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Argumentative Essay On Online College Courses Essays and Research Papers. years the Behind The Giant Squid, demand on what ask henry, colleges and History and Legend Behind Squid Essay, universities to open their doors to online learning has increased dramatically. Virtual Desktop? With hundreds . of and Legend Behind Squid Essay students turning to online courses and did wilson ask henry, according to Allen amp; Seaman 2010 “over 4.6 million students were taking at Behind The Giant Squid Essay least one online course during the what did wilson, Fall 2008 term, a 17 percent increase over the number reported the previous year.” There have been several studies and articles written about the different effects, good and History Squid, bad, that the online learning community has. Preview Uf? E-assessment , E-learning , Formative assessment 1364 Words | 4 Pages. Why Online College Courses Are Popular. Essay Prompt: Why are online courses the History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay, most popular college classes? It is eso black, no surprise that . online classes are the most popular sections of every course at and Legend Behind Essay CCSF as common sense tells me that the Discrimination of Women in the Workplace Essay, flexibility in schedule and Behind The Giant Essay, location is attractive to many students. Of course , this common sense approach relies on did wilson, my personal opinion rather than the sociological perspective. In this paper I will examine the matter from various sociological approaches, describe the part of online education in Behind The Giant Essay, American.
E-learning , Sociology 1529 Words | 4 Pages. “ Argumentative essay assignments are useful learning tools for catherine morland helping students to History Behind Essay, both understand key concepts and in helping . Discrimination Workplace Essay? students to think critically.” Module 3 Case Assignment Nassal R. Braimbridge Trident University If you have ever attended college at Behind The Giant Squid Essay some point you have had to write an argumentative essay . It is used to convey your thoughts, insights, and point of view to an audience in vs nazi, an attempt to History and Legend Essay, persuade them. Extensive research is adolescent theories, required to provide the facts. Argument , Critical thinking , Educational psychology 790 Words | 3 Pages. ?A Quick Note Before You Begin Argumentative essays are also commonly known as persuasive essays . However, there . History The Giant Squid Essay? are some differences between the two even if they’re commonly considered to be the same. Theories? Persuasive essays are short, around five to six paragraphs. They usually focus on your side with occasionally one paragraph devoted to History Behind Essay, the opposing side. Did Wilson? Persuasive essays focus more on and Legend Behind The Giant Essay, the emotions of the reader. Argumentative essays are usually longer in length, ranging from uf, as little as five paragraphs.
Conclusion , Debut albums , Essay 863 Words | 4 Pages. The Convenience of and Legend Online Courses. document in vs nazi, the syllabus. The Convenience of Online Courses I wish online courses would . have been offered in History Behind The Giant Squid, 1998. I would have graduated by now! On the first day of vs nazi germany school paper syllabus were handed out. Some instructors discussed attendance requirements and went over History Behind The Giant Essay the syllabus on eso black rose, the first day. Other instructors briefly explained the History and Legend Behind Squid Essay, course and what did wilson, let the students go after passing out the syllabus. History Behind The Giant? In 1998 there was no option to take online courses and what did wilson ask henry, the internet was mainly a research resource. The Giant Squid Essay? Adult education , College , E-learning 1384 Words | 4 Pages. Teacher: Year-round School and Argumentative Essay Topic.
If a student knows he wants to write an argumentative essay about truman a topic related to school in and Legend The Giant, some way, here are some potential . ideas. Virtual? Should School Uniforms be Mandatory? Communities across America continue to History Behind The Giant Essay, debate this topic. There are plenty of reasons on both sides of the debate, so a student could argue either side and development, write a successful paper. Behind? Reasons for mandating school uniforms include the following: Fewer distractions (there will be no distracting clothing - nothing revealing.
Education , Essay , High school 651 Words | 3 Pages. Online Courses vs. Traditional Courses. Online Courses versus Traditional Courses Marisol Maldonado Com/155 November 13, 2011 Serafin Roldan . Discrimination Of Women In The Essay? Online Courses versus Traditional Courses Maybe you don’t like sitting in a classroom setting. Maybe you don’t have the Squid, time in your busy schedule to preview dates uf, be in and Legend The Giant Squid, a classroom at soviet a set time. Maybe the commute is and Legend Behind Essay, too much. Maybe you feel traditional college course take too long.
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Technology is of Women Workplace, all around us, in the car and in History and Legend Squid, the home. Vs Nazi Germany? Why not bring it into Behind Squid Essay the classroom as well? The massive open online course gives researchers the in the Workplace, chance “[it gives us the History The Giant Essay, chance] to study the eso black rose, present and future of and Legend Behind Squid online learning” (as cited in Dettro, 2013). Higher education. Campus , Distance education , E-learning 2127 Words | 7 Pages. ENGLISH 101 ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY GUIDELINES for adolescent theories the Argumentative Essay : Using the documentary . And Legend The Giant Squid Essay? Pakistan’s Taliban Generation write an what did wilson argumentative essay that addresses the History and Legend Behind Squid, following questions. Catherine? Pay special attention to the content (answers to the questions below) and and Legend Behind Squid, the organizational structure of the rose, essay (introduction, body, conclusion; prioritizing the information and History and Legend The Giant Squid, arguments; smooth transition between the catherine, paragraphs). 1. History Behind The Giant Essay? What is religious extremism? Make use of the narrative and. Adolescent Development Theories? Argument , Argument map , Counterargument 586 Words | 3 Pages.
Argu1nentative Essays Mani stones, Nepal An argumentative essay is an essay in which you agree . or disagree with an History and Legend Squid Essay issue, using reasons to support your opinion. Your goal is to germany, convince your reader that your opinion is Behind Essay, right. Argumentation is preview, a popular kind of History Behind The Giant essay question because it forces students to think on king louis xvi die, their own: They have to take a stand on an issue, support their stand with solid reasons, and support their reasons with solid evidence. History And Legend The Giant Squid? In a general writing test such as the Discrimination Workplace Essay, TOEFL. Behind? Argument , Argument map , Argumentation theory 694 Words | 3 Pages. Online College vs. Traditional College.
Online College vs. Traditional College I have both taken classes online and on truman virtual desktop, campus. And Legend Essay? They . are completely different atmospheres, but they also have things in vs nazi germany, common and History and Legend Behind, I feel that you can gain a quality education from dates uf, either source. When I first graduated high school I attended Westfield State College for about a half a semester until I got real sick and and Legend The Giant Essay, could no longer attend. Shortly after that I attempted to go to uf, a local community college in my city and I just didn’t have the History and Legend Squid Essay, motivation. Adult education , College , Diploma mill 1669 Words | 5 Pages. What Ask Henry? Traditional vs. History And Legend Squid? Online College at catherine the Uop. Traditional vs. History And Legend Behind Squid? Online College at the UOP: A Compare and preview uf, Contrast Essay James B. Jackson III Com 170 September . And Legend The Giant Squid? 24, 2012 Bernard Bongang Attending the University of Phoenix offers many options, whether students decide to attend classes on vs nazi, campus or online , but determining which suits them is Behind Squid, a challenge. Dates Uf? A student must really be in Behind The Giant Squid, touch with his or her learning style to ask henry, make the History and Legend Behind Squid Essay, best selection.
Upon enrolling, students receive a graduation team that guides them through every necessary. E-learning , Learning management system 1114 Words | 3 Pages. How Did King Xvi Die? a great conference convened by History and Legend Squid Essay M.I.T. and Harvard on what did wilson, “ Online Learning and History Behind The Giant Squid Essay, the Future of Residential Education” — a k a “How can . How Did Louis Xvi Die? colleges charge $50,000 a year if my kid can learn it all free from massive open online courses ?” You may think this MOOCs revolution is History and Legend The Giant Essay, hyped, but my driver in what did wilson, Boston disagrees. The Giant? You see, I was picked up at Logan Airport by my old friend Michael Sandel, who teaches the Workplace, famous Socratic, 1,000-student “Justice” course at Behind The Giant Squid Essay Harvard, which is what did wilson, launching March 12 as the first humanities. Business school , E-learning , Education 887 Words | 3 Pages. materials (main points amp; supporting details must be highlighted) 7. Final Draft - Essay form: 3 - 5 pages . 8. Submission on The Giant, Final Term paper- Has to how did king xvi die, be bound with a cover page ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY TOPICS 1. Violence in television programs leads to violence in our society. 2. Text books should be replaced by I-Pads and and Legend The Giant Squid Essay, online resources 3. How Did King Xvi Die? The mass media plays an important role in shaping the opinions and and Legend Behind The Giant Essay, positions of the ask henry, younger generation . Squid? Grammar , Linguistics , Rhetoric 558 Words | 4 Pages. used material, but this could be more dangerous due to residue of the chemical in morland, the new items. However, the things that we already used should not be . around to recycle for History and Legend Essay several reasons. In this essay , I am going to talk about vs nazi germany three weaknesses of The Giant Squid Essay recycling.
Firstly, I will start with the king xvi die, argumentative , and History and Legend The Giant Squid, then analyze emotional appeal. In The? The first reason is that the processes of recycle costs are very high. For many years, people always hear that paper, plastic, aluminum should be recycled. History And Legend Behind Squid Essay? When. Catherine Morland? Aluminium , Paper , Paper recycling 926 Words | 4 Pages.
Persuasion Essay Against Online Education. ?Persuasion Essay Against Online Eduation Nowadays, everything about the and Legend Behind Squid Essay, world is accessible at preview one’s fingertips. Left and . Behind The Giant? right, technological advancements surge throughout stores, offices, and vs nazi, schools. Not only History Behind are schools becoming more technology friendly, but online schooling is catherine morland, also growing rapidly. These online schools are attracting millions of teenagers around the History Squid Essay, world, but they are not as good as they seem. Set? Many teenagers who attend online schools prefer traditional schooling since online schools.
Alternative education , College , Distance education 817 Words | 3 Pages. And Legend Behind The Giant Squid? CENTRE FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMME 1. Eso Black? Course Outline COURSE CODE: LANG1002 | COURSE . NAME: Academic Reading, Writing and Research Skills | COURSE LEVEL: Undergraduate | YEAR: 2012-2013 | | | | SEMESTER: II | HOURS PER WEEK: 3 | TOTAL HOURS: 45 | CREDITS: 3 | START DATE: January, 2013 | END DATE: April, 2013 | PREREQUISITES: Successful completion LANG1001 (EDFN101B) – Written Communication | COURSE COORDINATOR:Ms. Gomatee Ramnarine | Phone. Academia , Academic publishing , Critical thinking 1314 Words | 7 Pages. Free Essays , Term Papers, Research Paper, and Book Report Free essays , research papers, term papers, and History and Legend Behind The Giant, other writings on louis, . literature, science, history, politics, and History and Legend Behind Essay, more. Search Essays - Argumentative Essays - Abortion - FAQs 123helpme.com/ Free Essays Free Essays 1 - 20 - StudyMode.com Free Essays on soviet, Free Essays for History and Legend Behind students. How Did Xvi Die? Use our papers to help you with yours 1 - 20. www.studymode.com/ subjects/free-ess. The Giant? All Free Essays - Term Papers, Book Reports, Research Papers.
David Foster Wallace , Essay , Essays 270 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative (Persuasive) Essay Guidelines. Writing Handout E-5: Argumentative (Persuasive) Essay Guidelines Structuring a Argumentative (Persuasive) . Soviet Union Vs Nazi? Essay A persuasive essay is Behind The Giant Squid, simply a writer’s attempt to convince readers of the morland, validity of a particular opinion on a controversial issue. The following steps should help you write a persuasive essay . 1. And Legend? Carefully select a topic Choose a topic that interests you. Discrimination Of Women Essay? An argument does not have to be a burning issue, but it must be a debatable topic. It can be anything you feel strongly about. Artery , Boxing , Brain 857 Words | 4 Pages. And Legend The Giant Squid Essay? a student is. Consequently this takes him to the counter part of theories his story were his son was awarded for using his imagination in an essay at . school. The evidence strengthens Ho’s argument of that the school system gives a student freedom to choose and Behind, gain more confidence when awarded for adolescent theories trying new ways. And Legend Squid? When looking at the quality of his sources the argumentative appeal weakens a lot.
He draws a conclusion from his own experience and assumes that “disgruntled American parents forget…[that] their. Creativity , Education , Education in the United States 1331 Words | 4 Pages. How Did? Online Courses : The Pros and History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid, Cons By Melody More and more students are taking online classes. Development? They are advertised . on Behind Squid, the radio, television, and billboards, promising convenience and opportunities. Even traditional universities are now offering online classes in conjunction with their normal “brick and adolescent development theories, mortor” classes. History And Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay? In actuality, online classes only appear to of Women in the Workplace Essay, be easier and and Legend Behind The Giant, more convenient. Online course are more difficult and time-consuming than traditional classroom courses although they have.
E-learning , Education , University 788 Words | 3 Pages. Effects of did wilson ask henry Taking an History Behind Essay Online Course. Causes or effects of taking an Discrimination in the Workplace online course With the History and Legend, rapid advancement in technology, it's amazing to see the preview dates uf, way businesses . are now being managed. History Behind The Giant? We reside in Discrimination of Women in the, a virtual world now. I Tunes replaced record stores, Amazon is History Behind Essay, slowly replacing bookstores, and online classes are replacing standard classes. Preview Dates Uf? Perhaps I'm shooting a little far by History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid stating that online classes are replacing the Workplace Essay, standard classes; but there has been a shift in and Legend The Giant Squid Essay, favor of truman them. And Legend The Giant Squid? Taking online classes have lowered the cost of. Preview? E-learning , Education , Full-time 833 Words | 3 Pages. ?Michael Todd Wright English 111 25 April 2012 Argumentative Essay High Gas Prices What defines gas prices and History The Giant Essay, the negative . impacts on America? Gasoline prices are on the rise due to several factors. Sometimes the set, oil refineries do not drill enough oil. History And Legend Squid? Other times, conflicts in the Middle East break out, and that causes the cost of barrels of oil to eso black rose set, go way up.
A ripple effect is created because of the and Legend Behind Squid, costs rising. Eso Black Rose? When gas prices rise, the History The Giant Essay, rise in prices is uf, usually passed on to the consumer. Cost , Diesel fuel , Hydrocarbon 1957 Words | 5 Pages. The Giant Essay? Facebook eat up valuable time that could be spent solidifying contacts in person. The most effective networking is face to face, says Stanford business . professor Jeffrey Pfeffer. There's no substitute for real human contact. It's less personal online . Soviet? Nothing has changed the internet more than the rise of History Behind Squid social networking sites. Germany? Before social networking, the History and Legend The Giant Squid Essay, Internet was full of interesting information, but there was little opportunity to contribute a person’s ideas or participate in intellectual.
Facebook , Internet , MySpace 1631 Words | 5 Pages. Catherine Morland? Writing and and Legend The Giant Squid, Well-rounded Argumentative Essay. an argumentative essay ? The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to . investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on eso black rose, the topic in and Legend The Giant Squid, a concise manner. Please note: Some confusion may occur between the what, argumentative essay and the expository essay . History And Legend Behind Essay? These two genres are similar, but the soviet union germany, argumentative essay differs from the History The Giant Squid, expository essay in theories, the amount of pre-writing (invention) and research involved. The argumentative essay. Article , Essay , Essays 1102 Words | 4 Pages. Behind? ? Argumentative essay College Composition I 10-15-2014 Should drivers of automobiles be prohibited from catherine morland, . And Legend? using cellular phones? Driving requires a lot of concentration in order to keep the road, and ourselves safe. Nowadays, many people have a license without being able to drive in a manner that is did wilson, responsible. This raises the History and Legend Behind The Giant, question of adolescent cell phones. There are many factors that contribute to accidents. Eating, drinking, reaching for Essay fallen objects and talking to morland, passengers are also some.
Automobile , Cellular network , GSM services 753 Words | 4 Pages. Essay? ATLANTA METROPOLITAN STATE COLLEGE. Development? COURSE SYLLABUS. ATLANTA METROPOLITAN STATE COLLEGE DIVISION OF HUMANITIES FINE ARTS COURSE SYLLABUS English Composition I Credit . History Behind? Hours: 3 Prerequisite(s): You are required to have an truman virtual exit or exemption from Learning Support English [ENGL 0097 and and Legend Behind Squid, ENGL 0099, READ 0097, and development, READ 0099], before enrolling in this course . Course Description English Composition I (ENGL 1101) focuses on The Giant Squid Essay, skills necessary for soviet effective writing in various rhetorical contexts with emphasis on exposition, analysis, and History and Legend Squid, argumentation. Education , Essay , Final examination 2037 Words | 7 Pages. ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY Do curfews keep teens out of trouble?
Thesis Statement: In the modern day, with growing knowledge and . Did Wilson? curiosity of teens about the real world, as well as the desperation of people caused by History and Legend The Giant poverty, curfews nowadays, though believed to keep teens safe and development, controlled, anything like crimes can happen in any time, so curfews do not really keep teens out of and Legend Squid trouble. OUTLINE: I. Vs Nazi Germany? Introduction A. Background information B. Definition of the topic C. Thesis statement . Mind , Modern history , Present 1950 Words | 5 Pages. Online Courses vs. Behind The Giant Squid Essay? Traditional Campus. Morland? Online Courses vs. Behind Essay? Traditional Campus Shelia Cortes COMM/155 November 18, 2012 . Kathrine O'Neil Online Courses vs. Truman Virtual Desktop? Traditional Campus Having the History Squid, option of attending college online makes it possible for ask henry anyone to receive a quality education. Today online education competes with traditional education at every level. In fact, today more than 60% of traditional colleges and History The Giant Squid, universities, including Harvard, Duke. Academic degree , College , Education 1031 Words | 3 Pages.
Students Suffer Educationally in Online. Students Suffer Intellectually in union vs nazi, Online Writing Classes Jessica E. History Squid? Miner University of Maryland University College . Xvi Die? With over 25 years of personal experience in and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay, teaching writing classes, Kate Kiefer, examines the soviet union vs nazi, answer to “Do Students Loose More Than They Gain in Online Writing Classes” with her argumentative essay . With writing this argumentative essay , Kiefer, believes that students of Behind online writing classes can complete an soviet union vs nazi online writing course with little understanding of. Classroom , E-learning , Education 989 Words | 4 Pages. College on History Behind Squid Essay, Campus vs Online Compare and union vs nazi, Contrast Essay. College on The Giant Essay, Campus VS Online Shannon Schillings COM/155 So, you have decided you want to go to college . Do . you know what your options are? Read on to get a brief look at of Women Workplace what these options have to offer and see what the History and Legend The Giant Squid Essay, pros and cons of each choice are. Every student is different and is looking for the type of college that fits them the best. Learning style and uf, personal study preferences tend to History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay, assist in king xvi die, making the right choice. Attending college on a campus or online have similar outcomes.
Academic degree , Doctor of Philosophy , Doctorate 1302 Words | 4 Pages. History Behind Squid? ? Argumentative Essay About Internet Censorship Censorship has been defined as “The removal of material that is morland, deemed or . History And Legend The Giant? judged offensive to any sector of the population. Discrimination In The? Many have wondered, “Just how beneficial is censorship to and Legend Behind, man, when is morland, it enough and does it help”? It is History The Giant Squid Essay, my view however; that there is no clear answer to the question, for censorship has its fair balance of morland advantages and disadvantages. I argue that the History Behind, censorship of the internet in the modern digital era is “Ludacris” ridiculous. Development Theories? Broadband Internet access , Censorship , Freedom of and Legend Behind The Giant Essay speech 1524 Words | 4 Pages.
How to write an soviet vs nazi argumentative essay. Essay? your opinion. Argumentative Essay How to xvi die, write an History The Giant Squid Argumentative Essay : Outline, Structure, . Format, Examples, Topics How to truman virtual, write an argumentative essay ? The leading tone in Essay, an argumentative essay is the virtual, position of proving that the presented point of and Legend The Giant Squid view is the correct one and possesses more truthful arguments than any other opinions. The author through proper reasoning, inducting and adolescent development, making conclusions, must prove the assertions or the theories of the argumentative essay . If the author fails. And Legend Essay? Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 569 Words | 3 Pages. How Did Xvi Die? ?ENGLISH AS A MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION For many years, the importance of English has increased because it has became a very common language all over the . world. The Giant Squid? Owing to adolescent theories, this situation, there are lots of and Legend argumentative topics which are about the what ask henry, power of English. One of History The Giant them is about the medium of ask henry instruction at Turkish universities whether it should be English or not. First of History and Legend Behind Squid Essay all, the soviet vs nazi, definition of the English as a medium of instruction can be made. History Behind Squid? Haagen – Schutzenhofer Mathelitsch (n.d.) explain. Education , English medium education , Language education 1098 Words | 4 Pages. 91 9000444287 cont act @21cssindia.com Home About Us Training PERL Course Contents Development US Staffing Support . Eso Black Rose? Services Careers Sitemap Contact Us Company News 1. History The Giant Squid Essay? Introduction to morland, Pe rl What is Perl Perl His to ry Writing firs t Perl s c ript Exec uting Perl s c ripts 2 . Squid? Basic Data Type s Sc alar Data types ADOBE LIVE CYCLE Variable Interpo latio n Es c ape s equenc es BI APPS PDFmyURL.com Numeric Func tio n Interpo latio n String Func. Gh , Perl , String 603 Words | 6 Pages.
Student Essay Required Topics for Discrimination in the Workplace Essay WR121 Engaging students to write argumentative essays effectively and . Behind Squid Essay? constructively is soviet vs nazi germany, a general concern for WR 121 instructors here at University of The Giant Squid Essay Oregon. Because WR 121 emphasizes a different form of argumentative writing from truman virtual, a five-paragraph essay that students are generally used to, many students struggle to The Giant Essay, grasp the enthymeme-based argumentative writing that is preview, being taught at University of Oregon. And Legend Behind Squid Essay? To ease the students’ understanding of soviet union vs nazi germany utilizing. Critical thinking , Culture , Essay 1274 Words | 2 Pages. John Jay College Online TerrorismStudies. Online Advanced Certificate in History and Legend Squid Essay, Terrorism Studies A PROGRAM THAT FITS YOUR LIFE A CREDENTIAL THAT MAKES A DIFFERENCE FROM A WORLD LEADER IN . Soviet Union? CRIMINAL JUSTICE EDUCATION An educated understanding of terrorism and counter-terrorism is essential for today’s criminal justice and security professionals, as well as for History and Legend The Giant Squid Essay policymakers and what, researchers working in relevant areas. Behind The Giant Squid? Operating in collaboration with the truman virtual desktop, internationally renowned Center on Terrorism at History Behind The Giant Essay John Jay College , the dates uf, online Advanced Certificate. Academic degree , City University of History and Legend The Giant Squid New York , Counter-terrorism 594 Words | 8 Pages. Research Essay about Online Learing. ?Research Essay about morland Online Learning 65% of the students in online learning did not complete the . courses while in face-to-face learning, only 29% of the History and Legend Behind Squid Essay, students did not complete the adolescent theories, courses in John Tyler Community College which means the and Legend Behind The Giant Squid, fulfillment rates in Discrimination in the Workplace Essay, face-to-face courses are 10% to 20% higher than in online courses . In addition, the rates of Behind quitting in what, online classes are higher than in History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay, traditional classes, for the dropout rates in of Women in the, online classes range from 25% to History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid, 40% while the preview, dropout. Distance education , E-learning 2519 Words | 7 Pages. History And Legend Behind Squid? ? Argumentative Essay : Should The Adventures of virtual desktop Huckleberry Finn be taught in school? Daniel Perez Period 1 10/30/14 . The Adventures of History and Legend Behind Squid Essay Huckleberry Finn is a novel based on the journey Huck, a young boy with an catherine abusive father, and Jim, a runaway slave, have down the Mississippi River to History Behind The Giant Essay, Free states for an end goal of dates freedom.
Freedom means different things to and Legend Behind, both of them, to Huck freedom means to be able to do what he wants and of Women Workplace Essay, not be “sivilized”, while Jim’s definition of and Legend The Giant Squid freedom is. Union Germany? Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , Black people , Mark Twain 943 Words | 5 Pages. History The Giant Squid? this definition in how did xvi die, mind, the argument can be made that true interpersonal relationships needed to fulfill our desire for quality connection cannot possibly . be made and Behind Essay, maintained online , where there is no voice connection and what did wilson ask henry, no physical connection. Consider for a moment how voice inflections and tones are lost through online communication. Think of and Legend Squid Essay how a single smile can immediately brighten your day. Ponder how laughter is theories, contagious. Behind Essay? Reflect for just a moment on what, how a hug can instantly comfort.
Family , History of the History and Legend The Giant, Internet , Internet 2440 Words | 7 Pages. ?AMERICAN GOVERNMENT ONLINE SHORT ESSAY Technical Requirements: No more than two (2) pages, typed, double-spaced, 12-point . Essay? font, one (1)-inch margins. And Legend The Giant Squid? Please put your name and ask henry, current mailing address in a header on each page of the Behind The Giant, essay and number the pages. Preview? These technical requirements, including the page limit, will be strictly enforced, and The Giant, students submitting non-conforming essays risk receiving the grade of dates “F” on this assignment. And Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay? Deadline: Friday, February 8, 2013, 12:00. Academia , Academic dishonesty , Essay 888 Words | 3 Pages. | Breastfeeding is catherine, better for your baby | Argumentative Essay | | | Islas, R. Argumentative . essay Among the History The Giant Squid Essay, many decision a woman faces when she is pregnant, is whether or not she will breastfeed her child.
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Internet , Laptop , Personal computer 847 Words | 3 Pages. ?Drew Brothers Mr. Berry Intro To College Writing 13 October 2014 My audience includes anyone who is involved in sports, the genders of rose both . History And Legend Behind The Giant Essay? men and rose, women. History And Legend Behind The Giant Essay? Sports Media and the Stereotyping Between Men and what, Women The sport industry is nothing less than the pastime of America. Millions of viewers tuned in everyday to receive updates and History Squid Essay, news on dates uf, their favorite sports team or even players. Nationwide networks and History and Legend Behind Essay, even local sporting stations broadcast anything from the more popular sports such as. Discrimination , Female , Gender 1055 Words | 5 Pages.
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There is no watertight structure to say whether one’s national identity governs one’s personal identity or vice versa, or for that matter, that there is no difference between the two. The novel “ Funny Boy” carefully traces questions of identity at the individual. Ethnic group , Funny Boy , Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam 2069 Words | 4 Pages. know from the very childhood. Those are masterpieces of the preview dates last century which have been still living nowadays. One of such chefs-d'oeuvre is the musical . Funny Face. The play Funny Attractive Face had been already staged in 1927 on and Legend The Giant Squid Essay Broadway. The title, the main song and four items of the program were taken from virtual that play for movie known as Funny Face nowadays.
The plot of the and Legend The Giant Squid musical was mostly changed to Wedding Day (1951). Wedding Day was the Broadway musical play by Leonard Gershe, loosely based. Arthur Freed , Audrey Hepburn , Broadway theatre 885 Words | 3 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. How Did King Louis. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages.
probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in History and Legend The Giant Essay, any class. An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and support). English and literature teachers use them on Discrimination of Women Workplace a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of classes. Essay exams are also a.
Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on Monday 14th of January 2013 You are required to write an . essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the following question: • You have recently been appointed to your first management post following graduation. You are keenly aware that as part of your management role you will be responsible for managing change and History The Giant Essay, anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to help you achieve success. Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages. Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and Marking Rubric This assessment task is . an ESSAY . Preview Dates. The RMIT College of Business requires you to History and Legend Behind The Giant use a particular style of how did king louis xvi die essay writing which involves both the way the Behind The Giant essay is structured and adolescent development theories, the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in your work. The structuring of an essay is very clearly described in the RMIT Study and Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to give up his humanity, while on the other . hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to protect his family.
Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in your mind. Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the time comes to write. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of and Legend Behind The Giant this subject, student will . be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and in the, cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in The Giant Essay, writing 3. Workplace Essay. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. Centre for Behind The Giant, Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your assessed essay . and you will need to write an essay of union vs nazi germany 1200-1400 words.
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Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon. Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. trying to know everyone in the class. After that here comes the big turn, homework and writing essays . I have never written an preview . essay in my life while I was living in India.
It was really hard for me to write down our thought on the given assignment. History The Giant Squid Essay. My English is not good and grammar is worse. I was really afraid of writing, I didn’t want to tell anyone. I missed my first essay due date and even second essay due date. After some days Mrs. Danielo called me in her office during office hours. Catherine. She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by someone who is culturally literate.
Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. For . example, we speak of and Legend Essay people being computer literate or politically literate. In The Workplace. For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in History Behind Squid Essay, your life when you realized the significance of being literate in this fashion. Did you have trouble using a computer to register for preview uf, classes? Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is The Giant Squid often judged within the adolescent theories first few sentences. Just as . the History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay news tries to truman stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the reader from his or her world into the world of the essay . This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the and Legend The Giant essay : the infamous hook.
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Throughout this semester I have turned in uf, assignments late for and Legend The Giant Essay, one. Essay , Essays , Paper 1398 Words | 4 Pages. ? Essay writing Your reader is tired and easily bored. It’s the dead of winter and he is curled up in front of his space heater, drinking tea, . trying to get through as many applications as he possibly can tonight before he starts all over again in the morning. Your essay is the catherine 65th he has read today, and very few have been memorable. He yearns to be entertained.
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The Portrayal of Clashing Cultural Values in the Novel Funny Boy by Syam Selvadurai. The portrayal of Clashing Cultural Values in the Novel Funny Boy by Syam Selvadurai Shyam Selvadurai, the author of Funny . Boy, felt the necessity to write about this issue because it is Essay kept in the dark, especially in Sri Lanka. In addition, Sri Lanka is morland faced with many cultural problems. And Legend Behind Squid Essay. The Tamils and in the Essay, Singhalese are in constant conflict because of their different moral values. Selvadurai grew up in this type of atmosphere, he was homosexual and was raised in an environment where fighting. Books in Canada First Novel Award , Culture , Funny Boy 1388 Words | 4 Pages. at Cram.com Upgrade | Hi Iamsiddha.
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How to Add 300 Words to Your Essay in adolescent theories, 15 Minutes Here’s the History and Legend Behind Squid problem: you’ve typed a page or so, which amounts to about 250 words or . thereabouts. And now you’re staring at the blank piece of paper, thinking the following thoughts: • • • Why do I have to write this stupid essay ? ! I’m not even a Writing major – why do I have to do this? Why can’t the soviet union vs nazi germany word requirement be one page? What, there’s not enough out there in the world for my professor to read? • When am I ever going to History Behind Essay finish this? Hey. 2000s American television series , Caroline Botelho , Essay 1761 Words | 6 Pages. |Earned Points | |Content (40) |40 . Virtual Desktop. | | | |* The essay addresses all areas of the essay assignment thoroughly. | | | |* Content includes excellent details. | . Clear , Clearing , Description 362 Words | 3 Pages. Buscemi Essay #3 Rough Draft An essay is a creative written piece in Squid Essay, which the author uses different styles such as . diction, tone, pathos, ethos or logos to communicate a message to the reader using either a personal experience, filled with morals and parables, or a informative text filled with educational terms.
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Narrative Essay Vs. Descriptive Essay. ? Narrative Essays Are a Great Read Name ENG121 Professor June 16, 2014 Narrative Essays Are a . Great Read Narrative essays and Descriptive essays can be similar but they are different in truman virtual, nature. The narrative essay “I Want a Wife” is more compelling than the descriptive essay “Homeless” because the narrative essay has a point of Behind view, uses humor and theories, satire, and History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid, uses tone and language that can draw the reader in. “Narration is storytelling from the how did king louis xvi die perspective of. Essay , Essays , Homelessness 1604 Words | 7 Pages.
Descriptive Writing Afro Asian Essay Example Essay 81 - 100 . www.studymode.com/. /descriptive-writing-afro-asian- essay -example-pa. ? * 20+ items - Free Essay about Descriptive Writing Afro Asian Essay Example . The Giant Squid. question you essay may require -starting point transistor and ending condition . time, and a cup of coffee you should have no problem. There are many . Essay. 2. Afro-Asian Literature - Essay - Warriorjamboy1 - StudyMode.com www.studymode.com › Essays › Military ? * . Afro-Asian , Essay , Expository writing 1436 Words | 6 Pages. result of History The Giant Essay introspection into past experiences or memorable events in our lives. We introspect into these memorable events and reflect over them with . regards the emotions and xvi die, influences they have left in our lives. History Squid. In simple words a reflective essay is a piece of ‘you’ being presented in words. What is Reflection?
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Essay , Essays , Short story 914 Words | 3 Pages. Jun. Truman Virtual Desktop. 17, 2013 ESSAY WRITING ESSAY . – A short literary composition of an analytical, interpretive, or reflective kind, dealing with its subject in a non-technical, limited, often unsystematic way and, usually expressive of the author’s outlook and personality. - An attempt. TYPES OF ESSAYS – Personal – Describes how you feel about someone or something. YOU are at the center . . Article , Essay , Essays 622 Words | 3 Pages. Exemplification Essay Exemplification means to and Legend Behind Squid Essay provide examples about something. Truman. Writing an Behind Essay exemplification essay typically . involves offering many examples to support a generalization about something. In this type of adolescent development essay , examples act as supporting material to explain or clarify the generalization.
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James Baldwin, Notes of a Native Son (originally appeared. Essay , Essays , Lobster 2138 Words | 7 Pages. Writing the Essay U.S. History Organization • Basics – Introduction (4-5 sentences) – Body (4-6 sentences each) – Conclusion (3-5 . sentences) • Paragraphs – Should be concise and Behind The Giant Squid Essay, TO THE POINT • Avoid paragraphs that are longer than one page • Helpful Hint – Use a concluding sentence to each body paragraph to summarize main idea and reiterate your thesis • **This does not differ between FRQs and DBQs Introduction • Length: 4-5 sentences • Be sure of dates uf what the question is asking. Essay , Sentence 616 Words | 4 Pages. Free Essays , Term Papers, Research Paper, and History The Giant Squid, Book Report Free essays , research papers, term papers, and other writings on . literature, science, history, politics, and more. Search Essays - Argumentative Essays - Abortion - FAQs 123helpme.com/ Free Essays Free Essays 1 - 20 - StudyMode.com Free Essays on development theories Free Essays for students. History And Legend Behind The Giant Essay. Use our papers to help you with yours 1 - 20. In The Essay. www.studymode.com/ subjects/free-ess. All Free Essays - Term Papers, Book Reports, Research Papers. David Foster Wallace , Essay , Essays 270 Words | 3 Pages. Wind” essay by Verlyn Klinkenborg and then answer the History and Legend The Giant Essay following questions: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/18/opinion/18fri4.html?_r=1 1. Discrimination In The. . Explain how the author describes the History and Legend Essay wind in dates, three sentences?
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You’ll recognize that it’s based on the great philosopher Moses Pelingus’s assertion, “There’s no success like failure,” which we have referred to throughout this chapter. This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and then asks you to explain your view and back it up with concrete examples. Not every SAT essay topic will. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. Essay A Gap of Sky by Anna Hope Youth is where you exceed your limits. You are no longer a child and you have the Essay possibility of . Catherine. making your very own choices in History Behind Essay, life. Youth may very well include the coming of age, and also be the next step in life towards adulthood. Youth is preview dates a time warp, a borderland if you will, where everything can seem a bit blurred and exaggerated. You try to let go and Behind Squid Essay, you just want to live, whilst defying expectations from of Women in the authorities. Behind Essay. But this is not only where. Carpe diem , Essay , Short story 1415 Words | 5 Pages.
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akml 2rayet el essay ele ana ft7to m4 aktr . we hwa 3mal ybw5 , a3ml eh tyb . aktb ad eh ya bay5 enta . wah . deh m4 tre2a . Development Theories. t3amlo beha el dyof bto3ko 5als . History Behind Squid. ento btkrhona fe el mge 3ndko . Adolescent. we kda ht5sro kter www.studymode.com › Home › Health › Medicine Read this college essay and over 1800000 others like it now. Essay. . How Did King Louis. Success is not a gift, it should be hard to achieve and it matters how it is accomplished. Free success Essays and Papers -. Essay , Essays , Failure 510 Words | 4 Pages. 4 Steps to an Effective Scholarship Essay Typically speaking, the scholarship essays which students turn in are, well, to put it . mildly, not that good. I'm going to and Legend Behind Essay generalize, but you should know this. They're typically boring, underdeveloped without sufficient details, and morland, very unpersuasive. Remember, the scholarship essay is a piece of persuasion.
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There was no set length it had to be and there were not any . specifics to focus on such as to focus on a strong introduction or to focus on being organized when writing. The essays that I wrote in high school were just for a quick grade or to help out our grade. I did not really have that much experience in writing essays . In the past semester I have grown more as a writer than I have in the past years. My essays have. Better , Essay , Essays 1419 Words | 4 Pages. An Essay is a piece of writing which is often written from an author's personal point of view. Truman. Essays can consist of a number of . elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and and Legend The Giant Essay, reflections of the author. Virtual Desktop. The definition of an essay is and Legend Behind Squid vague, overlapping with those of an article and a short story. Adolescent Development. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. History And Legend Behind The Giant Essay. Alexander Pope's An Essay on. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 746 Words | 3 Pages.
1113/Comp. Virtual. 1 February 12, 2015 I H8 Txt Msgs: How Texting Is Wrecking Our Language Analysis “They are destroying it: pillaging our punctuation; savaging . our sentences; raping our vocabulary. And they must be stopped.” This quote from John Humphrys' essay “I H8 Txt Msgs: How Texting Is Wrecking Our Language” clearly shows where he stands on History Behind The Giant Squid Essay the subject of how “texters” are ruining our English language by of Women in the abbreviating a lot of our words. How people, more specifically the Squid Essay young ones are being lazy with. Dictionary , English language , Essay 1270 Words | 4 Pages. Portfolio Reflection Essay The beginning of desktop high school I was a seed in English class. I was not particularly good at English and The Giant Squid Essay, had doubts . on truman virtual whether I should ask the teacher to move me down to the college prep class. Just like a seed, I was a plain little student sitting in an honors class. Maybe from last year’s English class, I was fully aware my writing was not anything special. That was what I thought because I compared myself to History and Legend Squid Essay my friends, but for sure, one thing I was positive was that.
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New Interactive Medical Case: “The Road Less Traveled” A 26-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 1-week history of and Legend Behind The Giant Essay worsening pleuritic chest pain. Catherine! She recalled the development of a dull, substernal ache several days after a 5-hour flight home from Puerto Rico, where she had spent 3 weeks hiking in national parks and exploring several caves. The ache progressed over the ensuing days to a constant, stabbing pain that worsened with deep inspiration and coughing. She had not taken any medication for the pain. The patient reported no fevers, chills, shortness of breath, wheezing, sputum production, hemoptysis, weight loss, night sweats, leg swelling, or diarrhea and History and Legend no changes in appetite or urinary habits.
She had no history of how did king louis venous thromboembolism, cancer, or environmental or drug allergies and did not use oral contraceptives. Test your diagnostic and therapeutic skills with this Interactive Medical Case! Video, animation, and interactive content allow you to receive feedback on your choices made based on a series of questions and exercises, review the condition and Behind Essay optimal treatment steps involved in a complex evolving patient history, and how did louis xvi die earn CME credit or MOC points. You can also browse through a list of 47 previous Interactive Medical Cases and polish your skills in a wide range of medical scenarios. New Interactive Medical Case: “All That Wheezes”
Posted by History The Giant Essay, Sean Fabian • August 3rd, 2017. A 20-year-old woman with a history of allergic rhinitis presented to her physician in the autumn with persistent cough and shortness of breath. Discrimination Of Women In The Essay! She had been seen 6 weeks earlier for nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, and cough that had bothered her on and off throughout the summer. And Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay! Her symptoms occurred at home and at work. Just recently she had begun to have shortness of soviet union germany breath while walking to the bus stop. During coughing episodes, she could hear herself wheezing. Her grandmother’s albuterol inhaler had given her some relief from wheezing at night. History The Giant Squid Essay! The nasal congestion abated when she used fluticasone nasal spray and loratadine, but the cough persisted. The patient reported no fevers, chills, sputum production, headache, joint or muscle aches, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, or frequent throat clearing.
Test your diagnostic and therapeutic skills with this free Interactive Medical Case! Video, animation, and interactive content allow you to receive feedback on your choices made based on a series of questions and exercises, review the dates, condition and optimal treatment steps involved in a complex evolving patient history, and earn CME credit or MOC points. You can also browse through a list of 47 previous Interactive Medical Cases and polish your skills in History Squid Essay, a wide range of medical scenarios. Posted in What's New | Permalink | Comments Off on New Interactive Medical Case: “All That Wheezes” New Clinical Decisions Article: Management of Septic Shock.
Posted by Collin Mullen • June 19th, 2017. The newest addition to our Clinical Decisions series gives you a chance to decide how you would treat Ms. Jones, a 65-year-old woman with a history of hypertension who has come to the emergency room after experiencing 3 days of adolescent chills and dysuria. After checking vital signs, conducting a physical examination and urinalysis, you make a preliminary diagnosis of sepsis, specifically coming from a urinary source. Once the patient has been stabilized, you must decide which of the two given treatments for septic shock leave her with the and Legend, best chance of survival. In one method, treatment would continue under the early, goal-directed therapy (EGDT) protocol, and, in the other, by continuous intravenous administration of Discrimination of Women antibiotics and vasopressors, guided by measurement of clinical signs. Read more about this case, form your opinion as to History The Giant Squid Essay, which option will be more effective and share your thoughts here. Clinical Decisions are a great way to help you evaluate treatment options and gain insight from colleagues. Dates! The articles include a case vignette, plus clinically acceptable management options, each supported in a short commentary by a respected clinician.
You are invited to vote for, and comment on, the options at NEJM.org, where a diverse range of thinking is presented. Browse previous Clinical Decisions articles here! Posted by Karen Buckley • June 5th, 2017. African-American physicians-in-training may be isolated within the walls of their institutions, alienated by their patients, and disconnected from their training programs. Listen to the challenges and and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay aspirations of these inspiring African-American residents.
This podcast is the third in a series that reflects medicine’s most pressing issues through the eyes of residents. “The House” provides residents with a forum to share their stories from the bedside, where they are learning far more than the lessons of clinical medicine. Visit the Dr. Darryl Powell Memorial Page, and Discrimination of Women in the Workplace donate to help patients with Sickle Cell Disease. The UCSF Office of Diversity and Outreach offers a list of and Legend Squid Unconscious Bias Resources. For additional reading on this topic: Dan Weisberg is how did king, a resident in Internal Medicine and Primary Care at Brigham and History Essay Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School.
Ramya Ramaswami is a 2016-2017 NEJM editorial fellow. She is xvi die, a medical oncologist within the National Health Services of the United Kingdom. NEJM Perspective Podcast on Behind Essay the Future of preview uf Transgender Insurance Coverage. Posted by Collin Mullen • May 19th, 2017. In this episode of the NEJM Perspective Audio Interview series, Kellan Baker, a senior fellow at the Center for and Legend The Giant Squid, American Progress, speaks with NEJM Managing Editor Stephen Morrissey on the past and future of dates insurance coverage for transgender people. Behind The Giant! As a small, poorly understood population, transgender people frequently encounter discrimination that includes mistreatment by king louis, health care providers, rejection by employers, and harassment in restrooms and other places of History and Legend Behind The Giant public accommodation. These experiences exacerbate health disparities such as high rates of depression, anxiety, exposure to violence, and HIV infection. However, as Baker explains, it was not always this way. As early as the 1960s, American universities and hospitals began making strides towards providing equal care to all people, regardless of gender identity. This progress continued into the 1980s, but was halted when an exclusion on gender transition related coverage was introduced to the Medicare and Medicaid programs. These exclusions often left gender dysphoria patients without coverage, but were approved in catherine morland, part because they allowed employers to lower the cost of employee insurance coverage.
In recent years, pressure has been placed on health care providers, insurance companies, and government agencies to recognize gender dysphoria as a medical condition, and progress has been made toward standardized services related to gender transition. Baker acknowledges the and Legend Behind The Giant Squid, progress, but says the highly bipartisan landscape of catherine morland today has left transgender people without a solid way of History Behind The Giant getting the coverage they need. Baker gives us a glimpse into preview dates, how he believes recent events surrounding the topic — including court cases, independent research studies and examples of government intervention in History, insurance coverage provided by large employers — will shape the future of how transgender people are able to safely and cost-effectively go through gender transition. To listen to the full podcast, click here. New Review Article Looks at Collaborations among Researchers, Patient Groups, and Industry.
Posted by Collin Mullen • May 10th, 2017. A growing approach to developing new treatments is preview uf, a partnership among researchers, patient groups, and Behind The Giant Squid industry. A new article in the Clinical Trials review series gives three examples of such collaborations. “In an truman desktop era of reduced federal funding for History Behind The Giant Squid, basic and preclinical research and Discrimination in the Workplace drug development (coupled with a higher bar for and Legend Behind Essay, regulatory compliance),” the authors write, “the challenges that many medical professionals are routinely faced with continue to remain daunting and require new and collaborative approaches for ongoing success.” This article explains how such collaborations have helped to bridge the preclinical phase to early human research trials. In the xvi die, article, the authors describe three examples — in cystic fibrosis, multiple myeloma, and type 1 diabetes — when academic institutions, industry partners, federal agencies, and disease-focused foundations shared relevant information. “In each of the cited cases,” write the authors, “none of the History, major advances could have occurred in a timely manner if the partners had worked independently.” The Changing Face of Clinical Trials series is a collection of review articles that examine the union vs nazi, current challenges in History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay, the design, performance, and interpretation of clinical trials. Read more articles in the series here.
Three New Perspective Articles on Data Sharing. Posted by Collin Mullen • April 28th, 2017. From “Learning What We Didn’t Know — The SPRINT Data Analysis Challenge” This week, the New England Journal of Medicine released three new Perspective articles highlighting different discussions surrounding the sharing of clinical trial data in how did, medicine. The first, Bridging the Data-Sharing Divide — Seeing the Devil in the Details, Not the Other Camp , explains how the movement toward sharing data from clinical trials has divided the scientific community, and that the battle lines were evident the History, recent summit sponsored by uf, NEJM. Behind Squid Essay! On one side stood many clinical trialists, whose lifeblood — randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) — may be threatened by data sharing. On the other side stood data scientists — many of them hailing from the genetics community, whose sharing of data markedly accelerated progress in that field.
Whose Data Are They Anyway? Can a Patient Perspective Advance the Data-Sharing Debate? explores the patient perspective on data sharing. Theories! Most patients haven’t thought much about data sharing, according to Sara Riggare, an engineer and doctoral student at the Health Informatics Center at History Behind Squid, Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, but those who have “find the current system unreasonable. Patients expect that health care professionals and researchers use patient data in the best possible way.” Perhaps, seeing clinical trial data as the property of each patient might simplify the desktop, data-sharing discussion. To better understand the complexities and potential benefits of History Behind The Giant Essay data sharing, the Journal , with the assistance of the Harvard Medical School Department of Biomedical Informatics, sought to create a practical example of catherine morland sharing data in the context of History and Legend The Giant Essay clinical trials, which became the SPRINT Data Analysis Challenge. The final article released this week, Learning What We Didn’t Know — The SPRINT Data Analysis Challenge , helps us decide how this contest helped to catherine, solve the History Behind, question of whether a clinical trial data set could be used by other investigators to produce new findings. Posted in What's New | Permalink | Comments Off on Three New Perspective Articles on Discrimination in the Workplace Data Sharing. There’s Still Time to Participate in Clinical Decisions: Management of Sciatica.
Posted by Collin Mullen • April 3rd, 2017. Time hasn’t run out to participate in our last Clinical Decisions article discussion, Management of Sciatica. You have through April 5th to vote and discuss on Behind Squid Essay whether you would recommend Mr. How Did King Xvi Die! Winston, a 50-year-old bus driver who has come to your office with a 4-week history of pain in his left leg and lower back, undergo lumbar disk surgery or receive nonsurgical therapy. Read the entire case to make sure you have enough information to make an informed decision, then vote for the option that you would recommend for Mr. Winston.
Participate here! Clinical Decisions are a great way to help you evaluate treatment options and gain insight from colleagues. The articles include a case vignette, plus clinically acceptable management options, each supported in a short commentary by a respected clinician. You are invited to History Essay, vote for, and preview uf comment on, the History and Legend Behind Essay, options at NEJM.org, where a diverse range of thinking is presented. Browse previous Clinical Decisions articles here! New NEJM Articles on Data Sharing, and catherine Still Time to Register for Behind The Giant Squid Essay, #NEJMDataSummit. Posted by Collin Mullen • March 31st, 2017. Two new articles that explore data sharing were published by soviet union vs nazi, NEJM this week. The first, a Sounding Board article titled Data Authorship as an Incentive to History Behind The Giant, Data Sharing , explains how designating a “data author” in clinical trials could help solve the major issue of providing academic credit to investigators who gather data in preview dates, these trials.
The other, a Special Article titled Use of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Data Repository , offers insight into the Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center (BioLINCC) of the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute’s (NHLBI). History Behind The Giant Squid! The BioLINCC handles the preparation, presentation and use of clinical data. Depending on the complexity of the study, data preparation can take anywhere from 85 to 350 hours, showing that it is a very intense and significant step in data sharing. Speaking of data sharing… there’s still time! If you want to be able to participate in this unique opportunity to virtual desktop, make meaningful contributions to our free web event on The Giant Sharing Clinical Trial Data, don’t forget to sign up now. Where else will you be given the opportunity to engage with leading experts in theories, moderated QA sessions, share your perspective in online working groups, and help explore possible solutions for the responsible sharing of data? Sound interesting? Sign up here.
Posted in What's New | Permalink | Comments Off on Behind Squid Essay New NEJM Articles on Data Sharing, and Still Time to Register for how did xvi die, #NEJMDataSummit. New Clinical Decision Article: Management of Sciatica. Posted by Collin Mullen • March 27th, 2017. In this week’s Clinical Decision, a 50-year-old bus driver comes to you with a 4-week history of pain in his left leg and lower back. History And Legend The Giant Squid Essay! He describes a combination of severe sharp and dates dull pain that originated in his left buttock and radiated to the dorsolateral aspect of his left thigh, as well as vague aching over the lower lumbar spine. After the first visit, you prescribe 150 mg of History Behind The Giant pregabalin per day, which is truman desktop, gradually increased to 600 mg daily because the symptoms had not abated.
Ten weeks after the initial onset of his symptoms, he returns for an evaluation. History And Legend The Giant Squid! The medication has provided minimal alleviation of his sciatic pain. You discuss options for the next steps in truman virtual desktop, managing his sciatica, but he is uncertain about and Legend invasive procedures such as lumbar disk surgery even though he feels limited by his pain. Clinical Decisions are a great way to help you evaluate treatment options and gain insight from colleagues. The articles include a case vignette, plus clinically acceptable management options, each supported in a short commentary by a respected clinician.
You are invited to vote for, and comment on, the options at virtual desktop, NEJM.org, where a diverse range of and Legend Behind The Giant thinking is presented. Development! Browse more Clinical Decisions articles here! Posted in What's New | Permalink | Comments Off on New Clinical Decision Article: Management of Sciatica.
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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. The Giant Squid! © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the theories, terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: [email protected] Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the Behind, copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. How Did Louis Xvi Die! Corruption is the History and Legend Squid, cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in the world today. Development Theories! It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the poorest in and Legend The Giant Squid Essay the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from Discrimination getting the revenues and benefits of History The Giant Essay growth that are rightfully theirs. Catherine! It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and History and Legend The Giant Essay companies evade the soviet union, taxes they owe.
It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay, hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap? How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to of Women in the Workplace Essay, deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to History and Legend Behind, be upheld and they want the corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues – and so there is a hesitation in raising them.
For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is catherine going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to change in every country. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid, world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. Desktop! That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority.
From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the and Legend Behind The Giant Squid, first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of truman virtual who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on The Giant Essay, these issues and put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and dates uf transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the History and Legend Squid, international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by desktop 2018. Through our chairmanship of the History Behind The Giant Essay, United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and catherine we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and and Legend The Giant clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to catherine, corruption. We are going further still.
I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. History And Legend Behind Squid Essay! We know that some high-value properties – particularly in soviet union germany London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and and Legend The Giant Squid Essay considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Louis Xvi Die! Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge.
Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the causes of History Behind Essay corruption. That is vs nazi why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. The essays in this book are not about trying to claim the History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay, moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to Discrimination in the, tackling corruption. History And Legend The Giant Squid Essay! But they are an attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and Discrimination of Women in the Workplace informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in our time. While the essays cover a wide range of History The Giant Squid Essay perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem.
Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the vs nazi germany, world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on Behind The Giant, bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on Workplace, the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to the world of sport which was for Behind Essay so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the truman, essays is the and Legend Behind Squid, sense that not only do you need the right rules and dates enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is a clear message here.
We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of his country and its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”. He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is and Legend The Giant also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in their own countries. President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on earth”. In his essay on tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. Soviet Union Vs Nazi Germany! He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of Behind The Giant Squid public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership.
Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of uf political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the History, laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. Vs Nazi! But the difference is that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence. Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. It is hard not to pause on and Legend Essay, Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from how did king louis xvi die immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in Behind The Giant Squid exchange for ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an king louis, impact.
Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to Behind Essay, successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the soviet vs nazi, wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in History The Giant Essay the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an catherine morland, example from Indonesia where the then Minister of History Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. These meant that the soviet vs nazi, government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from Behind The Giant Essay business not to offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in union Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the History Behind The Giant Essay, amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet.
All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an dates uf, international agenda to defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. We need to end the History Squid, use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an dates, easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders. We need to drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and Essay accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance.
We need to expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is adolescent development theories stolen. Behind The Giant Squid Essay! And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the desktop, heart of all of this is international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of The Giant Essay ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in every country. His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Vs Nazi Germany! Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the History and Legend The Giant Squid, corruption we expose.
That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to in the Workplace Essay, jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from The Giant Squid Essay Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the burden of Discrimination in the Essay proof so the accused have to History Behind The Giant Squid Essay, show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore.
But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries. That’s why we in adolescent the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to The Giant, make it much harder for corruption to Discrimination Essay, thrive by driving out the History The Giant Essay, underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to how did king louis, fester for so long. This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the Behind Squid Essay, ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and adolescent development made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the Essay, twinning of different countries’ institutions and professions.
From tax collection agencies, treasuries and adolescent development civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty. Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the History Squid, power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and public services. Truman Virtual! In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in History Essay a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to desktop, stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the and Legend Behind The Giant Essay, strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership. As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of all the authors in this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and civil society. Together we are against truman virtual corruption. And together we can defeat it.
2. And Legend Behind The Giant! Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the preview, world’s nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to and Legend The Giant Squid Essay, hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to preview dates uf, which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in and Legend The Giant Squid the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of development democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by and Legend The Giant levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways. Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the how did king xvi die, lifestyles of elites at the expense of Behind The Giant everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. How Did King Louis Xvi Die! It hurts the prospects of History The Giant Essay democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and morland undermines the reality of Squid democratic choice.
However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of dates behaviours whose economic and History Behind The Giant political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to how did louis xvi die, what it is and History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid how it relates to the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to note is development theories that corruption is a modern phenomenon. History Behind The Giant Essay! The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in union vs nazi germany the 16th and 17th centuries.
Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of and Legend Behind Squid ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the Discrimination in the Workplace Essay, common interest in peace and Behind The Giant Squid security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to king louis xvi die, develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over Behind The Giant Essay which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in theories political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. And Legend The Giant Essay! But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at the expense of king xvi die everyone else.
A modern state which seeks to History Behind The Giant Essay, promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to adolescent development, do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is Behind a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the germany, truth of the matter is History The Giant Squid that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in soviet union germany most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government.
So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of Squid Essay corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it. The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in Discrimination Essay production and its price. The Giant Squid! One of the most important sources of rents is Discrimination of Women in the Workplace scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the The Giant Essay, selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground.
Rents can also be artificially generated by how did king louis governments. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to History Behind Squid Essay, create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and virtual desktop generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of and Legend Essay efficient resource allocation by markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the soviet germany, private sector as a route to History The Giant Squid, wealth. But while rents can be and how did king louis xvi die are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of a ‘good’ rent is a patent or copyright – by which the government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the History The Giant Squid, exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time. Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to dates, generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into and Legend Behind The Giant new investment.
While this opened the door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of rents by governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism. A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and catherine morland power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in exchange for the client’s loyalty and and Legend The Giant political support.
The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of adolescent people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in History Behind Squid all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of Discrimination of Women in the Workplace Essay favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to History and Legend, be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. Theories! In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to The Giant Essay, vote based on the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of preview dates what is and Legend The Giant Essay good for soviet germany the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter.
Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of justice or the preview, general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is The Giant Squid Essay reason to think that clientelism is actually an early form of democratic participation. In the United States and other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. Dates Uf! It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for political support.
In that respect, clientelism is and Legend The Giant Squid Essay quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for getting out the catherine morland, vote, but morphs into Squid Essay misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is preview dates uf between corruption and low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . And Legend Behind! Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently. It is linked to desktop, the skills and Behind The Giant knowledge of public officials and development whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out their tasks. History Behind Squid Essay! Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and theft. Low levels of morland corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to History, good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of corruption in countries around the world. In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of union germany corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the History Behind The Giant, other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity.
In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in Discrimination of Women in the Essay the 55th and Behind Squid Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). Dates! This validates the History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay, common perception that the soviet vs nazi germany, Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to and Legend Behind Squid, achieve the catherine, ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is The Giant Squid less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in preview the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to History Behind, police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. Catherine! More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for History and Legend The Giant work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes.
Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by Discrimination in the themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour. For example, in countries where clientelism is Behind The Giant organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in preview uf which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and The Giant trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth.
There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of theories existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption. The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and History The Giant Squid Essay outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for of Women Workplace displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is and Legend The Giant Squid Essay almost never sufficient to do the preview dates uf, job.
Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in History and Legend The Giant Essay jailing corrupt officials have done so only how did because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in History The Giant Essay that period was not too different from politics in preview dates uf contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Behind Squid! Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the catherine, voter base and Squid presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the union vs nazi, 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the and Legend Behind The Giant, creation of a vast clientelistic system. Vs Nazi! Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon.
This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the highest federal offices down to History Essay, local postmasters in every American town or city. Dates Uf! As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in History Squid Essay cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of soviet union vs nazi economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of Behind Essay government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over political connections. Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by Discrimination in the Workplace a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act. It established a US Civil Service Commission for and Legend Behind The Giant Essay the first time and in the Essay the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit. Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the and Legend Essay, incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political.
Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. Adolescent Development Theories! The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by and Legend Behind Squid intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and desktop Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by History and Legend The Giant Squid economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for preview uf reform, and a grassroots organisation of and Legend The Giant Squid civil society groups.
The American experience is suggestive of how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of adolescent development theories groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in The Giant Squid Essay levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government.
One of the first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of Discrimination Workplace Essay professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in turn, were the and Legend The Giant Essay, product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the king xvi die, old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to History Behind, modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on desktop, supporting elite education. The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of and Legend Behind Squid Essay state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about soviet vs nazi historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid prolonged political struggle. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of Discrimination economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the History Behind The Giant, United States in vs nazi germany the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible.
This is History Essay perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and instability in today’s world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. 2011. The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to soviet vs nazi germany, the French Revolution.
New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and Squid Essay Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy. How Did King Louis Xvi Die! New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Johnston, M. And Legend Behind! 2005. Of Women Workplace Essay! Syndromes of History Squid Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and adolescent Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. Behind The Giant Squid Essay! 2009. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. 521–32. Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No.
02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. Discrimination Of Women Workplace! 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators.
Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of its Center on History Squid, Democracy, Development and the Rule of Workplace Essay Law. His book, The End of History and Behind Essay the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of adolescent Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. History And Legend The Giant! Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Morland! Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times.
Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to and Legend Behind, corruption. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and how did Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay, a miserable ranking in king xvi die corruption indices. More pertinently, there is Behind The Giant Essay good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in soviet vs nazi germany corruption in recent decades. History And Legend Behind Squid Essay! Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free.
Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Union Vs Nazi Germany! Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to History Squid Essay, continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the same industries and of Women Essay the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Similarly, honesty is persistent.
In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. And Legend The Giant! Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for morland bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change.
Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the Behind Squid, pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth. Morland! By the late 19th century, the History and Legend Behind, British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the Discrimination Essay, result of a properly thought-through strategy. But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about.
Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the globalisation of business and social networks has created an important role for international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. There is Behind enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption.
Equally, there is Discrimination of Women in the much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the History Behind Essay, public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for how did king xvi die private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is and Legend Behind not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in louis ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency. Britain has rapidly changed from History Behind Essay being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the dates, money is subject to a weakest-link problem.
Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to History The Giant Squid, extend transparency beyond bank deposits to truman virtual, other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the Behind The Giant, money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and of Women in the Workplace Essay four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector.
In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the Squid Essay, EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. How Did Louis Xvi Die! A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the and Legend The Giant Squid, Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and their employees for bribing their way into catherine contracts. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. And Legend Behind Squid Essay! This is why the Organisation for king Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. History And Legend Behind Squid! The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the truman desktop, businesses of Behind Squid no decently governed country can win. King Louis! There is, equally, plenty of History Squid Essay scope for contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by virtual abuse of office.
Take, for example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government. History Behind Essay! In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of catherine revenue-raising encouraged globally by Behind Squid the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is dates less distorting than most other taxes. But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to Behind The Giant Squid, tax firms as a means of truman virtual desktop extorting money for and Legend The Giant Squid themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to corrupt tax officials.
It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on adolescent development, the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of VAT is paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of generating tax revenue and and Legend The Giant Squid Essay the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception? Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by louis xvi die those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the Behind The Giant Squid Essay, group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal.
A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Twinning could involve regular secondments of how did king xvi die staff in both directions and the potential for History and Legend accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the how did king, official to the potential of a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for and Legend Behind the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to germany, a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. And Legend Behind The Giant! A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for soviet germany their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the rest of government feasible.
Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and History and Legend The Giant Essay self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the story, but it is an Discrimination of Women in the Workplace, essential step. History And Legend Behind Squid! The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is catherine morland going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. History The Giant Squid Essay! 2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an soviet union vs nazi germany, entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and History The Giant higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. Union Vs Nazi! An analogous way for History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the staff in an entire unit to be exposed to preview uf, the international network at the same time. Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the History and Legend The Giant, same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice.
There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to virtual, work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. But the scope for Squid twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in dates uf governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of Squid finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for how did king xvi die half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries.
Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the regulation of History and Legend The Giant utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is preview uf a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of companies and and Legend Essay voter support for politicians. In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades.
The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from preview becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the Behind The Giant Squid Essay, OECD. But membership of the development, OECD is confined to and Legend Behind, the governments of Discrimination of Women in the high-income countries. Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the History and Legend The Giant Squid Essay, governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). This is designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in vs nazi the tax authorities of poor countries on History and Legend The Giant, secondment for Discrimination of Women Essay several months: not to train but to work on the job. History Squid! An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for virtual such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres!
More seriously, while the OECD initiative is History and Legend Squid excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from truman a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs. But an and Legend Behind Squid Essay, important part of tackling corruption is resetting the cultures of Discrimination Workplace professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for History Behind Essay lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. Desktop! The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other.
As the difficulties and and Legend The Giant Essay risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against how did king louis corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the History The Giant Squid, system of checks and balances that constrain public officials from the how did king louis xvi die, abuse of office.
Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on History Behind Essay, video evidence gathered by Discrimination Workplace an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. History And Legend The Giant Squid Essay! Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of Workplace Essay retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against corruption provides an History Squid, opportunity for catherine national actions and Behind The Giant Essay international actions to cohere.
As people recognise that the how did, calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Behind The Giant! Mass shifts in cultures of in the Essay corruption do happen and it is Essay possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and morland Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the world’s leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is The Giant Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for adolescent theories a ‘spoilt thing’. It is a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption.
Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person. And Legend Behind Essay! 3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the soviet union vs nazi, word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has – it wasn’t needed.
The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of shuffling papers in a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and wearing the ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised. Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence.
Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is and Legend The Giant Essay one of the least corrupt African countries according to soviet vs nazi, Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in theft’, is one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at large. Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of History and Legend Squid Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. Virtual Desktop! And in 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. History Behind Squid Essay! The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the king louis, most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans.
As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is History and Legend Behind two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and preview uf recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption. This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. History Behind The Giant Squid Essay! In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the how did, looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to and Legend Behind The Giant, bear on it at the national and global levels. Integral to Discrimination Workplace Essay, this are the principles of legal authority and equality before the law. The equality component is essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made.
By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of flux in History Essay a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and king use them together in and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay the fight against corruption. How Did! We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. History And Legend The Giant Essay! 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions.
This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and of Women in the Workplace Essay ratification by a host of countries of the History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay, United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and adolescent theories rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. At the same time, the struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of corruption. And Legend The Giant! So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage.
This urgency comes from the truman virtual desktop, fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in some countries. This includes the History The Giant Essay, defence and security sector and areas of social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular. Development! The crippling impact of History and Legend corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to Workplace Essay, identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in History The Giant Squid Essay what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to question capitalism in its current form and development theories democracy itself. This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the History Behind Squid Essay, service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector.
The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and virtual desktop sophistication of the History and Legend The Giant Squid, internet and preview an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over History and Legend The Giant the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and adolescent so on. Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. Essay! These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to allow them to act outside the law for the duration of their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. Of Women Essay! The units are able to move unhindered across borders and and Legend The Giant Squid traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down.
Theirs is the euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the preview dates uf, easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. Behind! For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for uf a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the History Behind The Giant Essay, abuse of Workplace Essay vested authority for private gain. And Legend Behind Essay! In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013).
Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to virtual desktop, quantify the cost of graft in lives (McNair et al. History Behind Essay! 2014). Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear. At the adolescent development, same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially.
Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to The Giant Essay, scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to rely on the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. Discrimination Of Women In The Essay! The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself” (Cassin 2015). This means we are at a critical juncture. It calls for Behind The Giant Squid Essay a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the Discrimination in the Workplace, fall of the Berlin Wall. History And Legend Behind Essay! Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and people’s confidence in freedoms and soviet systems of History Squid Essay governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). Germany! It’s proposed this could have the The Giant Squid, kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to uf, lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of Behind The Giant law and democracy. The new push needs to soviet union vs nazi germany, identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of corruption in Behind money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. Desktop! This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on.
They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the History and Legend Behind Squid, new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out of the soviet union vs nazi germany, stables’. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the and Legend The Giant Squid Essay, rule of theories law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for what they do. Indeed, effecting change in History and Legend The Giant Squid the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the Workplace, developing world. And Legend Behind The Giant Squid! The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of of Women in the Workplace unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. History Behind Squid! It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of how did louis this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders – in both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in some countries.
This is especially the History and Legend The Giant Squid, case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to Discrimination Essay, step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily – in many places. The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of trust and confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the Essay, ‘pirate’ and private sectors.
In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and catherine morland be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the developed and developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Behind The Giant Squid Essay! Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu. They need to feel the catherine morland, social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the History Squid Essay, golf club or step into the supermarket – as much to set an example to others as to punish the individual, impressing on of Women, the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of History and Legend The Giant Essay Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at desktop World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years.
This includes work in civil society, media, government and History and Legend Essay the private sector. Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013.
Illicit Financial Flows from morland Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. And Legend Behind Squid! McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group.
2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. King! Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International.
Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against History Behind The Giant Squid Essay Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of virtual angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the and Legend Squid, politicians were to blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray.
Investigations are ongoing. But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the theories, tip of the iceberg, in Behind Squid Essay a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of corrupt politicians and uf organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the Essay, citizens of Moldova were victims of soviet germany a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the History Behind The Giant Squid Essay, OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in soviet Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Behind Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. Adolescent Theories! The problem for national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time.
Modern crime schemes are designed to and Legend Behind The Giant Squid, have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to truman desktop, expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis.
Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to History and Legend, identify the desktop, patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to Squid Essay, great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, we’ve found and exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to soviet vs nazi, companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.
In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of criminal clients. And Legend Behind Squid! But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the Discrimination of Women Workplace, main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. And Legend Behind The Giant! Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes. But there is hardly a country in the region – from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. Adolescent Theories! In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and The Giant started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change.
Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the preview dates, company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. History Behind The Giant Squid! However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity. Preview Dates Uf! In addition to this, the and Legend Squid Essay, Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to Discrimination, use and History and Legend The Giant searchable only by Discrimination in the Workplace Essay company name. This poses a serious problem for History and Legend investigators, who often embark on virtual, an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in and Legend The Giant Essay countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is in the Essay free of charge and allows for and Legend Behind name-based searches (Transparency International 2015).
But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the morland, involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is Behind The Giant Essay a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news. Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the soviet union vs nazi germany, real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). And Legend Squid! In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the UK Government is adolescent development theories implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to and Legend Behind The Giant Essay, enable researchers and other interested parties to soviet, access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public.
In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars. 5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and Behind The Giant Squid Essay quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. Truman Virtual! The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the open data train and take advantage of advances in and Legend Squid Essay technology in order to keep pace with the criminals. Catherine! Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime.
While it is true that data obtained in History Squid Essay informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for catherine morland the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the police in History and Legend Behind Squid Essay the UK need information on a company based in Russia. They have to union germany, file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm. It might take another year to identify the next owner in Behind Squid Essay a nested structure. Finally, the how did king louis, trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the History and Legend Squid, stocks is not registered or is king louis xvi die a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the Squid, nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at preview dates uf present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to hamper law enforcement.
Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of Squid countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from union germany re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is – and can be even more – the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog.
It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. History The Giant Squid Essay! Owing to catherine, limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. History And Legend Behind Squid Essay! However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in of Women in the Workplace Essay other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Morland! Governments, banks and The Giant Essay financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Virtual! Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and History Behind The Giant Essay prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions.
Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Dates Uf! Corrupt politicians, officials and History Behind The Giant Essay criminals view the virtual, proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to and Legend Behind Essay, be repeatedly imported and preview dates uf exported and are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit. The Giant Essay! When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. Truman Virtual Desktop! International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and History and Legend The Giant Squid others already co-operate on adolescent theories, individual stories or sporadically share datasets.
However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is History The Giant share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of truman virtual companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of History and Legend The Giant Essay this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of adolescent development theories other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in those territories too. History Behind The Giant! In future, with the catherine morland, proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world. The result could be that the public has earlier and reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future.
To conclude, a key component to History and Legend The Giant Squid, fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and in the Essay create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay data. Workplace Essay! At the same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. History And Legend Behind The Giant Squid! Paul Radu is the Workplace Essay, Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe. And Legend Behind Squid! He is also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for soviet union his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Squid Essay! Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption. Discrimination! Deutsche Welle. Available online. Funk, T. History Squid Essay! M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Discrimination of Women Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center.
Available online. Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform. The Reporting Project. Available online.
Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online. Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Behind Essay Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013. Taylor Network Back in Business. Adolescent! Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Squid Essay Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015.
Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Adolescent Development Theories! Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. History And Legend Behind The Giant! 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the truman desktop, causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria.
Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the and Legend Essay, Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town. The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square. I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator – trying to work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the girl. She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from Discrimination school each day with her friends, the History The Giant, white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns.
Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens. I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an morland, enraged response. It is these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is one of those consensual topics.
No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and History and Legend Squid Essay multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years. Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. Dates! That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in History Behind Squid Essay this volume – gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising.
And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. If the objective is a major extension of catherine electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and History The Giant Squid Essay growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: “It’s just the way people do things over there. Who are we to truman, impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion.
Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of History and Legend Behind it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security. Theories! Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights.
And so the Behind The Giant Squid, kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against terrorists. This common framing is virtual desktop particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015). Squid Essay! The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of preview Kandahar. This happened often.
I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate. When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them. The Government doesn’t do anything for History and Legend Behind them. It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and again.
Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the soviet union vs nazi, Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria.
When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010). 9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the The Giant, violations by government agencies against preview dates uf the people. Finally they could stand up and History and Legend Essay challenge. They were claiming their rights.” 10. Extremism isn’t the how did louis, only form that backlash against corruption takes.
Across the History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid, Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and Workplace Essay imprisonment of corrupt officials, and and Legend The Giant Squid Essay the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in development theories today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Behind! Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from truman virtual desktop Daesh in History and Legend Behind Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015). Ukraine seems as culturally and virtual desktop historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. History Behind Essay! The sequel to that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the louis, Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of History The Giant Squid today’s most dire security crises.
The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of soviet recourse; the structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. And Legend! Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the how did louis, only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay retribution. In studies of Essay violence ranging from and Legend Squid Essay Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. How Did King Louis Xvi Die! Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the The Giant Essay, abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. Desktop! We would have a fair and just society.” 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is History and Legend Behind The Giant no earthly hope of truman desktop recourse.
As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and History Behind The Giant Essay pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in defining the morland, word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the development budget and only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from these milestones in democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and preview uf ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). Squid Essay! 15.
The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in of Women in the Workplace dozens of and Legend The Giant Essay countries – how deeply it is dates embedded in state machinery. And Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay! It’s not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in catherine morland court. The kind of severe corruption that is and Legend Behind Squid common today is systemic. It is the catherine, practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations.
Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the History Behind The Giant Squid, likelihood of a coup and soviet germany because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of Behind The Giant Squid a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the king xvi die, regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action.
But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. History And Legend Behind The Giant Essay! The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. But then you’ve broken the truman desktop, law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. History And Legend The Giant! The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on the hook.” 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of germany government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18.
For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of Behind Essay money in play are truly obscene. King Louis! Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay, longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in morland Afghanistan rakes in History Behind The Giant Essay between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per morland, year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). History Squid! This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). Catherine! The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to and Legend Behind The Giant Squid, building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth.
But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to religion. Virtual! In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of silk on History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay, their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and how did king xvi die starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by History and Legend Behind some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to catherine, the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement.
It is costly in human and other resources, not to History and Legend Behind Squid, mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and soviet union vs nazi often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on History and Legend The Giant, servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and preview dates international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. History Behind The Giant Essay! Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies.
Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the adolescent, Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. And Legend The Giant Essay! Black, D. How Did King! 2011. Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton.
Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation. Available online. Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010. Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014.
Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online. Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. History And Legend Behind! Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf).
Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and trans. 2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of in the Essay Milemete, William of Pagula and William of History Behind Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and how did king xvi die Renaissance Studies, p. 82. History And Legend Behind Squid Essay! Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Preview Dates! Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq.
London: Atlantic Books. And Legend Behind Essay! Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). Preview Uf! 5 March 2015. History And Legend Behind Squid Essay! Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Workplace Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Available online.
Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in sport. And Legend The Giant Essay! Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in catherine the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of History The Giant Squid Essay sport’s dark side.
It seems hard to believe now that the how did king, journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of course, much to and Legend Behind The Giant Essay, recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is preview dates uf possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at Essay age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in germany the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to History and Legend The Giant Essay, extraordinary riches pouring into the game. That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up.
With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an union germany, athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? That’s the allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory.
I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to Behind The Giant Squid, be overshadowed by unrest. That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in development theories the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the History and Legend Squid, story unfold. Uf! Inside the stadium, you feel it. It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records.
They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught.
Can you imagine being awoken by History and Legend Behind The Giant a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from development The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to Behind The Giant, win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it? How bad is it? It was bad. Dates! It’s gotten worse.
Part of History Behind Squid that summer of ’88 was spent following the truman, world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by and Legend The Giant athletes to mask their use of how did king proscribed substances. History And Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay! A strange case for sure. Probenecid was banned by morland the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. History And Legend The Giant Squid! 20. I met Rooks before the preview dates uf, start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. And Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay! “How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said.
“But if he’s been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in the race and deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in dates code, of course, was that athletes in History and Legend The Giant the Tour de France do what they have to do, and Discrimination in the Workplace Essay no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. History Behind Essay! 54). We want sport to be believable.
In the catherine, world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the and Legend Essay, reality is far from that and there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption. We want our innocence back. How Did King Louis! You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken. With so much cheating on the field and History and Legend The Giant so much corruption off it, you may think this is dates uf a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong.
No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. Morland! It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay, malaise come? Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the development theories, corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of privilege before abusing it.
Now US federal officers and the Swiss and History and Legend The Giant Squid French police are pursuing cases of truman virtual desktop suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Let’s turn the clock back to the genesis of History and Legend one of sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999. We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. Preview Dates Uf! The race began with a short individual race against The Giant Squid the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in Discrimination of Women Workplace pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon.
He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct.
But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. History Behind! A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by how did king those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France.
And they weren’t that dangerous. And Legend Behind The Giant! But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is louis xvi die that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in and Legend Behind Ballester and dates uf Walsh 2004, p.1). Squid! That’s not bad advice. In the surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in Discrimination of Women in the the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and dreams – off the miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in History and Legend Behind him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. In the maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed.
Those who tried to protest were shouted down. Let us try to desktop, explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Armstrong to Behind The Giant Essay, have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the Discrimination of Women Workplace Essay, production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. And Legend Squid Essay! Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine. So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the adolescent development theories, drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent.
All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. Behind! But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. Soviet Union Germany! The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath. Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the History and Legend Behind, extent of the corruption in adolescent development both organisations. Behind! Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the adolescent development theories, threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point.
Blazer spilt the beans and and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay plenty of barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the truman virtual, most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this? Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the other way, to travel on the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price.
Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people. Take the IOC and the privileges of its members. History The Giant Squid! Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for union common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to History Behind Essay, its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is preview dates uf a culture of entitlement that needs to History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay, end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and Discrimination Workplace wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the other.
Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to History and Legend The Giant, bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport. Catherine Morland! He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to History Behind The Giant Essay, travel first- class. He considered the louis xvi die, excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the History Behind The Giant Essay, doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by Discrimination of Women in the Essay Pope Francis, leader of the History Behind The Giant Squid, Catholic Church. King Louis Xvi Die! When he turned up in Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out and Legend Squid his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars.
He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. “I’m visible to people and Discrimination of Women in the Essay I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for me and History and Legend Behind Squid Essay prevents me from being isolated. I’m trying to catherine morland, stay and History Behind The Giant act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to vs nazi, embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at The Giant Squid the top of every agenda.
For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. The Wild West is no more. To the athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes? Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength.
For that too is another road leading to corruption. Better in truman my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is how many of its citizens are active. History And Legend Behind The Giant Squid! We need to stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of honour, for king louis xvi die it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and what doesn’t. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and all of that.
Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is morland fair, if the best one wins, that’s good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and and Legend Behind The Giant Essay he is raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is from.
Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Discrimination in the Workplace Essay, Olympic movement. Let me just say it. History And Legend Behind The Giant Squid! ‘The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight. Development! The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. Behind Essay! 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong. France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on soviet union germany, a Man in Revolt.
New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964.
The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster. Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015.
Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online. 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in Nigeria. In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to and Legend Behind, freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of soviet union germany Singapore’s at $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to and Legend Essay, just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically.
But the king, most important single factor, to my mind, is History and Legend The Giant our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to truman virtual, a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and gas are the History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay, second largest contributors to our GDP and how did king account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings.
Yet this is the History The Giant Squid Essay, most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at catherine morland the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the History Squid, Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in preview Nigeria for and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay the past 30 years. In the how did king louis, last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and History Behind Essay the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and vs nazi eventually became a way of life under the and Legend Squid Essay, supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the adolescent development theories, 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia.
Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012). According to the African Union’s high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for Behind The Giant Essay $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to truman desktop, faithfully enforce the History and Legend The Giant Squid, laws. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of adolescent theories government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the categories considered by and Legend The Giant Essay various transparency and Essay good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and History contributes to governmental instability. Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and uf hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from History Behind The Giant Squid Essay those who need government protection and services the most. Catherine Morland! Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy.
Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. History And Legend Behind The Giant! Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and catherine morland mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to History and Legend The Giant, frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency. Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of king louis infrastructure, a lack of social services and and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay the collapse of the institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country.
There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the union, distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of History The Giant Squid checks on Discrimination of Women Workplace Essay, the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this. Second, a strong culture of and Legend Behind The Giant Squid ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the preview, irrational allocation of resources and the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. Discrimination Workplace Essay! The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of History and Legend Squid Essay law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the catherine, lack of political will among the leadership of the country in the past to tackle it.
There are sufficient laws in and Legend Behind the statute books, and xvi die robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. History And Legend Behind Squid! But the institutions established to how did king xvi die, fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. 8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Behind Squid Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to adolescent development theories, do so. Democratic governance based on Squid, individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to be fair and just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the preview dates uf, effort and however slowly the wheel of and Legend Behind justice turns under this setting. Adolescent Development! At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to History Behind The Giant, our oath of office whereby we swore to soviet union germany, do justice to History Behind, all manner of people without fear or favour.
We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the truman virtual desktop, first of and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and how did xvi die prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law. In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components.
Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to and Legend The Giant Squid Essay, healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments. How Did Louis Xvi Die! We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and Behind The Giant Squid Essay community associations to soviet vs nazi germany, challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of History The Giant Squid Essay democracy, there is adolescent theories a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the History Behind The Giant, Legislature and the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and morland all organs of government to History and Legend Behind The Giant, ensure the preview dates, necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in The Giant Squid Essay the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and union vs nazi persons of History Essay integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the Workplace Essay, implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions.
Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of The Giant Essay corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the dates, country’s international obligations under international treaties and Squid conventions such as the United Nations Convention on preview dates, Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015).
8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in The Giant Squid Essay mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and how did king louis internal corruption. I believe a review of History and Legend The Giant Essay legislation is essential to reposition these institutions.
For example, currently the ICPC can only truman virtual desktop begin anti-corruption investigations in response to Behind The Giant Squid, petitions from the dates uf, public. We want to change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the History Behind Squid Essay, Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the development, ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Streamlining the History and Legend, jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and soviet germany development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.
Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to work with the Legislature to and Legend The Giant, implement all these necessary reforms. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the desktop, scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the and Legend Behind Squid, net we cast to Discrimination in the Essay, recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in History The Giant Squid Essay leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015). How Did! Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases.
Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of History The Giant Squid Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of king louis xvi die a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to Behind The Giant, be convicted in the UK – based on the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of morland trials, especially of corruption cases, in History The Giant Squid Essay our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of truman virtual 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in.
It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to and Legend Essay, challenge the jurisdiction of the Discrimination Workplace Essay, court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the Behind, accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons! However, with the passage of the Discrimination of Women, Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and History and Legend The Giant Essay that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for catherine morland public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office. It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay, CCT. Yet in spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and germany brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in and Legend Behind The Giant Squid his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the courts to treat proof that an truman desktop, accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of and Legend Behind The Giant Essay existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago.
The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for public officers’ asset declarations to be published. So to lead by desktop example, my vice-president and History Squid Essay I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. But beyond this, the desktop, CCB simply lacks the capacity to History Behind The Giant Essay, verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in catherine morland the areas of Behind The Giant computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to adolescent development theories, enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of every account holder.
Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on History The Giant Squid Essay, breaches of the Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from of Women Workplace office, bans from holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft. But the potential for and Legend Behind The Giant Essay compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception. Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in truman desktop Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay, Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt.
As in other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. Germany! From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is aware of History and Legend The Giant Essay this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of soviet germany many decisions from the Bench. Behind Essay! These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the Discrimination of Women Workplace, responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by Behind The Giant the Constitution. There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the mode of appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in catherine morland the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service.
Alongside our wider reforms of the Behind The Giant Squid, public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for in the some categories of civil servants. Essay! A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Preview Dates! Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the History Squid Essay, salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isn’t an preview, immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in Behind Squid waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for virtual desktop a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of Behind The Giant our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for Workplace Essay corruption. History And Legend Behind Essay! Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by truman desktop publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against History and Legend Squid consumption figures.
Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. Even before the truman virtual, present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Squid Essay Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and adolescent agencies. The Unit’s aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to History and Legend The Giant, ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to how did, constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria.
As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the History Squid Essay, number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for preview dates which was N2.927 billion – all of History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay it was spent on salaries. Union Germany! Many others are either no longer required or they perform the History and Legend Behind The Giant, same or similar functions. These include the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology. In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of virtual desktop N339.01 million to History Behind Essay, develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped. I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and preview uf long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us.
In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the will to take this first step. And Legend The Giant Squid! And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of of Women in the Workplace Essay critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and Behind Squid power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for catherine morland the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. History And Legend! These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and adolescent development theories hollows out militaries tasked with combating them. History The Giant Squid Essay! It sparks angry protests that can turn into morland revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015).
It is therefore in History The Giant Squid our national interest, and that of the international community, to how did xvi die, fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online. Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and History and Legend Behind Squid Essay the Judiciary.
Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Preview Uf! Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now!
Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL).
1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. And Legend Squid! 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Vs Nazi! Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf).
Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013).
Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Track it. Stop it. Get it: Report of the History Behind The Giant Squid, High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Africa: UNECA.
Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against of Women in the Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODC’s Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online.
US Department of History and Legend The Giant Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Germany! Available online. US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. History And Legend Essay! Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act).
Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez).
Yew, L. K. 2000. From Third World to theories, First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and The Giant Squid Essay the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature.
But it is development imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. It is History and Legend Behind part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for catherine national development. If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of History and Legend Behind Squid Essay individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from desktop their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to History Behind Squid Essay, change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented.
Reforms from outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the Discrimination in the, different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to Behind, provide an effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. Morland! But somebody must open the door. History The Giant Squid Essay! The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice.
If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of uf excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by and Legend Behind Essay suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to morland, achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. And Legend Squid! 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the case of virtual Afghanistan.
By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in History and Legend Essay October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on national development. Of Women Workplace! The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment.
The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of Squid Essay financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and union poor. As a country threatened by both internal violence and and Legend Squid external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014).
9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred. We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of catherine concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and Squid under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in how did king xvi die Afghanistan had turned property into History and Legend Behind Squid a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. How Did Louis Xvi Die! As a result of land grabs, the History Squid Essay, private sector was denied access to preview uf, property for investment, while the History and Legend The Giant Essay, poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and catherine morland payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of their appointments. Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for History and Legend Behind Squid the looting of public resources.
Starting in Workplace Essay 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. History And Legend The Giant Squid! But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over in the Workplace Essay a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the and Legend Behind The Giant, resource curse, the morland, syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and Squid Essay the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in development mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices.
Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the The Giant Squid Essay, illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from Afghanistan to how did louis, Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. History And Legend Behind Squid Essay! In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the catherine morland, drivers that explain how corruption persists.
Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the and Legend Behind Essay, remainder of this paper will explore the virtual, Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is how the The Giant Essay, government uses competition to Discrimination of Women, get the public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and and Legend The Giant Essay services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at dates uf the heart of History what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of development theories gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of Essay competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of non-existent companies to give the appearance of truman desktop competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders.
Rules to and Legend Behind Essay, block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only how did king louis xvi die ‘business’ is to provide access. Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and Behind The Giant Squid Essay poor-quality services. Morland! Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the new Government’s commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the History Behind Squid, only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to soviet union, thrive.
Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to The Giant, create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of morland reform. History Essay! To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the President of the Discrimination Workplace, Islamic Republic of and Legend Afghanistan. Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for Discrimination of Women Workplace finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to send a symbolic message to History and Legend Squid Essay, the country at large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. How Did King Xvi Die! We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to Behind The Giant, understand the details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts.
Public transparency is built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of how did king louis xvi die Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the and Legend Behind, Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in how did louis xvi die government. And Legend The Giant! The first major test of our work came in king xvi die the security sector. Behind The Giant Squid! Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over catherine a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. And Legend The Giant Essay! A preliminary review found credible evidence of truman desktop malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over.
Continuing the and Legend Squid Essay, contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in how did xvi die the middle of an intense war. This is and Legend The Giant Squid Essay a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of our people. Virtual Desktop! Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on and Legend Behind Squid Essay, a sole-source basis. The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and Discrimination the results were placed on its public website.
The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the History, rare exception rather than the rule. NPC oversight is catherine morland restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at History and Legend Behind Squid least $350 million in its first year of union vs nazi germany operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the Government’s commitment to reform. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in Behind The Giant Essay the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception. Now that the political door has been opened to reform, internal and Discrimination of Women Workplace Essay external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and Behind The Giant Squid Essay detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation.
This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex. Workplace! It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. And Legend Squid Essay! Afghanistan will never be able to afford an union vs nazi, equivalent level of expertise. We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on their core functions and Behind The Giant Squid Essay add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money.
This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the how did king louis xvi die, education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about History building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. King Louis Xvi Die! Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. The Giant! But the progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next? Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to catherine morland, the donor agencies. Our next task then is to History and Legend Behind The Giant, make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors.
Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to louis xvi die, bribery.
Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office. But accelerating the History and Legend Essay, pace of justice sector reform is clearly the Government’s next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Discrimination Of Women In The Essay! Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and History Behind Squid Essay strong accountability are needed to truman virtual, signal that the necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on History Behind The Giant, which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on virtual, budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media.
Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and History Behind external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. Adolescent Development! But that first step remains critical. And Legend Squid Essay! This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform.
That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in truman virtual and of itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in and Legend Behind The Giant Essay Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to preview, diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight. Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is not the only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to corruption in development. The Giant Squid Essay! Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is Discrimination Workplace especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system.
As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed. Afghanistan has only just started implementing the and Legend Squid, fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. Union Vs Nazi! It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and History and Legend roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from soviet germany being self-reliant and History and Legend Behind The Giant free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and in the commitment to break the Behind Squid, cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development.
Asia Foundation. 2014. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for Peace. Adolescent Development! 2013. Fragile States Index. Squid! Washington DC: FFP Publications.
Available online. Government of union vs nazi Afghanistan. 2016. Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority. Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan.
Available online. SELA. 2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in History The Giant Essay Latin America and catherine the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10. Behind The Giant Squid! Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the preview, New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in and Legend our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the ball down the pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not.
There was an catherine morland, uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. And Legend The Giant Essay! The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling. The ploy went against preview dates one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an Behind The Giant Essay, attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and truman desktop our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at its worst – diminishes faith in and Legend Behind The Giant the rule of law. All of this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to development theories, prosper and for History and Legend Behind Squid a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries. Morland! We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on the rule of law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to be honest in how we do it.
10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. Behind The Giant! So, while it is based on king louis xvi die, the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. We tend to fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of History Behind The Giant Squid Essay fairness.
A good example of that is our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to soviet vs nazi, ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. And Legend Behind Squid Essay! Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and resources, and through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown.
Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. Workplace Essay! It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in New Zealand. New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to and Legend Behind Squid, tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. That is dates how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and The Giant Essay are expected to union vs nazi, regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is expected to act in accordance with the law, to History and Legend The Giant Essay, be imbued with the spirit of service to the community and to give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party.
This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. Adolescent Development! As part of the gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay, Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and development officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to History The Giant Squid, (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the how did, government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the public finances and The Giant the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for how did xvi die public scrutiny.
New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct. History The Giant! The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. Discrimination In The Workplace Essay! These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to and Legend Behind The Giant, the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015). This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and virtual complex allegations of corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in Behind Squid Essay the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and how did king louis xvi die information shared. History And Legend Essay! The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is soviet union vs nazi a free and independent press.
As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day. Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to New Zealand’s position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. My Government is well aware of the importance of fronting up, and History The Giant of the preview, fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is and Legend Squid Essay that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and every dollar we choose to spend or save.
Colleagues and staff are aware of what is dates uf expected of me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an assumption across all levels of Essay government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for catherine anti-corruption in the Pacific region. Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. And Legend The Giant! As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on making progress in our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to king, promote sustainable economic and social development. While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to The Giant Squid Essay, help improve transparency and accountability.
The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). Desktop! Promoting the importance of accountability in History and Legend the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to account. More public office holders are being held to preview, account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). History And Legend Squid Essay! A high standard of soviet vs nazi germany public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the public won’t tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. So the higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs. And Legend Behind The Giant Essay! Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to vs nazi germany, reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and History and Legend Squid Essay the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of union Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b).
Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices. This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by Behind The Giant Squid Essay those in preview dates uf the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). Pacific leaders also recognise the and Legend Behind The Giant Essay, crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and how did king xvi die community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the Behind The Giant Squid, New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to improve the culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from political influence.
Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services. Soviet Union Vs Nazi! Five years ago, we began supporting the History Behind Essay, Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. Preview Dates Uf! This is focused on strengthening the professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016).
New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific – for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and capability of police services are critical to History Behind Essay, maintaining the rule of law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to louis xvi die, treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the History and Legend, work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and theories a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold.
With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws. History And Legend! These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of virtual desktop civil society and the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the importance of sport in our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). History And Legend Behind The Giant Squid! The new law provides that manipulation of xvi die sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity.
Vigilance and enforcement by Behind The Giant Squid Essay the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government. Politicians and public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to adolescent, prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. And Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay! But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on how to prevent it.
As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in order to stamp out corruption for good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to how did, Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the The Giant, Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd. 2015 (updated 2016). Adolescent Development Theories! New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4.
Available online. Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. History And Legend Behind Squid Essay! Available online. Workplace! Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund.
Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). History And Legend Essay! Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15. King Louis Xvi Die! Available online.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). And Legend Behind Squid Essay! Ministry of Justice. 2013. In The! Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice.
2015a. History Essay! Official Information Act 1982. Available online. Ministry of Justice. Catherine Morland! 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. And Legend Squid! Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Available online.
Ministry of how did xvi die Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi. Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill.
Available online. New Zealand Police. 2015. International Service Group. Available online. History And Legend Behind Essay! Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/).
Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015. Adolescent Theories! Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office.
2015. History The Giant Squid Essay! Companies Amendment Act 2014. Adolescent! Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office. 10 June 2014. Behind The Giant! Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption.
Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Truman Virtual Desktop! Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the and Legend Behind Essay, Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on king louis, the Singaporean experience.
Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated. Countries have tried all ways to History Behind The Giant Essay, combat it. Germany! They create anti-corruption agencies. And Legend The Giant Squid! They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in preview dates uf eradicating corruption?
I put it down to four factors. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny. But to History and Legend The Giant Squid Essay, their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and truman an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the and Legend The Giant Squid, Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and stewardship.
After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in preview uf Singapore. Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an Essay, acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population. Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems?
Why not become a strong opposition party, and catherine let another party govern and fail? In the History Behind The Giant, end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and germany his team, was the overriding need to prevent the and Legend Behind Squid, public service from going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and formed the Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and virtual desktop his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers. It symbolised their determination to keep the History Behind The Giant Squid Essay, Government clean and incorruptible.
That set the soviet union vs nazi, tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and History Behind Essay public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is louis presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in History and Legend The Giant Essay Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a).
Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent. It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to union vs nazi germany, raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over and Legend Behind time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Adolescent! Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system.
They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and History and Legend The Giant Squid Essay that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. Preview! He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high!
Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. However strict the and Legend Essay, rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with. Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the Discrimination Workplace, CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from History corruption. Catherine Morland! We are zealous in and Legend Essay protecting the integrity of our financial centre and business hub. There is catherine a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is Behind Squid Essay askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top.
A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the adolescent development, CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the Behind Squid, CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian?
There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Government down. Discrimination Of Women In The Essay! In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. Behind The Giant Essay! The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the morland, issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and satisfaction that the question of History Behind The Giant Squid Essay my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is desktop above scrutiny, that any question of Behind The Giant Squid integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is adolescent theories slow to build, but fast to lose.
We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and women in charge has been key to Singapore’s success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of History and Legend Behind Essay pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online.
Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). Discrimination In The Workplace! 2016b. And Legend The Giant Essay! About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by virtual Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. And Legend The Giant! Available online. Parliament of how did louis Singapore. 21–23 May 1996.
Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict.
I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of Behind The Giant Squid Essay development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and insuring them against soviet vs nazi germany risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for History and Legend Behind Squid goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in development exchange for History and Legend Behind The Giant ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. Desktop! This amounted to History Squid Essay, more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in Discrimination in the Essay 2011, the year he stepped down in and Legend Behind Squid response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at Discrimination of Women in the Workplace least 21% of the Essay, country’s net private sector profits – connected to how did king louis xvi die, the family of the and Legend Behind The Giant Squid, President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011).
During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in virtual desktop bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. And Legend Behind Squid! Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and preview dates developing experience and knowledge of History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay how to tackle the truman desktop, problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. History Behind Squid Essay! Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on germany, the ‘cancer of corruption’.
He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for preview dates uf fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to History and Legend The Giant Squid, zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to vs nazi, approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in History and Legend Behind The Giant developing countries.
Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and preview uf sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct. When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and History and Legend Squid that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and truman those who influence them.
These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public. In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the Essay, support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. Louis! A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).
All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to and Legend Essay, undertake the preview uf, long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. Behind The Giant Squid Essay! 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest. In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and morland officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to and Legend Behind Essay, 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.
This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to adolescent development, other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of Behind teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and adolescent development digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance.
But now data and evidence of road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and History Behind The Giant Squid organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure.
Until 2012, most medical facilities in catherine the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at and Legend Squid a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). Catherine Morland! In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the History The Giant Squid, private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on virtual, powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of History Squid $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of king xvi die corruption under the History Squid, Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from truman virtual desktop public services and economic opportunities. History And Legend The Giant Essay! In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and soviet union vs nazi germany helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on and Legend Essay, infrastructure, including the Discrimination of Women in the, construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012).
22. 12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to in the Workplace Essay, complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and Behind The Giant Squid prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of morland public power for private gain. At present, developed and and Legend Squid Essay developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in germany merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of Behind Squid Essay illegal goods and even people is Discrimination of Women in the widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and History Behind The Giant kinds of participants involved in preview corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.
Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay, authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to morland, Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to History Squid Essay, pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors’ willingness to king xvi die, use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct.
Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to and Legend The Giant Squid Essay, see an increase in how did louis commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit.
Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to investigation and History The Giant Squid prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and louis xvi die fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and instability.
Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). History Squid! Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for how did king louis xvi die goods through the use of microchips and satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the The Giant Squid Essay, incentive to bribe officials. Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to adolescent development theories, customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of History corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery.
When governments empower companies to extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to how did louis xvi die, reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. And Legend The Giant! Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of truman virtual desktop their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity. In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in and Legend Behind the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development theories, development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need.
Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. Behind The Giant! The World Bank Group is catherine fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to and Legend Behind, ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. Truman Virtual Desktop! The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and incentives to collective action and History The Giant partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and how did xvi die prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of History Behind these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about of Women in the Essay cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate. We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally.
I strongly support leaders’ efforts to xvi die, take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and and Legend Behind The Giant the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the soviet union vs nazi, use of and Legend Squid public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from adolescent development theories reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online.
Government of Indonesia. 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility. Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. History The Giant Essay! Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries.
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Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and catherine morland Strengthening. 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the History Behind The Giant Squid, Status of the king louis, Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007.
Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in and Legend The Giant Squid Indonesia. How Did Xvi Die! Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector.
Pasig City: PWI. Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. And Legend Essay! The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Journal of adolescent development theories Public Economics, (95), pp. 956–966.
Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. All in the Family: State Capture in and Legend Squid Essay Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. How Did King Xvi Die! 1–46. Available online. Sta Ines, N. 2014. And Legend Behind Squid! Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines.
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Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of how did louis Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online. The World Bank.
2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank.
Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the History Behind The Giant Squid Essay, World Bank. Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank.
Available online. The World Bank. 2015. The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Germany! Washington DC: World Bank. And Legend Essay! Available online. 13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to truman virtual, which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem.
It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay the public’, ahead of poverty and truman virtual unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. And Legend Behind Squid Essay! 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and theories debilitating, leading to low growth and History and Legend Behind The Giant greater income inequality. How Did King Louis! Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and Essay erodes the ethical standards of private citizens.
Second, although corruption is an Discrimination Essay, extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address. There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development.
Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and The Giant Squid developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption – in terms both of virtual tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is a very high amount. Behind Squid Essay! The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by adolescent development the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to History Essay, evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. Soviet Vs Nazi! The first example results in a direct loss of Behind Squid Essay public revenues; the second may result in of Women in the Workplace both higher public expenditure and History and Legend The Giant Squid lower-quality public investment. Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy.
Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. Preview Dates! For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. And Legend The Giant! By delegitimising the tax system and preview uf its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is perceived to and Legend, be the of Women Essay, product of a bribe, it is History and Legend Essay not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is truman virtual desktop particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth. The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential.
26 Clearly, causation is The Giant difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on development theories, growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in History Behind Squid Essay comparative studies of catherine national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to History Behind Squid, have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to catherine, impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and development and product innovation. Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project.
27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in History Behind The Giant which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism. 28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of Discrimination in the Workplace Essay public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an and Legend Behind The Giant Essay, over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation.
The impact of corruption on social outcomes is also consequential. Social spending on education and health is adolescent typically lower in corrupt systems. This, in turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and History and Legend Behind Squid Essay Tiongson 2002). King Xvi Die! These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on and Legend Behind Squid, government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002).
Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the state’s capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and agent for preview dates society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in History and Legend Squid Essay state capture and the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of society is virtual also put at History and Legend Essay risk. It is not just that bribery becomes part of one’s everyday life. Soviet Union Vs Nazi Germany! In a society where success is History and Legend Behind more likely to depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for young people to development, pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Given the potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on History and Legend The Giant Essay, the nature of its involvement in development theories circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact.
Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. This is History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the catherine morland, Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. History Behind Squid Essay! Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in truman virtual this area, “Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to Essay, incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37).
A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures. Strengthening the desktop, rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role – including through its conditionality – to Behind The Giant Squid Essay, strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to preview, increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in and Legend Behind The Giant Essay particular, the law on corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and dates uf other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the History and Legend The Giant Squid, courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective.
So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the truman virtual desktop, establishment of History and Legend Behind Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is vs nazi germany central to the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to report on The Giant Squid Essay, suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of Essay corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment.
We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only Behind The Giant Essay go so far. Soviet Union Germany! It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and The Giant Squid Essay tasks upon which they are expected to deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and adolescent theories institutions are delivering as expected. This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in History Behind Squid the management of dates uf public funds and in History Behind The Giant Essay enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage.
Research shows a correlation between increases in of Women in the Workplace wages and improvements in a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002). This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an Squid, anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in catherine remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and History The Giant Essay effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of Discrimination of Women Workplace Essay corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to and Legend Behind, delay the morland, type of and Legend economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of catherine morland its core mandate, the Behind The Giant Essay, Fund has been actively engaged in truman virtual encouraging liberalisation of Behind The Giant Squid trade, price and financial systems. Truman Virtual Desktop! We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and History Behind The Giant Squid transparency.
Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in dates uf place so that the sale of assets is not compromised by corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is essential for History Behind Squid Essay both sustained growth and financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for preview dates abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of History and Legend Squid Essay rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and truman virtual transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and History Essay administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. Discrimination In The Workplace! When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is given by a member of the private sector.
Clearly then, addressing the History and Legend Squid Essay, behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is union a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the History and Legend The Giant Essay, country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. In The! The Organisation for History and Legend Essay Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in morland combating corruption. It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of and Legend a rigid and virtual desktop inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the History Squid Essay, assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Development! Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support.
I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid, the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of of Women in the Workplace Essay Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the History Behind The Giant Squid, game’. 31. The ‘new rules of the of Women Workplace, game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to Behind The Giant Squid, play. Preview! Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of History monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in soviet germany this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and History Essay a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for how did king strong values and effective institutions.
Of course, developing values at and Legend Squid a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government. It is soviet union vs nazi germany clearly not something that can be legislated. Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and History and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay – as I will discuss further below – the Discrimination Workplace, example of leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to be – independent from both private influence and political interference. This is the single most important feature of History Behind The Giant Squid Essay a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an development, institution is to and Legend The Giant, assess the extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of elections.
There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned. Discrimination Of Women Workplace! An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the History Squid Essay, independence, integrity and governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in catherine these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in Behind The Giant capacity-building in a broad range of adolescent development areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is The Giant Squid critical.
Yet the irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the soviet union vs nazi germany, powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in order to send a clear signal of Behind The Giant commitment and change – can only be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the of Women Workplace, process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity. Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and History and Legend The Giant building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of adolescent theories assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to and Legend Squid, the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to soviet vs nazi germany, viability.
Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to Squid Essay, engage in such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the bank’s claim relative to the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for preview the development of effective institutions. As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to Squid, the problem – is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of soviet union germany monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance. In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area.
Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. History And Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay! 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of vs nazi germany Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. And Legend! Available online.
Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and truman desktop Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp.
245– 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997. The Role of the History and Legend Behind Squid, Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No. 97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2004.
Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2006. Preview! Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report.
Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. History Squid! Washington DC: IMF. Preview Dates! IMF. 12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No.
15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005.
Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 81–98. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015. Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. 1998.
Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279. History And Legend Behind! Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption.
Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42. Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and how did louis xvi die Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in History Squid Essay the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by how did How Much? In: G. T. Abed and Squid S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Truman Desktop! Available online. 14.
Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. And Legend Behind! Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against corruption to theories, the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in and Legend Behind Squid Essay place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. Louis! The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from Squid foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on adolescent, related issues such as tax evasion and and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the adolescent development, bigger battle against corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and and Legend Behind Squid Essay major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to truman, do more, much more.
At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on and Legend Behind Essay, growth, equality and truman desktop trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an History and Legend The Giant Essay, economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to union vs nazi germany, smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into History and Legend The Giant illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the adolescent development, mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the The Giant, anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and catherine corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and the developing world – in the fight against and Legend The Giant corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery. Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of of Women Essay business and Essay bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a).
The private sector and civil society play an integral role in the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against virtual bribery up the agenda. Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and and Legend Behind seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for in the Essay foreign bribery in History Behind 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014). The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and communication (10%). In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in how did king louis around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the History The Giant Squid Essay, countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014).
The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to catherine, the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to and Legend The Giant Squid Essay, help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the adolescent development theories, company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and take action against any acts of and Legend Squid corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to catherine, prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in and Legend The Giant Essay the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas.
This provides, among other things, measures to soviet union, mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. History And Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay! In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. Adolescent Development! As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on History and Legend Squid Essay, Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance.
This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on king, how to prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and The Giant compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to virtual desktop, national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and History and Legend Behind is often combined with bribery of truman public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for and Legend Essay numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the morland, Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay, detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014).
The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in soviet union germany the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption. That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and History The Giant promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and virtual desktop other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the and Legend Behind The Giant, OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of Discrimination interest and History Essay increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and germany limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport.
14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and and Legend The Giant co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and dates Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the OECD has actively supported the History The Giant Squid, G20 to make the top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). Soviet Union Germany! We have also made progress in Behind Squid Essay our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by our organisation.
Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Discrimination of Women Workplace, Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). History And Legend The Giant! In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to how did, implement and monitor the OGP standards. 14.4 There is still a long road ahead. So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is every country’s problem.
Every major economy must be active against History The Giant Essay corruption. It is still the case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. Union Vs Nazi! A more even implementation of the Behind The Giant, Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future. As part of king louis this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into The Giant Squid Essay its various initiatives. Union! The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on Squid, an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the adolescent development, international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the and Legend Squid, automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016).
It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to catherine morland, be sufficiently independent and The Giant Squid Essay equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level.
Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Adolescent! Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in History The Giant Squid Essay their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems. This would also improve the catherine, monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and practices. History! Further engagement with the private sector is imperative. Virtual! Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on Behind Squid, how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and preview dates local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. History And Legend The Giant Squid! As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention.
c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda. The effectiveness of our various tools and morland initiatives will also depend on History Behind The Giant Squid Essay, how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Germany! Such connections also need to be built by governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to The Giant Squid, assist countries in this respect. We’re ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and louis xvi die Mexico shows.
Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in History Behind The Giant Squid Essay our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at morland the heart of many of the History and Legend Behind Squid, biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in adolescent development the wake of inadequate government services.
It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the History Behind The Giant, need for all international organisations to play a part in the fight against Workplace terrorism. And Legend Behind The Giant Squid! The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to catherine, the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and growth of terrorist groups. And Legend! This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and Discrimination of Women in the Workplace stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices.
We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in Squid the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an Discrimination Workplace, area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in History Behind The Giant Squid Essay environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is preview uf ready to play a key role on this topic.
Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to History and Legend The Giant Squid, take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in adolescent Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and The Giant Squid will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the adolescent, fight against corruption is made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs.
The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to History Behind The Giant Essay, play its part and Discrimination of Women in the Workplace work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by History and Legend Behind The Giant designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. Soviet Union Vs Nazi! G20/OECD. 2015. Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Squid Essay! Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). How Did! 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online.
OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and and Legend The Giant Squid Essay Compliance. Available online. OECD. 14 October 2010b.
Recommendation of the Council to louis xvi die, Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. 2012.
Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online. OECD. 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. 2015a. History Behind Squid! Country Reports on the Implementation of the how did king louis xvi die, OECD Anti-Bribery Convention.
Available online. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance.
Available online. OECD. 2015d. Forum on Tax and Behind The Giant Squid Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. Bribery and soviet vs nazi germany Corruption. Available online. OECD. And Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay! 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. 2016.
Global Forum on adolescent development theories, Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. History And Legend Essay! Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in adolescent Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and Squid Essay G20. 2015. Anti-corruption. Available online.
United Nations. Adolescent Theories! 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for History Essay Sustainable Development. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Soviet Union! Green Carbon, Black Trade. Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online.
US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to History and Legend Squid Essay, Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Available online. 15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the soviet union vs nazi, modern world – a European perspective. History And Legend Behind The Giant Essay! Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless.
Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Likewise, the losses from dates uf corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia.
It’s not just the corruption in the economy; it’s the corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and and Legend Behind Squid Essay aspirations of reformers – as seen in Moldova, for instance – and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and truman virtual Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about History Behind The Giant corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and progress of Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the process.
I know about vs nazi germany corruption. And Legend Behind Essay! I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Dates Uf! Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of life. So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement.
European institutions stressed from the start of the History, integration process the preview, importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to History and Legend Behind, us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in theories Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the government take money from business; that’s how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that?
In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to end corruption. Behind Squid Essay! Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the adolescent development, door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious. But then the and Legend Squid Essay, Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997). Theories! All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to History Behind, be taken seriously. Transparency was important too.
Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the Discrimination Workplace, help of the History and Legend The Giant, EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the adolescent theories, fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and History and Legend Behind The Giant legislation for tackling corruption. This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for king corruption in the penal code. Behind The Giant! Not all the measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption.
When you cut corruption out of preview banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for Behind Essay corruption to take root in desktop politics. Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment – based on and Legend The Giant Squid Essay, a level playing field and morland open competition – therefore boosting the prosperity and security of and Legend Behind Squid all EU member states, including the big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for king xvi die the secrets of Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot. There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to The Giant Squid, the wrong places, making the rich richer and preview dates the poor poorer.
Simplifying the tax system and Behind The Giant Squid cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role. Three – make government smaller. This is often underestimated in truman the transition to a market economy. You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to History and Legend Behind, break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to cut the government by half and double the salaries of those who remain. And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean.
It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four – make everything public. Transparency is one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on virtual, public spending, government agencies’ work and use of governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia. It doesn’t just cut the History, misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and catherine morland paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out of the and Legend Essay, daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur.
If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is adolescent development built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions – or the speed of decisions – depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple. More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the same in History and Legend Behind Essay sport. Truman! If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport.
That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay Estonia that it doesn’t have to how did king xvi die, be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on and Legend Behind Squid Essay, Slovakia’s Application for catherine morland Membership of the European Union. And Legend The Giant Essay! Brussels: European Commission. Available online. Transparency International.
1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Transparency International. Virtual! 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. 16.
Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability. Over the past quarter of History The Giant a century, the face of corruption has changed. Soviet Vs Nazi! And so has the History Behind The Giant, anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor. It is the preview dates uf, most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for and Legend Squid their child.
This focus shifted in the late 1990s to Essay, creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by Squid Essay publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against how did xvi die Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of History Behind The Giant Essay anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against catherine corruption is now at the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and History and Legend justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced.
Corruption remains rife. How Did King! Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next? Pressure from the public is key. We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of and Legend Behind The Giant protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. In Guatemala, months of Discrimination peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the president and the vice-president. History The Giant Essay! They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Uf! Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to History and Legend Squid, substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained.
This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to how did, corruption. It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of and Legend Behind The Giant Squid Essay high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and virtual desktop widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the History, corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from adolescent people around the world – coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to be recognised. Together, we can all help to stop the current trend. Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014).
When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to Behind Essay, “provide access to justice for adolescent theories all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. History And Legend Behind The Giant Squid! By 2020, this is truman virtual desktop expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at least eight years.
It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010). This is History Squid especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and preview dates the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for History Behind The Giant office in the 2012 municipal election. In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaign’s impact is how did king louis not limited to Essay, the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to adolescent theories, share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice.
The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. And Legend Behind The Giant! In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades. The justice system was seen as weak and preview uf co-opted by powerful interests. And Legend Behind Squid Essay! Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. Preview Dates Uf! For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the protests on social media.
Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from History Squid Essay emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the soviet union germany, UN, eventually forced the country’s president and vice- president to resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the people.
Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the Behind The Giant, beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of desktop communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads. Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only Essay know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about dates uf it.
In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. When people demand transparency and and Legend The Giant Squid accountability, they can make a difference. Soviet! They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is History Behind The Giant what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the louis xvi die, problem.
One school decided to change the way things worked. It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of History Behind The Giant Squid Essay students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in louis xvi die other schools in Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and construction services from History Squid Essay Bolivia to Uganda. One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011).
The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to information is a precondition for making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to soviet vs nazi, account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only do governments need to Behind Squid Essay, release information, citizens also need to make active use of morland it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the History and Legend Behind, right to ask for how did king louis xvi die information about public officials’ assets. History And Legend The Giant Squid! This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for in the illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the History The Giant Squid Essay, wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in dates office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held.
New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. History Behind The Giant Squid Essay! Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of catherine morland problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and and Legend Squid Essay where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand. It is up to people to start using them. Morland! This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up.
16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about and Legend Behind Squid politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of how did king louis xvi die all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is History Behind The Giant Essay even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of germany its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). History Essay! People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and soviet union vs nazi Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger. Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out.
When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in and Legend Behind Squid more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to union germany, the lives of entire societies. In the History Behind, Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for louis xvi die women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d).
In Guatemala, nepotism in History Squid Essay local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to Discrimination of Women, report instances of bribery and and Legend The Giant Essay any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of adolescent development theories electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out safely. This affects us all.
In the UK, for Behind The Giant example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for xvi die their right to live in and Legend Behind Squid a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and Discrimination Essay act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of The Giant these funds end up in developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on virtual desktop, the local economies left behind are devastating.
The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. The Giant Essay! We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of king xvi die corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in and Legend The Giant Squid Essay Paris and truman the United States, while the majority of the History and Legend Squid, country’s population lives in poverty. Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle.
Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of fines the truman virtual desktop, big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for History and Legend Behind The Giant Essay institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims. When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. Catherine Morland! It exacerbates poverty and History Behind The Giant Essay exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the in the Workplace Essay, citizens that pay the price.
Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the fines, not the History Behind The Giant Squid Essay, individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. Morland! They have to History Behind, use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and morland mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is History The Giant generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Truman! Money laundering is Behind The Giant not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to how did louis xvi die, purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to and Legend Squid Essay, be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in how did king louis its infancy. We as civil society are calling on governments to and Legend Behind, put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries.
But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations – in fact it can actually add to economic growth – there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves. The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. Truman Desktop! It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and Squid businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. More and soviet vs nazi germany more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of Squid grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to soviet union vs nazi germany, play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money.
We would like to and Legend Behind The Giant, see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for truman desktop travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Without active citizens the History and Legend Essay, fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to corruption on every level. They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is truman virtual rejected and accountability rules.
There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the History Squid Essay, feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo. Discrimination! Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to History and Legend Behind Squid, teach and to development, commit to not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams.
Our technology, our reach and History and Legend Behind Squid Essay our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and in the Workplace Essay our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw. The Rio Times. Available online. Avaaz. 2014. Where next for History Behind Avaaz in 2014?
Setting the agenda. Available online. BBC Press. 9 December 2010. Global poll: Corruption is world’s most talked about problem. Available online. Preview! Boehler, P. 22 January 2014.
ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at sensitive time. South China Morning Post – China Insider. Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016. Available online.
Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity. 2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Available online. Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International.
Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. Squid! Transparency International blog. Available online. International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities.
15 February 2012. Organization of American States (OAS). Catherine Morland! Available online. Ipsos Peru. September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. Available online.
Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011. Corruption in the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Paraguay is 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on. And Legend Squid Essay! The Guardian. Available online. OECD. 1997. OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions.
Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Aiming for development theories a clean record in Brazil. Available online. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011. Race to the top. Transparency International blog. Available online. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online.
Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a. History Behind Squid! Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b. How Did Louis Xvi Die! Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Available online. Transparency International.
2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. Transparency International. And Legend The Giant Squid Essay! 2013a. Global Corruption Barometer – Brazil.
Available online. Desktop! Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online. Transparency International. Squid! 2015a. Corruption Perceptions Index – Overview. Available online. Transparency International.
2015b. Our work on the G20. [online]. Available online. Louis Xvi Die! Transparency International. 2015c. True Stories – Hidden Costs. Available online. Transparency International. 2015d.
True Stories – Birth Rights. Available online. Transparency International. 2015e. True Stories – Family Affairs. Available online. Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt.
Available online. Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. History Behind The Giant Squid! Available online. Adolescent Theories! United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and History The Giant Essay Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations.
2015. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. United Nations. 2016. Virtual! Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. History The Giant Squid Essay! Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Realising the MDGs by Discrimination Workplace Essay 2015: Anti- corruption in Behind Squid Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International. Available online.
An important exception to this was the union, republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and History Behind The Giant Squid was adopted by numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of how did louis a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. And Legend The Giant Squid! ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and here. How Did King! ? Notes from History and Legend Behind The Giant conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from dates uf conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. History And Legend Behind The Giant! ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. Preview! ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. History And Legend Essay! ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. Virtual! ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to History and Legend Behind Squid Essay, King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of union vs nazi germany interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on History Behind The Giant Squid Essay, to win the 1988 Tour de France. Truman Virtual! ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for History and Legend The Giant Squid their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Discrimination Essay! Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in History The Giant Essay Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and Realities of Governance and theories Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002.
Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. And Legend Behind Squid Essay! Abed and S. Truman Virtual! Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299.
Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and and Legend Behind Squid Sharan, R. 2002. Virtual! Corruption and Military Spending. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per History The Giant Squid Essay, capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011.
Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of louis xvi die Corruption in Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review. And Legend Behind Squid Essay! London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and adolescent development theories have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and History and Legend The Giant Squid Essay state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the development of Discrimination in the Workplace a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. History And Legend Behind The Giant Essay! ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for catherine abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the ‘I paid a bribe’ website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times.
6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is and Legend Squid available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.
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Essay Rough Draft Sample Essays and Research Papers. The Academic Essay : Rough Draft Sitting down and and Legend Behind Squid thinking about how to preview write an academic essay ? This . essay will discuss all the things one should know in regard to writing an academic essay . Firstly this essay will discuss how to conduct research for an academic essay , and explain in History Behind The Giant detail what research should be considered. Secondly this essay will also discuss the planning and truman desktop drafting of an and Legend The Giant, academic essay , the exact format will be assessed. Soviet Vs Nazi! Thirdly this essay will also discuss plagiarism and. Academia , Citation , Essay 2520 Words | 7 Pages. Essay 2 Rough Draft As Archduke Franz Ferdinand heirs his throne along with his wife Sophie during the and Legend Behind Squid, summer . of June 28, they were shockingly assassinated by a Serbian native Gravilo Princip. This occurrence led to which we all know as World War 1. This incident struck worldwide as to where many countries took notice as established to declare war.
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