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book report citing APPENDIX I. LISTING AND CITING REFERENCES IN REPORTS. Publishers and kwakiutl masks, professional societies have their own preferred way of listing and citing references. For use in this laboratory, we are describing the requirements for reports submitted to the MIT School of Chemical Engineering Practice. You may use any method for history word listing and kwakiutl, citing references to which you are accustomed, provided you are consistent and supply at least as much information as is required in the procedures described here. If you have no preference, these procedures should be used. All references in reports should be listed in a section entitled References , with page numbers and history, a listing in the Table of Contents. Kwakiutl Masks! References may be listed alphabetically by author and numbered consecutively, or they may be arranged in order of appearance in Biography Essays, the text. Masks! General References which have not been cited should be listed in a separate Bibliography . Ideal Schools! A reference should be listed only once and referred to kwakiutl be the same number each time it is cited in the text. Reference numbers in gothic novels, the text may be given as superscripts, or underlined and enclosed in kwakiutl masks, parentheses, thus ( 4 ). Novels! do not use superscripts where they may be mistaken for indices.

Make references to equations in such a way that they will not be confused with literature citations. Citations taken from an masks, abstract or any other secondary source must state both the original and the secondary source. Of Love! Methods for masks listing and history of microsoft, citing different reference sources are described in the pages following the index on the next page. If you encounter special reference problems, consult an instructor or a librarian. Kwakiutl Masks! INDEX - LISTING AND CITING REFERENCES. History Word! 1. Kwakiutl! Methods of Listing 30. 2. Journals 30. 3. Of Love! Foreign Journals 31. 5. Sections of an Edited Book 32. 6. Masks! Proceedings of a Conference or Symposium 32. 7. Star Wars, And Lord! Trade Magazines 33.

8. Manufacturers Literature 33. 9. Literature Published Anonymously 34. 10. Patents 34. Kwakiutl Masks! 11. Government Reports 34. Objectification In My! 13. Practice School Reports 35. 14. Personal Communications 35. Masks! 15.

Other Sources 36. 16. Use of ideal schools, Ibid., Other Latin Terms 36. 1. Methods of kwakiutl masks, Listing. Listings may be alphabetically, by author, or serially, by order of citation. Biography Essays! ALPHABETICAL LISTINGS are ordered according to the last name of the first author. Kwakiutl! In reference: The first author is listed last name first, followed by Biography of Elizabeth Essays, the initials, followed by the names of the other authors, initials first , then last name.

If there are multiple authors, their names should be separated by commas. Example : Balzhiser, R.E., M.R. Samuels, and masks, J.D. Eliassen. When references are LISTED IN ORDER OF CITATION IN THE TEXT , the first authors initials precede his last name. Of Love! Punctuation is the same as in the first example. Masks! A JOURNAL REFERENCE should include the: title of the personal, article, enclosed in quotation marks, name of the journal, abbreviated according to kwakiutl Chemical Abstracts conventions and underlined to indicate where italics are to the definition of love marvell be represented, volume number, in underlined Arabic numerals, followed immediately (no comma) by masks, the issue number enclosed in Objectification Life, parentheses but not underlined, if needed or desired, page number, and. year of kwakiutl, publication, enclosed in parentheses. Who Sued Freedom! A comma appears between each section of the masks, reference, except between the page number and history word, year of publication. Note that the comma after the masks, title of the article is enclosed in the quotation marks, as dictated by typographical usage. One exception to the Chemical Abstracts list of abbreviations is that for horror A.I.Ch.E.

Journal , which should be abbreviated AIChE J. Example : Ogunnaike, B.A., J.P. Masks! Lemaire, M. Morari, and W.H. Qualities Essay! Ray, Advanced Multivariable control of kwakiutl masks, a Pilot-Scale Distillation Column, AIChE J., 29 (4), 632(1983). Amundson, N.R., and qualities, L.E. Kwakiutl Masks! Arri, Char Gasification in the definition andrew marvell, a Counter-Current Reactor, AIChE J., 24 , 87(1978). For the masks, few JOURNALS WHICH DO NOT HAVE A VOLUME NUMBER , the year should be given in ideal schools, place of the kwakiutl, volume number, e.g., J. Perspectives Star Wars, And Lord Of The Flies! Chem. Soc., A, 1961 , 471.

3. Kwakiutl Masks! Foreign Journals. REFERENCES TO FOREIGN JOURNALS should use the gothic horror novels, original title of the journal, transliterated if necessary, unless the journal is translated. Kwakiutl Masks! The following examples derive from a Russian article first noted in of microsoft, Chemical Abstracts . A. The Original Article . If the Russian article were used, the kwakiutl masks, reference should follow the standard form for of microsoft word journal references listed previously. Example : Gnusin, N.P., and V.F. Grebenyuk, Electrical Conductivity of masks, Ion Exchange Resins. On Balance: Star Wars, Flies Essay! Model Representations, Zh. Fiz. Khim., 39, 3050(1965). B. The Abstract . Masks! If the information in a translated abstract were cited in the text, the personal essay, reference would follow the kwakiutl, form for a journal reference, except that the abstract should also be cited as follows: Example : Gnusin, N.P., and history of microsoft word, V.D. Grebenyuk, Electrical Conductivity of Ion Exchange Resins.

Model Representations, Zh. Fiz. Khim., 39 , 3050(1965) abstract in kwakiutl masks, Chemical Abstracts, 64 , 9893(d)(1996). C. Gothic Horror! The translated Article . Kwakiutl Masks! In the Sexual Essay, case of masks, widely used journals such as this one, one has to know or be able to Perspectives Wars, of the find out from the masks, library that Zhurnal Fizicheskoi Khimii is routinely translated cover-to-cover into ideal schools, English and is published as the kwakiutl, Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry by the Chemical Society in London. The abstract in Chemical Abstracts refers to the original Russian article, and Sexual in My Life Essay, there is no indication that a translation into masks, English exists. The translation is history, done by Infosearch, Ltd., London. If the translation were used in the course of the kwakiutl, work, the reference should be: Example : Gnusin, N.P., and V.D. Grebenyuk, Electrical Conductivity of Ion Exchange Resins. Model Representations, Russ.

J. Freedom! Phys. Chem., 39 , 1627(1965) translated by kwakiutl masks, Infosearch, Ltd., London(1965). Note that the Sexual Objectification in My Essay, page numbers in the original and in the translation are not the masks, same. In some cases, the volume numbers and years of qualities essay, publication of the kwakiutl masks, translations are not the same as in Flies Essay, the original. Therefore, completeness in kwakiutl, recording the reference is especially important. The Definition Andrew! In the case of the kwakiutl masks, Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry , the translation is encountered so frequently that it is probably not necessary to personal qualities essay cite the name of the translator. REFERENCES TO BOOKS should include the: title of the kwakiutl, book, enclosed in and Lord of the Flies Essay, quotation marks or underlined, edition, of not the first edition, volume number, if there is kwakiutl masks, more than one volume, inclusive pages of interest, city of publication, and. date of horror novels, publication. A comma appears between each section of the kwakiutl, reference. It is especially important that the pages referred to be given.

However, if different pages of the gothic horror, same book are referred to in different places in kwakiutl masks, the text, it is Perspectives on Balance: Wars, of the Essay, permissible to kwakiutl masks list the horror, pages in the text, and to kwakiutl masks omit page numbers from the reference citation. Thus, the text might read . Ref.(14) pp. 128-137 . History Of Microsoft! This is an masks, alternative to the use of ibid., described in a separate section, and economizes on reference numbers. Example : Flory, P.J., Principles of Polymer Chemistry , 578-579, Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, 1953.

Reid, R.c., J.M. Prausnitz, and ideal schools, T.K. Sherwood, The Properties of masks, Gases and Liquids , 3rd ed., 263-267, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977. 5. Section of an Edited Book. REFERENCES TO A CHAPTER OR SECTION IN A BOOK WRITTEN BY SOMEONE OTHER THAN THE EDITOR of the book should include the: name of the author of the section, title of the ideal schools, section, enclosed in quotation marks, title of the kwakiutl, book, also enclosed in quotation marks or underlined, editor of the Biography Blackburn Essays, book, so noted, pages of interest, city of publication, and. date of publication. A comma separates each section.

Example : Mayo, F.R., J.G. Huntington, and N.A. Kirshen, Chemistry of Coal Liquefaction in masks, Organic Chemistry of Coal , J.W. Larsen, ed., 126-130, American Chemical Society, Washington, 1978. 6. Proceedings of a Conference or Symposium. REFERENCES TO PAPERS IN THE PUBLISHED PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE OR SYMPOSIUM should include the: title of the Biography Blackburn Essays, paper, enclosed in kwakiutl, quotation marks, title of the of love andrew, proceedings of the conference, underlined, volume number, if there is masks, one, pages of ideal schools, interest, name of the society sponsoring the masks, conference or symposium, city where the of microsoft, conference was held, and. year of the conference, enclosed in parentheses.

Each section of the reference is separated by a comma except the city and kwakiutl, year. Slave For His Freedom! Example : Newman, J., Mass Transport and Potential Distribution in the Geometrics of Localized Corrosion, Proc. U.R. Evans Int. Kwakiutl! Conf. Biography Blackburn Essays! Localized Corrosion, Nat.

Assoc. Masks! Corrosion Eng. , Houston (1974). Lehr, J.R., and G.H. McClellan, Phosphate Rocks: Important Factors in word, Their Economic and Technical Evaluation, X235 CENTO Symposium on the Mining and Benefication of Fertilizer Minerals , 194, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (1967). Kwakiutl! 7. Trade Magazines. TRADE MAGAZINES often number pages starting with one in who sued, each issue. In such cases, follow the procedure described for journal references, except that : it is essential to kwakiutl list the issue number, in parentheses after the novels, volume number, but not underlined, and masks, not separated from the volume number by the definition of love, a comma, or to include the kwakiutl, month and day in the date of publication, whichever will allow the reader to gothic novels find the kwakiutl masks, article faster. Example : Kirby, G.N., Corrosion Performance of Carbon Steel, Chem. Eng. (N.Y.), 86 , 72(March 12, 1978). The Definition Andrew! Kovac, A., and J. Ziak, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in kwakiutl masks, the system Trioxane-Water, Petrochemia, 10 (2), 77(1970). 8. Freedom! Manufacturers Literature.

MANUFACTURERS LITERATURE which carries no personal authors name may be listed alphabetically under a corporate author if the arrangement of the kwakiutl masks, section is history, alphabetical by author. The following example would also serve in a serial listing, although in that case, you have the option of listing the title of the bulletin first. The reference should include the: title of the literature, enclosed in quotations, bulletin or publication number, if applicable, location of the company. Example : Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers, 1977 Director of Certified Room Air Conditioners, 3rd ed., 7, Chicago, IL. Kwakiutl! 9. Literature Published Anonymously. Personal Qualities! In cases where NO AUTHOR, CORPORATION, OR ORGANIZATION NAME appears with the article, and masks, reference are being listed alphabetically by author, insert unidentified author or anon. Ideal Schools! followed by a comma in place of the authors name, and kwakiutl, place the reference at the end of the list. Where references are listed in order of personal, appearance in the text, the word anon. is not necessary.

Example : anon. , Major Nuclear Power Orders for U.S. Enriched Uranium - October 1966, Nucleonics, 24 (12), 72(1966). Kwakiutl! REFERENCES TO PATENTS should include the: name of the inventor, followed by Life, the assignee, if any, enclosed in kwakiutl masks, parentheses, title of the Biography of Elizabeth Essays, patent, enclosed in quotation marks, the patent number including the kwakiutl, granting country, and. date of of microsoft, issue of the patent, including the masks, month, day and year. Ideal Schools! Example : Banks, W.D., (to Automation Products, Inc.), Method of and Apparatus for Measuring Viscosity, U.S. Patent 3,292,423, Dec.

20, 1966. 11. Masks! Government Reports. REPORTS ISSUED BY GOVERNMENT AGENCIES , such as the Department of Energy, NASA, and the National Bureau of Standards, should include the: title of the report, enclosed in quotation marks, pages of interest, date in parentheses. There should be a comma between each part of the reference except the date and location. Example : Deverall, J.E., and Biography of Elizabeth Blackburn, J.E. Kemme, Satellite Heat Pipe, LA-3278-MS, 9, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM(1965).

If the catalog number of the National Technical Information Service, which is the supplier of all government documents, is kwakiutl, known, it should be given, e.g., NTIS PB403-708. REFERENCES TO THESES should include the: title of the of Elizabeth Essays, thesis, in quotation marks, degree for which the thesis was presented, pages of interest, and. year, in parentheses. Masks! Separate each section except the last two by ideal schools, a comma. Example : Fisher, R.E., Concentration Polarization in Desalination by masks, Reverse Osmosis, Sc.D. Thesis, Dept. of ideal schools, Chem. Eng., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 33(1965). Masks! 13. Practice School Reports. Qualities! REFERENCES TO MIT PRACTICE SCHOOL REPORTS should include the: title of the report enclosed in quotation marks, pages of interest, and. year of the report, enclosed in parentheses.

Each section of the kwakiutl, reference should be separated by a comma except the last two. Example : Field, L.A., A.J. Papadopolous, and R.D. Perspectives Wars, And Lord Of The Flies! Wang, Surface Properties and kwakiutl masks, Reactions of Coal, Part 2, ORNL/MIT-270, 21(1978). Wars, Of The Flies Essay! 14. Personal Communications. REFERENCES TO PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS should be used with caution; they are usually useless as references. When practicable, you may eliminate references to personal communications by citing the kwakiutl masks, entire reference in the text, e.g., Our consultant, Dr. David Sung of Gold start Company, says. . Personal Qualities! Reference to a personal communication should include the: means of communication, e.g., letter, personal contact, rough draft of a report, date: month, day, and year. Kwakiutl Masks! Separate each section of the Biography of Elizabeth Essays, reference by a comma.

Example : Whatley, M.E., personal communication, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, March 7, 1957. 15. Other sources. REFERENCES TO OTHER SOURCES not mentioned here should be given in a form agreeing as closely as possible with the masks, above examples. To make it easier for the interested reader to the definition of love marvell locate the reference, you should give too much information rather than too little, in case there is kwakiutl, any doubt about the form. History Of Microsoft! 16. Masks! Use of Ibid., Other Latin Terms. ibid. is the essay, abbreviation for ibidem, meaning in the kwakiutl, same place, and is occasionally found in the scientific literature. This abbreviation is personal essay, useful when reference is made to the same work several times, but to different pages or sections, and masks, references are listed alphabetically by author. This greatly simplifies the second and subsequent references. (37) Levenspiel, O., Chemical Reaction Engineering, 2nd ed., 277, Wiley, New York, 1972.

Other Latin terms such as loc. cit. ( loco citato , in the place cited), or op. Objectification In My Life Essay! cit. Kwakiutl! ( opere citato , in the work cited) are not generally used in scientific literature.

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richard ii essay This study guide is intended for students taking exams at GCE Advanced (A2) and Advanced Supplementary (AS) level in the UK, but is suitable for university students and the general reader who is interested in kwakiutl, Shakespeare's plays. Please use the hyperlinks in the table above to navigate this page. If you have any comments or suggestions to make about this page, please contact me by clicking on this link. This guide is written to support your study of Richard II . The guide indicates the of love, terms in which examiners will expect you to understand the play. It should be used in kwakiutl masks, conjunction with study of Richard II in gothic horror, performance, as far as possible, and of the text in one or more editions designed for study at your level. What other resources should you use? This depends on your own aptitude and readiness for masks study.

But any serious Advanced level student should expect to use at least some of the following: Editions of the play: The most authoritative version is the Arden edition. Most students will find this challenging, although the introduction is slave for his freedom well worth reading. The New Cambridge edition is masks good (but uses archaic spelling of names) while sound editions are published by Penguin and Macmillan. Slave Freedom. For critical writing about the kwakiutl masks, play, you should use the Casebook anthology (Ed. Nicholas Brooke, Macmillan, 1973): read the andrew marvell, introduction, and kwakiutl study essays selectively, but those by E. H. Kantorowicz and A. P. Rossiter are strongly recommended. The introductions to the Cambridge and Macmillan texts are recommended, especially Cambridge edn. pp. 16-43 ( Structure, Imagery, Language and Staging ) and personal essay Macmillan pp. 4-14 ( When degree is kwakiutl shak'd - the political background ) and pp. 23-37 ( People and pattern in Richard II ). At a more basic level the guides from Brodie's Notes (Pan, 1985) and York Notes (Longman) may help you.

For general background information about Shakespeare, Ms. Marchette Chute's Shakespeare and his Stage (University of London, 1953) is hard to beat. Literature reference: Useful handbooks for the general study of English literature include The Cambridge Guide to English Literature and The Oxford Guide to English Literature , J. A. Cuddon's Dictionary of Literary Terms (Penguin, 1982) and Richard Gill's Mastering English Literature (Macmillan, 1985). Use these books effectively: do not try to horror, read them for extended periods like a story (unless you have unusual intellectual powers!) Study for short periods, then write down simple statements of what you want to remember, or questions to kwakiutl masks, raise in class discussion. Other people's study guides (like this one) are never as effective as your own. You may wish to use any or all of the following ways of owning your study of this play: Customize books/guides with pencil markings, icons, inserts or highlighting. If you have access to suitable computer software, ask for copies of files, and adapt them for your learning. Make audio tapes of parts of the Perspectives on Balance: Wars, and Lord Flies Essay, play and kwakiutl your comments on them, as well as recording spoken essays. Put essential information/quotation on Post-It notes, and display these where you will see them frequently. Richard II is the first play in a series of ideal schools four (the others are Henry IV, Parts i and ii and Henry V ), the second such series which Shakespeare wrote (the first - perhaps his very first work - was the masks, three parts of Henry VI, followed by Richard III ). In these Shakespeare examines questions of politics (especially kingship, authority and order) which we meet in slave for his, others of his plays.

Here, however, these issues are considered in kwakiutl, relation to real events as known to the writer or his public. At this point, it makes sense to consider whether Shakespeare is andrew a truthful or inaccurate historian, and what a history play is. If you don't know, find out! As a term to describe a category (kind) of play, tragedy (which means goat song in kwakiutl masks, classical Greek!) originates in Athens in ancient times. Horror. Aristotle (a philosopher and scientist, but no playwright) describes rules or principles for the drama which tragedians should follow. These rules have proved helpful as a working description, but should not be seen as absolute: Shakespeare, in practice, ignores them more or less. Comedy is a term applied to the humorous plays of Greek (e.g. Aristophanes) and later Roman (e.g. Terence) dramatists.

For Shakespeare, a comedy is a play with a happy ending - it may or may not be comical in kwakiutl, the modern sense of Perspectives on Balance: Star and Lord Flies Essay being humorous. In trying to arrange Shakespeare's work into categories (as for publication in book form) editors have produced a third category, of histories . More recently critics have noted that Shakespeare's latest plays do not fit any of these categories easily. Thus we have problem plays (or tragi-comedies) in kwakiutl, Measure for Measure and andrew All's Well that Ends Well and pastoral plays or romances in Pericles, Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale and The Tempest . You should know that these labels were not consistently or even commonly applied in Shakespeare's time. Plays classed as tragedies (such as Macbeth ) may have a clearly historical subject. Many of kwakiutl our #147;histories#148; were advertised as tragedies at the time of their performance. This has led to pointless arguments, as to whether Shakespeare wrote Richard II or Richard III as history or tragedy: the qualities, dispute implies a distinction which may not have existed for the writer. For the modern student it does, however, pose a question which is worthy of consideration: how historical subjects may allow the playwright to develop tragic themes. When our play appeared in print the title page read: The Tragedie of King Richard the kwakiutl masks, Second.

The modern student has better access to detailed and accurate accounts of the ideal schools, events depicted in the history plays than Shakespeare did. We do know, however, that he had a good outline knowledge of the history, and that at points he referred to known sources which are extant (that is, still available to us). Most school editions of the plays will list these. Kwakiutl. It is clear that in places, Shakespeare will change details to suit his needs as a dramatist. There is a good example of this in Richard II and the Henry IV plays: as he wishes to present Prince Hal (later Henry V) and Henry Hotspur Percy as rivals for power in the realm, Shakespeare depicts them as of the same age; in fact, Percy was a contemporary of Henry IV, old enough to be Hal's father.

In these same plays, we meet a character called Mortimer (after Richard's death, Henry IV's rival claimant to the throne): two (related) historical Mortimers have been conflated (made into one) to suit the Sexual in My, purposes of the drama. Kwakiutl. There is a genuine question for Perspectives of the scholars in how far the change was knowingly made, but it seems Shakespeare will not let the facts get in masks, the way of a good story! The dramatic form enables Shakespeare to present characters who voice all kinds of opinions, from horror novels, which we may, if we wish, attempt to infer the playwright's own view. Such inference is at best tentative: it may lead to a muddled attempt to understand the plays in kwakiutl masks, terms of a modern political outlook. Thus, individualists like Richard II or Hotspur (Harry Percy) are seen as dashing and romantic (in 19th or 20th century terms) while the pragmatic Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV) is and Lord Essay seen as devious and dishonest: almost certainly these are judgements which would not have occurred to Shakespeare or his audience. Shakespeare writes at kwakiutl, a time when a period of ideal schools peace at home has created the very conditions in England which have allowed the professional theatre to emerge and masks flourish, but where this peace is threatened by the ageing queen Elizabeth's lack of an heir. There is Wars, and Lord of the Flies no doubt that his plays (history, comedy and tragedy) all reflect a horror of anarchy and a preoccupation with finding a balance between toleration of harmless pleasure and restraint of harmful lawlessness. Masks. In order to explore these themes, Shakespeare locates his stories in other (real or imagined) times and places.

In referring to Sexual Essay, his own times (as at the end of Richard III and the very late history Henry VIII ) he is careful to praise the Tudors generally and Elizabeth particularly, as he also does by implication in masks, A Midsummer Night's Dream in the figure of the childless Titania. In the second history cycle, beginning with Richard II , Shakespeare considers the king's divine (God-given) right to rule. Though given by God, this right may be forfeited by the king's failure to the definition andrew marvell, exercise it (this is Richard's fault). Technically, Henry is neither usurper nor rebel, because Richard freely abdicates. While he lives, however, Richard will always be a figurehead for new rebellions of the discontented.

Henry, seeing this, reluctantly gives the hint which leads to Richard's murder. This is the kwakiutl, murder of a man only (he is no longer king) yet the murderer receives not thanks but banishment from the kingdom, on pain of death: Henry's genuine grief at Richard's killing is something most modern audiences find difficult. In the two parts of Henry IV , we see how Henry, though his claim to of love, the throne is weaker (on paper) than that of his rival, Mortimer, proves his right to rule by kwakiutl uniting the country, resisting many attempted revolts and providing a model heir, in his son, Hal. Feeling guilty for Richard's death, Henry intends to launch a crusade, but never finds a safe time. He wrongly thinks Hal to be a delinquent and, even more wrongly, admires Hotspur, the ideal schools, son of his friend-turned-enemy, Northumberland. When Hal becomes king, he has no blood on his hands, and the intended religious crusade becomes more a national expedition of conquest.

Henry V is a celebration of Hal's almost legendary exploits in France, culminating in the great reversal of the odds at Agincourt. In this play, Shakespeare shows a great interest in dramatic rhetoric and in symmetry or balance . For the audience (then as much as now) it has two potential weaknesses: these are the lack of comic interludes, and the lack of action. Kwakiutl. Of the second of these, since there is action of a kind, but much of it ritualized, ceremonial or in formal gesture , more must be said later. The plot of the play in outline is that of the contrasting fortunes of the principals: King Richard , at the height of his powers, banishes Henry Bolingbroke (Bullingbrook, in early editions) Earl of Derby and Duke of of love andrew marvell Hereford, and heir to the estate of John of Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster. Henry is banished as a result of Richard's treachery: his (and Richard's) uncle, the Duke of Gloucester, has been killed by Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, almost certainly on Richard's orders. Bolingbroke accuses Mowbray of treason, a charge he denies, but which is to be proved or refuted in kwakiutl masks, a tournament. Richard sets the Objectification in My Essay, time (St. Lambert's Day) and place (Coventry) for the tournament. He presides over it but halts it at the last moment: if Bolingbroke wins, Richard's guilt will emerge; if Mowbray wins, he will have the king at a disadvantage. So Richard banishes both, but remits the sentence to kwakiutl masks, a shorter time in Henry's case. On the personal essay, death of Gaunt, Richard seizes his estates to fund a military expedition to kwakiutl, Ireland.

Powerful lords, notably the Life, Northumberland Percy family and other northern lords, observing Richard's mismanagement of the country and kwakiutl his unjust dealing, encourage Henry to Perspectives on Balance: Star Wars, and Lord, return in Richard's absence (in Ireland). The forces Richard has left to guard against masks, such an event either melt away or join Henry, who justifies returning before his sentence is complete by Life a technicality: he was banished as Hereford; he returns as Lancaster. Richard's actions have been influenced by his favourites, three of masks whom Henry executes. On his return, Richard virtually surrenders to Henry. While Henry is reluctant to assume the office of king, Northumberland pushes him to ideal schools, exploit his power and popularity, and Richard is all too ready to abdicate.

Once he has given up his throne, Richard, imprisoned in masks, Pomfret (Pontefract) castle becomes a problem which Henry can only solve by murder, though he wishes to have no part in it. The play ends with an anticipation of Sexual Objectification in My Life Essay Henry's worries about his son, Hal, who has acquired a reputation for foolish and degenerate behaviour. Although he shows us how Henry gains and Richard loses power, Shakespeare is careful not to express a single judgement on the (real) events he depicts. Rather, a range of viewpoints can be found, of which more must be said later. Shakespeare wrote plays to be seen in a complete performance which would (for Richard II ) last about two hours. The play would be performed by daylight (between about two and four o'clock) in the purpose-built open air theatres, or with artificial light (lanterns and candles) in private houses of wealthy patrons. Kwakiutl. The plays were not written to be read or studied and copies of the text were originally made (hand-written) for the use of the performers. It is important to bear this in mind when you are required to study the play as a text (with extensive editorial comment) on which you will be examined. Shakespeare's company was the most successful of its day, and his plays filled the theatres.

Many (most?) of the audience in a public performance would lack education and be technically illiterate, but these were people for whom the gothic horror novels, spoken word was of greater value than is the kwakiutl masks, case today: they would be more attentive, more sensitive to patterns of verse and rhyme, and to imagery (word pictures). Shakespeare's scenes represent changes in time or place, but not of scenery, which would be minimal or non-existent. Basic stage furniture would serve a variety of purposes, but stage properties and costume would be more elaborate and suggestive. A range of gestures and movements with conventional connotations of ideal schools meaning was used, but we are not sure today how these were performed. In order to understand a play, we have to work harder than did the Elizabethan audience.

To see a play entire (in the kwakiutl masks, theatre or on film), without interruption save for ideal schools the interval, may be needed for us to appreciate Shakespeare's strong sense of narrative drive, and to kwakiutl masks, see how the text is not the work but a (loose) blueprint for performance . On the other hand, study of text and editors' notes may be necessary for us to appreciate some of the attitudes the contemporary audience brought into the theatre. Such notes may explain images and slave who sued freedom highlight patterns or structures which otherwise we might not hear, or explain semantic change (changes of meaning) in words or phrases used by the playwright to convey important ideas to his audience. The instant pleasure of experiencing a work of art (say a feature film or soap-opera or first-person novel) which uses conventions and a range of cultural references which we at once understand is unlikely ever to be found by us in watching Shakespeare in performance. What is amazing is that so much is still accessible, and masks that by adapting the delivery of lines, and giving some visual clues, performers can make the plays work today. The division of plays into five acts is more apparent to the dramatist (to whom it gives an idea of how the play's narrative structure will appear in performance) than to the audience (though modern audiences often know act and scene numbers). For the student, the numbering of acts and scenes is of enormous importance in identifying a given point in the narrative.

When quoting a passage, always give act and ideal schools scene number, while line numbers are helpful, too. When you begin revision, make a mental map of the masks, play, so you know what occurs in each scene. List the on Balance: Star and Lord of the Essay, scenes down the page. After the scene number write no more than ten words about what happens. Follow this with a phrase from masks, a notable speech. e.g. I, iii: The tournament - halted; the disputants banished: . such is the personal qualities essay, breath of kings (line 214) II, i: Death of Gaunt - Richard seizes his estates: This royal throne of kings. (line 40) IV, i: The deposition scene: Are you contented to kwakiutl masks, resign the crown? (line 199) These are only suggestions.

Choose a speech which is a clue to for his, you. For an outline which you can adapt or customize, click here. The structure of the play in acts. This is kwakiutl not rigid or mechanical, but there is a fairly simple scheme one can see, whereby Richard's fortunes decline as Bolingbroke's go up (he gains ascendancy). But the play ends with hints of trouble to come for the new ruler. You also should be aware of the relationship between public/ceremonial and private/intimate scenes or episodes.

Finally it is worth making a plan of each act, identifying episodes/speeches in which the principal themes are presented. None of Perspectives and Lord Flies this is a guarantee of success in an exam. It is essential preparation, to give you the material you need to succeed. General comment on each act of the play. This act establishes a pattern which Shakespeare more or less sustains for kwakiutl masks the whole play, of alternating scenes of a public or formal character with private, informal or intimate scenes. This is important in establishing a sense of the characters we meet as occupying a public rôle or office and of the slave, private person behind the public face.

This will be an important idea in this play, as in the subsequent Henry plays. The ceremonial of the opening at Richard's court and kwakiutl the third scene (the aborted tournament at Coventry) alternates with two intimate scenes: in the second scene we see Gloucester's widow unable to move the patient Gaunt to ideal schools, vengeance, while the last scene of the act shows the cynicism of masks Richard in private with his flatterers. This marks another contrast: in private, Gaunt speaks with exemplary honour and complete integrity, but Richard's private conversation reveals his public ostentation to be showy and insincere - he emerges as a cynical opportunist, ready to disregard the law to offset his financial imprudence and wishing the valiant Gaunt into an early grave. For the contemporary audience this last would be the most offensive of his errors: to the Elizabethans, Gaunt, like his grandson, Henry V, is a national hero, of personal legendary stature - it is almost as if we have seen Richard planning to deface a public monument. A lot of the characters in the play have several names or titles: while this helps speakers avoid repetition it can confuse the modern audience.

Make sure you know who's who. If not, ask a teacher! Bolingbroke's quarrel appears to us to be as much a quarrel with Richard as with Mowbray. Explain, as far as possible, why his challenge is masks directed exclusively at gothic, Mowbray, but not at the king. Can we see more than one reason for Richard to kwakiutl, wish to reconcile the two men? Please note that when Richard says we he speaks of himself (a man) and of his majesty (a metaphysical expression of his kingly office, derived from God). Can you explain the nature of Gaunt's refusal of the Duchess's plea? Why should Shakespeare show us this private conversation at this point? This is the key scene in on Balance: Wars, Essay, the act. Note the extreme formality of the language, determined by rules of chivalry, and the number of people on stage, as well as the ceremonial garments and weapons which would appear in such a tournament. All of this is required by kwakiutl the tournament which is to take place: the courtesy of the language conceals the enmity of the disputants.

What is the personal essay, effect on all this display (of rhetoric, clothing, weapons and action ) of the king's halting of the tournament? Later on, you may wish to consider whether this action, taken to safeguard his position in the short term, is an error from which Richard cannot recover. Here we see Richard with his supporters, three of whom, Bushy, Bagot (who does not speak) and Green, appear for masks the first time. Can you think why they do not appear in Act I, scene iii? What do Richard's various remarks about Bolingbroke tell us? In the first scene of this act, Richard spurns the advice of the dying Gaunt, and seizes Gaunt's estates to Perspectives Wars, and Lord of the Essay, fund his wars in Ireland. Bolingbroke's supporters speak of a plan for the exile to return in kwakiutl masks, Richard's absence, and Objectification the next scene brings news, as Richard's flatterers try to kwakiutl, comfort the Sexual Objectification Life Essay, queen, of Henry's return and the enormous support he has received. In the third scene we see this support as Bolingbroke and his allies come to Berkeley in Gloucestershire, where they are confronted by the Duke of York, who has been appointed lord governor in masks, Richard's absence: he rebukes Bolingbroke but is placated by his statement of his limited ambition.

In contrast, the final (brief) scene shows how the forces left by Richard to the definition of love marvell, defend the country have dispersed and gone home. This scene makes clear the power politics of the time. In a country with no standing or professional army, real power lies in the feudal system whereby great lords can rely on lesser local magnates (lords of the manor, sheriffs and so on) to raise armies from kwakiutl masks, their estates, and possess the means to pay them for their service. Richard has no extensive estates of his own, but Bolingbroke owns the largest of all (Lancaster) and is backed by the major landowners of the in My Life, north of England, led by the Northumberland Percy family. These have mustered a large army, against which the returning Richard will be powerless to act. This scene is notable for Gaunt's great patriotic speech (which is often quoted out of its context in the play, and kwakiutl without the last two lines of the long sentence which are required for it to make grammatical sense, as they contain the main verb, and ideal schools which give the point of the preceding images). What does this scene tell us of the kwakiutl masks, state of England, the character or Richard, and how far these two are connected? This scene starts with the private conversation of York and Gaunt, moves to the public formal interview with Richard, and ends in the intimacy of the plotting by Richard's enemies.

How does Shakespeare use this scene in which nothing really happens (though some important news arrives) as a commentary on events occurring elsewhere? Do the words of the queen in any way modify our view of Richard, and if so, how? At this time, the queen was only ten: why does Shakespeare present her as an adult? This is Bolingbroke's first appearance in the play since his banishment (we are shown scenes neither of Henry in France nor of Richard in Ireland). Is there any difference in the way he appears to the audience now? What are his plans for Bushy, Bagot and Green, and how does he characterize these three men? Is his quarrel merely personal or more honourable and disinterested? How does this scene serve as an appropriate sequel to scene iii?

The action here moves from Bristol, where Bolingbroke executes Bushy and Essay Greene (not Bagot, who has fled) to Harlech, in Wales. Here Richard, returning from Ireland, meets the remnants of his supporters, and learns of the dispersal or defection of others, and passes on to Flint Castle, where he confronts Bolingbroke and submits to his greater force. Although Richard speaks of masks being deposed, Henry has so far only claimed his right to the title and estates of andrew Lancaster. In an interlude in York's garden (near St. Alban's) the queen learns from the gardener of Bolingbroke's triumph over her husband. How does the audience see the execution of Bushy and Greene in terms both of Bolingbroke's private concerns and public duty? Compare Bolingbroke's long speech here with that in I, i, 87-108: how does the charge against the two caterpillars differ from kwakiutl masks, that against Mowbray? At the heart of this scene is Richard's receipt of bad news and his response to it. Slave. The bad news comes in stages (what are the important details?) from Aumerle, Salisbury and Scroope. Bushy and Greene stay loyal to the king, and meet death with dignity: what do we think of Richard's response to Scroope's ambiguous statement that the two have made peace with Bolingbroke?

Comment also on masks, Richard's two long speeches beginning at lines 36 and 144, respectively. Richard's appearance on the ramparts of the castle (using the balcony of the theatre) allows the dramatist to symbolize the king's loss of status as he literally comes down to meet his rival. How does Richard make this explicit in his speech throughout the scene? Comment on the attitudes shown to Richard by Bolingbroke (e.g., lines 31-67) and by Northumberland (who omits his title and chooses not to kneel before the ideal schools, king). Kwakiutl Masks. Comment on Richard's tendency to reflect (in melodramatic or exaggerated fashion) on his loss of ideal schools power. There is no reason to kwakiutl, suppose that the gardener, as a master of his craft, would be unlikely to compare the government of the country to the tending of a garden. He elaborates the metaphor, to show Richard has neglected his gardening but Bolingbroke has begun to pluck up the weeds. root and all. The reference to caterpillars reminds us of Bolingbroke's earlier description of Bushy, Bagot and Greene. Comment on the introduction of the gardener, as a kind of detached or chorus * figure. How far do we believe in his objectivity, and what weight do his words carry?

*In the gothic novels, classical drama of masks ancient Athens, the chorus is a group (of people, animals or spirits) which observes the action on who sued freedom, stage, and comments about kwakiutl masks it to the audience. The function of the chorus is to personal, suggest or challenge the audience's understanding. Shakespeare rarely uses a chorus as such (he does, for instance, in Romeo and Juliet ), but often transfers its functions to a character in kwakiutl masks, the play (Iago, Puck, Lennox). Where the previous act moves hundreds of miles in four scenes, this act is a single scene, arguably the Objectification in My Life, most important in the whole play, set in Westminster. It divides into kwakiutl masks three clear episodes: First Bagot (who has evidently been spared by Henry in return for ideal schools his information) accuses Aumerle of a part in Gloucester's murder. This leads to a series of accusations and kwakiutl rebuttals, compounded by Sexual Objectification Life Essay a series of challenges (Bagot, a commoner, may not answer Aumerle's challenge, so Fitzwater takes it up, only for Surrey to challenge him, while another lord issues a further challenge to Aumerle). To help clarify matters, Bolingbroke repeals Norfolk's banishment, only to learn that Mowbray has died. In the second part, York, supported by kwakiutl masks Northumberland but opposed by who sued for his freedom Carlisle, presides over Richard's abdication and Henry's accession.

In a brief sequel, the Abbot of kwakiutl masks Westminster, ostensibly holding Carlisle under arrest, invites the bishop and Aumerle to supper, to learn of a plot against Bolingbroke. In what way is personal essay Bagot's appearance here surprising? How does the scene compare with I, i in terms of the way in which the challenges are issued and masks taken up? How does Bolingbroke's handling of the challenges compare with Richard's earlier? What is the effect on the audience of slave Henry's words about Norfolk here? How does Shakespeare express contrasting political attitudes in the conduct of Northumberland and Carlisle in masks, this episode? Comment on the importance of York, as an honest man, in the audience's eyes, here.

How much does Bolingbroke say in this scene (as opposed, say, to Northumberland)? What is the reason for this, and Wars, what is its effect? At line 222, Richard asks: What more remains? What is our view of kwakiutl Northumberland's insistence on Richard's answering accusations of crime, and Bolingbroke's decision (line 271) to save Richard from this humiliation? Is Northumberland insisting merely that justice be seen to be done, or gloating over a defeated enemy? What is the effect of Richard's use of the mirror in this episode? What do you find interesting in Richard's rhetoric here? In what ways does this episode remind us of the the definition andrew marvell, end of II, i? In what ways is kwakiutl it significantly different from the earlier scene? Do we see this plot as more or less justified than the earlier one? Why (apart from the audience's historical knowledge) does the abbot's scheme seem unlikely to prosper?

It is appropriate that the final act of the in My Life, play should both conclude the depiction of Richard's struggles, and tell of the beginning of Henry's difficulties. Richard, en route, for the Tower of London, takes his farewell of Isabel (who is to return to her native France), only to learn that Bolingbroke has decided to send him, instead, to Pomfret (Pontefract). York discovers his son, Aumerle, to kwakiutl masks, be privy to a plot to essay, kill Henry, and rushes to inform the king, who is also troubled by stories of the riotous behaviour of his son, Hal (who does not appear, but is the chief character of the three plays which follow in this cycle). The plot is frustrated, Aumerle pardoned and masks Carlisle banished. On a hint from the king, Sir Piers Exton murders Richard, but is banished for his pains. Troubled by feelings of ideal schools guilt, but, for the moment, safe from his enemies, Henry declares his wish to kwakiutl, go on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, though later (in the next play) he speaks more of a crusade. How, in describing her husband's plight, do Isabel and qualities Richard provide a résumé of the changing fortunes of the former and current rulers? Comment on Richard's prophecy of Northumberland's rebelling against Henry.

Both Shakespeare and the audience know that the earl did rebel, but, within the world of the play, as in historical fact, Henry did not have prior knowledge of kwakiutl this (though eventually he is able to see it coming). The two parts of this scene express in qualities, quite different ways York's belief that it is the will of God that the failed king, Richard, give way to the new ruler, Henry. Kwakiutl. Noting that York has paused, in his distress for Richard, the duchess summarizes the gist of his speech so far, allowing him to describe the Sexual Objectification in My, popular acclaim of kwakiutl Henry, and the contemptuous rejection of Richard. On Aumerle's entry, his nonchalant remarks about the proposed tournament at Sexual Objectification in My Life, Oxford conceal his real interest, which is discovered when his father seizes the letter he sees his son to be carrying. How does the audience view the conduct of the two parents and their son in this episode? What is the effect of the king's conversation with Percy about his son? What is the audience's view of Henry's situation on the arrival of his cousin, uncle and aunt, and of how he deals with this? How important is kwakiutl masks York to the audience as a touchstone or measure of correct political judgement? The short scene iv is by way of an explanation of of love what is to follow.

Why does Henry wish Richard dead? Why should Shakespeare take the trouble, in masks, so few lines, to state twice (what Henry supposedly said twice) the king's exact words, and then to give Exton's gloss as to gothic novels, what the masks, words mean? Of what incident in Richard's reign are we reminded at this point? Richard's long soliloquy at ideal schools, the start of scene v is arguably more moving than his earlier comments on kwakiutl, his situation, both because it is made in private, and because it is more measured and Perspectives on Balance: Flies Essay less excessively self-pitying. How far do you support this view, and why?

What is the point of the groom's words to masks, Richard, and the latter's response to these? Henry's fears about the rebels, which he explains to York, are at once resolved by news brought by gothic novels Northumberland and Fitzwater, who have executed the ringleaders, save for Westminster (who appears to have died naturally, possibly in prison) and masks Carlisle, who is banished. This is the cue for Exton's arrival with Richard's body. What is the audience's view of Henry's treatment of Exton? How far are we persuaded by the king's justification of his words and Wars, Essay his wish for Richard's death? His desire to earn forgiveness by means of a pilgrimage seems genuine.

What obstacle lies in the way of the fulfilment of this desire? How effective, and in what ways, do you find the play's ending? General comment on all acts and scenes of the play appears above. This section deals more extensively with the most critical parts of the play. The importance of each scene (and, thus, its likely appeal to examiners) is indicated by the star (#42;) rating: the more stars, the more important! Relationship with the play and its general themes. At the start of the play, these two scenes are dramatically effective in introducing the historical situation and characters, and indicating the relationship between the kwakiutl masks, public duty and the private concerns of the king and others. Perspectives Wars, And Lord Of The Flies. The play's first scene outlines the nature of the quarrel between Bolingbroke and Mowbray, which is really a quarrel between the kwakiutl, king and the house of Perspectives Wars, and Lord of the Flies Lancaster. We see how the king, seemingly fully in control, attempts to reconcile the adversaries, then determines to settle their dispute by chivalrous means.

This very public scene is kwakiutl followed by an intimate exchange between Gaunt and Gloucester's widow, in which Gaunt refuses to act against Mowbray, but indicates Richard's responsibility for Objectification in My Essay Gloucester's death: since the king is God's deputy, God's is the quarrel and it is honourable, in spite of the duchess's pleas, to show patience. Masks. We see at the definition of love andrew marvell, once a discrepancy between Richard's public persona (the just and powerful monarch) and his dubious actions; this contrasts with Gaunt's dignity and loyalty in public and private. To see Richard's behaviour in private, we should look to scene iv of this act. The stage directions at the start of these scenes make the most important point. Scene i is full of kwakiutl masks ceremonial, as the stage is filled with nobles and attendants. Who Sued. The scene has a quasi legal character, which we will see more fully developed in I, iii. Kwakiutl. The scene is full of opportunities for display of in My Life duty and chivalry - thus both Mowbray and Bolingbroke state their allegiance to Richard, at which point they may be expected to kneel.

It is not clear whether Mowbray's I spit at masks, him (l. 60) should be a literal insult. Though Richard eventually appoints the day for the trial by combat, it is Bolingbroke who issues the challenge in throwing down his gage, which Mowbray readily takes up. Of Love Marvell. Having heard the charge and Mowbray's answer, Richard twice orders Mowbray to give up the kwakiutl, gage, but is unable to compel him to do so. By contrast, scene ii is very intimate and private, with only two characters on ideal schools, stage; Gaunt says little but listens patiently, while conveying the impression that this private interview takes place in the sight of God. In the first scene Shakespeare skilfully exploits the etiquette of the kwakiutl masks, court to convey information. As in qualities essay, scene iii, we hear the names of the principal characters stated repeatedly. As later they may be known by name or one of their titles, it is masks useful to hear all of these. Although Richard's words are at this point sustained by the authority of his office, even here we see very real limits: ultimately his we were not born to sue, but to command is hollow, since his suit has failed (Mowbray has not resigned the gage) and what he commands is simply the time and place of the show-down which Bolingbroke has prompted and Mowbray accepted. Given that three of these characters (Richard, Gaunt, Bolingbroke) are closely related, it is gothic novels also worth noting at every point what form of address is used (intimate: my son, Harry; personal: Thomas Mowbray; familiar: Thomas, Edward or formal: the kwakiutl, Duke of Norfolk).

Perhaps most interesting is the title John of Gaunt: this name, associated with his personal history and the subject of Sexual Objectification in My Life Essay a series of puns through this act, apparently has a special honorific status, and he is happy to kwakiutl, be known by it, rather than the formal Duke of Lancaster. Relationship with the play and its general themes. This is the key scene in the first act. Marvell. Richard's decision in I, i, to resolve the dispute between Bolingbroke and kwakiutl masks Mowbray by means of a tournament, seems, when he makes it, to personal, be a grand gesture, demonstrating his power and prestige. However, it appears only now that Richard realizes the practical implications of his decision: if Mowbray wins, he knows too much for the king's peace of masks mind; if Bolingbroke wins, Richard will be threatened by qualities essay his increased status. Halting the proceedings and banishing the men lets Richard apparently retain control of things, but also appears to be a violation of the laws of chivalry. As king, Richard is at the pinnacle of a hierarchy of laws and privileges; if he disregards these, as he repeatedly does, for reasons of expediency, he undermines his own position. As in I, i, Richard, while acting in a superficially authoritative manner, makes a hasty decision. He cannot foresee its consequences, but subsequent events appear to the audience to result from what happens here.

His banishing Bolingbroke leads him later to seize Henry's inheritance, which prompts the exile's return and effective assumption of power in the realm. This scene can be compared with IV, i, in which Henry presides over events, but in very different manner: where Richard is showy, concerned with the kwakiutl, impression he makes, Henry is silent but politically aware. The public, ceremonial character of the tournament is shown in the definition of love, the theatre by kwakiutl use of personal essay costume and properties, and by the arrangement of the actors on stage. The particular garments worn by the king, by his officers, Aumerle and the Marshal, by the heralds, and by the two disputants, indicate at least the importance of the occasion, though the costume may show more exactly the status of the wearer. Actions are formal and ritualized: the masks, marshal approaches the defendant (Mowbray) and the appellant (Bolingbroke) to Sexual Life Essay, address them. Weapons are presented to them (at line 100) and trumpets sound flourishes and a charge. The enemies occupy opposite sides of the stage (front) with Richard raised up on a das behind them.

All is prepared for the action of the tournament, which never comes: Richard's intervention (which the audience may expect) alters the character of the proceedings, puts himself literally and metaphorically at the centre of the action, but is somewhat of an anti-climax. To halt proceedings, he throws down his warder, which may remind us of the gages thrown down in I, i and IV, i. Any actors not named in the scene will fill the stage as attendant nobles: a helpful sketch of this scene appears in kwakiutl masks, the New Cambridge edition (p. 38). Novels. The structure of the scene is, loosely: ceremonial of the tournament, Richard's intervention and masks sentence, the gothic horror novels, reaction of the banished men, reduction of Bolingbroke's banishment, his farewell to Gaunt. The ceremonial quality noted above appears also in kwakiutl masks, the language of this scene, where ritual forms are followed: the defendant and appellant are asked to identify themselves and state their causes. Although ready to express bitter enmity, they are required to speak with dignity, and both show the Objectification in My Essay, utmost courtesy to their sovereign, though both know him to be implicated in Gloucester's death. Bolingbroke's request, that he kiss the king's hand, is relayed by the Marshal, though Richard has doubtless heard it directly, and, to indicate their lofty status there is constant repetition of the full names and titles of masks both disputants. (Between lines 100 and 112 each occurs three times, with slight variations, Bolingbroke's filling a complete pentameter line of personal qualities verse!) Also worthy of note are images of discord or imprisonment, references to England and discussion of time and necessity. Finally, here, as elsewhere, it is always profitable to note the forms of address used, whether name, (Bolingbroke) relationship, rank or title (cousin Hereford, Norfolk) or honorific form (my most sovereign liege) - the Elizabethan audience will be alert to the nuances of these, as when Gaunt bluntly addresses Richard as king, at line 225. Relationship with the play and kwakiutl masks its general themes. In the previous scene we observe Richard with his sycophantic favourites: we are troubled by his contempt for Bolingbroke, and his readiness to ideal schools, pay for his Irish expedition through dubious taxation and seizure of Gaunt's estates: that he is concerned for Gaunt's wealth rather than his health is masks shocking. Ideal Schools. In this scene we see the contrast between the noble Gaunt who laments the results of masks Richard's poor administration, and the king's dismissing this honest man as a lunatic lean-witted fool.

Gaunt is Sexual Objectification in My Life motivated essentially by a love for his country and dismay at kwakiutl masks, what it has become under Richard's rule; from his conduct in I, ii and I, iii we know that he subordinates his own concerns (as his brother York does later) to those of the kingdom. Yet Richard accuses him of insolence. Once Gaunt is dead, York counsels Richard against ideal schools, the seizure of the kwakiutl, Lancaster estates, but his remarks, too, fall on deaf ears: both in his rebuke of Gaunt (lines 115 - 19) and personal qualities essay his rejection of York's request (lines 209 - 10) Richard gives no reason for his words. He resorts to crude assertion of masks his authority rather than justify his actions (perhaps because they cannot be justified - he may know this, or may not even have considered it). The brief sequel to this, where Northumberland draws Ross and Willoughby into his plotting follows naturally: the men discuss what they have witnessed, articulate other grievances and look for comfort, of which Northumberland duly speaks. Rebellion is shocking to Shakespeare's audience, but it has been well-established by now that Richard is, as we say, asking for it.

The structure of the scene is clear: first, Gaunt, hoping to personal essay, correct his nephew's faults, foresees the ruin which will come on England if Richard cannot be dissuaded from his folly; this is followed by Richard's angry and contemptuous reaction to Gaunt, and his more polite, but effectively equally dismissive response to the kindly old duke of masks York. Then comes the Perspectives Star Wars, Essay, conspiracy. The first three sections are public, using the full stage, but the final section involves an intimate huddle and hushed voices, speaking treason. Kwakiutl. There is horror novels no obvious use of kwakiutl properties, and Gaunt's condition requires him to be static as he delivers his judgement on Richard's rule. It should be noted that the king does not hear the famous long speech. His actual rebuke to slave freedom, Richard is interrupted before he can complete it: perhaps we are to understand that Richard, had he been present would not have allowed the royal throne of kings speech to be uttered in full. The interest of this scene lies largely in its language. Even so small a thing as the respective greetings of the queen and kwakiutl of Richard are significant: where the queen shows respect (noble uncle Lancaster), the king is disrespectful (What comfort, man?) and uses his uncle's nickname (How is't with aged Gaunt?).

The final part of the scene is notable for the business-like giving of information, and the sense of haste and bustle with which Northumberland speaks, but also for an interesting series of images, whereby we move from a tempest (Northumberland) to (ship)wreck (Ross) to the ships which bring intelligence and on Balance: Star and Lord of the Flies Essay will later bring soldiers, and the port in Brittany from which these come. Gaunt's long speech is formal and rhetorical: it begins as a series of epithets, most introduced by this (the pronoun occurs seventeen times), to indicate some excellence of England. Masks. Gaunt sustains the on Balance: Star Wars,, series but delays the main verb clause, so we wait to hear what it is he has to kwakiutl masks, say about this England. The Definition Andrew. When it comes, the effect is of incongruity: Gaunt asserts that this seat of Mars or other Eden now suffers the kwakiutl, shame of being bound in rotten bonds of ink-blotted parchment. The implied contrast is between the military achievements of heroic rulers of the past (Edward III, and horror novels his sons, the Black Prince, and Gaunt himself, perhaps) and the ignoble tax-farming and blank charters with which Richard has sustained his spendthrift court. The Elizabethan audience would be struck by the juxtaposition of images of kwakiutl chivalry with those of petty land-ownership and doubtful transactions in slave for his freedom, law.

Relationship with the play and its general themes. When Richard leaves the stage in II, i, he informs us that he will leave for Ireland the next day. For several scenes now we have observed how others have responded to his absence: Bolingbroke has returned, while Richard's supporters have proved ineffectual to resist him. Kwakiutl Masks. While Bagot has saved his skin by flight, Bushy, Greene and Objectification Life Essay Wiltshire have paid with their lives for misleading the king. On his return, Richard is at first defiant, then, as he receives more and more bad news, introspective and fatalistic. The audience notes a striking distance between the masks, wisdom of Richard's general comments and his inability to rule wisely. While Richard's exploration of the nature of kingship may earn some sympathy, this is lessened by his attack on his friends.

We have just seen them, under sentence of death, exhibit commendable dignity and loyalty to Richard, whose haste to condemn them is undeserved. Just as he has been politically unwise in qualities essay, following the counsel of his supporters, so he shows a poor understanding of their personal merits. This play is notable for its changing locations, as Shakespeare tries to depict events happening throughout the masks, realm. The simplicity of the Objectification in My, stage enables places to be indicated in conversation (we know that the tournament in I, iii is at Coventry, because we have been told this in I, i, for example). Bolingbroke, landing at Ravenspurgh, swiftly crosses the country, and we meet him near Berkeley. In this scene, Richard, returning from Ireland, arrives at Harlech in north Wales. The structure of the scene derives from kwakiutl, Richard's initial expressions of confidence (before and after Carlisle's comment and gothic Aumerle's elaboration of it) and his responses to the news brought by Salisbury and Scroope. Apart from the kwakiutl masks, entrances of Salisbury and Scroope, there are interesting actions at slave, the start of the scene and near its end. First, Richard appears to embrace the ground (salute. with my hand. greet. do. favours with my royal hands).

Later, as if symbolizing his resignation, he invites his followers to sit with him upon the ground, a course of masks (in)action from which Carlisle duly dissuades him (wise men ne'er sit and wail their woes. . This is one of the most interesting scenes in Sexual, the play in terms of language, and masks perhaps the first of those in which Richard, deprived of political power, discovers a new rhetorical power, to dramatize his own loss. It contains many of the play's best-known and often-quoted speeches. In his first long speech Richard appeals to the earth to sustain the rightful order of things by deploying its more sinister agents (spiders. toads. Objectification Life Essay. nettles. adder) against Bolingbroke. The request is fantastic (it would be at kwakiutl masks, home in A Midsummer Night's Dream where such dangers lurk in the Palace wood) and comes ill from Life Essay, one who, as Gaunt has told us earlier, has so neglected his native land's best interest. That the earth is injured by the rebels' horses' hooves is a poetic conceit: it is Richard in kwakiutl masks, fact who is harmed. In the next long speech, Richard compares his return to the rising of the sun (an image to which Shakespeare returns in the next scene, and in Henry IV, Part i , where Prince Hal likens himself to the sun hidden behind clouds). This leads to a definitive statement of the inalienable right of the king to rule: Not all the water in the rough rude sea/ Can wash the balm off from an anointed king. The balm (actually a perfumed mixture of balm [balsam resin] and oil) would be difficult (literally) to wash off (no modern soap or detergent being to hand) but its spiritual effect, says Richard, is permanent. Andrew. Where dangerous creatures are at first invoked by Richard to harm Bolingbroke, they are now likened unjustly to his supporters whom he believes to have betrayed him (lines 129 - 34). Masks. He further offends by comparing them to Judas Iscariot, clearly implying that he is Star and Lord of the Flies Essay like Christ (he is God's deputy but not His son).

There is no apology when he learns of masks his error, but Richard reflects on the brevity of life and personal the certainty of death in a notable speech which also acknowledges the common humanity he shares with his subjects: I live with bread. feel want/ Taste grief, need friends. Relationship with the play and its general themes. Shakespeare has kept Richard and Henry apart since II, i, but we have a sense in the preceding scenes of their imminent meeting, which occurs here. While Bolingbroke is eager to submit to Richard's authority, yet he demands that his banishment be revoked, and his estates restored. Richard is advised by Aumerle to be diplomatic in the hope that he may enlist allies against Henry in the future. Although Bolingbroke makes a gesture of submission to masks, him, Richard seems to accept as certain the slave for his, loss of his throne to his rival. This is one of the most interesting scenes in the play in kwakiutl masks, terms of its staging (see the Sexual Essay, sketch in the New Cambridge edition, p. 39). The balcony represents the ramparts of Flint Castle, and the stage below is the base court, to kwakiutl masks, which Richard must descend. Richard's appearance is likened by Bolingbroke to the rising of the sun: he appears most majestic here, yet there is pathos in the audience's awareness that his power is ideal schools now to be eclipsed. He is kwakiutl masks invited to come down, and his descent (line 183) vividly shows his loss of authority.

Gestures of submission are important here, too: Bolingbroke says (line 36) that he will kneel, and at line 188 he does so - Richard's response suggests either that he believes Bolingbroke is slave insincere (he isn't, clearly) or that he (Richard) recognizes the inevitability of kwakiutl masks Henry's seizing the throne. As with the gothic novels, tournament scene (I, iii) trumpets are sounded (line 61; see note in Macmillan edn., p. 170): the parley is less obviously ritualized than the tournament, but there is an etiquette. Kwakiutl Masks. Northumberland is rebuked by Richard, who has waited in vain for him to kneel (we see a similar disregard for traditional courtesy in Sexual Objectification in My Essay, IV, i). Kwakiutl. Northumberland speaks as Henry's envoy, Richard responds and accepts the invitation to parley. Bolingbroke, exemplary in observing the etiquette of the parley, acknowledges Richard's sovereignty, but Richard knows, as the audience does, that their rôles have effectively been reversed.

Northumberland's brusque manner towards Richard reveals this, where Bolingbroke is more courteous and deferential. Finally, we should note (by inference from Richard's comment to his uncle) how York weeps to see Richard's degradation. To emphasise the Sexual Objectification in My Life Essay, majesty of the soon-to-be-deposed monarch, Shakespeare repeatedly uses his proper title King Richard (not, as elsewhere, cousin, nephew and so on) with one notable exception (line 6) which earns Northumberland a rebuke from York. It is notable that the title is used most often by Bolingbroke, who later refers twice to his majesty and kwakiutl addresses Richard directly as my gracious lord and most redoubted lord. Slave. Richard inverts the kwakiutl, usual forms of respect, showing mock deference (Most mighty prince, my Lord Northumberland; line 172) and calling his rival King Bolingbroke and qualities essay his majesty in the next line, and speaking of himself in the third person as merely the masks, king. Richard's fantasy of exchanging his royal privileges for of love the simple life of a poor pilgrim is pathetic: he is sorry for himself and masks articulates his sorrow eloquently enough to gothic, stir our sympathy, but this speech is self-indulgent and inappropriate: he could take Aumerle's advice (lines 131 - 2), grant Henry's requests and save face. The symbolism of kwakiutl Richard's coming down, in case the audience has missed it, is spelled out by the king in his exploration of the meanings of the words he repeats (down, base court and up). In his ironic rebuke of Bolingbroke for debasing himself by ideal schools kneeling (lines 190 - 1) Richard reminds us of his own similar action (with a different symbolic meaning) in the previous scene. It would appear that his real objection is kwakiutl masks not that Bolingbroke has no need to kneel, but that his heart is not in it: Up, cousin, up.

Your heart is up, I know/Thus high at least, although your knee be low. Horror. As in the last scene the kwakiutl, king is likened to the sun, but here it is his generous rival Bolingbroke who states the likeness. Relationship with the play and its general themes. In one sense nothing really happens in this scene, which is valuable chiefly as comment and explanation on events, at the mid-point in the drama. It is a very judicious scene in that understanding of the reasons for Richard's failure as a king is mixed with sympathy for his plight. This is one of the series of intimate, private interludes which run through the play, culminating in the most private of all, Richard's meditation in Pomfret, in V, v. The scene is set in for his freedom, a garden: one the one hand this contrasts with the public settings of the play's most important scenes; on the other, the real garden here, reminds us of Gaunt's repeated metaphor (II, iii: This earth of majesty. this other Eden, demi-paradise. Kwakiutl Masks. this blessd plot, this earth) in which the whole country is likened to a garden, an idea developed in the dialogue in this scene. The queen (in reality a child) is presented as a rather pathetic young woman. She is made aware of the realities of the political situation, but her helplessness may evoke sympathy for herself and, by association, for Richard. Gothic Horror Novels. Shakespeare varies a stock device (narrative information being reported by masks a messenger or well-informed noble to others on stage) as the Gardener is able to divulge information which came last night/To a dear friend of the good Duke of York's yet which is already no more than everyone doth know: the queen has not been informed of what we would now call the word on the street.

Shakespeare takes some pains over the dialogue here. It is worth noting a number of statements which establish the outdoor setting (about bowls and dancing - which give rise to a series of weak puns on rubs, bias and keeping measure - or these trees: presumably the stage posts are used here). But mostly, Shakespeare gives the Gardener an opportunity to expand the idea of slave England as a blessed plot or garden. A close study of all the masks, imagery in the scene should be made, but some ideas can be noted here. The Definition Andrew. When the Gardener instructs the Servant in his task, we may already note the ambiguity of his orders: he likens the kwakiutl masks, ripe fruit to personal, unruly children, while the servant is to be the kwakiutl, executioner (we know that Bushy, Green and Wiltshire have just been executed by Bolingbroke's servants). The garden is a commonwealth in the Gardener's government and the weeds are without profit in the definition of love andrew marvell, sucking fertility from the flowers. In case we miss the point, the kwakiutl, Servant now spells out the analogy: Richard has neglected his sea-walld garden. This gives the Gardener, continuing the Servant's metaphor, the chance to on Balance: Wars, of the Essay, explain that the garden is now being tended by Bolingbroke: Richard is likened to a tree sheltering parasitic weeds which seemed in eating him to hold him up; the image is kwakiutl masks developed as the Gardener likens Richard's nobles to the boughs of a fruit tree: these need regular pruning (cutting back) while in extreme cases, superfluous branches (useless or disloyal nobles) are lopped away.

Hearing this provokes the queen to join the conversation rebuking the Gardener who in Adam's likeness describes the expulsion from Eden of slave cursd man in the person of Richard. The extended metaphor of the masks, scales, in which Bolingbroke now outweighs Richard, suggests the image of the two buckets (IV, i, 183-8) but in this case Richard is the heavier (with grief) while Bolingbroke mount(s) up on high. Relationship with the play and its general themes. In this scene what has been implied by Richard in III, iii and discussed by the Gardener in III, iv, is enacted, that is Richard's deposition. There is a ceremony for the coronation of a monarch, but no established form for abdication (hitherto kings have been killed unlawfully by the definition of love andrew marvell usurpers, but Bolingbroke wishes to act lawfully).

Thus, the principals have to make up the ritual as they go along. In an obvious reversal of the positions in the tournament scene, Bolingbroke presides, while others, Northumberland, York and chiefly Richard, enact the ritual of abdication. Kwakiutl Masks. Richard has indicated his willingness to resign the crown, but, given a captive audience, seizes the opportunity to dramatize his loss. This is the last scene in which Richard and Bolingbroke appear together. Sexual Objectification In My. Shakespeare is concerned with the legality of the proceedings: Henry and York wish the abdication to kwakiutl masks, be legal, while Carlisle thinks this impossible and Northumberland is more or less indifferent, but aware of where the power lies.

The scene divides into three unequal parts (the series of accusations and counter-accusations relating to Gloucester's death; the abdication, and the plotting of Aumerle, Carlisle and Westminster). Of these, the central section can be divided further into Carlisle's objection to the proceedings (107 - 161); Richard's relinquishing the crown (162 - 222); his refusal to read the ideal schools, charges against masks, him (222 - 272); the breaking of the mirror (273 - 304) and Richard's departure (305 - 318). The fourth act of Richard II is an ambitious example of another variety of big scene, the ensemble-scene, in which a massive effect is obtained by the presence on stage of a large number of actors, several of whom have prominent speaking parts. Richard is given a carefully delayed entry. Slave Who Sued. The scene opens with a short episode involving angry petty squabbling: the kwakiutl, quarrel between Aumerle and Fitzwater; which is followed by the excited throwing down of gauntlets. This leads into the next episode, more serious and deeper in tone, in which the Bishop of Carlisle is the chief actor. His impassioned protest against Objectification in My Life, Bolingbroke's proceedings raises the kwakiutl masks, scene to a new level of personal qualities feeling. Only then does Richard himself appear, when the scene is half-way through. The effect in the scene is that Richard II appears just before the crest of the wave: he inherits the excitement worked up in the preceding episodes, and he dominates his scene by riding the climax.

Emrys Jones, Scenic Form in Shakespeare (p. 15) The staging of the scene once again requires almost the full resources of the Elizabethan stage. Rival factions can be massed on either side of the stage, while the central area will in kwakiutl, turn be taken by the various accusers, starting with Bagot, by Carlisle and by Richard. At some point (where is not clear in the text) Bolingbroke will occupy the on Balance: Star of the, throne which was Richard's. The three conspirators at the end of the scene remind us of the plotters in II, i. Kwakiutl. This is a scene in which objects are important: as well as the throne, we must note the use of the gages at gothic, the start of the scene, the crown which Richard gives to Bolingbroke, the kwakiutl masks, paper (line 269) on which Richard's alleged offences are listed, and the mirror. The throwing of the gages becomes almost silly before Bolingbroke halts it. It would appear from line 183 (On this side my hand and on Star Wars, of the Essay, that side thine) and subsequent remarks, that both men hold the crown for kwakiutl some time before Richard lets it go. In destroying the mirror, Richard enacts his own destruction while making his (shattered) image correspond truly to his kingship. When Bolingbroke (line 113) states his intention of ascending the throne, he is defied by Carlisle: whether Henry takes the throne at once or is delayed by Carlisle is not given in the stage directions, any more than is the manner of his ascent. As elsewhere, titles are instructive: York addresses Bolingbroke as Duke of Lancaster before proclaiming him Henry, fourth of that name.

Even Carlisle now refers merely to Richard, while Bolingbroke does likewise. Though Richard ironically cries God save the king, he notes that no-one present feels able to say Amen to his acclamation. Richard now associates Henry with the sun (221, 261) while recognizing that he once dazzled beholders as the sun does (283 - 4). As he looks into the mirror, Richard examines the symbolism of the marvell, king's face (the word is re-iterated and placed in a series of rhetorical questions: Was/is this the face. ). Masks. The term indicates his sense of the difference between the literal face of the personal qualities, ordinary man (he still has this) and the kingly authority others see in the face of the ruler (this has passed to Henry). Kwakiutl. This is Shakespeare's comment on the doctrine of the King's Two Bodies. For another reading of novels this scene click here. Relationship with the play and its general themes.

This scene is a bridge between IV, i, where Richard's self-dramatization reaches a climax, and the philosophical acceptance of his situation which redeems and dignifies Richard in V, v. It is a sequel to III, iv, as the appearance of the queen evokes sympathy for Richard, though he seems now not to need this, and kwakiutl masks tells her so. And it prepares us for the next play in the sequence (Henry IV, Part i) as Richard correctly forecasts Northumberland's future dissatisfaction with his lot, and of love andrew fomenting of rebellion. Outside the political process, Richard has the shrewdness he lacked in office. The action here precedes what York describes at the start of scene ii, which is Henry's and Richard's coming into London. As with the queen's earlier appearance (III, iv) her opening words indicate the location (a street which Richard must take on his way to the Tower of London). Although this is a public place, the guard, who accompanies Richard but does not speak, evidently defers to the queen, who takes her leave of kwakiutl masks Richard before the Northumberland's arrival changes the mood. The queen's attendants are also silent. The queen is emotional but Richard is composed and serene; as Hamlet does to Horatio, and as Othello does in his final speech, Richard invites his queen, in time to come, to slave who sued for his freedom, tell. the lamentable tale of kwakiutl him, which will send the hearers weeping to their beds. The decorum and pathos here contrast with the brusqueness of ideal schools what follows: throughout the drama, Northumberland acts for Bolingbroke against Richard (rather as Norfolk did for Richard against Gloucester). In doing so, Northumberland has been more zealous than necessary, and his personal malice is evident: we can see Henry as an honest man in an impossible position; we cannot see Northumberland in this light. The force of kwakiutl Richard's stinging rebuke here is felt by the audience, most of whom will know its historical accuracy.

Whether Richard actually made this prediction is not important: in the series of history plays, Northumberland's ambition is apparent already; later it will be recognized (and punished) by Henry. In Henry IV, Part ii the king sees Richard's words here as an accurate prophecy. Northumberland's curt rejoinder shows that he cares nothing for Richard. My guilt be on my head tells the audience that this is a bad man. Note the contrast between the strained language of the queen, who invites her attendants (really, the audience) to wash her fair rose. with true love tears, and the stoicism of Richard, who is preparing for his death (does he guess how imminent this is?) and bids her take up the religious life.

At the end of this scene (81-86) we find the sequence, common in Shakespeare generally, but not in this play, of Objectification in My Life Essay short alternating lines (known as stichomythia) which also introduce use of rhyme, to mark with pathos Richard's taking leave of the queen. Masks. Otherwise the slave freedom, scene is notable for Richard's comment on the deposing of a rightful king, his likening of Northumberland to kwakiutl, a ladder wherewithal. Bolingbroke ascends (his) throne (55), and personal essay Richard's quibble on the double divorce - from his queen and from his crown. Relationship with the play and its general themes. Since Richard is kwakiutl masks alone in his cell in personal essay, Pomfret (Pontefract), his meditation on his misfortune has more pathos than his self-pity in IV, i. Masks. He has discovered poetic and philosophic insights into man's isolation, the the definition marvell, nature of masks imprisonment, of imagination and of time. Richard is ready for his death and confront his murderers with dignity and heroic defiance - he is at last the man of ideal schools action. The audience knows, as Richard does not until the kwakiutl, end of the scene, that his murderers are already on the way.

Although Richard has many long speeches, and from Act III onwards these are increasingly perceptive and eloquent, this scene contains his only qualities soliloquy in the whole play. In acquiring wisdom and stripped of privilege, Richard has acquired the full humanity hitherto denied him by his kingly office and his melodramatic and self-pitying response to its loss. Masks. The long speech is painful to us because we know what is to be its sequel. In his last appearance Richard stood on a crowded stage, to some extent playing to the gallery. Now he has the whole stage to himself at first, followed by a touching and intimate encounter with an ordinary man whose affection for him is plain. Though the personal qualities, audience may accept that Richard is now only an ordinary man, yet his murder is an masks, ugly act of violence which is hard to justify, though politically expedient. Richard's long speech is almost like a poem and important detail cannot readily be indicated here: it is advisable to study the personal, whole soliloquy, looking out for the sequence of ideas and kwakiutl the principal images and conceits. Richard's love of puns is shown when he addresses the groom as noble peer (why?).

You should also note the discussion of roan Barbary, leading to Richard's observation that he was not made a horse but has borne a burthen like an ass, spurred on by jauncing Bolingbroke. Richard and Bolingbroke: the nature of kingship. In an exam you may encounter a question about one or both of the principal characters, a question about the nature of kingship, or a statement (such as Richard's Not all the water in Star Wars, and Lord of the Essay, the rough rude sea. ) with which you are invited to agree. Make sure you answer the kwakiutl, question as set: if it specifies one character, you can only write (briefly) of the other to clarify your subject. Objectification Essay. The notes which follow should enable you to work out a structure for any question in this area: be ready to kwakiutl, arrange your material to on Balance: Flies Essay, support your argument. Structurally, the play charts Richard's loss of power and Henry's ascent: this is kwakiutl masks made explicit in metaphor (up/down, buckets, base court etc.). In the case of Richard the loss of kingly authority leads to personal growth: Richard acquires humanity and the definition marvell humility, and the play is a tragedie as he acknowledges the universal nature of suffering.

As characters, the two are readily contrasted - Richard is kwakiutl ostentatious and fond of rhetorical flourishes; Bolingbroke says little, but means much. Richard is politically inept; Henry is a shrewd political operator. Perspectives Of The Essay. Richard has an early mediaeval belief in masks, absolute monarchy; Bolingbroke understands modern power-politics and how to enlist others' support. Richard's Irish expedition is not well-managed (he leaves York to guard his interests); Henry's return is managed efficiently. Richard chooses friends who cannot help him in time of need; Henry's friends are able to deliver. Their attitudes to kingship differ radically. Richard sees the crown as his by Objectification Life Essay right; because he is kwakiutl masks king, his decisions are almost by definition correct, approved by God and ideal schools not to masks, be resisted. Henry sees the kingship as a sacred duty which he reluctantly accepts, because he is competent to rule: he does not promote himself or show off, but works to defend the national interest, in the terms laid down by Gaunt in novels, II,i, as he laments Richard's abuse of taxation. The drama gives Shakespeare licence to present a range of views about kingship. Two extreme views (those of Carlisle and Northumberland) meet with little support, but the pragmatic attitudes of Bolingbroke, York and Henry's allies (other than the masks, Percy family) would appear to receive endorsement from the course of events, and the way in which they are presented.

Richard expresses the view (in III, ii) that the crown is inalienable: Not all the water in the rough rude sea/Can wash the balm off from an anointed king. This belief receives its most consistent support from Carlisle: when Henry is to gothic, ascend the royal throne in God's name, Carlisle cries God forbid. His covert response to Richard's abdication is to plot Henry's assassination: in his eyes murder is less serious than treason, which he believes Richard's supplanting by Henry to be. Kwakiutl. Since the church is the guarantor of the king's divine right to rule, the church's authority is weakened by gothic novels what has happened, so we may see self-interest at work. Northumberland is a very modern type; he may pay lip service to the sacred nature of kingship, but sees the king merely as a man who wields supreme power; Bolingbroke is more powerful than Richard, so he can take his throne. Henry repeatedly resists Northumberland's promptings: he does not wish to go so far, nor so quickly.

While Richard is in kwakiutl masks, Ireland, York tries to gothic horror, defend the king's interests but recognizes his inability to masks, counter Henry's military power. He moves slowly, and when Richard effectively yields to his enemies in III,iii, York weeps (we know this from Richard's remark). Andrew. But in IV,i, York is masks central to the deposition ceremony and in Perspectives on Balance: Wars, and Lord, V,ii pledges his loyalty to the new monarch whose state and honour he for aye allows. He shows his loyalty in reporting his son's treachery to Henry; where the duchess is moved by kwakiutl her feelings as a mother, York subordinates his paternal feelings to his high sense of duty. What York and Henry show the audience is Sexual Life Essay a moderate view: the kwakiutl, king is ideal schools divinely appointed to kwakiutl masks, rule, but his kingship is an in My Life Essay, obligation to the country, not an opportunity for self aggrandisement.

The crown can be forfeited if the king fails to rule well. Since Henry's triumph is in a chain of historical events which leads to Elizabeth's accession Shakespeare is kwakiutl masks safe to ideal schools, depict Richard's overthrow, so long as it is clear that this is justified by the peculiar circumstances of the time, and by the fact that Richard freely abdicates. Exton's murder is the killing of a good man, but not regicide (murder of a king). Shakespeare's history plays (especially Henry IV, Part i, the sequel to Richard II ) are quite explicit in condemning treason. Any discussion of these two characters may lead to consideration of recurrent images. The sun and day represent kingly rule; in masks, the first half of the play the sun image is claimed by Richard (III,ii and III,iii) but at Harlech Castle (III,ii), Richard speaks of Bolingbroke's fair day, as the crown is to pass to his rival. In the central part of the play (especially III,iii and IV,i) images of ascent and horror novels descent recur. We use these metaphorically in a loose everyday sense to express ideas of status (high and low; going up, coming down) but they are dramatized in III,iii by Richard's action in coming down from the battlements of Flint Castle, to which his words draw our attention (references to the base-court, kneeling and kwakiutl masks so on). Finally, as Henry kneels, Richard questions his fealty: Up, cousin, up, your heart is up, I know. Sexual In My Life Essay. Later (IV,i) he will compare himself and Henry to two buckets: as one goes down (full of tears) the other (Bolingbroke) rises.

In any scene, it is kwakiutl masks instructive to on Balance: Wars, and Lord Flies Essay, note the forms of address characters use to one another. Belief in Richard's continuing title to the throne can be discerned in kwakiutl masks, these. Northumberland is the first to refer to Richard merely by slave who sued his Christian name; York rebukes him, but Bolingbroke suggests that it is a slip of the tongue: this may be charitable to Northumberland. After Henry accedes to the throne, characters may or may not refer to masks, him as the King; be alert to this. This play is principally about the definition andrew Richard and in the middle and latter parts of the play, he becomes more prominent in the drama.

In Act III he seems by turns pathetic and defiant; his appeal to nature in kwakiutl masks, III,ii is bizarre, his self-pity in this scene and III,iii may appear unattractive. In IV,i, as he loses the reality of power, Richard seeks to marvell, dominate the proceedings. Noting that his throne can be taken away, but not his grief, he performs a series of kwakiutl masks actions which dramatize his situation. Ideal Schools. These culminate in the smashing of the mirror, an action which suggests a lack of self-control. But in Act V, having taken leave of his wife, Richard gains in dignity. Kwakiutl. He is reconciled to his fate, sees the universal character of suffering and Sexual Objectification in My Life meets his death with courage and fortitude. Richard is never a good king, but he becomes a very good man. The king's two bodies and the royal we This should not confuse you too much. The king is believed to be two people in one: the ordinary man, and the king's majesty (God's deputy on earth). As these two are embodied in one person, the king refers to himself using the first person plural pronouns we/us to refer to the king and kwakiutl masks his majesty.

When he is Objectification Essay addressed (as king) it is the majesty to whom people speak. This is one of Shakespeare's plays in which theatrical language is not merely the narrative medium, but is also a subject of the drama: the play is masks about language. You should be aware that any essay in which you contrast the ideal schools, characters and masks fortunes of Richard and Bolingbroke will involve comparison of their language, among other things. Briefly, Henry is capable of who sued for his eloquence, as in kwakiutl masks, his accusation of Mowbray in ideal schools, I, i, in his speeches before the tournament in I, iii, and kwakiutl especially in Star Wars, Essay, his praise of Richard's sun-like majesty in masks, III, iii. But he can be silent, as in Perspectives and Lord of the Flies Essay, his response to Northumberland's flattery in kwakiutl, II, iii. His speech is business-like where it needs to be, and he has no time for ostentation: as he becomes more powerful, to gothic horror novels, simplify greatly, so he becomes more sparing of his words.

Richard, by kwakiutl masks contrast, loves the sound of Objectification his own voice. When he has effective power, as at the start of the play, he has a liking for kwakiutl masks unnecessary display (I, i and I, iii) but is more ready to ideal schools, issue absolute commands than to masks, give reasons (as in II, i). Before he gains power, Henry always tries to justify his actions; when he has power, he tries to present his actions as reasonable, which, mostly, they are. As his power wanes, Richard becomes eloquent in his introspection, engaging our sympathy but indulging in self-pity and jumping to rash conclusions (as in his condemnation of his friends in III, ii). His abdication is blatantly theatrical, but he achieves a more complete humanity and peace with himself in the play's last act. Richard, as ruler, fails to grasp that the display of Sexual Essay authority needs to be backed up with the kwakiutl masks, reality of power . This may mean cultivating his own popularity, as Bolingbroke is said to do (V, i, 7 - 21) but more importantly establishing a broad power base among the nobility and Perspectives on Balance: Wars, and Lord Flies Essay commons, rather than indulging a clique of sycophants while excluding many of the kwakiutl, most powerful in the land. From the start of the play, Shakespeare establishes a sense of utterances forceful in manner, but not backed up by ideal schools real power. Richard believes in his majesty, a sacred, quasi-magical quality which comes from God and is inalienable (Not all the water in the rough rude sea/Can wash the balm off from an masks, anointed king; III, ii, 54 - 55) and so do others, Carlisle wholly and Henry to a point. On Balance: Wars, And Lord Essay. But the moment powerful people cease to believe in this (as Northumberland has) the game is up.

There is a calculating quality in Bolingbroke's speech by kwakiutl masks contrast: he never threatens what he cannot deliver. In II, i, Richard rants at the dying Gaunt, speaking of in My Life Essay punishment only forestalled by his uncle's age and sickness, then sets in train the seizure of his estates, wrongly supposing that he can do this without risk. But in III, i, Henry actually executes three of Richard's counsellors, one of them (Wiltshire) a noble, knowing that his action is sanctioned by his and Northumberland's soldiers. Discussion of the play's language can also be thought of in terms of the variety of poetic forms and of imagery , especially related groups of images (images of nature, the four elements, the sun) recurring throughout the drama. Space does not permit full discussion of these here, and you are directed for a more extensive treatment to Brodie's Notes , pp. 86 - 91 ( Style: Variety, Word-play, Rhyme, Imagery ) and the section headed Language (pp. 31 - 34) in the introduction to kwakiutl, the New Cambridge edition of the play. You should have a clear sense of the different headings or categories under which you would organize comment on the play's language, and be aware that examiners might invite this comment in general or specific terms. It is quite likely, for example, that you might be asked about the theatrical effectiveness of the play's language - that is, how it works in conveying narrative, giving insight into character or attitudes, and engaging the sympathy or revulsion of the audience. The comment below is the outline of a lecture given at a study day for A level students.

notes from a lecture by Dr. Paul Hammond at Leeds University. Language is not just a medium of the play, but one of its subjects. Language is used as an instrument of political control and manipulation. We are shown how power operates through language. Political uses of qualities essay language can be considered under these headings: The rhetoric of command: Richard uses this early in the play, but not much hereafter. We were not born to sue, but to command. At the end of this statement Richard admits he is already losing power.

The rhetoric of persuasion: Richard tries to patch up the differences of Bolingbroke and Mowbray. This, too, fails. The rhetoric of authentication: Richard and others appeal to the source of their authority. Kwakiutl Masks. Richard appeals to God. In doing this he reminds others of the source of his power. Gothic Horror. Bolingbroke does so: In God's name I'll ascend the regal throne and Carlisle retorts in like manner: Marry, God forbid. The rhetoric of display: The power of the monarchy is displayed through verbal imagery (compare also the visual stage imagery of pageantry, costume and theatrical display - use of throne, crown and so on: Richard is masks aware of both kinds of imagery). All these kinds of rhetoric gradually cease to and Lord of the Flies, work for Richard. Kwakiutl. The implication is politically dangerous: that rulers have no power if their subjects refuse to be manipulated. The play is very concerned with the use of language.

The audience lived in a society dependent on the spoken word. Those who were illiterate would be used to hearing long sermons and essay stories. Those who were literate were trained at school in the arts of masks using language rhetorically to persuade. Having learned to argue effectively they would be well able to judge others' rhetorical skills. Act I, scene i alerts us to the fact that this play is to novels, be about kwakiutl masks language. Richard begins with the rhetoric of control and power.

He has a monopoly of command here: he is to be the arbiter of the dispute. In I, iii, the tournament is a ritual with a set order and slave forms of expression (the closest modern equivalent would be a law court). The ritual here is kwakiutl ancient and traditional and has little to do with Richard's power as king. He chooses to use his temporal power to break the ritual of divine justice on which the tournament is Wars, and Lord of the Flies Essay based (God decides in masks, the trial by combat). Richard halts the contest, asserts his own power and Perspectives Star Wars, and Lord of the dispenses with the kwakiutl, divine justice. He replaces the ritual language with his own personal language, and his words are no longer effective, only decorative. The (musical) flourish at line 122 matches the rhetorical flourish with which his judgement is delivered. The power of Richard's utterances appears as he easily remits four years of Bolingbroke's exile, but its limits are noted by Gaunt (226) who observes that Richard is powerless to extend his life. Though Richard's word is law in this scene, it will not be so for on Balance: Star Wars, and Lord of the Flies long.

From this point in the play we note the masks, contrast between Richard's and Bolingbroke's speech. On his return from exile, Bolingbroke is plain, direct and forceful. In II, iii, line 70 he insist that Berkeley address him by his proper title - Lancaster. When York accuses him of of love andrew marvell treason in returning before his exile has expired, he justifies himself by a quibble, taking refuge in a legal nicety. Bolingbroke's actions appear honest for a while, as he metes out masks, justice to Bushy, Greene and Sexual in My Essay Wiltshire, and his simple and effective words and actions are very different from Richard's flourishes and self-glorification. Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire have razed out his imprese, the heraldic sign which declares his identity of Lancaster. However, the audience may be troubled in wondering by what authority Bolingbroke executes these men. On his return from Ireland (III, ii) Richard greets the earth using a familiar image of mother and child, yet reverses the usual rôles, as he tries to own the masks, earth and direct it to act as an novels, effective agent of harm to his enemies.

This demonstrates Richard's compulsive tendency to retreat into a fantastic world of excess and disproportion. As he invokes spiders and toads to be his soldiers, we are aware that he lacks real forces (he is about to find this out). His language is grotesque and bizarre, not the rhetoric of realistic command or persuasion. In this scene, discussion of language becomes explicit: Salisbury, bringing bad news, says: Discomfort guides my tongue while Scroope refers to his own care-tuned tongue. Richard urges morbid conversation: Of comfort no man speak as he wants to sit upon the ground and tell sad stories. Masks. While Aumerle's brief interruptions are all practical, Richard wants only to talk and write. His musings lead him (151) to question his and others' identity. His language isolates him from his supporters; it is no longer functional but self-consolatory. In III, iii, at in My, line 144, Richard turns the power game into a language game: first he asks a series of questions and proceeds, in self-dramatizing fashion, to answer them (Must he submit?/ The King shall do it. ) Then he changes from he to I, indicating a problem of kwakiutl identity. Of Love Marvell. He can no longer use language to display power, so uses it to display his spirituality, imagining himself as a humble hermit, but the masks, language disturbs by its extravagance.

From line 161 on, the language becomes even more grotesque: Richard shows no interest in confronting Bolingbroke's army, but rather in using his and Aumerle's tears to cause foul weather and dearth or to make a pair of Sexual Life Essay graves. He has retreated into image-making, but communication has broken down. In IV, i, Richard, on his entry, tries to invent a new ritual of uncrowning and to invent the language for this. While Bolingbroke presides over the ceremony it is largely Richard who enacts it, and masks uses the objects of ritual: he transfers the crown, refuses Northumberland's paper, but improvises his own confession, and introduces the final ritual object in the mirror, giving a commentary on ideal schools, the destruction of himself which he enacts. In V, v, the solitary Richard recognizes how hard it is to conceive of images, as he tries to masks, invent an the definition andrew, imaginary world to people his cell. He can now see the gap between his ideas and language and the real world; his isolation is explicit, and he is kwakiutl aware of it. He now has no audience. At the start of the play everyone is obliged to acquiesce in Richard's language game. He now has no power, only language, which is decorative and consolatory. We have moved from a world in which images authenticate (real) power, through a struggle to sustain this, to language itself, which is all Richard has left.

Act IV, scene i (the deposition scene); summary of a lecture by David Lindley at Leeds University. Two questions to consider are: Why is the main action preceded by the sections in which Aumerle and Carlisle figure prominently? Why does the horror novels, scene continue beyond Richard's renunciation of the crown, which is its natural climax? The scene begins the kwakiutl masks, second half of the play. Perspectives Star Wars, And Lord Essay. It recollects the opening of the whole play and points a parallel between Bolingbroke and Richard. It emphasises the clash of masks aristocratic pride with law and kingly power. It looks back to events before the play's opening, showing how present events are determined by the past, and horror novels the continuity of history.

It reminds us that the events of the play are historical. Henry IV faces difficulties similar to those of Richard, but he deals with them differently. By way of contrast, Carlisle sets forth a view of the king as above judgement. He foretells future events (in this play, other than prompting Exton's murder of Richard, Henry has avoided bloodshed, but it will come later in his reign). Kwakiutl Masks. We see the events which cause the future. Slave For His. When Richard enters the scene a number of kwakiutl people are under suspicion or arrest: Aumerle and his supporters, Carlisle, Richard himself. Shakespeare added and andrew marvell invented this part of the scene.

There is kwakiutl no historical basis for Sexual Objectification in My it. There is kwakiutl masks no suspense involved in Sexual Objectification in My Essay, this scene, for its outcome is already known (Richard has earlier given up the crown). The focus is not on what is to happen, but how it will happen. It is a struggle for theatrical, not political dominance. Kwakiutl Masks. Richard tries to gain the audience's attention: note how he swamps Northumberland with words.

This is on Balance: Wars, Flies Essay a play which seems deliberately not to indulge in action. There is suspension or paralysis of action whenever it threatens. How then is our interest sustained? The focus of the scene is on objects rather than actions , to each of which objects Richard has a different attitude. He resigns the crown , the symbol of power. Masks. He refuses to read the paper listing his crimes, the symbol of real actions. He smashes the mirror , symbol of vanity and self-knowledge, and shadow of qualities his face. It is a dramatic moment when Richard's wish to turn everything into images collapses. Kwakiutl. This prepares us for Essay the prison scene (V, v). Coping with tasks in A level exams. In preparing for the exam you should be aware of the different kinds of question you will have to answer.

In studying the text closely you should simply realise that the material studied can be approached in different ways in the exam. Tasks based on a passage from the play. In theory any scene in the play could be chosen; in practice the number of suitable scenes is kwakiutl more limited, but of course the extract chosen will only be a brief part of a much longer scene. Because of the part of the question (usually) which refers to the themes of the play (not necessarily in so many words) and which implies consideration of before and after, scenes from the middle of the text are more likely to be chosen. What the examiners do NOT want is a gloss (prose paraphrase) of the extract given. This might make you feel secure, but you won't be.

What (usually) is required is horror as follows: Consideration of the kwakiutl, scene's treatment of the play's general themes - the extract and its place in relation to the rest of the play. And Lord Of The. Matters of staging and theatrical presentation as implied in the text: use of objects; movements; relationships on stage (to whom are speeches addressed?) and kwakiutl the scene's structure (in episodes). Questions about theatrical presentation are NOT questions about character and the content of speeches. How a character (or characters) is (are) revealed in the dialogue.

Again, this is not a question which invites paraphrase, but discussion of rhetoric. Usually, the examiners will give you an outline of how you should answer the question. You must organize your answer in these terms. Once again, remember not merely to Star and Lord of the Essay, paraphrase or give a loose running commentary. Tasks based on themes and characters. The examiners want to kwakiutl masks, see lots of material but without irrelevance or sacrifice of ideal schools depth and thoroughness. In general, essays produced in trial examinations have shown too much narrowness of kwakiutl approach.

It is essential to plan your essay to ensure that sufficient range of comment appears. This plan need not be beautiful, nor take more than a few minutes, but should be comprehensive. Embody the plan in your opening sentence(s), e.g. In Richard II Shakespeare presents the audience with a range of ideas about the of the Essay, nature of kingship: to Carlisle the masks, right to rule is God-given and inalienable, while for Northumberland the throne is ideal schools available to masks, the candidate who wields most effective power; between these extremes we see how York, Bolingbroke and, above all, Richard, come gradually to modify their ideas. The example questions below come from past Advanced level papers: #147;It is the cynical and devious who prosper in Richard II .#148; Do you agree? How does Shakespeare present Richard and Bolingbroke as contrasting personalities and kings in Richard II ? By what means and with what success does Shakespeare attempt to secure our sympathy for gothic horror Richard? In what ways do the masks, minor characters serve to heighten the tragic effect of the ideal schools, play Richard II ? You should deal particularly with two or three characters (other than Richard and Bolingbroke). The examiners will play fair and masks certainly won't set an essay on the Second Herald or the of love, Welsh Captain. Essays explicitly about a single character are comparatively rare at 'A' level (as they invite the prepared essay). Essays may well be about relationships and the theatrical presentation of characters.

In this play, questions about Richard and Bolingbroke must be expected. Questions about York, Aumerle and Northumberland are also possible. The queen, the caterpillars, Carlisle and Gaunt also contribute to how we see Richard, but are not in enough of the play to sustain essays on their own. Questions on themes look harder but aren't, usually. Kwakiutl Masks. And they inhibit the retelling-with-comment method you should avoid. The central theme of personal qualities this play is the nature of kwakiutl kingship. Questions about kingship may appear as questions (or statements to which you respond) about order/disorder, anarchy, rule or government . In My Life. For example, you may need to discuss the idea of the kwakiutl, King's two bodies or whether the play supports the view that not all the water in the rough rude sea/Can wash the balm off from th'anointed king.

You may be asked in what sense the horror novels, play is a history play (how does Shakespeare interpret history to present a debate on ideas of kingship) or how Shakespeare addresses political issues. Masks. Any order/disorder question is really a question about the contrasting approaches and fortunes of Richard and Henry, which is qualified by the views (on the ideal schools, sources and nature of kingship) of these two, and of others, among them Carlisle, Bagot, Fitzwater, Aumerle, Northumberland, Gaunt and York, as well as the kwakiutl, Gardener. If you are given a statement to respond to, do not suppose you must agree or disagree wholly. Usually, the statement will be more or less fair but will invite some qualification. Wholly wrong comments are never used. Often the qualities essay, accuracy of a statement may depend upon the interpretation given to the text in performance.

Questions about the play as theatre. A third kind of question will allow you to examine the play in explicitly theatrical terms (note that discussion of dramatic qualities is perfectly in order in the other types of question). Kwakiutl. Subjects on which you should be ready to answer would include some of the things discussed in a context-based question, but seen in the perspective of the whole play (structure, actions, properties and language). Other subjects would include the unity (or lack of it) of the play (organic coherence, consistency of tone - see, for example, A. P. Rossiter's essay, Uncomformity in Richard II , in the Casebook guide, pp. 214-229) and Shakespeare's use of oppositions or contrasting elements: Richard and personal qualities essay Henry; public (formal, ceremonial) and private (informal) scenes; action and inaction; Northumberland's power politics and Carlisle's divine right of kings, and so on: these things are not to kwakiutl, be examined simply in their own right, but in terms of their effect on the play as a work of theatre.

As language is of such importance here, this is discussed more fully in a separate section of this guide. A very basic outline for revision. Use this very basic outline to learn the structure of the play. Horror Novels. Adapt or customize it to kwakiutl, suit your preferred methods of study. Bolingbroke challenges Mowbray (Norfolk) for killing his uncle (Gloucester). Richard declares a tournament at on Balance: Star Wars, and Lord of the, Coventry. Gaunt rejects Duchess's (Gloucesters's widow's) plea for revenge: God's is the quarrel. Kwakiutl. Coventry - the lists - no result but Mowbray and Bolingbroke (Henry, Hereford, Lancaster, King) banished. Richard plans to take Gaunt's estates. Gaunt makes mega-patriotic speech and dies. Richard is slave who sued freedom rude and seizes his goods; Northumberland is unimpressed and tells of a very tasty plot (lots of names) France - heading for Ravenspurgh.

Bushy, Bagot and the queen - surely the kwakiutl masks, least memorable scene in the play; Bagot goes to Perspectives on Balance: Star of the Flies, Ireland; the other two (Greene, Bushy) don't. York is worried. Bolingbroke near Berkeley - meets pals and York. Salisbury and a Welsh captain tell us Richard has lost his army - rumoured to be dead. Caterpillars - Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire get the chop (why not Bagot? See above). Harlech - king gets lots of bad news but makes some ace speeches: Spiders. toads,Not all the water in kwakiutl masks, the rough rude sea. and For God's sake let us sit upon the ground. . Flint Castle - Richard like the Sexual in My, sun on the ramparts but comes down into the base court and says Up, cousin, up. . Kwakiutl. The Queen and the Gardener - cue a load of metaphors. Very easy - it's all one scene; note its structure and the use of objects (the gages, the throne, the crown and the mirror etc. etc.) Richard abdicates and Henry becomes king (How? When?) Plot at the end like in freedom, II, i, but this time its Carlisle, Westminster and Aumerle against Henry. (No chance of this one succeeding). First of (too) many scenes: Richard bids dignified farewell to his queen, and kwakiutl is diverted from the Tower of London to Pomfret (sounds like pommes frtes) Castle.

York is sorry for Richard but supports Henry now, and proves it by reporting his son's plotting. Henry is worried about his unthrifty son (Hal, later Henry V) an advert for the next play in the series. Cue for some slapstick as Aumerle rushes in, asks Henry to lock the personal qualities, door, then York turns up, then the Duchess. Henry graciously spares Aumerle but demotes him to Rutland. Exton thinks he should kill Richard. (v) Richard in prison; he is philosophical and resolute; he learns from the groom of his horse's disloyalty and is duly murdered. Northumberland and Fitzwater have sorted out the would-be rebels. Westminster has died (naturally) but Carlisle is banished. Exton is also banished and Henry decides to go on pilgrimage to the Holy Land to make up for what he's done. But he never goes (Why not?) Please acknowledge my authorship by kwakiutl masks giving the URL of any pages you use, and/or include the Perspectives Star and Lord Flies Essay, copyright symbol. Suggestions for improvement are welcome.

Thank you.

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anaylis essay Youve been staring at your blank computer screen for what feels like hours, trying to masks, figure out how to start your analytical essay. You try to ideal schools, choose between writing the kwakiutl masks, introduction first or getting right into the meat of it. But somehow, it seems too difficult to do either. What you need is is a blueprinta foolproof way to get your essay structured. Then all you have to do is fill in the blanks.

By Anonymous [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. What an Analytical Essay IsAnd What It Isnt. Helpful, right? Um, not so much. First, it might be more useful to explain what an analytical essay isnt before getting to what it is horror, . An analytical essay isnt a summary.

Though this may seem obvious in kwakiutl, theory, its more difficult in novels, practice. If you read your essay and kwakiutl it sounds a lot like a book report, its probably only summarizing events or characters. One way to Perspectives Wars, and Lord Flies, figure out if youre summarizing instead of analyzing is to look at your support. Are you simply stating what happened, or are you relating it back to your main point? Okay, so what is an analytical essay, exactly ? Usually, its writing that has a more narrowed focus than a summary. Analytical essays usually concentrate on how the kwakiutl, book or poem was writtenfor example, how certain themes present themselves in the story, or how the use of metaphor brings a certain meaning to a poem. In short, this type of essay requires you to look at the smaller parts of the work to the definition marvell, help shed light on the larger picture. An example of a promptand the example Im going to use for kwakiutl, the rest of this postcould be something like: Analyze the theme of sacrifice in the Harry Potter series. (Note: there might be some spoilers, but I figured everyone who was planning on in My Life, reading the kwakiutl, books has done so alreadyor at least has seen the movies.) One Way To Form Your Analytical Essay Outline.

There are quite a few ways to organize your analytical essay, but no matter how you choose to write it, your essay should always have three main parts: Ill get into the nitty-gritty of Sexual Essay, this soon, but for kwakiutl masks, all you visual learners, here is a nice representation of all the components that make a great analytical essay outline. Slave Who Sued? You can see that Ive added a few more details than just the introduction, body, and conclusion. But hold your horseswere getting to those parts right now. Introduction of Your Analytical Essay Outline. The purpose of kwakiutl masks, your introduction is to get the reader interested in your analysis. The introduction should include at least three thingsa hook, your thesis statement, and a sentence or two describing how you intend to gothic horror, prove your thesis statement. 1. You gotta hook em from the start. Masks? The first part of your introduction should draw the who sued freedom, reader in.

This is called the hook. The hook should be interesting or surprising. You can achieve this by kwakiutl asking a rhetorical question, giving some relevant statistics, or making a statement thats unusual or controversial. For my Harry Potter example, I might say, Since the publication of the first book in of love andrew, the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone , some Christian groups have attacked the kwakiutl masks, books for promoting witchcraft. However, one of the novels, main themes of the books draws inspiration from Christianity itselfthat of sacrifice. Okay, so thats two sentences.

But its got a little bit of controversy and masks relates to what the rest of the essay will discuss. 2. Get to the good stuffwrite a killer thesis statement. Okay, so now that youve got your reader hooked, you need to start getting to the point. This is where the thesis statement comes in. My thesis might be, The theme of sacrifice is prevalent throughout the series and is embodied as sacrifice for the greater good, sacrifice for an ultimate gain, and on Balance: Star Wars, and Lord Flies Essay sacrifice to keep a promise. 3. Its time to back up your thesis.

Let the reader know how youre going to prove your claim. For my example, I would let the reader know that I intend to analyze the instances of Harrys death, Voldemorts sacrifice of his soul in exchange for immortality, and how Snape sacrifices in order to kwakiutl masks, honor a promise made to Lily Potter. These points will be the Essay, building blocks of the body paragraphs. Kwakiutl Masks? Body of Your Analytical Essay Outline. Perspectives Wars, Essay? The body is where you can start to get really creative and play around with formatting.

In the flowchart, there are three body paragraphs. But thats because I was trained in the 5-paragraph outline. But you can include as many or as few body paragraphs as you wantas long as you end up thoroughly supporting your thesis. For my outline, each body paragraph includes a topic sentence, followed by three sets of kwakiutl, claims, evidence to support those claims, and how that evidence ties back to the topic sentence. Again, three is not necessarily a magic number here. You could make one claim with a lot of evidence, or five claims to support your topic sentence. But lets get into it, shall we? 1. Develop a strong topic sentence. In My Life Essay? Each topic sentence in each body paragraph of your analytical essay outline should tell the reader exactly what that section is going to be about. Kwakiutl Masks? My first body paragraph might start with, Harry Potter is willing to fulfill prophecy and make the ultimate sacrificethat of his lifein order to ideal schools, save the rest of the wizarding world. 2. Masks? Make your claim.

The claim should dive into a smaller part of the overarching topic sentence. The topic sentence I gave can be broken down into several smaller claimsthat Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, that he was actually willing to die, and that his death would be of profound significance. 3. Slave Freedom? Provide evidence from the text to back your claim. You cant just go around making claims without any support. You can use quotes or paraphrase parts of the text to add evidence.

For evidence that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, you could cite the kwakiutl masks, instance in the hall of prophecies with the Sexual, quote, and either must die at the hand of the other for neither can live while the other survives. 4. Tie that evidence to the topic sentence. You have to masks, make it absolutely clear why you included the evidence. If you dont, your analytical essay runs the risk of being a summary. Sexual Life Essay? For example, with the citing of the prophecy, I would tell the reader that Harry and his friends found said prophecy and figured out that it had to kwakiutl, be about him (although there are objections that it couldve been referring to Neville, but well leave that out of this example). They knew that either Voldemort had to die or Harry did, and he had to be willing to do that. Andrew? Theyre not needed in the outline, but when you write your final essay, be sure you include effective transitions. This will help your essay flow.

Conclusion of kwakiutl masks, Your Analytical Essay Outline. Of Love? After youve built up all of your body paragraphs, given the appropriate evidence to back your claims, and masks tied that evidence to your awesome topic sentences, youre ready to wrap it all up. The conclusion should be a brief restatement of your main points without being a direct copy. For example, There are many motivations behind sacrificeto help others, to help oneself, or to the definition, keep a promise to a loved oneand J.K. Kwakiutl? Rowling explores several of them through the characters in slave, the Harry Potter book series. This, of kwakiutl masks, course, does not suffice as a full conclusion. On Balance: Wars, And Lord? To fill it out and give the reader a sense of closure, you can relate the theme to the real world or end with a final quote from the text or the author. Use This Downloadable Analytical Essay Outline as a Guide.

Easy, right? I know youre pumped to get started, but before you do, I have a template for kwakiutl masks, the analytical essay outline for you to download. Of course, your instructors directions will trump mine, so if they say to do something a specific way, I wont be offended if you take their advice over mine. And dont forget about the Essay, Kibin editors. When your analytical essay is all typed up, they can help you make sure that its as good as it can get. Psst.

98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Masks? Eden Meirow is marvell, a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on Google+. dis was absooltelee fantasteec thxc you 4 de owwline. awesome! Glad you liked it. #128578; @naomi_tepper:disqus Oh my Gosh! this was amazing thank you so much! This helped a lot with my Economics essay for Humanities 6 World Studies! Woot woot! Happy to help. #128578; Thanks for masks, the comment. This is undoubtedly very much helpful#8230; Thanks a lot.

You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for the comment and thanks for reading. #128578; Hi#8230;.Eden thank you for orienting me on how to structure an analytical essay. Horror Novels? because of many reasons which i don#8217;t like to name writing an analytical essay has been my Achilies Hill. Masks? Your effort in writing this article has thrown much need light as far as I#8217;m concerned. I look forward to your reply on the question of structuring of analytical political essay on ideal schools, issues like say Affirmative Action or Constitutionalism. Thank you for your kind words. In regards to writing a political analytical essay, it varies depending on kwakiutl masks, the course and the requirements of your instructor. Sexual In My? However, you can follow the same advice in this post.

Introduction with a hook and thesis, body paragraphs that make claims with evidence to kwakiutl, support those claims, and andrew a conclusion that wraps it all up. The main difference is that you#8217;ll have to do more research than reading just one book. (And make sure to cite your sources.) I hope that helped! Thank you, this will help ? This was really useful I went through so many websites the finally got this one. Sweet! Glad you found it helpful. hi this is great.

Fabulous! Happy to help. How would I write an masks, analytic essay using dramatic conventions? I#8217;m supposed to write an the definition andrew marvell, essay on The Tempest from Shakespeare using dramatic conventions and I#8217;m not doing so well at understanding how to do it. basically it#8217;s also asking me #8220;how dramatic conventions make the reader see characters in a certain way. Please respond to this if you can. I think that I would devote one body paragraph to each of the dramatic conventions that you#8217;re covering in your paper.

For instance, in one paragraph, if you are writing about the conventions of soliloquy, the play-within-a-play convention, and asides (these are the kwakiutl masks, first three conventions I thought of #8212; I#8217;m not sure which ones you#8217;ve studied in class), then you could devote one body paragraph to each of these topics and their influence on how the audience views the characters. I hope this puts you on the right track! I have two write an essay about Animals by O#8217;Hara and how it reflects the innocence and of love marvell simplicity of childhood. I don#8217;t know how to kwakiutl, start. Could anyone suggest the slave who sued freedom, first sentence of the masks, introduction?

I#8217;ve already got my outline #128578; Hi Lily Awesome that you have your outline ready to go. Objectification Life? You might want to start with the quintessential quote from the text that stands out as reflecting these qualities of innocence/childhood simplicity. For more great hook sentence tips visit: This is kwakiutl masks, amazing and personal essay extremely helpful! Thank you author. Hey, thanks for kwakiutl masks, reading and for the nice comment! I#8217;ll be sure to show the Sexual in My Life Essay, author. Kwakiutl Masks? #128578; do you eat pussy? Haha! Awesome.

We#8217;re happy to help, but don#8217;t sell yourself short just because of your blonde hair. #128578; great site but second para 24th word should be ALWAYS not away. Gothic? dont take this as offensive but im just trying to improve this site that is all. Thanks for keeping us on kwakiutl, our toes, Shayan! No offense taken #8212; we#8217;ll get that updated #128578; Great blog post ! Just to ideal schools, add my thoughts if you are wanting a Express Evictions 3-Day Notice to kwakiutl masks, Pay Rent or Quit , my secretary came across a blank version here Hi there! Although this was really helpful for literary analysis, I was wondering if you had an idea as to how to apply this to historical analysis. I have to write about the effects of European migration, warfare, and disease on freedom, Native Americans, and masks was thinking of Sexual in My Life Essay, finding 3 specific examples of each and explaining the effect that each had on Native Americans. Is this a good plan? You could *definitely* apply this framework to a historical analysis, yes! As Eden mentions, you can have as many body paragraphs as you want, so you could devote a single paragraph to each of your examples #8212; giving you 9 body paragraphs.

Since that would get pretty lengthy, you could add a header before each of your 3-paragraph sections to keep your paper organized. DIOS MIO! this is really helpful. Woot! That#8217;s awesome. So happy you found this post helpful. Kwakiutl? #128578; Thanks for the kind comment. In My Life? This is masks, so helpful, thank you. Ideal Schools? I have to write an analytical essay about The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara and I#8217;m stuck.

This is my second essay and on the first I received a C #128577; I don#8217;t know how to start and it isn#8217;t even about the whole book, its only for half the kwakiutl, book. Please help. Starting is definitely the hardest part sometimes :/ thanks so much for your blog. you have made it very easy for me to understand this (horrible) essay. I have to write my first Analytical essay. kind regards to you. And thanks to you for reading! Good luck with your essay #8212; you#8217;ve got this. Ideal Schools? I have to kwakiutl, write an analytical essay for my college English course, and horror its about an American folk song called #8220;Frankie and Johnny#8221; and im stuck in how to begin it! my professor gave me an example on masks, how to start, she said #8220;to summarize a short definition of ideal schools, North American folk music from Oxford Music Online#8221; please help. A definition is one way to kwakiutl, start your essay, sure! This post contains lots more great advice (plus you can sign up for 14 hook types + examples in the bottom right corner): Damn am I thirsty, any fine white beothches dtf. NAH MEAN. Thank you so much.

I was dying a moment ago. Of Love Marvell? Now I think I can manage it. love the example! it got me even more excited! #128516;#128523;#128526; Yesss, you can totally manage it! Thanks for reading #128578; I feel motivated and have been trying my best all these days#8230; Grateful for everything. )

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Citation Matters: Two Essays on the Student Journey of kwakiutl Citation and How Google Scholar and the Principle of Least Effort Can Affect Academic Writing. The paper consists of two short essays on citation matters. The aim is to get the academy thinking about citing and referencing from a student point of view. The first essay (on the student journey of citation) is an attempt of a framework for the academic writer, from the time they are an undergraduate student to an academic researcher. The worldview of citing and referencing is argued to develop in accordance to academic level. The second essay is on ideal schools, academic writing and the principle of least effort. With a few searches on Google Scholar, cyberplagiarism and the pilfering of citation context was demonstrated. With emphasis on patchwriting, the temptation of the kwakiutl masks academic writer to corner cut is not argued as being exclusive to students but more apparent by students. Technology is also argued to create a conflict for the academic writer showing a path where they can reduce effort. Keywords: Citation, Academic Writing, Principle of Least Effort, Cyberplagiarism, Patchwriting. It is the attempt to combine two research interests that gets me here.

The first interest lies with the effect citing and referencing has toward knowledge production. After all the references academic writers use and the context in which they cite prior work must have an effect on the end product. Horror! Within this interest, Robert Merton and the sociology of science, the social constructivist movement and information science are given priority. The second interest lies within publications on education and how citing and referencing is taught. Issues surrounding the role of technology, plagiarism and kwakiutl masks resulting academic writing styles is slave for his freedom, given priority. Kwakiutl! By combining these two interests, the focus is on the student and the environment they operate within to become accomplished academic writers. By calling the gothic horror novels paper citation matters, there is an obvious double meaning. The opportunity to use a title of a paper to express the importance as well as get people thinking about citing is hard to resist. In essence, this paper consists of two short essays on masks, matters relating to citing and referencing. The first paper is a suggested worldview of citing and referencing the student requires during the and Lord of the Essay phases of kwakiutl masks undergraduate student, postgraduate student and ideal schools academic researcher.

The general trend of these three phases is that the academic writer plays the citation game less and less straight in tandem with increasing their comprehension of the social construction of knowledge. The second essay consists of a demonstration via Google Scholar of kwakiutl masks how easy it is to plagiarise from the internet. With a few simple searches, enough content was found on Google Scholar to not only Sexual in My Life pilfer ideas but to kwakiutl, potentially spare an academic writer from reading a text by relying on the resulting citations. The ability for of love andrew marvell, academic writers to copy and paste scholarship is argued to kwakiutl masks, be a concern that can increase the temptation for least effort. The resulting discussion from the and Lord Flies demonstration also argues that the initiated academic is more familiar with how to manipulate academic literature, so is less likely to kwakiutl masks, get caught (when compared to the uninitiated student) . 1. Ideal Schools! The Student Journey of Citation. With an interest in masks getting students to comprehend the importance of citation matters I propose a framework I interpret as the student journey of citation. The framework is broken down into three phases in line with a student progressing from undergraduate to Perspectives Star of the, postgraduate to academic researcher.

Differences in kwakiutl academic discipline is acknowledged but considered extraneous because the focus is on a student progressing by Perspectives on Balance: and Lord Flies academic level. With each of these three phases, I am recommending a text that symbolises the phase. The small number of references is intentional, as the aim is for the readership to consider reading the references for themselves. To elaborate on what I am meaning by a student journey of citation, I am referring to the (point in time) worldview of citation practice a student should realise as an masks undergraduate student, postgraduate student and as a researcher. The aim is to Objectification Essay, demonstrate what I see as a minimum specification of the academic writer to be roadworthy in masks the context of Perspectives Star Wars, and Lord Essay using citations and references. Phase 1: The Undergraduate Student.

Merton, R. Masks! K. (1983) 'Foreword' In Garfield, E., Citation Indexing Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology, and essay Humanities , Philadelphia: ISI Press, pp. v-ix. While Robert Merton's interest lay with the sociology of science, he also made a significant contribution to citation analysis. Kwakiutl! In his Foreword to Eugene Garfield's book on citation indexing, Merton emphasises peer recognition and how (what I will interpret as) capital for the scientist is measured by peer recognition. After all only a scientist's scholarly community are best equipped to the definition of love marvell, assess the true worth of a piece of research. When considering the student journey of citation the following quote best sums things up: 'Citations and references thus operate within a jointly cognitive and moral framework. In their cognitive aspect, they are designed to provide the historical lineage of knowledge and to guide readers of kwakiutl masks new work to gothic horror novels, sources they may want to check or draw upon for themselves. In their moral aspect, they are designed to repay intellectual debts in masks the only form in which this can be done: through open acknowledgement of them.' (Merton, 1983,

Typically, the undergraduate student completing assignments will be assessed according to a box ticking processes including accurate and appropriate citing and referencing. At this stage, instilling into the student why they cite and reference rather than it being something one must do to avoid an academic misconduct charge is the the definition of love andrew marvell suggestion. It is understandable that in the higher education marketplace there are resource constraints, a dependency on student support systems and quantitative measurements for assessments. Masks! Their incorporation however could be seen as part of the problem surrounding academic writing. Do we really teach the fundamentals of why we cite and of love reference or is this all just a big assumption we work around? Returning to masks, Merton's quote, emphasis on the lineage of gothic novels ideas and intellectual debts when it comes to kwakiutl masks, citing and referencing is quite simply a minimum specification for the scientist (or academic writer) of the qualities future. The interpretation provides a good solid foundation to comprehending why we cite and kwakiutl masks reference. Merton's interpretation is not immune from the definition of love criticism and it can be seen as idealistic and incompatible compared to the current citing and masks referencing practices that go on. Merton's unsullied proposition for citing and slave who sued freedom referencing could also be seen as too positivistic for ones taste. If however one identifies with Merton's idealistic message, there is an acknowledgment of the truth we aspire to find when researching an idea. Small, H. G. (1978) 'Cited Documents as Concept Symbols', Social Studies of Science , 8(3), pp.

327-340. Henry Small's paper represents the kwakiutl contribution of information science when it comes to ideal schools, citing and referencing. While Small's paper adopts quantitative analysis there is kwakiutl masks, a social constructivist influence to it. The core element of the Sexual in My paper is highlighting that citations represent symbols of concepts, methods or anything citeworthy in masks the text. 'This leads to the citing of works which embody ideas the essay author is kwakiutl, discussing. The cited documents become, then, in a more general sense, 'symbols' for these ideas.' (Small, 1978, p.328). What Small is getting at, is the moment an author cites a document they are in effect creating its meaning (which in for his Small's eyes, consists of the symbol making). Citations as concept symbols could in effect symbolise 'any statement which may be taken as characterizing or describing the cited document' (Small, 1978, p.329). The consequence of this thinking is that peers are the ones that determine the meaning of a document.

So as an example, Merton (1983) in a paper by Author A in 1984 could be cited as an interpretation of citing and masks referencing in line with the times. But a paper by Author B in 2013 could interpret Merton (1983) as out of touch. When associating Small's paper with students and ideal schools citation practice, I propose that the idea of citations as concept symbols be seen as a deployment tactic for kwakiutl, any student doing original assignments. While this type of assignment is Star Wars, and Lord of the Flies, typically representative of postgraduate assignments there is kwakiutl masks, also applicability for novels, undergraduate dissertation students and kwakiutl masks such like. Both Merton and Small's interpretation need to be considered in conjunction with each other but Small's deployment tactic could be seen as a progression from the on Balance: and Lord of the Flies more defensive stance of Merton. For assessments, the box ticking is still going on, the citing and referencing still needs to kwakiutl, be tip-top but the progression is in the level of independence and citation evaluation the writer needs to have.

By using a citation as a concept symbol, the aim is also to promote interpretation and evaluation of ideas into one's own words and not just filling space with quotations. Citations represent ideas and we need to use citations to express the ideas we want to say. Latour, B. (1987) Science in the definition andrew Action: How to follow scientists and engineers through society , Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, pp. 21-62. Bruno Latour's chapter on literature develops the idea of kwakiutl peers deciding the fate of research by acknowledging citation context, which he reframes according to andrew marvell, positive and negative modalities. The context of a citation can put spin on a critical paper so it appears less damaging to the reader and a lesser known paper can be embellished so it appears as fact. Further still, the masks 'presence or the personal essay absence of references, quotations and kwakiutl masks footnotes is so much a sign that a document is serious or not that you can transform a fact into fiction or a fiction into qualities a fact just by adding or subtracting references' (Latour, 1987, p.33). A take on kwakiutl masks, Latour's thinking is ideal schools, that we carve the kwakiutl literature of others in conjunction with our own interests to Perspectives on Balance: and Lord of the Flies, impress others when it comes to saying what we want to say. Citations are just one weapon in our armoury when writing to achieve this aim. Latour sees the scientific article as a rhetorical vehicle and that whenever there is debate we get support from our allies (who I see as changeable) to give more authority to what we want to kwakiutl masks, say. The student should by Sexual in My Life Essay this stage comprehend Merton's ethos and be capable enough to incorporate Small's deployment tactic of citations.

On top of masks that, the student becoming an academic researcher needs to come to terms with citation context and not be blinkered to overlook the tactical game playing that occurs in scholarly communication. 'Whatever the tactics, the general strategy is easy to grasp: do whatever you need to the former literature to render it as helpful as possible for the claims you are going to Objectification Life, make. help your allies if they are attacked, ensure safe communications with those who supply you with indisputable instruments. oblige your enemies to fight one another. if you are not sure of winning, be humble and masks understated.' (Latour, 1987, pp.37-38) An example of tactical citation practice is what Latour refers to as the perfunctory citation, where citations by an author can infiltrate a pre-existing citation network (also known as a citation circle). The primary concern with this perfunctory citation is that it makes some citations more meaningful than others. In an age of evaluation metrics based on gothic, citation practice, the perfunctory citation risks downgrading the citation from a representation of an idea to that of a tradable commodity. Masks! Another concern with the tactical deployment of citations is that while they can make you look a million dollars, they can also be used against you and if someone puts the effort in, your citations can be scrutinised with disastrous results (Latour, 1987, pp. 33) Bruno Latour's Actor Network Theory (ANT) may not be for everyone but as an individual chapter it is a great guide in informing the researcher of the future one form of how the scholarly communication game is played.

Latour's writing in this chapter comes across as militaristic but in the definition of love marvell doing so, the message is pretty clear: Use the kwakiutl masks work of peers and anything else at your disposal to say want you want to say but prepare yourself if there is on Balance: Star Wars, and Lord of the, a worthy opponent. The first point to emphasise is that the proposed student journey of citation is not a theory of citation. If that is your interest, I would suggest reading Gilbert's (1977) persuasion hypothesis (who predates (Latour, 1987) in reference to rhetorical and perfunctory citations), then look at all of the papers that have cited that paper as a guide to further reading. Masks! The student journey of Objectification in My Life Essay citation is a suggested framework for the comprehension of citing and referencing the academic writer requires from the moment they start as an undergraduate student to a published academic author. The crawling, walking then running framework is unlikely to be something invested within course design but if the desired outcome is to teach students to use citations effectively and respect referencing it is a progressive framework to gravitate the student toward. Another observation that can be made (and the choice of texts was quite intentional for this) is how the texts coincide with interpretations of masks knowledge production. There is a progression from Merton's sociology of science laying emphasis on peer recognition, to Henry Small combining information science and social constructivism to Latour's progression of social constructivism to Actor Network Theory. The principled nature of citing and referencing looks to have morphed into a 'peculiar trade in slave a merciless world' (Latour, 1987, p.60) where gamesmanship and rhetoric are key. The range of interpretations could be seen as a reflection of the kwakiutl masks changeable social structures of knowledge production but could simply be an outcome of horror novels increased debate within a specific field where no stone is left unturned. Kwakiutl Masks! There are also practical considerations to consider.

We don't always have the time and means to read and reflect on ideal schools, everything we want but we do manage to make the time and means to read what we need and say what we want to say. If we don't do that for academic writing, we could be there forever, getting lost in tangents, considering ifs and buts to protect ourselves from the masks same peers we seek approval from. 2. Academic Writing and the Principle of Least Effort - Supported by Some Thoughts on Cyberplagiarism, Patchwriting and slave who sued Google Scholar. The proposition is that in kwakiutl masks current times Google Scholar can be used by academic writers as a tool to corner cut and reduce effort. Most of the readership will be aware that Google Scholar contains the bibliographic records of scholarship (and when lucky, copies of the article itself) as well as grey literature and information held in institutional repositories. While this abundance of Sexual Objectification Life Essay information creates new possibilities there is also the concern over deviant citation behaviour that can occur. To test my contention, I will demonstrate how easy it is to kwakiutl, cyberplagiarise and ideal schools take the citation context off a paper. Before the demonstration I would like to clear up a few definitions. By cyberplagiarism (or cyber plagiarism, also referred to kwakiutl, as Digital plagiarism (Barrie and Presti, 2000)) I am referring to the relationship between information on the internet and a consequential type of plagiarism behaviour. Those involved with assessments will no doubt identify with the authors arguing that the ease of information on the internet has led to the rise in on Balance: of the plagiarism (Eysenbach (2000); (Kralik (2003); Pupovac, Bilic-Zulle and Petrovecki (2008); Szabo and Underwood (2004)). While cyberplagiarism can entail papers being acquired from the internet (Smith (2003); Oliphant (2002)), the focus of this piece will be the form of cyberplagiarism where content from the internet is copied and pasted without acknowledging the originator.

The crux with cyberplagiarism is not only taking the masks ideas off another but also the citation context. The second concept of patchwriting refers to two papers by Rebecca Howard (1993, 1995). Howard (1993, p. 233), defines patchwriting as 'copying from a source text and then deleting some words, altering grammatical structures, or plugging in one-for-one synonym substitutes'. The combination of Howard's papers dispute the conventional attitude towards plagiarism, whereby those that commit this form of academic misconduct are unethical or poorly socialised with citation practices. Patchwriting is associated with plagiarism, can lead to plagiarism but is its own entity.

For example, Patchwriting can be an acceptable technique when combined with a reflective or evaluative touch at the earliest stages of on Balance: Wars, of the Flies writing and organising ideas. It is masks, just that patchwriting can be unacceptable when it is just glossing over the pilfering of texts. In my own experience, students are willing to admit to patchwriting, due to a lack of preparation and a fear of word counts. Furthermore, students informally confess to a complete misinterpretation of paraphrasing and assume that citing a text once is free reign to use whole chunks of the cited text. In this context, the student likes to think they are within acceptable boundaries, but their patchwriting becomes plagiarism. The third concept I am highlighting is the Principle of Least Effort (also known as Zipf's Law) put forward by George Kingsley Zipf (1949). In the eyes of a linguist, Zipf's Law refers to word frequencies when people write or speak (most words are hardly ever used but the ideal schools words we do use, we use often). If we focus however on the principle of least effort itself, we can interpret it as a concept that explains human behaviour. 'In simple terms, the Principle of Least Effort means, for example, that a person in solving his immediate problems will view these against kwakiutl masks the background of his probable future problems, as estimated by himself. Ideal Schools! Moreover he will strive to masks, solve his problems in Sexual in My Essay such a way as to minimize the total work that he must expend in solving both his immediate problems and his probable future problems.' (Zipf, 2012, p.1) Thus if one is a student just expecting to pass a course in higher education (the reasons why at this point are extraneous and varied), taking a path where there is less effort spent to meet this outcome is understandable.

To start things off, I type in the book I intend to look up (so it becomes a searchable concept symbol), the author of the masks book as well as a keyword (representing the subject I am researching) in Google Scholar. Figure 1: Google Scholar search of Science in Action (Latour, 1987) and citation analysis. To explain Figure 1, the author (Latour) is a search term as well as the title of the book in question ('Science in Action') and the subject in question ('citation analysis'). The quotations are in place to ensure a phrase is being searched rather than words that are not adjacent to each other. This search is intentionally structured in a way so Google Scholar retrieves any mention of Bruno Latour's Science in on Balance: Star Wars, Action as well as 'citation analysis' being mentioned anywhere in the text. Masks! At the time of this demonstration (May 2013), I retrieved 336 results. The top five results according to Google Scholar make up Figure 1.

The results in Figure 1 satisfy my aim in retrieving citations of Science in Action as well as containing some mention of citation analysis (which is freedom, a gamble as I have not included synonyms). Had I not included citation analysis as a search term, I would have retrieved about 14,300 results according to Google Scholar and been nowhere near knowing what retrieved documents concern themselves with Latour's thoughts on citation. To demonstrate cyberplagiarism I will look within the papers of Figure 1, use CTRL + F and provide samples of citation context where Latour (plus the publication year of the appropriate text) was mentioned: 'As Latour further indicates, citations are not put in papers to indicate to others who has influenced the kwakiutl production of the work but to display the 'black boxed' (established) knowledge. If one does not agree with a referenced statement, one must, in essence, dispute it with the cited definitive authority.' (MacRoberts and MacRoberts, 1996, p. Ideal Schools! 441) 'Latour's views, similar to those within the kwakiutl various new perspectives in gothic the sociology of scientific knowledge, emphasise that the boundaries between the social and technical in kwakiutl scientific practice are blurry. Latour's analysis of references pertains in particular to their role in 'the science in the making'.' (Luukkonen, 1997, p.29) 'Latour makes understandable the heterogeneous and Perspectives on Balance: Star Wars, and Lord apparently chaotic picture of the actual use of citations. In spite of the variety of uses, references have a major function in scientific texts: that of mobilising allies in the defence of knowledge claims' (Luukkonen, 1997, p.29) 'Latour's view of the role of references (citations) in scientific texts is related to a theory of construction of scientific knowledge, a process in which scientific controversies are settled and knowledge claims are turned into facts.

References play a role as a rhetorical device in the textual phase of the process.' (Luukkonen, 1997, p.30) 'Others (e.g., MacRoberts and MacRoberts 1987; Latour 1987) have drawn attention to the perfunctory and rhetorical functions of citations within the scientific community (Cozzens 1989).' (Leydesdorff, 1998, pp. 6) 'Latour (1987) treats references as resources for persuasion rather like battalions. Masks! But he warns that their force may vanish if readers actually read what authors cite. Neither Gilbert nor Latour, I think actually believes that reflected-glory references persuade if their true nature is discovered (Latour calls this result 'disastrous' for the author). But they apparently believe that citers often try to manipulate readers in slave who sued for his freedom this way. Scientists and scholars are thus portrayed less as truth-seekers than as image-managers. Such a portrayal is controversial, to say the least.' (White, 2004, p. 109) Out of the masks five references in Figure 1, only Robins, Gosling and Craik (1999) was unsuitable for this exercise. Gothic! In this specific example, Latour was cited, citation analysis was stated but the context of the citation did not match my purpose. At this point I am proposing that the kwakiutl masks sum of Macroberts and Macroberts (1996), Lukkonen (1997), Leydesdorff (1998) and White (2004) gives me not only enough ammunition to spare me from having to read Chapter 1 of Science in Action (that concerns itself on literature) but also provide me with a set of papers critiquing the same chapter.

An interesting comparison for the reader could be to compare the aforementioned quotes with my own interpretation of Latour in the student journey of citation essay (I can assure you, I have read the book and wrote this essay after the essay on qualities, the student journey of citation). If we now consider the amount of freely available (but not necessarily copyright cleared) scholarship that is masks, available via Google Scholar, an individual could potentially take the citation context of an article, book or thesis and be able to on Balance: Star Wars, Essay, comprehend it without ever reading it. Kwakiutl! In other words, one could incorporate the on Balance: Wars, of the Flies Essay ammunition above (even dropping the odd direct quote from Latour) and portray the kwakiutl critique and legwork to be their own, as none of the other authors are cited. The authors are only used for their citation context. With a process such as this, there is an assumption surrounding a consensus of a citation being retrievable. At this point, I return to Small's 1978 paper of cited documents as concept symbols, where he looked for a percentage of citing contexts sharing the popular view of a cited document (uniformity of usage).

In doing so, Small noticed how journals (on average) had a higher uniformity of usage compared to books. This trend is Wars, Flies Essay, hardly a surprise as books cover more ground than a journal article but what it gets me thinking about is the importance of using appropriate concept symbols in Google Scholar to retrieve a relevant sample for masks, analysis. I return to Google Scholar. Figure 2: Google Scholar co-citation search of Latour (1987) and Gilbert (1977) For figure 2, I opted with co-citation (papers citing two papers I consider seminal for ideal schools, my purpose; in this instance those by Latour (1987) and Gilbert (1977)) as a retrieval strategy. Figure 2 is an attempt to retrieve papers concerned with the persuasion hypothesis (Gilbert, 1977) and Latour's thoughts on masks, citation. Some of the first few papers are the same as Figure 1 but now having retrieved 67 papers with my precise parameters I have gone down a specific path, with information potentially catered toward more specific interests. It is worth stating that uniformity of citation may not be retrievable in ideal schools all samples as there are many options to consider. What is comprehendible is that obtaining the uniform use of masks a citation can potentially be retrieved with the correct strategy and if there is enough (but not too much) scholarship out there. Naturally using concept symbols to be as specific as possible helps but that errs towards fudging a sample to get a desired outcome based on set of assumptions.

Google Scholar throws a spanner in the works as it essentially relies on personal, things typed in a box. My own experience of using the masks platform to look at the context of a concept symbol found many chance occurrences with no relevance when looking at the results qualitatively (Natt, 2013). In a few simple steps I was able to retrieve chunks of information that has been organised, prioritised and emphasised by peers. Gothic Horror Novels! The extent of which this can be done ranges from an idea to an interpretation of a monograph according to a particular sensibility. Masks! While I am for open access (OA), I express concern with how future generations of academic writers at the formative stages will keep track of intellectual debts. There a risk of Perspectives on Balance: Wars, of the a realignment of masks acceptable citation practice and a generation of academic writers pilfering the contextual citations of peers to reduce effort and get away with it.

An easy comeback is the use of personal qualities software that can check levels of plagiarism but I would argue that it only catches out a certain type of plagiarist and at this point I return to patchwriting. Howard's (1993, p.236) opinion of kwakiutl masks patchwriting is that of ideal schools 'a healthy effort to gain membership in a new culture' (which one could consider as academia). Masks! Howard's (1993, 1995) idealism sees the of love teaching opportunity to kwakiutl masks, convert patchwriters to accomplished academic writers and that is it just a stage in the student journey. While I sympathise with the student journey and the aim for students to become accomplished academic writers, I also see the principle of least effort. So if a student instead of reading, reflecting then writing is instead cramming, not making use of Perspectives Star Wars, and Lord of the Essay summary writing and producing their output in the last minute, it produces a different kind of kwakiutl output as well as increase the Perspectives and Lord of the Flies likelihood of corner cutting. My own take on patchwriting is that it provides an opportunity to reframe the kwakiutl masks doom and Sexual Objectification in My Life gloom that surrounds discussion on plagiarism. By discussing patchwriting the student and lecturer can learn from each other and actually address academic writing which I still consider to be important. Kwakiutl! I also think of the paper by Pecorari (2003) that looked at of love, the writing of kwakiutl masks postgraduate students (including PhD students) and examples of patchwriting. If the researchers of horror novels tomorrow are 'at it' what is masks, there to say that the researchers of today are not?

The technological innovation of the word processor, being able to copy and paste or use CTRL + F to look up a concept symbol should not be underestimated. The moment we rely on a technological supplement or tether toward convenience reading, corner cutting instantly occurs. Only the purist and most classically trained are not 'at it'. Patchwriting, reframing and playing the citation game are tools in the armoury of the initiated. The initiated can be stealth-like and if they play the game right can be protected by the social constructs they operate within.

The uninitiated student is typically less schooled when it comes to the manipulation of academic information. They also have the disadvantage of social constructs making them the easier target when it comes to gothic horror, academic misconduct. Firstly, I'd like to stress that I am not condoning cyberplagiarism nor is kwakiutl masks, this some sort of slave freedom confessional. I am condemning cyberplagiarism and kwakiutl masks the demonstration is an attempt to acknowledge the Perspectives on Balance: Wars, and Lord Flies Essay elephant in the room and express concern with normative citation practice. It is easy to kwakiutl, pin plagiarism on the internet or the lowering of academic standards but while there is some validity with such judgements, there are other considerations. Sexual Life! What I would like to emphasise is how the longer one operates within the kwakiutl masks social constructs of academia, the more socialised one becomes to not only personal essay produce quality work but to potentially corner cut and get away with it. I am not saying that everybody engages in deviant citation behaviour but rather that the kwakiutl masks values when it comes to science (Merton and Lewis, 1971) or knowledge production are and have been changeable. We do not bat straight all of the gothic novels time. We bat straight enough and know when to play across the line. It gives us free reign to have the odd slog now and kwakiutl then, thinking it is horror novels, absolutely normal.

Technology and citation behaviour is one example of this change in values and while Google Scholar has the kwakiutl masks potential to gothic, look at a concept symbol within a paper, there is the kwakiutl masks issue of where the information comes from and how it is ranked. Open Access adds to this issue and with the information being easier to obtain, it is also easier to manipulate. Thinking back to Carr's (2008) article on Google and freedom the change in human cognition, I propose that the relationship between technology and effort can create a conflict for the academic writer. The academic writer becomes aware of a new path (as demonstrated) in conjunction with all of the other paths they can comprehend and potentially go down. Plagiarism and deviant citation practice has gone on long before Google Scholar or the internet. It is just that this new path brought about by technology in masks conjunction with the ever expanding amount of scholarship can be counterproductive and result in behaviour associated with least effort rather than efficiency. Barrie, J. M. and Presti, D. E. (2000) 'Digital plagiarism the Web giveth and the Web shall taketh', Journal of Medical Internet Research , 2(1) [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 31 May 2013). Carr, N. (2008) 'Is Google Making Us Stupid?', The Atlantic [Online]. Horror Novels! Available at: (Accessed: 31 May 2013). Eysenbach, G. (2000) 'Report of a case of cyberplagiarism and masks reflections on detecting and preventing academic misconduct using the Internet, Journal of Medical Internet Research , 2(1) [Online].

Available at: (Accessed: 31 May 2013). Gilbert, G. N. (1977) 'Referencing as Persuasion', Social Studies of Science , 7(1), pp. 113-122. Howard, R. (1993) 'A plagiarism pentimento', Journal of Teaching Writing , 11(3), pp. 233-246. Howard, R. (1995) 'Plagiarisms, authorships, and the academic death penalty', College English, 57(7), pp.788-806. Kralik, D. (2003) 'Editor's note: Cyberplagiarismwhat is it?', Journal of Advanced Nursing, 43(6), p.539. Latour, B. Personal! (1987) Science in Action: How to follow scientists and engineers through society , Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Leydesdorff, L. Kwakiutl Masks! (1998) 'Theories of citation?', Scientometrics , 43(1), pp. 5-25. Luukkonen, T. (1997) 'Why has Latour's theory of citations been ignored by the bibliometric community? discussion of sociological interpretations of citation analysis', Scientometrics , 38(1), pp.

27-37. MacRoberts, M. H. and MacRoberts, B. R. (1996) 'Problems of Sexual Essay citation analysis', Scientometrics, 36(3), pp. Kwakiutl Masks! 435-444. Merton, R. K. (1983) 'Foreword' In Garfield, E., Citation Indexing Its Theory and Application in who sued freedom Science, Technology, and Humanities , Philadelphia: ISI Press, pp. v-ix. Merton, R.K. and Lewis, R. (1971) 'The competitive pressure: the race for priority', Impact of Science on Society , 21(2), pp. 146-175. Natt, A. (2013) 'What is business information literacy and can the corporate librarian contribute anything to the discourse?', Journal of Business and Finance Librarianship, 18(2), pp. 146-174. Masks! Oliphant, T. (2002) 'Cyber-Plagiarism: Plagiarism in a Digital World', Feliciter , 48(2), pp.

78-80. Pecorari, D. (2003) 'Good and original: Plagiarism and patchwriting in academic second-language writing', Journal of Second Language Writing, 12(4), pp. 317-345. Pupovac V, Bilic-Zulle L and Petrovecki M. (2008) 'On academic plagiarism in Europe: An analytical approach based on four studies', In Comas, R and Sureda, J. (eds.). Academic cyberplagiarism, Digithum , 10 [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 31 May 2013). The Definition Of Love! Robins, R. W., Gosling, S. D., and Craik, K. Kwakiutl! H. (1999) 'An empirical analysis of trends in psychology', American Psychologist , 54(2), pp.

117-128. Small, H. G. (1978) 'Cited Documents as Concept Symbols', Social Studies of Science , 8(3), pp. 327-340. Smith, C.B. (2003) 'Fighting cyberplagiarism', Library Journal, 128(12), pp. 22-23. Szabo, A., and Underwood, J. (2004) 'Cybercheats: Is Information and Communication Technology Fuelling Academic Dishonesty?', Active Learning in Higher Education , 5(2), pp. 180-199. White, H.D. (2004) 'Citation analysis and discourse analysis revisited', Applied Linguistics, 25 (1), pp.

89-116. Zipf, G. K. The Definition Of Love Andrew Marvell! (1949) Human behavior and the principle of least effort: an introduction to human ecology , Mansfield Centre, CT : Martino Publishing, 2012. Volume 3 Issue 2 - July 2013 Citation Matters: Two Essays on the Student Journey of Citation and How Google Scholar and the Principle of Least Effort Can Affect Academic Writing.

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?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? | Essay on masks, Right to slave freedom, Education Act in kwakiutl, Hindi. ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? | Essay on Objectification Life Essay, Right to kwakiutl masks, Education Act in gothic horror novels, Hindi! ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?????????? ?? ?: ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ?? ? ?? ????? 1 ??????, 2010 ?? ???? ?? ??? ? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????-2009 ??? ???? ??? ?? ? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ?? 6 ?? 14 ???? ?? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ?????, ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ???, ?? ??? ???? ?????????? ??? 25 ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ? ????-??-??????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???????????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ??, ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ????? ????? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ? ?? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ? ????? ??? ?? ??? ?????, ????????? ??? ???????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ?? 6 ?? 14 ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????, ? ?? ?????????, ???, ?????????????? ?? ???-?? ??? ???? ????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ???? ? ?????? ?? ? ?? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ?????, ? ?????? ????? ? ? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ???????? ???? ? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?? ????? ? ?? 60 ?????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?????????? ??????? ????? ? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ???, ?????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ? ??? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????? ???? ????? ? ?? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???? ???? ?????? (55 ???????) ?? ????? ????? (45 ???????) ????? ??????? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??????????? ??? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ????????? ????? ??? ?? ? ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????, ?????? ?? ????-???? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ???????? ?? ?? ???????? ?? ? ????????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ????????? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??????????? ?? 2020 ?. Kwakiutl! ?? ???? ?? ?? knowledge society ??? ?????????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ? ??? ????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ???? ?? ? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? 2009 ?? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??: ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ? (i) 6 ???? ?? 14 ???? ?? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????? ????? ? (ii) 6 ???? ?? ?? 4 ???? ?? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????, ???????? ? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ? i. Ideal Schools! 6 ???? ?? ?? 4 ???? ?? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?????? (???? 3) ii. Kwakiutl Masks! ??? 6 ?? 14 ???? ??? ?? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ??, ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ????? 14 ???? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ? (???? 4) c) ????? ???????-?????????? ? ????-???? ?? ?????????: i. Sexual Life Essay! ?? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???? ????????????? ?? ???? ???? ???????? ???? ??, ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?? ???? ???? ????????????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? (???? 6) (?) ??????? ?????????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????, ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ????- (a)?????? ?? ??????? ????? ? (b) ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ? (c) ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ? (d) ?????? ?? ???? ????????? ? ???? ???????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ? (e) ????????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ???? ? (f) ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???????????????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ? (g) ?????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ???? ? (???? 29) ? (?) ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????????

(?) ????? ??? ????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????? ? (?) ?? ?? ????????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ? ??? ? (?) ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ? (?) ???? ????????????? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ? (?) ???? ????????????? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????, ???????? ?. ??????? ?? ????????? ?????? ? (?) ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????? (???? 9) ? (?) ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????? (???? 10) ? (?) ?????? ?? 6 ???? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????? (Pre-school) ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? (???? 11) ? i. Masks! ??????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??? ????????- (?)?????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ????? ? (?)?????? 25 ??????? ????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ????? (???? 12) ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?? ? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??? ? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ??? ??, ????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??-?? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ??????????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ???-????? ????? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ? ??????? ????? ?? ???-??? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ??????????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ? ??: ????? ??????? ?? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????, ??????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????, ??? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???????????? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ? Welcome to on Balance: Star and Lord Essay,!

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