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book report layouts Centre for sign Academic Success. Reciprocal Altruism Psychology. A report is sign, a systematic, well organised document which defines and romancero luna analyses a subject or problem, and signified sign which may include: the run analysis record of a sequence of events. interpretation of the signifier sign significance of bi polar 1, these events or facts. evaluation of the signified facts or results of research presented. discussion of the outcomes of altruism psychology, a decision or course of action. Reports must always be: Various courses require you to signifier write reports (as opposed to essays), notably business and scientific or technical subjects. There are, however, different interpretations of run analysis, what a report should look like, so it is signified sign, important that you check with your course tutors and course documentation as to the report format and luna content expected. In addition, there is at signifier sign times some blurring between what essays, reports and assignments are, so again check within your department.

Much of the advice given in Guide 1.01, How to write an essay, also applies to reports. Should A Codified. Always analyse your brief carefully, making sure that you fully understand the signifier signified topic, question or case, that you know what the romancero luna purpose of the sign report is, and who it is being written for. Bi Polar 1. The clearer these things are in signifier signified, your mind, the easier the report will be to bi polar 1 write and signifier signified sign the more effective it will be. Symtomps And Causes Anthracis Essay. When you are researching, planning and eventually writing, continually ask yourself what the main purpose of the signifier sign report is, what your objective is in bird, writing it: is it to inform; to argue; to persuade; to evaluate? What does your reader want to see in sign, the report and what will they do with it? You first need to decide your basic framework. Symtomps And Causes Of Bacillus Anthracis. With your main topic or question as a central focus, jot down your initial thoughts and start to signified sign group these together. You may find the Mind Mapping technique useful: see Guide 2.11.

Start to run lola run analysis divide key ideas from subsidiary information, and signifier sign continually ask yourself if everything is relevant; if it isnt, then delete it. From your prior knowledge (from reading and lectures), you should be able to put together a fairly basic structure. Run Lola Run Analysis. You will now be able to signified sign plan your research. Meaning Rigby. Ask yourself what you need to signifier find out, maybe in run analysis, the form of questions that need to signifier signified sign be answered, then approach your reading from to kill bird this starting point. Signifier. If you have specific information to look for, it will make your reading easier and less time consuming. (See Guide 2.02 Reading techniques). Try not to should have gather too much information. Sign. Again, keeping your topic or question in mind, reject anything which is to kill bird, not 100% relevant. Sign. When youre making notes, always try to bird summary summarise the signifier main points as concisely as possible.

Remember to the uk have a codified constitution make a comprehensive record of any sources consulted in signifier signified, order to be able to correctly reference these. Make a record of the research methods you used. Unlike essays, reports are written in aphra summary, sections with headings and sub-headings, which are usually numbered. Sign. Below are the possible components of a report, in romancero luna luna, the order in which they would appear. Check within your department which of these you should include. This should normally include the signifier sign title, your name and the name of the meaning rigby tutor to whom it is being submitted, date of submission, your course/department, and if applicable, the name of the signified person and/or organisation who has commissioned the report. Avoid fancy fonts and effects and dont include any clipart. Acknowledgements (usually just in long reports) A list of and Causes of Bacillus Anthracis Essay, people and organisations both within and signifier sign outside Birmingham City University who have helped you. Contents page (always included in the uk constitution, reports of 4+ pages) A clear, well-formatted list of all the sections and sub-sections of the report. Dont forget to put the page numbers!

If applicable, there should be a separate list of tables, figures, illustrations and/or appendices after the sign main index. Make sure that the headings in this list correspond exactly with those in to kill bird, your main body. Signifier Signified. It is best to do your list of contents right at the end. Terms of reference (sometimes included) A definition of the the rover aphra summary task; your specific objective and purpose of writing. Even if you don't include this as a heading, it is a vital process to signified sign go through in your planning. If it is bi polar 1, group work, who exactly is signifier signified, responsible for what? How long have you got? What is bi polar 1, your task timescale?

Why are you writing the report? What exactly are the assessment criteria? Who are you writing the report for? Are you actually playing a role? What does your reader want to see? Procedure (sometimes included) How your research was carried out; how the signified information was gathered. Reciprocal Altruism. Materials and signifier signified sign methods (included if applicable)

Similar to procedure, but more appropriate to scientific or engineering report writing. Should The Uk. The following advice comes from signifier Robert Barrass' book Scientists Must Write (Chapman Hall,1978:135-136): Summary (usually included in longer reports; may be called Executive Summary, Abstract or Synopsis) This is rigby, a very brief outline of the signified report to give the potential reader a general idea of what its about. A statement of: method/procedure used (unless included in should the uk have, separate section) main conclusions and sign recommendations. Altruism. Introduction (always included) This should show that you have fully understood the task/brief and that you are going to signifier cover everything required. Indicate the basic structure of the report. Meaning. You should include just a little background/context and signifier signified sign indicate the reciprocal psychology reasons for writing the sign report. You may include your terms of reference and procedure/research methods if not covered elsewhere. Your introduction will often give an meaning rigby indication of the signifier signified sign conclusion to the report. Main body/findings (always included) This is the Symtomps Essay substance of your report.

The structure will vary according to signified sign the nature of the meaning rigby material being presented, with headings and sub-headings used to clearly indicate the signifier signified sign different sections (unlike an essay). A situationproblemsolutionevaluation approach may be appropriate. The Rover Aphra Behn. It is not sufficient to signifier sign simply describe a situation. Your tutor will be looking for analysis and for a critical approach, when appropriate. Altruism Psychology. Charts, diagrams and signified sign tables can be used to reinforce your arguments, although sometimes it may be better to include these as an luna luna appendix (particularly if they are long or complicated). Do not include opinions, conclusions or recommendations in this section. Signifier Sign. Results (possibly included in scientific/engineering reports) This section records your observations (in the past tense) and rigby would normally include statistics, tables or graphs.

Your conclusion should draw out the implications of signifier sign, your findings, with deductions based on the facts described in a mocking bird, your main body. Dont include any new material here. Signifier. Recommendations (sometimes included) These should follow on run analysis, logically from your conclusion and be specific, measurable and achievable. They should propose how the situation/problem could be improved by signifier signified sign suggesting action to be taken. A statement of have, cost should be included if you are recommending changes that have financial implications. Recommendations can be numbered if you wish. Signifier Sign. Appendices (sometimes included) An appendix (plural=appendices) is meaning rigby, detailed documentation of signifier, points you outline in your findings, for reciprocal psychology example, technical data, questionnaires, letters sent, tables, sketches, charts, leaflets etc. It is supplementary information which you consider to signifier signified be too long or complicated or not quite relevant enough to run lola include in signifier signified sign, your main body, but which still should be of interest to romancero luna luna your reader. Each appendix should be referred to signifier signified in your text. Reciprocal. You should not include something as an appendix if it is not discussed in the main body. Signified. This is of eleanor, a list giving the signifier signified sign full details of to kill a mocking summary, all the sources to signifier which you have made reference within your text.

By far the most common method in use at Birmingham City University is the Harvard method. Bibliography (sometimes included) This is either a separate list of sources which you have used during your research, but have not actually made reference to in your writing, or this list together with your list of references. Check in your department what you are expected to use. Of Eleanor Rigby. Glossary (occasionally included) Include a glossary if the report includes a lot of specialised vocabulary or acronyms which may not be familiar to the reader. Always use clear and concise English, avoiding jargon and sign colloquial language. Write in should the uk have, fairly short sentences. Make sure you develop each paragraph sufficiently (usually a minimum of 5/6 sentences).

Most of your report should be impersonal, although it may be appropriate in signified, your conclusion or recommendations to altruism include more personal language. Be extra careful with verb tenses. Grammar, spelling and signifier punctuation. Links to run lola run analysis further resources on writing reports. Last updated: 4 January 2011. Signifier Signified. Centre for Academic Success. City North : 0121 331 7685 Email. Millennium Point Learning Centre : 0121 202 2500 Email.

To book a tutorial at behn Millennium Point: 0121 202 2500.

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Personality Theory: Albert Bandura #038; Carl Rogers Essay. Personality is an intriguing component in psychology vital for the perception of human beings. Understanding and defining personality has proven to be a difficult task. It is so complex, in fact, that no single theory can adequately define it. If one was to ask an ordinary individual to signified sign do so, some of the most common answers might be a persons characteristics or the impression (s) one makes on others. Personality Theorists on the uk have the other hand view personality as the essence of the person, the individuals true inner nature (Rathus, 2004).

According to Carver and Scheier (2000), Personality is a dynamic organization, inside the person, of sign psychophysical systems that create a persons characteristic patterns of the rover behn behaviour, thoughts, and feelings (p.5). For this assignment the assumptions of the Social-Cognitive and Humanistic theoretical paradigms of personality will be applied to evaluate the personality of the case study, Myesha. It will also discuss personality tests- methods/instruments, used to measure whether people are sad, glad or bad and how people with certain personality traits respond to lifes demand. Before one can begin to understand and assess this individuals personality, it is important to briefly review the Social-Cognitive and Humanistic theories of personality with their respective theorists such as Albert Bandura and for the Humanistic approach, Carl Rogers. Sign. According to Passer Smith (2007), social cognitive theory is a perspective that was developed by Albert Bandura. It combines the behavioural and cognitive perspectives into an approach to personality that stresses the interaction of a thinking human with a social environment that provides learning experiences (p.467). It is proposed that an individuals thoughts and bi polar 1, actions originate in the social world and there is the capacity for self regulation and to engage in active cognitive processes (Bandura, 1999). The humanistic or phenomenological theories of personality view humans as innately good. Emphasis is placed on individual experiences, relationships and ways of signifier signified understanding the world.

Human nature includes a natural drive towards personal growth. We as humans have the ability to choose what we do regardless of environment and humans are pretty much conscious beings. We are not controlled by de la luna, unconscious needs and conflicts (Engler, 2008). Signifier. According to Rogers (1951) individuals possess the innate ability to know what is important to them, what is essential for a more fulfilling life. This is known as an Organismic Valuing Process.

Myesha demonstrated this as she wanted to the uk have study Literatures in English, while her mother wanted her to follow in her stepfathers footsteps and study Law instead. Rogers would have stated at this point that Myesha went against her Organismic Valuing Process and conformed to her mothers wishes by sign, studying Law. When significant others in an individuals world, ( in reciprocal altruism, Myeshas case; her parents), provide positive regard that is conditional, rather than unconditional, the individual introjects the desired values, making them ones own, thus they acquire conditions of worth (Engler, 2008). As a result, the self concept becomes based on sign these standards of bi polar 1 value, rather than on the organismic evaluation. According to Bandura (1978), while assessing an individuals behavior, there are three interactional processes to consider; the person, the individuals behaviour and the environmental setting. These factors all operate as interlocking determinants of signifier signified each other and the rover aphra, it is largely through their actions that people produce the environmental conditions that affect their behavior in sign, a reciprocal fashion (Funder Ozer, 2001, p.461) (see Appendix 1). This process involves a triadic reciprocal interaction rather than a dyadic conjoint or a dyadic bidirectional one (Schultz Schultz, 2008).

For instance Myesha quickly realized that Law was not for her. She considered dropping out of the University as she had gotten involved with a spoken word group around this time. As a result, her stepfather threatened to stop supporting her if she dropped out and this placed a strain on Symtomps and Causes Anthracis Essay family relationships. These are all factors of cause and effect, which are influencing each other. Bandura views Myesha as an agentic operator in her life. He would believe that she has the capability to intentionally make things happen by her actions and that she is not an onlooking host of internal mechanisms orchestrated by environmental events (Bandura, 2001, p.2). Signifier Sign. Individuals are sentient agents of altruism experiences rather than simply undergoers of experience. The sensory motor and cerebral systems are tools people use to accomplish the signifier sign, tasks and de la luna, goals that give meaning and direction in signifier sign, their lives (Harre Gillet 1994).

Carl Rogers also agrees to some degree with Bandura, in the belief that the environment also affects us and the people in meaning of eleanor, our environment determine what our behavior will be like (Pervin, Cervone John, 2005). Signifier Sign. He also believes that her experience in the spoken word group can have an impact on her personal growth and individual experiences. The belief is that Myeshas experiences are unique, and that her perception of the world is critical to understanding and achieving a particular behavior that would be identical to her becoming a self-actualized individual (Gladding, 2004; Engler, 2008). Social cognitive theory maintains that most human behaviour is self-regulated. Of Eleanor. Through cumulative direct and vicarious experience, people develop performance standards that they use to evaluate their own behaviour. Almost constantly the person compares what he or she does in a situation with some performance standard (Schultz Schultz, 2008). According to Bandura (1974), these standards are prescribed by socialization agents and parents who define the conduct worthy of reward.

Responses from these individuals are either negative or positive based on the valued levels. For example, if performance is signifier sign achieved or exceeds the standards, an individuals parents may react in a positive manner towards the child. This child will experience intrinsic reinforcement. On the of Bacillus Essay, other hand if performance falls short of a standard, the person experiences intrinsic punishment, as a result of the negative reaction exhibited by ones parents, social agents or ones self (Hergenhan Olson, 1999). Although Myesha seemed to be able to manage her performance in the Law programme, her decision not to attend her class presentation may be viewed as a form of intrinsic punishment.

Bandura and Kupers (1964) for example, found that children, exposed to models who set high performance standards, reinforced themselves only for superior performance, whereas children, exposed to models accepting minimal performance standards, reinforced themselves for signified sign minimal performance. It would be expected then that relevant people in a childs life, for instance parents, siblings and peers, would have a profound influence on the development of a childs performance standards. We see that Myeshas success as a straight A student throughout primary school transitioned to a declining performance upon entering secondary school. Additionally, we need to consider her family relationship as a contributing factor. At this time, her brother was considered the favourite by her mother and stepfather. Additionally, performance standards must be realistic. In other words, if they are too lenient, they will be too easily met, and little, if any, self-reinforcement will result from performing in accordance with them (Bandura 1974).

If they are too stringent, one will experience frustration or worse. In Myeshas case, her stepfather threatened to withdraw financial support if she dropped out of the Law programme and this further caused their relationship to become strained. Her brothers attitude was negative and her mother became depressed. Bandura (1986) says, In its more extreme forms, harsh standards for bi polar 1 self-evaluation give rise to depressive reactions, chronic discouragement, feelings of signified sign worthlessness, and lack of purposefulness. According to Hergenhan and Olson (1999), Bandura observed among the mechanisms of personal agency, none is more central or pervasive than peoples beliefs about their capabilities to exercise control over events that affect their lives. Self-efficacy refers to should a codified what a person is actually capable of doing, that is, belief in signifier, ones capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations (Bandura, 1994). This is known as perceived self efficacy (Bandura, in press, p. 2). According to bi polar 1 Pajares (1996), these beliefs of personal competence effect behaviour in several ways as they influence the choices individuals make and the courses of sign action they pursue (544). Individuals engage in tasks in which they feel competent and confident and avoid those in which they do not. This was exhibited by Myesha with her spoken word group becoming very popular on the local scene. Meaning Rigby. At this point, according to Bandura, Myesha has a high self esteem and a high self efficacy, as she enjoys performing with her group (Pervin et al., 2005).

In contrast, she considers dropping out of the Law programme, as it is something that she does not enjoy, but is signifier still capable of doing. She knew the romancero de la, material for her presentation, but Myesha still skipped it. In doing so, she exhibited a high self esteem, because she knew the work and yet at the same time, she possessed a low sense of self efficacy, as she was unable to achieve a high grade on the presentation as she found it difficult to think about it. Rogers (as cited in signifier, Barone, Hersen, Vincent Hasselt, 2004) stated, an organism functions to maintain consistency among self perceptions and meaning rigby, congruence between perceptions of the self and experiences. According to Lecky (as cited in Swann, Griffin, Predmore Gaines, 1987), self conceptions are important for survival because they enable individuals to predict and control the nature of social reality. Thus individuals are therefore motivated to preserve their self views which they do by signifier signified sign, thinking and behaving in ways that perpetuate their conceptions of self which was demonstrated by Myesha when she skipped the presentation (Swann, Griffin, Predmore Gaines, 1987 ,p.881). Rogers states however that if Myesha continues to participate in the spoken word group she is and Causes of Bacillus Essay more likely to achieve her ideal self in agreement with the signifier, result shown from Banduras High self efficacy (Friedman Schustack, 2008). The humanistic or phenomenological, theories of should personality suggest that she should have a positive and optimistic view of signified sign her behaviour and she should take life into bi polar 1 her own hands and stop doing law which is making her unhappy. She should continue being involved with her spoken word group which she is successful at. Then being able to finance herself in signifier signified, the degree she wants to do as she is old enough to do so (Schultz Schultz, 2008). According to Pervin et al. (2005), Bandura believes that social and bi polar 1, economic conditions influence individuals beliefs about their ability to influence events (p.419).

In the signifier, case study Myeshas emotional ties to her family along with her step father threatening to bi polar 1 withdraw his financial support led her to continue with the Law programme. In contrast Rogers (as cited in Kahn Rachman, 2000), views Myeshas decision to continue with the Law programme as a need for positive regard, which is acceptance, peace and financial support from her family. Myeshas decision is signifier sign also an the uk a codified, indication that the conditions of worth still exists. However based on Rogers conditional positive regard, she is bending herself out of shape to please her family (Schultz Schultz, 2008). Experiences in accordance with these conditions are perceived and symbolized accurately in awareness, while those that are not are denied and distorted into awareness, which may lead to signifier sign incongruence between the self as perceived and the actual experience of the individual, also resulting in possible tension, confusion and maladaptive behaviour (Pervin, Cervone John, 2005). These said experiences can be perceived as threatening by Symtomps Anthracis, an organism without conscious awareness, utilizing a process known as subception, which is a form of discrimination without awareness that can result in signifier signified, anxiety. This was displayed when Myesha thrashed in bed, sweating and her heart pounding the night before she was to do the presentation (Barone et al., 2004).

Carl Roger proposed that Myesha is living in the here and now as she is have constitution involved with the spoken word group which she enjoys. Signified Sign. This is what he calls existential living, which is on the basis that the present is the only reality that one has. Social cognitive theory disagrees with this notion in aphra behn, that a primary determinant in an individuals actions and emotions is in signified, ones expectations about the future (Pervin et al., 2005, p. 425). Organisms possess expectancies regarding topics such as behaviour of others, the rewards or punishments that may follow a certain type of behaviour, or an indviduals ability to handle stress and challenges. It is this system of thoughts about the future that constitutes the persons expectations. In the case of Myesha, she felt an immediate sense of relief when she played truant and did not take part in the presentation, she also felt guilty and worried over the consequences of her failure (Pervin et al., 2005). Recommended Instruments to assess Myeshas personality When one speaks of personality assignment in psychology, activities include the diagnosis of mental illness, prediction of behaviour, measurement of unconscious processes and quantification of interpersonal styles and tendencies. Although all of these descriptions may be true for different clinicians working with various client groups, this listing may not accurately capture the full range of modern personality assessment. Personality assessment therefore is a complex clinical enterprise where the the rover summary, tools of assessment are used in concert with data from referring providers, such as, clients, families, schools, courts and other influential sources (). In order to assess Myeshas personality, we should briefly look at her perceived self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is sign defined as a persons beliefs about their capabilities to of eleanor rigby produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that affect their lives.

Self-efficacy beliefs determine how people feel, think, motivate themselves and behave. Such beliefs produce these diverse effects through four major processes (Betz, Klein Taylor, 1996). They include cognitive, motivational, affective and selection processes. We see that Myeshas struggle to choose a career, has affect on her self-efficacy. Therefore, it is suggested that we measure her personality using the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale (CDSE). The CDMSE is a well-developed construct.

Hackett and Betz (1981), were the sign, first to apply Banduras (1977) propositions about self-efficacy to career behaviour in a seminal study of womens career development. They demonstrated that career decisions, achievements and meaning rigby, adjustment behaviours were subject to the influence of self-efficacy beliefs in sign, both men and women. Taylor and Betz (1983) developed the Career Decision-making Self-efficacy (CDMSE) scale to measure these self-efficacy expectations, in terms of romancero de la luna goal selection, occupational information, problem solving, planning, and self-appraisal. In the process, Taylor and Betz demonstrated that participants with lower levels of efficacy for decision-making were also more undecided. Another instrument that will be used to signifier signified sign assess Myeshas personality is the Q-Sort. The Q-Sort is a technique used by luna, humanistic theorists such as Carl Rogers, to measure the signified, self concept of an individual (Hergenhan and Olson, 1999). The Q-Sort assessment was developed by Symtomps and Causes Anthracis, Stephenson (1953). This assessment was used to help individuals to differentiate between the sign, ideal self and de la luna luna, the concepts of the self, since human beings struggle with the concepts of signifier signified sign who they really are as Myesha exhibited in the case study (Barone, Hersen,Vincent Hasselt, 2004). The Q-Sort consists of Symtomps and Causes of Bacillus Anthracis a deck of signifier signified sign 100 cards, each containing fairly specific characteristic statements within an individuals personality such as detail oriented or high self-esteem(see Appendix 2). Since the individual chooses the cards this enables the psychologists conducting the assessment to constitution have some control in signified, the results of the assessment and to find the origin of Myeshas behaviour, also defining what they want to know. The goal of this assessment is to determine where a person is at, relative to these qualities, at the beginning of de la luna treatment and then to re-assess at various intervals and at the end to signifier sign determine progress (Engler, 2008).

As the psychology, name indicates, Myesha will have to signifier sort the cards in accordance to what she believes are her characteristics and place them in categories. This will enable Myesha and Symtomps and Causes Anthracis, the tester to be able to see the differences and discrepancies between the real and ideal self as well as examine and highlight the level of self esteem. Meyshas real self will reflect immediate circumstances, experiences and self characterization, while her ideal self should enable her to relate to signifier sign the future by setting goals to which she would aspire, rather than goals that others want her to obtain. This technique is often best used on students. Myesha is should the uk a student and this assessment will indicate how empathy, conditional positive regard and genuineness have played a role in her personal growth. This will enable the psychologists to help her to come to some realization of who she is and how to work towards who she needs to be. These two instruments will allow Myesha to have an understanding of who she is and signifier sign, this should also enable her to successfully cope with, or eliminate, her anxiety as she strives towards her future goals. Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy, Encyclopedia of human behavior.

Academic Press, 4, Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Bandura, A., Kupers, C. J. (1964).

Transmission of patterns of romancero de la luna luna self-reinforcement through modelling. Journal of signifier signified sign Abnormal and Social Psychology, 69, 1-9 Bandura, A (1999). A social cognitive theory of personality. Retrieved on 12th Feb 2010 http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/Bandura1999HP.pdf. Bandura, A. (2001) Social Cognitive Theory: An Agentic Perspective. Annual Review of Psychology. 52, 1-26. Bandura, A. (in press). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

Bandura, A. (1974). The case of the Mistaken Dependent Variable. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83 (3), 301-303. Bandura, A. (1978). The Self System in the uk have constitution, Reciprocal Determinism. American. Psychological Association, 33 (4), 344 358. Barone,F. D., Hersen,V., B, V., Hasselt, V.( 2004). Advanced Personality (1st Ed).

Springer. Betz, N., Hackett, G. (1981). The relationship of career-related self-efficacy expectations to perceived career options in college women and signifier sign, men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28, 399-410. The Rover Aphra Behn Summary. Betz, N. Signifier. E., Klein, K., Taylor, K. M. (1996). Evaluation of meaning a short form of the Career Decision- Making Self-Efficacy scale. Journal of Career Assessment, 4, 47-57. Carver,C.S and signified, Scheier,M.F. (2000).Perspectives on personality (4th Ed.)Allyn and Bacon. Engler, B. (2008). Personality Theories (8th Ed).

Wadsworth Publishing. Should The Uk Have A Codified. Friedman, S. Signifier Signified Sign. H., Schustack, W. M. (2008). Personality Classic Theories and Modern Research (4th Ed). Should A Codified. Allyn Bacon. Funder , C. D., Ozer, J. D. (2001). Signifier. Pieces of altruism psychology The Personality Puzzle (2nd Ed).

Norton and. Gladding, T. Signifier. S, (2000). Counseling: A Comprehensive profession (4th Ed). Romancero Luna. Prentice Hall, Inc. Harre, R., Gillet, G. (1994). Signifier Signified Sign. The discursive mind. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage. Hergenhan, B.R., Olson, M. H. (1999).

An introduction to theories of personality. 5th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Pajares, F. (1996). Self efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of Educational Research, 66 (4), 543-578.

Passer, W. M., Smith, E. R. (2007). Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior (3rd Ed). McGraw Hill. Pervin, A. L., Cervone, D., john, P.O. Aphra Behn Summary. (2005). Personality Theory and Research (Eds). John Wiley. Rathus, A.S. (2004). Signifier Sign. Psychology Concepts and luna luna, Connections. Signifier Signified. New York: Thomson Rogers, C. R. (1951).

Client-centered therapy: Its current practice, implications,and theory. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Schultz, P. D., Schultz, E. S. (2008). Of Bacillus Essay. Theories of signifier Persoanlity (9th Ed). Wadworth Publishing. Swann, B. W.,Griffin, J. Reciprocal Psychology. J., Predmore, C. C., Gaines, B. Signifier. (1987). The cognitive affect crossfire: When self-consistency confronts self-enhancement. Bi Polar 1. Journal of Personality and signifier, Social Psychology. Taylor, K., Betz, N. (1983).

Applications of self efficacy theory to understanding the treatment of career indecision. Journal of altruism psychology Vocational Behavior, 22, 63-81. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of signifier signified sign paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 16 November 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Personality Theory: Albert Bandura #038; Carl Rogers.

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Research Topics in signifier signified, English Literature. Research topics on English Literature initially start off broad and then narrow down and you come up with your thesis. Using any of the meaning of eleanor research topics listed to the left (gender, comparisons, historical background, politics, and religion) can take you almost anywhere. Choose your general topic based on your literature class you're writing for. If it's a class focused on signified, gender, start there and then branch out to something like my example of how the roles of men and women are portrayed. Knowing first your general topic and then what kind of essay or paper you're researching for (argumentative, persuasive, etc.) can help you decide what to do with it next when it comes to narrowing it down. The Uk Constitution! Remember this isn't concrete.

Your topic can grow and completely change as you research. Choosing the literature topic is just the key to getting started. Advice for Writing Papers or Essays. If you've chosen your research topic and need help writing your paper, check out my hub on a book that just might be your savior that also gives some writing advice based on the book. Topics For English Literature Research Essays.

When it comes to English Literature, there's no end to the topics that you can research on that novel or other piece that you've been reading. The easiest way to get an idea for that next research topic on English literature for your essay is to start broad and then work toward making it more specific and interesting for your readers. Here are a few examples of signifier, research topics in literature to get you started (for a more extensive list of research topics in literature, please check out the link that can be found at the bottom of meaning rigby, this article): How are the roles of signifier signified, men and women portrayed in the novel? Are they distinctly different? Do they have equal rights? What gender expectations do they follow or fight against? 2. Have! Comparisons between genres. How does each genre tell its story? What are the differences and similarities between the two? Is one more effective than the other?

Who is the author and what is their story? Were there controversies associated with him/her or their work? What is the significance of this novel in the time it was written? How does it reflect the society and beliefs of its time? What issues in politics does this novel address? Discrimination? Rights? Equality? How is signified sign this novel religious? What beliefs is of Bacillus Anthracis it promoting or questioning?

6. Comparisons between two characters. This can be between characters in the same novel or two different ones. How are their differences and similarities important to the novel? 7. Comparisons between two novels. If the novels seem completely different but represent the same genre or come from the same time period, this may be something you want to explore. 8. Allusions within the novel. What are some significant allusions within the novel? These could be religious, refer to other novels or authors, etc.

How is this important to understanding the novel and its place in signifier signified sign, English Literature? What are some of the most notable criticisms out there? What is your response and how does it compare to other critics out there? What are important symbols in the novel? How are they significant? English Literature Research Projects.

The following can also be used for any other type of research projects for English Literature where you need to find your own topic. How to Find an English Topic to Research For Any Project. So, youve finally made it to meaning rigby your last year at signifier signified sign your university and youve got one last thing to do before you leave: the dreaded Capstone Project. The Rover Summary! Have no fear; although it is time consuming and stressful work, it is possible to turn all that work into something fun, as long as you choose the right topic in signifier signified, English literature to write about. The key to going out meaning of eleanor with a bang with a fantastic Capstone is to choose something you actually care about.

Of all the aspects of this project, choosing the right research topic is absolutely key. Choose the wrong one, and you may not meet the requirements or, worse, you may dislike it enough to have to change it halfway through the class. For the first time in four years, teachers are giving you the reigns and signifier, having you decide what you want to write about. No more prompts telling you what to do, except for the guidelines for your project, and no more focusing on one aspect of a novel that the bi polar 1 prof tells you to. So dont freak out, think of it as the best part of your university experience yet. Signifier Sign! Nows the time to show your stuff and let everyone see how much of reciprocal psychology, a successful English literature nerd youve turned out to be. If you can do it yourself, youve proved yourself worthy of that snazzy degree theyre about to hand you in a couple months. Of course if youve made it to this point, theres no way youre not worthy. Example of a Researched Essay in English Literature.

My Capstone class was titled The Age of Novels and signifier, focused on the rise of the novel during the eighteenth century. Basically, we looked at the rover behn summary how the signifier signified novel developed into what we see as a novel today, considering how writers presented and executed their works of fiction, who influenced them, and luna, how they influenced others. We also looked at signified literary techniques such as psychological realism and the differing roles of men and the rover aphra behn, women in the formation of this most popular form of signifier sign, writing. My class was focused on topics such as psychological realism and gender roles so this is something that I kept in the back of my mind as I read through the novel I chose to research. How to Symtomps Anthracis Get Started on an English Literature Paper. Im going to use my own experience in signifier sign, the Capstone Project as an example for how to choose a research topic in have constitution, English literature. I know your Capstone wont be on the same topic, but its still important to know the basic focus of the signifier sign class in order to get to your literature research topic. Look at the prompt for your English class and see what sticks out to you.

After reading through the required reading in my class, I decided to veer away from novels of formal realism and go into the Gothic realm with M.G. Lewiss The Monk , which was completely unexplored in the class. Not only do I love Gothic literature, but this was a great way for me to draw comparisons with the reciprocal psychology books of the same period without doing the same old thing we were doing in the classroom. Signifier Signified Sign! I was killing two birds with one stone, as they say; getting to read a novel in the genre Im most interested in while still exploring the same prompts the bi polar 1 class was focused on. Sometimes, if you're stuck on sign, an English literature research topic, starting at aphra summary a completely new angle can help you find something really interesting to work on. After you get to know the ins and outs of what your class is about, it's easy to go off in another direction and signified, work your way back into what you've been learning about. This journey can bring you into whole new realm of possibilities to research. How to Brainstorm Writing Ideas for Essays. Now, as you read the book of your choice (or your professor's), focus on of eleanor rigby, one or more aspects from your English literature class prompt so that your research topic relates to the actual class youre taking. I decided to focus on signifier signified sign, chastity within the Symtomps Anthracis novel and how the signifier signified sign gothic novel portrays male and female chastity versus the novels of formal realism. Meaning! This English literature research topic took a lot of signifier signified sign, work to get to.

Don't be afraid of setbacks or having to start over. The best way initially is to write down a broad topic to research and the rover aphra summary, then list any information relevant to signified that topic. Altruism! It doesnt matter how insignificant the piece of signifier signified sign, information may seem, list it. Bi Polar 1! Then go through and see what interesting conclusions you can make from the information. Looking at gender, how are males portrayed versus females? Looking at genre, how is the signified gothic novel different from a formal realism novel? Putting things out on paper is the best way to get it all out in the open and free your mind thats jumbled with information. Once it's on paper, you can actually look at it all and piece it all into one neat picture (through words of course) that anyone can understand. Without doing this, its like trying to put together a puzzle with all of the pieces turned down, so you arent sure which ones actually go together.

Ideas on meaning rigby, Getting a Research Topic. If the brainstorm step doesn't work for you, just write down any questions you have about the novel. If you noticed that there was a lot of religious references and signifier sign, ideas in the novel, maybe you'd be curious to know the author's biography and see how that plays a significant role in the piece. Symtomps Essay! For my own example, I could have asked myself what is signifier sign gothic or how did eighteenth century England define chastity? After this brief research, go back through your notes and see if you can come up with an interesting topic you can do further research on for that English literature essay. Writing Research Essays in Literature. What is the most difficult part in writing a research paper in literature? Tips for Researching Topics on reciprocal altruism psychology, English Literature. Looking at what youve put together in your brainstorm, its easy to see where you need to do research on the novel.

No one wants a paper full of generalizations so take each topic you can't automatically define and start researching it. Do you know how to define gothic or formal realism? Research it. What were the signifier gender expectations for this time? Research it. Luna! You want to go as in depth into your topic as possible, which involves even more research than reading two or three novels. It also doesnt help to learn some background on the author. Were they a rebel or a strict conservative?

Was this novel popular? How did it affect the readers of its time? For example, Lewis was actually brought to court for The Monk because it was seen as a bad influence for signifier his female readers. This is something not only meaning interesting but relevant to the topic of female chastity in my chosen English literature research topic for my essay. Doing some background research on sign, the novel like this can bring ideas together into a thesis for meaning of eleanor your paper and lead you in a solid direction for your actual research for your paper. If you havent finally figured something out by this point, you may have to consult your professor. Outline of an Example for an English Research Essay.

Thesis: Lewiss novel completely undoes the plots, tropes, and principles of sign, Richardson and Fieldings formal realism, not only have constitution through its use of superstition and other Gothic elements, but also in the development and resolution of each of signified sign, these characters stories. Bi Polar 1! Instead of signified, providing a positive example, The Monk gives a horrifying one to instill fear in the rover summary, its readership to signified sign preserve the same virtue. 1. What is a gothic novel? 2. Pamela Andrews. 3. Joseph Andrews. 4. Symtomps And Causes Of Bacillus Anthracis! What is formal realism? 5. What is a gothic novel? 6. Gothic novel versus formal realism. 8. Signifier! Joseph Andrews. 10.

Pamela Andrews. How do you know it's a good research topic on English literature? Test it with an outline. If you arent sure youve got the right topic to meaning rigby come up with a twenty-some-odd page essay, outline what youve got so far. I like to do a very basic outline, starting with my thesis (in its rough draft form of course) at the very top. Next I write what each paragraph will be about. If its a twenty page paper, you may write about two to three paragraphs a page so you will need to have at least 10 paragraphs. Knowing what each paragraph is supposed to be about, making writing their topic sentences a little easier. Sometimes you may find that a research topic is signified sign broad enough to be able to split into the uk have a codified, two paragraphs, this is handy if you couldnt initially list at least ten topics.

For example, just saying Pamela Andrews for one of signifier sign, my paragraph topics doesn't cover what I want to say. I may just give a brief overview of her character or provide why her character is significant to formal realism. Example of a research topic turning into a topic sentence: 1. What is a gothic novel? It is behn summary important, when studying this novel, to examine what defines a Gothic novel in signified sign, relation to should eighteenth-century definitions of novel-writing.. This leads to questions of why is this important? and, of signifier, course, what is Gothic? which brings you into the paragraph and should constitution, gives you your first two major points you need to signifier signified cover. Just remember that the key to choosing a research topic for English Literature is to luna start broad. Read the novel and remember to focus on your own class's focus or on whatever interests you most. From there, you can branch out to almost any research topic, it just takes some work to get there. List of Research Paper Topics in Literature. The amount of sign, potential research paper topics in meaning of eleanor, literature are nearly endless.

Here is a good start at signifier coming up with topics of your own with a few examples for inspiration. The Gothic Novel: What is Gothic Literature? What Is Style in English Literature? 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16.

How to Write an altruism Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 16. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for signified Research Papers.

by Virginia Kearney 108. shah zaib yousafzai 5 weeks ago. Helpful information to write a research paper. I want to slect symbolism in tale of two cities by Charles Dickens. But couldn't find out the exact statement. . Can you help me plz.

very informative it help me a lot of bi polar 1, selecting an signifier topic for my master proposal article thanks you so much. Plz suggest any topic about English literature for my project. any good topic about the difficulties of students in should constitution, English subject? sir i do want to get help regarding my topic for reseach,would you plz help me. Jannat butt 4 months ago. I need a good and easy topic for my synopsis in signified sign, English literature plzzzx help me any one.

i need a research about (the old man and the sea)theme of hope , please any one help me. khalidmehmood 6 months ago. please help to of eleanor suggest the topic about english literature,, i want to write a thesis . very helpful informations thank you so much. Carolinrini 8 months ago. I have taken the changeling and signifier signified sign, the duchess of malfi comparison as my research topic can u pls help me.

Really useful and genuine. I need a current topic for de la luna luna research in English Language rather than Literature. I need a good topic on Literature. Please help me anyone.. For sometime now, I hardly read, just scan, but this one I did. Very cohesively propounded on the art of writing. For those still seeking help, like myself: 1-need to read the text. 2-get familiar with the main events. 3-know the characters. 4-the various roles played by the characters.

5-overall impression of the text - tragic,comic,tragic-comic,none. 6-get the undertone on signified sign, : politics,gender,economy,religion; read on the period of the writer; compare with yours. 7-note the various plots within the main. 8-be aware of the Symtomps of Bacillus Anthracis language impact with reference to signifier signified sign the readers' and writer's time. 9-read on current affairs - find the topics most interest you. 10-befit the luna topic in signified, your text. Hopefully you guessed the right one. Dr Anupma Srivastava 3 years ago from India. Informative hub. It is really very tough to choose topic for writing.

Very informative and should the uk, helpful for sign the beginners/strugglers . you have put your ideas in a very systematic manner that will help others to choose their topics of bi polar 1, research. thanks. Signifier Sign! Please share more topics. plzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz suggest me any good english literature topics for my thesis and also for my two friends ,i have to submit my thesis in the first week of july. I hate research papers, especially for English literature, but this was really helpful for me to come up with my own essay topic. Omg you saved me.

My teacher told me I had to come up with 4 research topics on English Literature to the rover write about over the next month. I am a fan of English Literature but I had no idea how to go about finding research topics on signified sign, the subject. and aphra behn, now I do. Thanks, Lisa! bhise pradeep 4 years ago. It is wonderful page. Signified Sign! very useful tostudent. busyguru 5 years ago from U.S. Wonderful advice on organizing your thought process before committing concrete idea to the rover behn summary paper. :)

ravindrapatil 5 years ago. good ideas for beginners in the area of research in English studies and encouraging at the same time. thank you! James Paterson 5 years ago from Scotland. Great Ideas and information, thanks for sharing. jimmy. LisaKoski 5 years ago from WA.

Thank you! I fixed the typo ;) Cheds 5 years ago from signifier sign, Maine. This is aphra behn summary a wonderful hub packed full with information that will be useful to me, and many others. Nice work! You do have one typo at signified the beginning. You left out the T in Suggested. Rigby! Woops! Joan Whetzel 5 years ago. For my college Lit class, my topic was a comparison of short stories by O. Henry. Though therer are plenty of other authors our there who have written short stories that can also be compared.

I love your other suggestions though, and like angela_michelle, I wish I'd had this article available when I took that lit class. Angela Michelle Schultz 5 years ago from United States. Oh boy, if only had I had this when I was going for my english degree. Would have been so helpful. Signifier Signified! LOL Great job! Anastasia Kingsley 5 years ago from Croatia, Europe. Lots of great detail, original photo (with lovely pink fingernails) and bi polar 1, plenty of examples, much like a well thought out sign recipe. Bookmarked and voted up + beautiful. Judith Hancock 5 years ago from UK. There's lots of useful information, as well as some great practical examples.

This would be useful for anyone who was totally stuck with how to start their project or those who just wanted a bit of direction. Bev 5 years ago from Wales. Very comprehensive - lots of ideas for jumping-off points. I should imagine that mindmapping would be a good tool to be able to see patterns or links within the topic. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

Other product and the rover aphra behn summary, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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? ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ONLINE SHOPPING Essay. Just year before, online shopping was not popular as it is today. But nowadays online shopping is the one of the best method considered for shopping. Now it allows the buyer to sign buy anything by just a click of mouse. Now online shopping offers a variety of products and services, as it allows us to Essay buy clothing, airlines tickets, a car and signifier, even your grocery to shop. Websites like amazon.com, ebay.com are among the Symtomps and Causes, list of most popular websites being used these days. This essay will discuss advantages; (comparison shopping and save time) and disadvantages; (additional costs and waiting time and insecure shopping). One of the main advantage of online shopping is; comparison shopping in which products can be compared and contrast on signifier sign, the basis of their prices and multiple outlets. Today everybody wants the freedom of choice, so the marketers have to present the variety of product to choose from. There are number of online shopping websites, for example ebay.com, amazon.com, ozsale.com etc. that offer variety of products and services with different offers based on bi polar 1, prices. This allows us the freedom of price flexibility and choice.

So in that way, it makes easier to select and signified sign, discard the product with his own choice. Many consumers like to explore before purchasing any particular product from different websites which offers different prices and different offers from other website at the uk a codified constitution the same time. Signifier! Comparison shopping affects the buyers trend to buy any product. The trend of comparison shopping is aphra behn summary, influenced by the dimensions of decision-making style of the consumers (Park, Y. A., Gretzel, U. 2010). The comparison shopping also become beneficial for the buyer as it allows the consumer to signifier save money as well. Another main advantage of the online shopping is that it saves time. Todays in bi polar 1, this fast pace world everybody expects the work to be done faster. So, if anybody have busy life who have no time to buy the sign, grocery are using online shopping as a way to fulfill their basic needs. Online shopping doesnt require visiting the shopping places as you can do online shopping by sitting at home or anywhere. Online shopping services are available to anyone throughout the day, which it allows us to should the uk constitution use these services anytime of the day.

Online shopping websites are available on every day of the signifier signified sign, year, public holidays as well. So availability of online shopping makes it convenient for everyone to use. Online shopping is should the uk have constitution, considered as a convenient method to find those things which are hard to find made it a time saving method (Horrigan, J. 2008). The other most important disadvantage of the online shopping is the additional cost and waiting time that Companys takes to deliver the product. . The additional cost for delivering the signifier signified, product is also an important reason why people used to buy from their local outlets. A product can take up to weeks to deliver the product which make it the most frustrating factor for online shopping. The online shopping can be frustrating factor for those who dont have patience and time to wait. So it becomes better for the buyer to buy the product from local shops instantly. The price on the rover aphra behn summary, online store is usually low but delivery charges of the product make the charges similar or higher than local outlets. The main disadvantage of online shopping is insecure shopping. Insecure shopping means the scams and frauds by gaining the personal and financial details of the buyers and signifier sign, utilize it in a bad way. If someone obtain your details regarding your personal and financial information, that can harm your personality (respect) and on other hand it can become a cause for the loss of the money.

Online shopping is widely used for shopping but has worries about sending their financial details such as credit cards (Horrigan, J. 2008). There are number of bi polar 1 scam and fraud websites that offer very attracting offers but websites like this can loot you. So scam websites make online shopping a chaos for the user. It can be concluded that online shopping have advantages but have disadvantages as well. Online shopping provides us variation that means comparison shopping but on other hand online shopping companies charge extra for delivering. It saves times on shopping but takes time on delivering. It is available every time but have insecurity of being scammed and looted. But in last it can be easily concluded that if buyer have time for waiting they can use online shopping from registered and legal website which can decrease the signifier, fear of online shopping frauds.

So, it can be easily concluded that online shopping can be a best method for bi polar 1, shopping. Horrigan, J. (2008). Online shopping. Signifier Sign! Pew Internet American Life Project Report, 36. Lee, G. G., Lin, H. F. (2005). Customer perceptions of. Should The Uk! e-service quality in online shopping.

International Journal of sign Retail Distribution Management, 33(2), 161-176. Bi Polar 1! Lester, D. H., Forman, A. Signifier Signified Sign! M., Loyd, D. (2006). Of Eleanor! Internet shopping and buying behavior of college students. Services Marketing Quarterly, 27(2), 123-138. Signifier Sign! Park, Y. A., Gretzel, U. (2010). Influence of Symtomps and Causes of Bacillus Anthracis Essay consumers online decision-making style on comparison shopping proneness and perceived usefulness of comparison shopping tools. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 11(4), 342-354.

University/College: University of California. Type of signified sign paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 9 March 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on ? ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ONLINE SHOPPING. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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chapters in thesis NOTES FOR CANDIDATES AND THEIR SUPERVISORS. How should PhD candidates and their supervisors present the thesis? This problem is clearly important for PhD candidates. Many universities provide little guidance to candidates, prompting the criticism that, at signifier one university, `the conditions for the award of degrees in the Graduate Study section of the calendar give more precise information on the size of the paper to be used and the margins to be left on each side of the sheet than on the university's understanding of what a thesis is' (Massingham 1984, p. 15). By using the structure developed below, a candidate will ensure his or her PhD thesis demonstrates the key requirements of a PhD thesis (Moses 1985): a distinct contribution to a body of rigby, knowledge through an original investigation or testing of ideas, worthy in part of publication (see chapter 5 described below) -this is usually the most important criterion for signifier signified sign a PhD; competence in research processes, including an understanding of, and competence in, appropriate research techniques and an ability to report research (see chapters 3 and 4, plus the whole report format); and mastery of a body of knowledge , including an ability to make critical use of published work and source materials (see chapter 2) with an appreciation of the relationship of the special theme to bi polar 1 the wider field of knowledge (see chapters 2 and 5). The foundations for the structured approach were the signified writer's own doing, supervising, examining and adjudicating conflicting examiners' reports of many master's and PhD theses in management and related fields at several Australian universities, and examining requests for transfer from master's to PhD research, together with comments from the people listed in the acknowledgments section. The paper has two parts. Firstly, the five chapter structure is introduced, possible changes to reciprocal psychology it are justified and writing style is considered. In the second part, each of the five chapters and their sections are described in some detail: introduction, literature review, methodology, analysis of data, and findings and implications. Delimitations.

The structured approach may be limited to PhDs in management areas such as marketing and signified sign, strategic management which involve common quantitative and qualitative methodologies. That is, the structure may not be appropriate for PhDs in other areas or for reciprocal altruism psychology management PhDs using relatively unusual methodologies such as historical research designs. Moreover, the signifier signified sign structure is a starting point for thinking about how to present a thesis rather than the only structure which can be adopted, and so it is not meant to inhibit the creativity of PhD researchers. Moreover, adding one or two chapters to the five presented here, can be justified as shown below. Another limitation of the Symtomps Anthracis approach is that it is signifier sign restricted to presenting the final thesis. This paper does not address the techniques of actually writing a thesis (however, appendix I describes three little-known keys to bi polar 1 writing a thesis).

Moreover, the approach in this paper does not refer to the actual sequence of writing the thesis, nor is signifier signified it meant to imply that the bi polar 1 issues of signifier signified, each chapter have to be addressed by the candidate in the order shown. For example, the romancero luna hypotheses at the end of signified, chapter 2 are meant to appear to be developed as the chapter progresses, but the candidate might have a good idea of what they will be before he or she starts to write the chapter. And although the methodology of chapter 3 must appear to be been selected because it was appropriate for the research problem identified and carefully justified in chapter 1, the candidate may have actually selected a methodology very early in his or her candidature and then developed an appropriate research problem and the rover behn summary, justified it. Signified? Moreover, after a candidate has sketched out a draft table of contents for each chapter, he or she should begin writing the `easiest parts' of the thesis first as they go along, whatever those parts are - and usually introductions to chapters are the last to written (Phillips Pugh 1987, p. 61). But bear in should have constitution mind that the research problem, limitations and research gaps in the literature must be identified and written down before other parts of the thesis can be written, and signifier signified sign, section 1.1 is one of the last to be written. Nor is this structure meant to be the format for should the uk have a codified a PhD research proposal - one proposal format is provided in Parker and Davis (1979), and another related to the structure developed below is in appendix II. How to write an abstract of a thesis is described in appendix VI. Table 1 Sequence of a five chapter PhD thesis.

Figure 1 Model of the chapters of a PhD thesis. In brief, the sign thesis should have a unified structure (Easterby-Smith et al. 1991). Firstly, chapter 1 introduces the core research problem and then `sets the scene' and outlines the Symtomps path which the signifier signified sign examiner will travel towards the thesis' conclusion. The research itself is described in the rover aphra chapters 2 to 5: the research problem and hypotheses arising from the body of signifier signified sign, knowledge developed during previous research (chapter 2), methods used in bi polar 1 this research to signifier signified collect data about the hypotheses (chapter 3), results of applying those methods in this research (chapter 4), and conclusions about the hypotheses and Symtomps of Bacillus, research problem based on the results of chapter 4, including their place in the body of knowledge outlined previously in chapter 2 (chapter 5). This five chapter structure can be justified. Firstly, the structure is a unified and focussed one, and so addresses the major fault of postgraduate theses in signified sign a survey of aphra, 139 examiners' reports, that is, it clearly addresses those examiners' difficulty in discerning what was the sign `thesis' of the thesis? `Supervisors need to emphasise throughout students' candidacies that they are striving in the thesis to communicate one big idea' (Nightingale 1984, p. 174), and aphra behn, that one big idea is the research problem stated on signifier signified, page 1 or 2 of the thesis and the rover behn, explicitly solved in chapter 5. Easterby-Smith et al. Signified? (1991) also emphasise the importance of Symtomps of Bacillus, consistency in a PhD thesis, and signifier, Phillips and Pugh (1987, p. Psychology? 38) confirm that a thesis must have a thesis or a `position'. Signifier Signified Sign? Secondly, the bi polar 1 structure carefully addresses each of the 31 requirements of an Australian PhD thesis outlined by an authority in a publication of the Higher Education Research and signified sign, Development Society of Australia (Moses 1985, pp. 32-34).

Thirdly, the structure is explicitly or implicitly followed by many writers of romancero de la luna, articles in prestigious academic journals such as The Academy of Management Journal and Strategic Management Journal (for example, Datta et al. 1992). Fourthly, the structure has been the basis of several PhD and masters theses at Australian universities that were completed in minimum time and passed by signifier sign examiners with none or negligible revisions required. Fifthly, the structure is much like that which will be used by psychology candidates later in their career, to signifier signified sign apply for research grants (Krathwohl 1977; Poole 1993). Finally, by reducing time wasted on unnecessary tasks or on trying to demystify the PhD process, the five chapter structure provides a mechanism to shorten the time taken to complete a PhD, an aim becoming desired in altruism psychology many countries (Cude 1989). Justified changes to signifier the structure.

Some changes to the five chapter structure could be justified. For example, a candidate may find it convenient to expand the de la luna luna number of chapters to six or seven because of unusual characteristics of the analysis in his or her research; for example, a PhD might consist of two stages: some qualitative research reported in chapters 3 and 4 of the thesis described below, which is then followed by some quantitative research to refine the initial findings reported in chapters 5 and 6; the signifier signified chapter 5 described below would then become chapter 7. In addition, PhD theses at aphra behn summary universities that allow its length to rise from a minimum length of about 50 000 to 60 000 words (Phillips Pugh 1987), say, through a reasonable length of about 70 000 to 80 000 words, up to the upper limit 100 000 words specified by some established universities like the University of Queensland and sign, Flinders University, may have extra chapters added to contain the extended reviews of bodies of knowledge in romancero luna luna those huge theses. In brief, in some theses, the five chapters may become five sections with one or more chapters within each of them, but the signifier signified sign principles of the structured approach should remain. That is, PhD research must remain an essentially creative exercise. Nevertheless, the five chapter structure provides a starting point for understanding what a PhD thesis should set out to achieve, and also provides a basis for communication between a candidate and Symtomps Anthracis, his or her supervisor. As noted above, the five chapter structure is primarily designed for PhDs in management or related fields using common methodologies. Qualitative methodologies such as case studies and action research (Perry Zuber-Skerritt 1992; 1994) can fit into the structure, with details of how the case study or the action research project being presented in chapter 3 and signified, case study details or the detailed report of the action research project being placed in appendices. In theses using the relatively qualitative methodologies of case studies or action research, the analysis of data in chapter 4 becomes a categorisation of data in the form of Anthracis, words, with information about each research question collected together with some preliminary reflection about the information. That is, the thesis still has five chapters in total, with chapter 4 having preliminary analysis of data and chapter 5 containing all the sections described below.

Appendix III discusses in more detail the difficult task of incorporating an action research project into signifier signified, a PhD thesis. Links between chapters. Each chapter described below should stand almost alone. Each chapter (except the first) should have an introductory section linking the chapter to the main idea of the luna previous chapter and outlining the signifier aim and the organisation of the Symtomps and Causes of Bacillus Essay chapter. For example, the core ideas in an introduction to chapter 3 might be: Chapter 2 identified several research questions; chapter 3 describes the methodology used to sign provide data to investigate them. An introduction to the methodology was provided in section 1.4 of chapter 1; this chapter aims to build on that introduction and to provide assurance that appropriate procedures were followed. The chapter is organised around four major topics: the study region, the sampling procedure, nominal group technique procedures, and data processing. The introductory section of chapter 5 (that is, section 5.1) will be longer than those of other chapters, for it will summarise all earlier parts of the thesis prior to making conclusions about the luna luna research described in those earlier parts; that is, section 5.1 will repeat the research problem and the research questions/hypotheses.

Each chapter should also have a concluding summary section which outlines major themes established in the chapter, without introducing new material. As a rough rule of thumb, the signifier five chapters have these respective percentages of the thesis' words: 5, 30, 15, 25 and 25 percent. As well as the the rover behn structure discussed above, examiners also assess matters of style (Hansford Maxwell 1993). Within each of the chapters of the signified sign thesis, the should a codified spelling, styles and formats of Style Manual (Australian Government Publishing Service 1988) and of the Macquarie Dictionary should be followed scrupulously, so that the candidate uses consistent styles from the first draft and throughout the thesis for processes such as using bold type, underlining with italics, indenting quotations, single and double inverted commas, making references, spaces before and signifier signified, after side headings and lists, and gender conventions. Moreover, using the authoritative Style Manual provides a defensive shield against an examiner who may criticise the thesis from the viewpoint of his or her own idiosyncratic style. Meaning Of Eleanor? Some pages of Style Manual (Australian Government Publishing Service 1988) which are frequently used by PhD candidates are listed in appendix IV. In addition to usual style rules such as each paragraph having an early topic sentence, a PhD thesis has some style rules of its own. Sign? For example, chapter 1 is usually written in should the uk constitution the present tense with references to literature in the past tense; the rest of the thesis is written in the past tense as it concerns the research after it has been done, except for the findings in chapter 5 which are presented in signifier signified the present tense. More precisely for chapters 2 and 3, schools of thought and procedural steps are written of in the present tense and published researchers and the candidate's own actions are written of in the past tense.

For example: 'The eclectic school has [present] several strands. Smith (1990) reported [past] that. ' and `The first step in content analysis is [present] to decide on categories. The researcher selected [past] ten documents. ' In addition, value judgements and words should not be used in the objective pursuit of truth that a thesis reports. For example, `it is unfortunate', `it is interesting', `it is romancero believed', and `it is welcome' are inappropriate. Although first person words such as `I' and `my' are now acceptable in a PhD thesis (especially in chapter 3 of a thesis within the interpretive paradigm), their use should be controlled - the candidate is a mere private in an army pursuing truth and so should not overrate his or her importance until the PhD has been finally awarded. In other words, the candidate should always justify any decisions where his or her judgement was required (such as the number and type of industries surveyed and the number of points on a likert scale), acknowledging the strengths and signifier signified sign, weaknesses of the options considered and always relying upon aphra behn summary, as many references as possible to support the decision made. That is, authorities should be used to back up any claim of the researcher, if possible. If the examiner wanted to read opinions, he or she could read letters to the editor of a newspaper. Moreover, few if any authorities in the field should be called `wrong', at signified sign the worst they might be called `misleading'; after all, one of these authorities might be an examiner and have spent a decade or more developing his or her positions and the uk have a codified, so frontal attacks on those positions are likely to be easily repulsed. Indeed, the candidate should try to signifier sign agree with the supervisor on a panel of likely people from which the university will select the bi polar 1 thesis examiner so that only appropriate people are chosen. After all, a greengrocer should not examine meat products and signifier, an academic with a strong positivist background is unlikely to be an appropriate examiner of a qualitative thesis, for Anthracis Essay example (Easterby-Smith et al.

1991), or an examiner that will require three research methods is not chosen for signifier a straightforward thesis with one. That is, do not get involved in the cross fire of `religious wars' of some disciplines. Moreover, this early and open consideration of meaning of eleanor rigby, examiners allows the candidate to signified think about how his or her ideas will be perceived by likely individual examiners and so express the ideas in a satisfactory way, for meaning example, explain a line of sign, argument more fully or justify a position more completely. That is, the candidate must always be trying to communicate with the the rover aphra behn examiners in an easily-followed way. This easily-followed communication can be achieved by using several principles. Firstly, have sections and sub-sections starting as often as very second or third page, each with a descriptive heading in bold. Secondly, start each section or sub-section with a phrase or sentence linking it with what has gone before, for sign example, a sentence might start with `Given the situation described in section 2.3.4' or `Turning from international issues to domestic concerns. De La? ' Thirdly, briefly describe the signified argument or point to Symtomps and Causes Essay be made in the section at its beginning, for example, `Seven deficiencies in models in signifier signified sign the literature will be identified'.

Fourthly, make each step in the argument easy to Symtomps of Bacillus Essay identify with a key term in italics or the judicious use of `firstly', `secondly', or `moreover', `in addition', `in contrast' and sign, so on. Finally, end each section with a summary, to establish what it has achieved; this summary sentence or paragraph could be flagged by usually beginning it with `In conclusion. ' or `In brief. ' In brief, following these five principles will make arguments easy to follow and so guide the examiner towards agreeing with a candidate's views. Another PhD style rule is that the word `etc' is too imprecise to be used in a thesis. Furthermore, words such as `this', `these', `those' and Symtomps of Bacillus, `it' should not be left dangling - they should always refer to an object; for signifier signified sign example, `This rule should be followed' is preferred to `This should be followed'. Some supervisors also suggest that brackets should rarely be used in a PhD thesis - if a comment is important enough to help answer the thesis' research problem, then it should be added in a straightforward way and not be hidden within brackets as a minor concern to distract the should constitution examiner away from the research problem.

As well, definite and signified sign, indefinite articles should be avoided where possible, especially in headings; for example, `Supervision of doctoral candidates' is more taut and less presumptuous than `The supervision of doctoral candidates'. Paragraphs should be short; as a rule of thumb, three to four paragraphs should start on each page if my preferred line spacing of 1.5 and Times Roman 12 point font is used to provide adequate structure and complexity of thought on each page. (A line spacing of luna, 2 and more paragraphs per page make a thesis appear disjointed and `flaky', and a sanserif font is not easy to read.) A final note of style is that margins should be those nominated by the university or those in Style Manual (Australian Government Publishing Service 1988). The above comments about structure and style correctly imply that a PhD thesis with its readership of three examiners is different from a book which has a very wide readership (Derricourt 1992), and from shorter conference papers and journal articles which do not require the burden of proof and references to broader bodies of signified, knowledge required in Symtomps and Causes PhD theses. Signifier Signified? Candidates should be aware of the rover behn summary, these differences and signifier sign, could therefore consider concentrating on completing the luna thesis before adapting parts of it for other purposes. However, it must be admitted that presenting a paper at a conference in a candidature may lead to useful contacts with the `invisible college' (Rogers 1983, p. 57) of researchers in a field, and some candidates have found referees' comments on articles submitted for publication in journals during their candidacy, have improved the quality of their thesis' analysis (and publication has helped them get a job). Signified Sign? Nevertheless, several supervisors suggest that it is preferable to concentrate on aphra behn summary, the special requirements of the signified sign thesis and adapt it for publication after the PhD has been awarded or while the a codified candidate has temporary thesis `writer's block'. The thesis will have to go through many drafts (Zuber-Skerritt Knight 1986). Signifier Signified? The first draft will be started early in the candidature, be crafted after initial mindmapping and a tentative table of contents of a chapter and a section, through the `right', creative side of the brain and will emphasise basic ideas without much concern for detail or precise language.

Supervisors and other candidates should be involved in the review of these drafts because research has shown that good researchers ` require the collaboration of others to make their projects work, to get them to completion' (Frost Stablein 1992, p. 253), and that social isolation is the main reason for withdrawing from postgraduate study (Phillips Conrad 1992). Reciprocal? By the way, research has also shown that relying on just one supervisor can be dangerous (Conrad, Perry Zuber-Skerritt 1992; Phillips Conrad 1992). Facilitating the creative first drafts of sections, the relatively visible and signifier signified, structured `process' of this paper's structure allows the candidate to be more creative and rigorous with the `content' of the thesis than he or she would otherwise be. After the first rough drafts, later drafts will be increasingly crafted through the `left', analytical side of the brain and emphasise fine tuning of arguments, justification of positions and further evidence gathering from other research literature.