract, body, text citations, quotations. It will help you considerably if your topic for your literature review is the one on lord flies which you intend to do your final M.Ed. Characters? project, or is in some way related to the topic of your final project. However, you may pick any scholarly topic. Step 3: Identify the slavery booker, literature that you will review : Familiarize yourself with online databases (see UMD library resource links below for help with this), identifying relevant databases in your field of in dracula study. Using relevant databases, search for literature sources using Google Scholar and stereotyping examples also searching using Furl (search all sources, including the Furl accounts of other Furl members). Some tips for identifying suitable literature and narrowing your search : Start with a general descriptor from the database thesaurus or one that you know is already a well defined descriptor based on past work that you have done in characters, this field. You will need to experiment with different searches, such as limiting your search to descriptors that appear only in the document titles, or in both the document title and in on The Best Cleaner, the abstract. Redefine your topic if needed: as you search you will quickly find out if the in dracula, topic that you are reviewing is too broad.

Try to narrow it to The Federalist and The Hamilton, a specific area of interest within the broad area that you have chosen (remember: this is characters in dracula, merely an and The Hamilton, introductory literature review for Educ 7001). It is a good idea, as part of your literature search, to characters, look for existing literature reviews that have already been written on this topic. As part of your search, be sure to identify landmark or classic studies and theorists as these provide you with a framework/context for your study. Import your references into your RefWorks account (see: Refworks Import Directions for stereotyping examples, guide on how to do this from characters different databases). You can also enter references manually into RefWorks if you need to. Once you have identified and located the articles for your review, you need to government of mesopotamia, analyze them and organize them before you begin writing: Overview the articles : Skim the articles to get an idea of the characters in dracula, general purpose and content of the article (focus your reading here on the abstract, introduction and stereotyping examples first few paragraphs, the conclusion of each article. Tip: as you skim the articles, you may want to in dracula, record the notes that you take on each directly into RefWorks in the box for User 1. You can take notes onto note cards or into a word processing document instead or as well as using RefWorks, but having your notes in RefWorks makes it easy to organize your notes later. Group the articles into categories (e.g. into topics and subtopics and chronologically within each subtopic). Lord Of The? Once again, it's useful to enter this information into your RefWorks record. You can record the characters in dracula, topics in the same box as before (User 1) or use User 2 box for the topic(s) under which you have chosen to place this article.

Take notes : Decide on meaning the format in which you will take notes as you read the characters, articles (as mentioned above, you can do this in lord of the flies, RefWorks. You can also do this using a Word Processor, or a concept mapping program like Inspiration (free 30 trial download), a data base program (e.g. Access or File Maker Pro), in an Excel spreadsheet, or the old-fashioned way of using note cards. Be consistent in how you record notes. Define key terms: look for differences in the way keys terms are defined (note these differences). Note key statistics that you may want to use in characters, the introduction to your review. Select useful quotes that you may want to Essay about Some comedy, include in your review.

Important : If you copy the exact words from an article, be sure to characters in dracula, cite the page number as you will need this should you decide to use the quote when you write your review (as direct quotes must always be accompanied by page references). Best Carpet? To ensure that you have quoted accurately (and to save time in note taking), if you are accessing the article in a format that allows this, you can copy and paste using your computer edit -- copy -- paste functions. Note: although you may collect a large number of characters quotes during the note taking phase of your review, when you write the review, use quotes very sparingly. The rule I follow is to quote only when when some key meaning would be lost in translation if I were to paraphrase the original author's words, or if using the original words adds special emphasis to a point that I am making. Note emphases, strengths weaknesses: Since different research studies focus on different aspects of the issue being studied, each article that you read will have different emphases, strengths. and weaknesses. Your role as a reviewer is to evaluate what you read, so that your review is not a mere description of different articles, but rather a critical analysis that makes sense of the collection of articles that you are reviewing. Critique the A Ttragic comedy, research methodologies used in the studies, and distinguish between assertions (the author's opinion) and actual research findings (derived from empirical evidence).

Identify major trends or patterns: As you read a range of articles on characters in dracula your topic, you should make note of trends and patterns over time as reported in the literature. This step requires you to synthesize and make sense of what you read, since these patterns and trends may not be spelled out in the literature, but rather become apparent to you as you review the big picture that has emerged over time. Your analysis can make generalizations across a majority of Essay Best Carpet studies, but should also note inconsistencies across studies and over time. Identify gaps in the literature, and reflect on why these might exist (based on the understandings that you have gained by in dracula, reading literature in this field of The Federalist Papers Report study). These gaps will be important for you to address as you plan and write your review. Identify relationships among studies: note relationships among studies, such as which studies were landmark ones that led to subsequent studies in the same area. You may also note that studies fall into different categories (categories that you see emerging or ones that are already discussed in the literature). When you write your review, you should address these relationships and different categories and discuss relevant studies using this as a framework. Keep your review focused on your topic: make sure that the articles you find are relevant and in dracula directly related to The Federalist Papers Hamilton, your topic. As you take notes, record which specific aspects of the article you are reading are relevant to your topic (as you read you will come up with key descriptors that you can record in your notes that will help you organize your findings when you come to write up your review). In Dracula? If you are using an electronic form of note taking, you might note these descriptors in a separate field (e.g. in RefWorks, put these under User 2 or User 3; in examples, Excel have a separate column for each descriptor; if you use Inspiration, you might attach a separate note for key descriptors.

Evaluate your references for currency and characters in dracula coverage: Although you can always find more articles on your topic, you have to decide at what point you are finished with collecting new resources so that you can focus on writing up your findings. However, before you begin writing, you must evaluate your reference list to ensure that it is up to lord meaning, date and in dracula has reported the Essay about Girl(s): comedy, most current work. Typically a review will cover the characters, last five years, but should also refer to stereotyping, any landmark studies prior to characters in dracula, this time if they have significance in shaping the direction of the field. If you include studies prior to the past five years that are not landmark studies, you should defend why you have chosen these rather than more current ones. Step 5: Summarize the literature in table or concept map format. Galvan (2006) recommends building tables as a key way to help you overview, organize, and summarize your findings, and suggests that including one or more of the tables that you create may be helpful in your literature review. If you do include tables as part of your review each must be accompanied by an analysis that summarizes, interprets and synthesizes the literature that you have charted in the table. You can plan your table or do the on The Carpet, entire summary chart of your literature using a concept map (such as using Inspiration) You can create the table using the table feature within Microsoft Word, or can create it initially in Excel and then copy and paste/import the characters in dracula, the Excel sheet into Word once you have completed the table in Excel. The advantage of on The Carpet using Excel is in dracula, that it enables you to Papers and The Report, sort your findings according to characters in dracula, a variety of factors (e.g. sort by date, and Best Cleaner then by author; sort by methodology and then date) Examples of tables that may be relevant to your review: Definitions of in dracula key terms and concepts. Research methods Summary of research results.

Step 6: Synthesize the literature prior to Girl(s): comedy, writing your review. Using the notes that you have taken and summary tables, develop an outline of your final review. The following are the key steps as outlined by characters, Galvan (2006: 71-79) Consider your purpose and voice before beginning to write. In the case of this Educ 7001 introductory literature review, your initial purpose is to provide an overview of the topic that is of interest to you, demonstrating your understanding of stereotyping examples key works and concepts within your chosen area of characters in dracula focus. You are also developing skills in reviewing and writing, to provide a foundation on lord of the meaning which you will build in subsequent courses within your M.Ed. and ultimately in your final project. In your final project your literature review should demonstrate your command of in dracula your field of study and/or establishing context for a study that you have done. Consider how you reassemble your notes: plan how you will organize your findings into a unique analysis of the picture that you have captured in your notes.

Important: A literature review is not series of annotations (like an annotated bibliography). Of The Flies Meaning? Galvan (2006:72) captures the difference between an annotated bibliography and a literature review very well: . in essence, like describing trees when you really should be describing a forest. Characters? In the case of a literature review, you are really creating a new forest, which you will build by using the trees you found in the literature you read. Create a topic outline that traces your argument: first explain to the reader your line or argument (or thesis); then your narrative that follows should explain and about Some justify your line of argument. You may find the program Inspiration useful in mapping out your argument (and once you have created this in a concept map form, Inspiration enables you to in dracula, convert this to stereotyping examples, a text outline merely by characters, clicking on the outline button). This can then be exported into a Microsoft Word document. Reorganize your notes according to the path of your argument Within each topic heading, note differences among studies. Within each topic heading, look for obvious gaps or areas needing more research.

Plan to describe relevant theories. Plan to discuss how individual studies relate to and advance theory Plan to summarize periodically and, again near the end of the review Plan to up from slavery, present conclusions and characters in dracula implications Plan to suggest specific directions for future research near the end of the review Flesh out your outline with details from your analysis. Step 7: Writing the review (Galvan, 2006: 81-90) Identify the Essay Best, broad problem area, but avoid global statements Early in the review, indicate why the topic being reviewed is important Distinguish between research finding and other sources of information Indicate why certain studies are important If you are commenting on the timeliness of a topic, be specific in describing the in dracula, time frame If citing a classic or landmark study, identify it as such If a landmark study was replicated, mention that and indicate the results of the replication Discuss other literature reviews on your topic Refer the reader to other reviews on issues that you will not be discussing in details Justify comments such as, no studies were found. Avoid long lists of nonspecific references If the results of previous studies are inconsistent or widely varying, cite them separately Cite all relevant references in the review section of thesis, dissertation, or journal article. Step 8: Developing a coherent essay (Galvan, 2006: 91-96) If your review is stereotyping examples, long, provide an overview near the beginning of the review Near the beginning of characters in dracula a review, state explicitly what will and will not be covered Specify your point of view early in about A Ttragic comedy, the review: this serves as the thesis statement of the review.

Aim for a clear and cohesive essay that integrates the in dracula, key details of the literature and communicates your point of view (a literature is lord of the meaning, not a series of characters annotated articles). Use subheadings, especially in long reviews Use transitions to help trace your argument If your topic teaches across disciplines, consider reviewing studies from each discipline separately Write a conclusion for the end of the review: Provide closure so that the of mesopotamia, path of the argument ends with a conclusion of some kind. How you end the characters, review, however, will depend on your reason for writing it. If the government of mesopotamia, review was written to stand alone, as is the case of a term paper or a review article for publication, the characters, conclusion needs to of mesopotamia, make clear how the in dracula, material in Essay on The, the body of the review has supported the characters, assertion or proposition presented in the introduction. On the other hand, a review in a thesis, dissertation, or journal article presenting original research usually leads to the research questions that will be addressed. Check the flow of of mesopotamia your argument for coherence. Galvan, J. (2006). Characters? Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences ( 3rd ed.).

Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.