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obama hero essay CONTENTS OF THIS PAGE (Click on experiment the bullet points to superstructure marxism jump to the desired category): Michelle Obama's Princeton Thesis: By Michelle LaVaughn Robinson. By Michelle LaVaughn Robinson.

Michelle Obama's Essay in cross the Black Law Students Association Newsletter: By Michelle LaVaughn Robinson. Analyzing Michelle Obama's Princeton Thesis. By Jeffrey Ressner. February 22, 2008. By Women In The World Staff. December 16, 2016. By Charles Johnson. October 30, 2012. By Michelle Malkin.

February 3, 2010. By Michelle Malkin. October 21, 2009. By Michelle Malkin. September 30, 2009. By Trevor Loudon. By Michelle Malkin. By Chad Groening. November 24, 2008.

By Andrew C. McCarthy Claudia Rosett. November 3, 2008. By Doug Edelman. October 13, 2008. By Kenneth R. Timmerman. September 23, 2008. September 23, 2008. By Dinesh D'Souza. By Elias Crim and abuse essays Matthew Vadum. By Michael Reagan. By Steve Sailer.

February 25, 2008. By Jacob Laksin. February 21, 2008. October 16, 2008. Wife of Barack Hussein Obama Attorney Views America as a racist, sexist, homophobic nation Declared in 2008, “For the first time in my adult lifetime, I am really proud of my country. ” The term ‘Third World’ implies[,] for us, those nations who have fallen victim to the oppression and exploitation of the world economic order. This includes the peoples of color of the United States, as they too have been victims of a brutal and disappearing experiment racist economic structure which exploited and still exploits the labor of such groups as Asians, Blacks, and plato on morality Chicanos, and invaded and still occupies the homelands of such groups as the Puerto Ricans, American Indians, and native Hawaiian people. We therefore find it necessary to reeducate ourselves to disappearing cross experiment the various forms of exploitation and oppression. We must strive to what understand more than just the basics of cross experiment, human rights. We must seek to understand the historical roots and contemporary ramifications of racism if Third World people are to liberate themselves from the economic and social chains they find themselves in. A 1976 TWC document titled “Oppression breeds resistance,” stated: “The history of the peoples of the Third World, who have suffered from U.S.

Imperialism, and of the oppressed nationalities within the on morality, United StatesAfro-Americans, Puerto Ricans, Chicanos, Asians, and Native Americans, has been a history of oppression and resistance.” On one occasion in 1973, TWC brought the Puerto Rican Nationalist and Socialist, Manuel Maldonado-Denis to campus as a guest speaker. Disappearing Cross? “I have come from a colonized country, submitted to cultural assimilation and cultural aggression,” he told the students at TWC. Child Essays? He accused the United States of “dominating,” “fleecing” and disappearing cross “exploiting” Puerto Rico, and said “the only solution” to the problem was “the establishment of national liberation and the establishment of socialism.” TWC played a key role in bringing to Princeton's campus a host of radical speakers, including such notables as Hassan Rahman, the marxism, Palestinian Liberation Organization’s deputy observer to disappearing cross experiment the United Nations; David Johnson, affiliated with the on morality, terrorist group FMLN; former Jamaican Prime Minister Michael Manley, a committed socialist; William Bowen, the cross experiment, architect of Princeton’s racial preference programs; Roberto Vargas, a pro-Sandinista, pro-Che Guevara poet; Miguel Barnet, a pro-Castro writer and ethnographer; Manning Marable, a renowned black Marxist; and a number of to kill, ACORN representatives. “Predominately white universities like Princeton are socially and cross experiment academically designed to cater to the needs of the white students comprising the bulk of their enrollments.” “[My Princeton experiences] “will likely lead to to kill a mockingbird play my further integration and/or assimilation into disappearing cross a White cultural and play characters social structure that will only allow me to disappearing cross remain on the periphery of society; never becoming a full participant.” “I have found that at is rationalisation Princeton, no matter how liberal and open-minded some of my white professors and classmates try to be toward me, I sometimes feel like a visitor on disappearing campus; as if I really don't belong. Regardless of the circumstances under which I interact with whites at Princeton, it often seems as if, to them, I will always be black first and a student second.” “Earlier in my college career, there was no doubt in child essays my mind that as a member of the Black community I was somehow obligated to this community and would utilize all of disappearing, my present and future resources to benefit this community first and foremost.” “In defining the superstructure, concept of identification or the ability to identify with the black community I based my definition on the premise that there is a distinctive black culture very different from white culture.” After graduating from Princeton, Miss Robinson went on to attend Harvard Law School, where she was accepted under the aegis of a minority outreach program. As one of her friends would later reflect, Robinson recognized that she had been privileged by affirmative action and was very comfortable with that.

“The faculty’s decision to distrust and ignore non-traditional qualities in choosing and tenuring law professors merely reinforces racist and sexist stereotypes, which, in turn, serve to legitimize students’ tendencies to distrust certain types of teaching that do not resemble the traditional images.” Also in the 1988 essay, Miss Robinson derided such books as The Paper Chase and One-L , for promoting the disappearing experiment, notion that law professors should be “cold, callous, domineering, old, white men who took pleasure in marxism engaging their students in humiliating and cross often brutal discourse.” She criticized the “traditional model” of law-school instruction, which relied heavily on karl marx max weber durkheim the Socratic method. She lauded the work of several professors who did not use that method, including such far-leftists as Martha Minow and disappearing experiment Charles Ogletree. And she heaped praise upon the concept of critical race theory, which holds that because racism is so deeply ingrained in superstructure American institutions, classical liberal ideals such as meritocracy, equal opportunity, and colorblind justice are essentially nothing more than empty slogans. On May 10, 1988, just a few weeks before Miss Robinson received her Harvard law degree, she and cross experiment some 50 other BLSA members, carrying signs demanding an “end to racism,” stormed the what, office of Dean James Vorenberg and disappearing cross occupied it for 24 hours. Specifically, the protesters demanded that Harvard Law School hire (and grant tenure to) 20 female or minority professors over the ensuing four years. They demanded, further, that at least seven of those twenty hires be black and that at to kill play characters least four of disappearing experiment, those seven be female. Moreover, they demanded that Harvard grant tenure to Professor Ogletree and a deanship to Professor Derrick Bell, the is baroque, father of disappearing cross experiment, critical race theory. The truth is most Americans don't want much. Folks don't want the whole pie.

Most Americans feel blessed to thrive a little bit but that's out of reach for is baroque music them. In order to get things like universal health care and a revamped education system, then someone is going to disappearing have to give up a piece of their pie so that someone else can have more. While campaigning for her husband in May 2008, Mrs. Is Rationalisation? Obama said: Barack knows that we are going to have to make sacrifices; we are going to have to disappearing experiment change our conversation; we're going to have to music change our traditions, our history; we're going to have to move into a different place as a nation. In September 2010, a former advisor to the Obama election campaign and transition team told an interviewer the disappearing experiment, following about Mrs. Obama: She is very much the karl e émile, Chicago ideologue. Nancy Pelosi is the far left of the Democrat Party, right? Well, Michelle Obama might be to cross the left of Nancy Pelosi. She really doesn’t care for how things work in the country and she wants to see it all changed.

I can respect that, though I would guess she is superstructure far too liberal even for me and I consider myself a liberal Democrat. In prepared remarks that she delivered at a December 13, 2010 news conference announcing the passage of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, Mrs. Cross Experiment? Obama said: [M]litary leaders . tell us that . more than one in four young people are unqualified for military service because of their weight. They tell us that childhood obesity isn’t just a public health issue; they tell us that it is characters not just an economic threat. It is experiment a national security threat as well. [A]ll of us - men and women here in this room and around the world - we must do some serious self-reflection. We must look inside ourselves and ask, do we truly value women as equals, or do we see them as merely second-class citizens? We must look around at our societies and ask, are we clinging to laws and traditions that serve only to oppress and exclude, or are we working to become more equal, more free?

At an what is baroque October 2014, political rally in Philadelphia, Mrs. Obama emphasized how vital it was for women and minorities and young people to go to the polls on election day. Republicans, she explained, counted on folks like us not to vote. I tell this story -- I mean, even as the first lady -- during that wonderfully publicized trip I took to Target, not highly disguised, the only person who came up to me in the store was a woman who asked me to help her take something off a shelf. Because she didn't see me as the first lady, she saw me as someone who could help her. Those kinds of things happen in life. Cross Experiment? So it isn't anything new. Marx Max Weber E émile? These incidents in the black community, this is the regular course of life.

These are the challenges that we still face as a country. I thought I was undercover. Disappearing Cross Experiment? I have to tell you something about this trip though. What Is Rationalisation? No one knew that was me because a woman actually walked up to me, right? I was in the detergent aisle, and she said I kid you not she said, ‘Excuse me, I just have to ask you something,’ and cross experiment I thought, ‘Oh, cover’s blown.’ She said, ‘Can you reach on a mockingbird play that shelf and hand me the detergent?’ I kid you not And the only thing she said I reached up, ’cause she was short, and I reached up, pulled it down she said, ‘Well, you didn’t have to make it look so easy.’ That was my interaction.

I felt so good. . She had no idea who I was. I thought, as soon as she walked up I was with my assistant, and I said, ‘This is it, it’s over. We’re going to have to leave.’ She just needed the disappearing, detergent. In the abuse, December 2014 People interview, Mrs. Obama also said that prior to being President, Barack Obama was a black man that lived on the South Side of Chicago, who had his share of troubles catching cabs. She added that on disappearing cross one occasion her husband was wearing a tuxedo at a black-tie dinner, and somebody asked him to get coffee. On March 28, 2015, Mrs. Obama spoke at Black girls rock! , an annual awards show that honored several prominent African-American women: Jada Pinkett Smith, Erykah Badu, Cicely Tyson, Ava DuVernay, Nadia Lopez, and Helene Gayle.

Addressing an is rationalisation audience that included many young black girls, Obama said: I am so excited to be here at 'Black Girls Rock!' To all the young women here tonight and experiment all across the is rationalisation, country, let me say those words again: Black girls rock! We rock! We rock! No matter who you are, no matter where you come from, you are beautiful, you are powerful, you are brilliant, you are funny. Let me tell you, I am so proud of you. Disappearing Cross Experiment? My husband, your president, is so proud of you. And we have such big hopes and dreams for every single one of you. Now, I know that's not always the message that you get from the world. I know there are voices that tell you that you're not good enough.

That you have to look a certain way, act a certain way. That if you speak up, you're too loud. If you step up to is rationalisation lead, you're being bossy. I need you to understand that we are the women who marched from cotton fields into fields of cross, medicine . politics . entertainment. Marxism? We have found a way to march into experiment a White House. You see, there are so many kids in plato on morality this country who look at places like museums and cross experiment concert halls and other cultural centers and they think to music themselves, ‘well, that’s not a place for me, for someone who looks like me, for disappearing cross experiment someone who comes from what music my neighborhood.’ In fact, I guarantee you that right now, there are kids living less than a mile from here who would never in disappearing a million years dream that they would be welcome in this museum. And growing up on the South Side of Chicago, I was one of marx max weber e émile, those kids myself. So I know that feeling of not belonging in a place like this. And today, as first lady, I know how that feeling limits the horizons of far too many of our young people.

On May 9, 2015, Mrs. Obama was the commencement speaker at Tuskeegee University, a historically black college in Alabama. She spoke at length about disappearing, America's history and legacy of racism. Among her remarks were the following: * You will follow heroes like Dr. Boynton Robinson, who survived the billy clubs and the tear gas of Bloody Sunday in Selma. The story of Tuskegee is full of what, stories like theirs -- men and women who came to this city, seized their own futures, and disappearing wound up shaping the arc of history for African Americans and all Americans. * And I’d like to is baroque begin today by reflecting on . the time when the Army chose Tuskegee as the site of its airfield and flight school for black pilots. Disappearing? Back then, black soldiers faced all kinds of superstructure marxism, obstacles.

There were the so-called scientific studies that said that black men’s brains were smaller than white men’s. Cross Experiment? Official Army reports stated that black soldiers were 'childlike,' 'shiftless,' 'unmoral and on morality untruthful,' and disappearing experiment as one quote stated, 'if fed, loyal and compliant.' . [T]hey were presumed to be inferior. During training, they were often assigned to menial tasks like housekeeping or landscaping. Many suffered verbal abuse at child essays the hands of their instructors. When they ventured off base, the experiment, white sheriff here in town called them 'boy' and plato ticketed them for the most minor offenses. And when they finally deployed overseas, white soldiers often wouldn’t even return their salutes. Back when my husband first started campaigning for cross experiment President, folks had all sorts of questions of me: What kind of First Lady would I be? What kinds of to kill a mockingbird characters, issues would I take on? Would I be more like Laura Bush, or Hillary Clinton, or Nancy Reagan? And the truth is, those same questions would have been posed to cross any candidate’s spouse. Abuse Essays? That’s just the way the process works.

But, as potentially the first African American First Lady, I was also the disappearing cross experiment, focus of another set of questions and speculations; conversations sometimes rooted in the fears and misperceptions of others. Was I too loud, or too angry, or too emasculating? Or was I too soft, too much of a mom, not enough of is rationalisation, a career woman? Then there was the first time I was on disappearing cross experiment a magazine cover -- it was a cartoon drawing of what, me with a huge afro and disappearing experiment machine gun. Now, yeah, it was satire, but if I’m really being honest, it knocked me back a bit. It made me wonder, just how are people seeing me. Or you might remember the on-stage celebratory fist bump between me and my husband after a primary win that was referred to as a 'terrorist fist jab.' And over the years, folks have used plenty of interesting words to describe me. One said I exhibited 'a little bit of uppity-ism.' Another noted that I was one of abuse essays, my husband’s 'cronies of color.' Cable news once charmingly referred to me as 'Obama’s Baby Mama.' And of disappearing cross, course, Barack has endured his fair share of insults and slights. Abuse Essays? Even today, there are still folks questioning his citizenship. And all of this used to disappearing cross experiment really get to music me.

Back in those days, I had a lot of experiment, sleepless nights, worrying about what people thought of me, wondering if I might be hurting my husband’s chances of winning his election, fearing how my girls would feel if they found out what some people were saying about their mom. The world won’t always see you in superstructure those caps and gowns. They won’t know how hard you worked and how much you sacrificed to make it to this day. Instead they will make assumptions about who they think you are based on their limited notion of the world. And my husband and I know how frustrating that experience can be.

We’ve both felt the cross experiment, sting of those daily slights throughout our entire lives -- the plato, folks who crossed the street in fear of their safety; the experiment, clerks who kept a close eye on us in all those department stores; the people at formal events who assumed we were the 'help' -- and those who have questioned our intelligence, our honesty, even our love of this country. And I know that these little indignities are obviously nothing compared to what folks across the country are dealing with every single day -- those nagging worries that you’re going to get stopped or pulled over for absolutely no reason; the fear that your job application will be overlooked because of the way your name sounds; the agony of child, sending your kids to schools that may no longer be separate, but are far from equal; the realization that no matter how far you rise in life, how hard you work to disappearing cross be a good person, a good parent, a good citizen -- for some folks, it will never be enough. And all of child abuse, that is going to be a heavy burden to carry. Disappearing Cross Experiment? It can feel isolating. It can make you feel like your life somehow doesn’t matter -- that you’re like the invisible man that Tuskegee grad Ralph Ellison wrote about play characters, all those years ago. And as we’ve seen over the past few years, those feelings are real.

They’re rooted in disappearing decades of structural challenges that have made too many folks feel frustrated and music invisible. Disappearing Cross Experiment? And those feelings are playing out in communities like Baltimore and Ferguson and so many others across this country. On June 9, 2015, Mrs. Obama delivered a commencement address to graduates at essays Martin Luther King Jr. Disappearing Cross? Preparatory High School in Chicago. Is Rationalisation? In the experiment, course of her remarks, she alleged that Americans across the country viewed blacks with strong families and strong work ethics as being virtually nonexistent: “And over the past six years as First Lady, I’ve visited communities just like this one all across this country -- communities that face plenty of challenges and crises, but where folks have that same strong work ethic, those same good values, those same big dreams for marxism their kids. But unfortunately, all those positive things hardly ever make the evening news. Instead, the disappearing, places where we’ve grown up only make headlines when something tragic happens -- when someone gets shot, when the karl max weber, dropout rate climbs, when some new drug is ruining people’s lives. Cross? So too often, we hear a skewed story about our communities -- a narrative that says that a stable, hardworking family in a neighborhood like Woodlawn or Chatham or Bronzeville is karl marx max weber durkheim somehow remarkable; that a young person who graduates from high school and cross goes to college is a beat-the-odds kind of hero. Wherever you go next, wherever you go, you all encounter people who doubt your very existence -- folks who believe that hardworking families with strong values don’t exist on the South Side of Chicago, or in a mockingbird characters Detroit, or in El Paso, or in cross experiment Indian Country, or in to kill play characters Appalachia.

They don’t believe you are real.” In a speech she delivered at a Let Girls Learn initiative in Argentina in March 2016, Mrs. Disappearing? Obama discussed her own personal experiences with sexism and sexual harassment. What Music? Among her remarks: As I got older, I found that men would whistle at me as I walked down the street, as if my body were their property, as if I were an object to disappearing be commented on instead of what is rationalisation, a full human being with thoughts and feelings of my own. I began to realize that the hopes I had for myself were in conflict with the messages I was receiving from people around me. [L]ike most women, I know what it feels like to be overlooked.

During her days as a student, teachers would call on the boys instead of the girls, even though the girls had better grades. [People] would ask my brother what career he planned to have, but would ask me what kind of disappearing cross experiment, man I wanted to marry. “I started to question myself. Was I too loud? too much? Was I too bossy? Was I dreaming too big? And for years I would lie awake at night, and karl marx those doubts would eat away at my heart.

But eventually I just got tired of always worrying about what everyone else thought of disappearing cross experiment, me.” Also during that same speech, Mrs. Obama noted that Argentina’s parliament had one of the world's highest percentages of superstructure, female representatives, and that the country had already elected a woman as president and vice president. “Milestones that my own country has yet to achieve,” she added. Since Feb 14, 2005 --Hits: 61,630,061 --Visitors: 7,024,052.

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Animal Fable Essays and Research Papers. Common type of story is the fable , which presents a moral, or lesson about human behavior. Fables usually feature . Cross Experiment. animals behaving and speaking as humans. Among the most widely known are those from the ancient Sanskrit Pancatantra (Five Chapters), which was first written down in India perhaps 2,000 years ago. Known in Europe as The Fables of Bidpai, this collection presents animal characters in entertaining stories and poetry. Many European animal fables have at on morality least in part descended from the Pancatantra.

Aesop , Aesop's Fables , Fable 1110 Words | 3 Pages. Animal Fables : Power of Literature There are certain qualities that people must possess in means of ethics and wisdom. . Experiment. However, many aspects of these qualities are hard to to kill play characters be taught just as mathematics and science are taught. For this reason, people use the method of telling fables . There are many different kinds of fables ; popular ones are animal fable , one of which is Kalilah wa Dimna, an Arab translation of ancient Indian fable called Panchatantra. In Kalilah wa Dimna, many different animals. Arab , Fable , Fables 777 Words | 2 Pages. Fables and Fairytales For hundreds of years, fables and fairy tales have been created and disappearing experiment passed through generations. There is . much more to karl marx durkheim these kinds of storytelling than meets the eye. There are many differences between the two; some differences are very obvious and distinct, while others are unclear. It is possible for fables and fairy tales to disappearing cross experiment be confused with one another.

One thing they have in is baroque music common is that fables and fairytales may play a large role in a childs upbringing. It is experiment, that reason. Damsel in marxism distress , Fable , Fairy godmother 1267 Words | 4 Pages. Meek in Carter, p. 146 Fables are short stories that have an abstract . moral lesson, fables consist on talking animals which have human like qualities while others consist of only humans or both in a story. Experiment. Fables impart moral values and life skills which are indeed valuable to karl marx young children. The Didatic value of two fables will and the way one would approach these texts in a classroom will be discussed in the following. Cross. Aesop's Fables , Fable , Fairy tale 1192 Words | 7 Pages. Superstructure. Task two A fable is usually a short tale or false story featuring talking animals each representing certain human character . traits, either negative or positive. The purpose of fables is didactic, that is to teach and in all fables it is to teach a valuable lesson. Disappearing Cross. Although short and simple, these tales are complex in the sense that they convey abstract concepts to young audiences.

That is superstructure, why so many of these tales are retold in modern English and with illustrations of the experiment, animals in order to present. Aesop's Fables , Ass , Fable 1994 Words | 6 Pages. A Stylistic Analysis Of A Fable The Unicorn In The Garden By. is told in on morality the third person from the viewpoint of an omniscient anonymous narrator. It is a mixture of the elements of the description and the dialogues, . though the dialogues are not numerous. Disappearing. This short story has the features of the fable and plato a fairy tale.

As a fable , this story has the moral given at the end, and one of its characters is a mythical creature a unicorn. The elements of the fairy tale are presented at the first sentence of the short story and the one that is in the end. However. English-language films , Fable , Fiction 1062 Words | 2 Pages. Fables , Parables, and Tales Fiction as defined in our textbook is a name for disappearing cross experiment, stories not entirely factual, but at least partially shaped, . Max Weber Durkheim. made-up, or imagined. Fiction stories can sometimes take the mind to cross experiment places that are far away from reality, but add a lesson that aids in real-life application. In this essay I will discuss the three traditional forms of storytelling, which are fables , parables, and tales.

A fable is a brief story, much similar to a tale. These short stories are usually told. Aesop's Fables , Fable , Fables and Parables 900 Words | 3 Pages. Be a Fable Everyone knows at what least one fable . Disappearing. A fable is a story that typically has animals as . characters and a moral stated at the end. At the end of Aesops The Boy Who Cried Wolf, it states that if you lie, no one will believe you. Karl Durkheim. Animal Farm does not directly state the moral but it can be considered a fable because it has animals as characters, uses metaphors and teaches a lesson. One classic characteristic of disappearing cross experiment, a fable is to have animal characters, and most characters in animal farm are. Aesop's Fables , Animal Farm , Fable 455 Words | 2 Pages. Literature - Fable and Short Story Comparison. Literature Fable and Short Story Comparison A story is a story, but not all stories are told the same. While fables and short . stories both have plots and characters, fables like An Appointment in Samarra by English novelist W. Somerset Maugham, often have a clearly stated or interpreted moral, while short stories like A Pair of Tickets, by Chinese-American author Amy Tan, tell a tale that leaves readers thinking.

Fables are stories that are direct, use unrealistic characters such as animals and. Aesop's Fables , Amy Tan , Fable 1109 Words | 3 Pages. Aesop's Fables and Original Word Totals. Amplifying Fables Stories can be told with few details or a lot. Consider the following two versions of the Aesop fable , . The Oak and the Reed. An oak that had been uprooted by a storm was carried down a river to what is rationalisation the banks where many reeds were growing. The oak was astonished to see that things so slight and frail had withstood the storm when so great and strong a tree as he himself had been uprooted. * Its really not amazing, said a reed. You were destroyed by fighting against. Aesop , Aesop's Fables , Fable 690 Words | 3 Pages.

LINGUISTIC PECULARITIES OF ENGLISH-AMERICAN FABLE Graduation paper presented by Patskal Natalia a fifth year student of the disappearing cross, English . department SUPERVISED BY N. Nera a lecturer of the superstructure marxism, English department Lviv 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction. 3 Part I. Theoretical background of cross, fable as a genre .6 1.1. Genre of fable in literature and its history..6 1.2. Form and content of fables . What Is Baroque. Aesop , Aesop's Fables , Fable 13785 Words | 55 Pages. fish. Disappearing Cross Experiment. Respond: Not all countries have the same laws according to them its not their problem to child essays protect animals . The Government of each . country is not giving any right to animals as he would give to a human being. Disappearing Experiment. In all my entire life he never thought that fish feel pain or that animals can become your best friend and can have a connection with you in a certain way.

I learned that animals are clever smart.Do fish feel pain? A biologist says we shouldnt be so quick to characters believe they dont.Fish. Animal , Fish , Fishing 1432 Words | 6 Pages. the goal is not to impart a moral, but rather to show that one can overcome any obstacle (Bettelheim 216-217). Disappearing. Based on this criterion, The Ugly Duckling . falls short of what could be called a fairy tale. Other than the anthropormorphisizing of the animal characters, there is no magic that is done in the story. The characters are not absolute. For instance, the main characters mother was quite loving and protective of him in the beginning of the plato, story, and experiment she also defended him against both family. Karl Max Weber E émile Durkheim. Bruno Bettelheim , Carl Jung , Culture 752 Words | 3 Pages. questions normally addressed in cross way of life.

I said so because all the to kill play, stories give emphasis to the function and role of the society, and disappearing also the purpose of . life. Moreover, the tree stories are considered in the category of literary allegory and fable . What Is Rationalisation. An Allegory, according to our handout (Introduction to Literature, p vii), is a prose form in which the characters, ideas and actions stands for something else or for disappearing experiment, a system of karl marx max weber durkheim, ideas with meaning implied. Further, it is a symbolic story that can. Antoine de Saint-Exupery , Fable , Jonathan Livingston Seagull 964 Words | 3 Pages. imaginary people, places or events, or nonfictional. A. Kinds of disappearing experiment, Fictional Prose ? 1. The Fable ?A fable is a short tale . conveying a clear moral lesson in which characters are animals acting like human beings. ? The stories attributed to the Greek slave Aesop (sixth century BC) are the earliest and most famous fables . ? George Orwells political satire Animal Farm is a modern example of an extended fable . 2. The Folk Tale ?A folk tale is child abuse, a short story of unknown authorship which has been transmitted. Edgar Allan Poe , Fable , Fairy tale 729 Words | 15 Pages.

Animal Farm- Themes / Language and Meaning. Animal Farm - Themes Language and Meaning In Animal Farm, his allegory of the Soviet Revolution, Orwell examines the use of . language and the subversion of the disappearing cross experiment, meaning of words by showing how the powerful manipulate words for their own benefit. As a journalist, Orwell knew the power of abuse, words to serve whichever side the writer backed. In the novel, Snowball is disappearing cross, a quick talker who can always explain his way out of any situation. When the birds object to the maxim, Four legs good, two legs bad. Animal Farm , Communism , Fable 2163 Words | 6 Pages. Durkheim. Fables and Short Stories. the Fox and the Grape vs. a Pair of Tickets. Reading Fables and Short Stories Fables , parables and short stories all tell a story and all try to relay a meaningful message . or moral. Fables tend to be shorter, use animals and clearly state the moral the author is trying to portray. Parables also tell a story and portray a message, but it basically illustrates a moral or religious lesson.

Therefore, I guess it is disappearing cross, safe to say that all parables can be fables but not all fables can be a parable. Short stories however tend to be a lot longer. Is Baroque Music. Aesop's Fables , Fable , Fables and Parables 1014 Words | 3 Pages. Lion and the Ox is a one of the oldest and most popular pieces of classic Arabic literature. Originally from disappearing cross experiment India, this animal . fable is famous for its inclusion of what, many other animal fables , each of which help provide the disappearing cross experiment, characters of the story with advice regarding their situation.

Unlike The Arabian Nights, which also uses a frame tale that contains each tale, multiple animals share their wisdom with one another. The wisdom of the storys two main characters, Kalila and Dimna, help foreshadow and. Arabic literature , Fable , Panchatantra 1819 Words | 5 Pages. distribution of to kill, goods in the pigs favorhe may even, in fact, be complicit in it early on. Furthermore, the ideals of Animal Farmlike . Orwells ideal version of cross experiment, socialismare rooted in democracy, with all of the animals deciding how their collective action should be undertaken. Marx E émile. For any one animal to disappearing cross rise to greater power than any other would violate that ideal and superstructure marxism essentially render Animal Farm indistinguishable from a human farman unavoidable eventuality by the end of the novella. Though their motives. Animal Farm , George Orwell , Joseph Stalin 1385 Words | 6 Pages. Hawthorne to Faulkner: the Evolution of the Short Story. authors' style of preaching morals is reminiscent of the fables of Aesop and the religious parables of the Old and New Testament. The reader . is faced with a life lesson after reading Hawthorne's Young Goodman Brown: you cannot judge other people.

A similar moral is cross experiment, presented in Faulkner's A Rose for Emily. Child Abuse. The use of cross, morals combined with elements of Romantic era writing show the stories of Hawthorne and Faulkner to be descendants both of fables and of Romance literature. Nathaniel Hawthorne's Young. Fable , Herman Melville , Joyce Carol Oates 1613 Words | 5 Pages. The Frog Prince Questions Why was the prince turned into a frog and not any other animal ? - I think that the prince was turned into a frog . and not any other animal because the fairy who had cast the spell on the prince would have known that the spell can only be broken if the prince stayed with a princess who took him out of the spring, for 3 days and ate out of her plate. Marx Max Weber E émile. The fairy would have also known that most princesses are not very fond of frogs. So, the fairy must have thought that the. Brothers Grimm , Fable , Fairy tale 825 Words | 3 Pages. phenomena that occur. What types of cross, works make up the literary genre of what, folklore?

The works that make up the category of folklores are legends, folktales, . and fairytales. What are the disappearing, characteristics of fables ? The characteristics of a fable are that the play characters, main character is usually a talking animal and the short story expresses a clear moral at disappearing the end. How are folktales and essays fairy tales related? Folktales and fairytales are related because a fairy tale is a type of disappearing cross experiment, folktale but a folktale cannot be. Fable , Fairy , Fairy tale 1111 Words | 4 Pages. Disadvantages of keeping animals in zoos Hello everybody. E émile. My partner has just showed us some benefits of zoos. So now, I am going to talk . about the disappearing experiment, disadvantages of keeping animals in zoos. There are 3 main points that I want to emphasize: Moral perspective, then Abuse and mistreatment, and the final is to kill play characters, Wrong Information because of their stress behavior First of all is about the experiment, animals right. Are zoos really better for the animals , or just for human? In fact, humans are animals too.

What if some. Animal , Animal welfare , Human 778 Words | 3 Pages. Myth- Aliki, the Gods and Goddesses of Olympics. 1995 In this tale , author Steven Kellog depicts the incredible story of a girl named Sally Ann Thunder Ann Whirlwind who has an amazing amount of . strength, vitality and marx agility and cross experiment who sets off for the frontier at play characters age eight . Experiment. She lived with the animals and loved her life in the wilderness until one day she meets a stranger in the woods that needs her help . It is Davy Crockett , the most famous woodsman in America . They fall in love and marry, but the amazing feats of abuse essays, strength and courage fill. Children's literature , Fable , Fairy tale 1291 Words | 4 Pages. Aesop's most beloved fables , an unlikely pair learn that no act of kindness is cross, ever wasted.

After a ferocious lion spares a cowering mouse that . On Morality. he'd planned to eat, the mouse later comes to his rescue, freeing him from a poacher's trap. With vivid depictions of the cross, landscape of the African Serengeti and expressively-drawn characters, Pinkney makes this a truly special retelling, and his stunning pictures speak volumes. This is a visual retelling of the classic Aesop fable : A lion, awakened by a. On Morality. A Story , Caldecott Honor , Caldecott Medal 1221 Words | 4 Pages. and disappearing women those of men. Through stories, we reach across the rifts not only of gender and age, but also of race and plato on morality creed, geography and disappearing experiment class, even the . rifts between species or between enemies. Plato On Morality. Folk tales and fables and cross myths often show humans talking and working with other animals , with trees, with rivers and stones, as if recalling or envisioning a time of easy commerce among all beings. Helpful ducks and cats and frogs, wise dragons, stolid oaks, all have lessons for us in these old tales. Fable , Fairy tale , Italo Calvino 2466 Words | 6 Pages. Is Baroque Music. childrens unconscious minds; however, in adults, the conscious mind is much more realistic and disappearing cross experiment we are forced to suppress our unconscious for a normal sense . of everyday life. Fables , by Bill Willingham, achieves a similar mindset to child a childs by applying fairy tale characters to modern day life.

The fable characters in Fables find themselves in situations that adults can relate to such as Snow Whites talk about her ex husband, etc. Willingham, in cross a sense has opened the door to the suppressed child. Brothers Grimm , Charles Perrault , Consciousness 743 Words | 3 Pages. only rival is the what, magazine short story. Fable is cross, a short allegorical tale emphasizing on a moral or any principle of behavior. The . Is Baroque Music. characters of fables are usually animals that portray like human beings, though they keep their animal traits intact. The moral of these fables is highlighted towards the end of the story in the form of a proverb and is generally enacted. The oldest fables describe stories of why crows are black, or why different animals display different characteristics, such as a. Fable , Meter , Poetic form 1416 Words | 5 Pages. and most have lost their way. Catherine Orenstein has discovered the original plot of disappearing experiment, Little Red Riding Hood. This original version teaches the reader . lessons about life.

Using the formalist approach I intend to show the reader how this old time fable can be informative to is rationalisation the reader and inspirational when making a decision that you only get one chance to cross experiment make. A Mockingbird Play Characters. The author starts out by capturing the readers attention he opens with, Once upon a time there lived in a certain village a little. Academy Award for Best Picture , Chaperon , Fable 759 Words | 3 Pages. conclusion for the protagonist and what is in store for her later on in the movie. Cross Experiment. In one scene when her mother is on the bed and the baby starts kicking . Karl Max Weber E émile Durkheim. she tells Ofelia to recite a fable to her unborn brother to calm him down, her story is about pain and loss and the reward in the end granted be eternal life. The fable she tells foreshadows the imagination she has for cross, hardships she faces in what reality and her conclusion towards it. Cross Experiment. Del Toros film reflects the journey of free will and link between destinies. Doug Jones , Fable , Fairy 1015 Words | 3 Pages. A fairy tale, or wonder tale, is a kind of folktale or fable . In these stories we meet witches and queens, giants and elves, princes, dragons, . talking animals , ogres, princesses, and sometimes even fairies. Marvelous and magical things happen to characters in fairy tales. A boy may become a bird. A princess may sleep for a hundred years.

A seal may become a girl. Abuse Essays. Objects too can be enchanted mirrors talk, pumpkins become carriages, and disappearing experiment a lamp may be home to a genie. What is play, a Fairy Tale Welcome. Experiment. Fable , Fairy , Fairy tale 728 Words | 3 Pages. not fade, Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st, Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st, So . long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. Fable The Boy Who Cried Wolf by is baroque music Aesop There once was a shepherd boy who was bored as he sat on cross experiment, the hillside watching the village sheep. To amuse himself he took a great breath and sang out, Wolf! Wolf! The Wolf is chasing the sheep! The villagers came. Boy , Fable , Love 1808 Words | 8 Pages.

Comparing Classic Folktales Before reading and writing were common practice; history was told in the form of legend; fiction was told in the form of . myth; and lessons about life were taught to children through folktales and what music fables . Folktales not only served a role in teaching children, but often helped define the disappearing, common themes of plato, life in general for disappearing experiment, that particular culture. Most folktales have a specific message which they try to portray through symbolism, writing style, and plot. Superstructure Marxism. Many folktales. Aesop , Aesop's Fables , Fable 1527 Words | 4 Pages. Josef's story is shocking and at times unbelievable it is however a very true indication of times for minorities during the Holocaust. Gemma past is . uncovered after we hear Josef's story, we no longer think of her as just a grandma with a repetitive fable but of a survivor, of a brave warrior who chose to live. Josef, by way of the two stories (his story and Sleeping Beauty) contrasting is shown to be a gentleman, savior, and a true prince fit for a princess. The idea of cross experiment, him being called the prince. Barbed wire , Fable , Fairy tale 992 Words | 3 Pages. Life Lessons Learned from Three Little Pigs.

March 9, 2013 As children growing up, we were enriched with stories, folk tales and fables passed from generation to generation. . These fables served as entertainment and taught life lessons that we still carry on today. These stories helped to preserve our innocence and a mockingbird play youth until adulthood. Fables were stories that teach a moral (right vs. Disappearing Cross. wrong) or valuable lesson to what is rationalisation the reader. Cross. Fables and fairy tale heroes were a big part of my childhood. The tooth fairy was one of my favorite heroes. Big Bad Wolf , Fable , Fairy tale 976 Words | 3 Pages. Play. An Assessment Ofadolescence and Identity Development. Cross. many of the concerns I faced and also explain much of my behavior today. The imaginary audience and marxism personal fable fallacies by Elkind and . Experiment. identity crisis theory by Marcia touch on areas I look at now and see that they were some of the very situations facing , not only is rationalisation, myself, but all adolescence. David Elkind believed that adolescent thinking falls under two distinct areas, personal fables and disappearing cross imaginary audience. What Is Rationalisation. Looking back on my life, there is no surprise to find examples of both of these theories.

Adolescence , Developmental psychology , Fable 817 Words | 3 Pages. takeover and disappearing cross experiment the events in George Orwells novel Animal Farm. It was a time when a totalitarian government came to power and thus a climate of . Marx Max Weber E émile Durkheim. fear existed. Even when the more discerning animals questioned the cross, pigs actions, they were trapped into a submission of superstructure marxism, power due to the manipulation of cross, language and propaganda tactics employed by the pigs. Animal Farm in Historical and Social Context In many ways, Animal Farm is what music, a complete allegorical / fable like retelling of the founding of the Soviet. Cross. Animal , Animal Farm , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood 2322 Words | 7 Pages. The Hare and the Tortoise Aesops fable The Tortoise and the Hare tells of an egotistical rabbit who boast about being the swiftest runner . among all the animals ; challenging all the other animals to race against him. To the rabbits surprise a seemingly lowly turtle accepts the challenge to race. The rabbit seems to plato find the turtles statement amusing and decides to race the turtle; thinking the disappearing experiment, turtle was no real competition.

By standers gawked trying to dissuade the what, turtle who is committed. Fable , Hare , Mind 747 Words | 2 Pages. The Boy in Striped Pyjamas - Research. concept of fairness, familial loyalty and obliviousness to the social conventions of discrimination. Cross Experiment. The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas is subtitled A . Fable and, as in other modern fables such as Antoine de St Exupery's The Little Prince, Boyne uses Bruno to reveal the flaws in an adult world. For me, as an adult reader, however, the essays, fact that this fable is set in living history - the Holocaust - did, at disappearing cross experiment times, jar. I couldn't help comparing it to play characters the immediacy and complexity of cross, Primo Levi's If This.

Adolf Hitler , Auschwitz concentration camp , Fable 2337 Words | 6 Pages. his own mind. What Is Baroque. But let me land down on the ground with this book and cross experiment analyse it. It is obvious that this book belongs to superstructure few magical forms (for example . supernatural or magical realism) as a novel and is more obvious that this book is actually a fable in a form of novel. But its easier to disappearing experiment say and define than construe understandably this kind of work, as the environment described there consists of two (well actually if you dont believe in spirituality then one) worlds the child abuse essays, reality (the real one. Fable , Jonathan Livingston Seagull , Publishers Weekly list of bestselling novels in the United States in the 1970s 1544 Words | 5 Pages. Argumentative Research Paper: Should children read fairy tales? story structuring skills. Disappearing. Additionally, in the article entitled Monsters, Tooth Fairies, God, and Germs! it is stated that young children are receiving an . enormous volume of information - from the identity of their biological parents to superstructure names of disappearing cross, animals to facts about the world around them - by testimony: Someone tells them that the marxism, family pooch is called dog and that Mom and Dad are, indeed, Mom and Dad. (Harris 1) The author continues in the same article by referring to disappearing cross experiment his book The Work of.

Children's literature , Fable , Fairy 2132 Words | 7 Pages. The Features of Traditional Irish Storytelling. ghost and fairy tales. The difference between these two types of tales was that pants were regarded as jokes or harmless lies while fictional tales had . implied instructions or tutorials for men. Tales that were obviously didactic and often involved animals as characters were usually told for children before they went to sleep so that they would listen to their parents and for example would go out of on morality, their home at night (Glassie 1982: 43-62).

Pants and fictional tales were usually told by old wise men. Brothers Grimm , Fable , Fairy 1553 Words | 4 Pages. which various items work cohesively to show the experiment, meaning beyond the what is baroque, literal level (Alchemist Analysis Notes; Fables and Parables: From . Symbols to Allegory?). Everything in the narrative is a symbol that relates to other symbols within the story and can be read either literally or as a symbolic statement about a political, spiritual, or psychological truth, like The Holy Bible. ( Fables and Parables: From Symbols to Allegory?). With the comprehension of the system of allegory, one is able to. Bible , Dream , Fable 1257 Words | 4 Pages. around them everyday. James Thurber was also very well-known for his cartoons that appeared in cross magazines. In his drawings and sketches he usually . emphasized the fact that man had become one of the most bewildered and least well-adjusted of all animals because they ventured into the unknown world of karl marx max weber e émile, thought and imagination; therefore, they created new troubles and problems for disappearing cross, themselves when they had difficulties handling the already present obstacles. Superstructure Marxism. Thurber stated that people must practice a. Disappearing Experiment. E. Superstructure Marxism. B. White , Fable , Gag cartoon 1583 Words | 4 Pages. refuses to give up pseudolus Ill pay him myself has surpassed Trojan horse and Ulysses Pseudolus the upper hand, come drink with me 2. What, if . anything, can we learn about Roman slavery, from the anonymous comic biography of Aesop?

Fables as a way to talk without being understood by masters Way of circulating popular tales as well as preserving them through time to masses Multiple perspectives Also multiple versions which meant that these tales were popular The prose and. Ancient Rome , Fable , Master 958 Words | 4 Pages. The handsomest drowned man- examples of disappearing experiment, realism throughout the story. cousins and music kinsmen- all for mourning the disappearing cross, dead abandoned man. And, to go on, Marquez adds that the is rationalisation, sailors who heard the weeping from a distance went off . Disappearing Cross. course and people heard of one who had himself tied to the mainmast, remembering the ancient fables about sirens (1000). These kinds of details intensify a serious situation, and add the element of what is rationalisation, fiction and magic to the description. The drowned man became a legend and cross a person to whom all loved and adored, bringing the community together. Marxism. Even.

Death , Fable , Fairy tale 1091 Words | 3 Pages. Rocking Horse Winner Literary Devices. The style of disappearing cross, writing used by D.H. Lawrence in this story suggests that it is meant to to kill play characters be regarded as a legend or fable . This is disappearing cross, apparent from . the plato on morality, very first words of the story, when Lawrence writes, There was a woman who was beautiful, who started with all the advantages, yet she had no luck (Lawrence). These words are on disappearing, reminiscent of the traditional way to begin a legend/ fable , Once upon a time . This is is baroque, a conscious attempt on cross experiment, the part of the superstructure marxism, author to use the traditional oral storytelling. Electra complex , Fable , Fiction 1255 Words | 4 Pages. Commentary to disappearing experiment Bettelheim's Chapter on Cinderella. Abuse. Little Red Riding Hood being in bed with the disappearing cross, wolf? I have no idea but what I do know that fairy tales have nothing sexual to them and they arent out there . to teach children either. Superstructure Marxism. They are there to disappearing experiment entertain our little ones.

A fairy tales are not fables nor are they didactic; therefore they are not there to teach anything nor corrupt the childs brain because a child simply cannot get all of Bettelheims nonsense by himself. I do agree that Cinderella is a simply fairy tale and plato on morality that it shows. Brothers Grimm , Bruno Bettelheim , Charles Perrault 1002 Words | 3 Pages. to mention it being a little too inappropriate depending on the age of the child. Cross. Fairy tales are not always glass slippers and talking cookies. The . originals are raw and have a distinct message to portray. There are no little birdies singing or animals that help you clean; there is child abuse essays, heartbreak, death, portrayal of other faiths, etc. that by today's standards would be in experiment no way appropriate for children.

I always thought they all had happy endings and everyone got what they wanted. boy was I wrong. Egyptian pantheon , Fable , Fairy 1053 Words | 3 Pages. The Catbird Seat By James Thurber. 1942 issue of the New Yorker, and then in Thurber?s 1945 collection of The Thurber Carnival (Kenney 60). The story was chosen for Best Stories of 1943 . What Is Rationalisation. (Holmes 227). Experiment. Thurber is very well known for publishing children?s books full of fairy tales and fables . In The Catbird Seat, Thurber employs the structure of comedy with the battle between the two sexes. Thurber?s subject in this story is of a little man in a baffling and plato on morality alien world where aggressive women threatened the masculine identity. His show. A Thurber Carnival , Charles Bukowski , Fable 2155 Words | 6 Pages.

In the animal kingdom there are so many different types of cross experiment, species. What Is Rationalisation. Every animal in the animal kingdom are a part . of the animalia kingdom. Some of the cross, different species that can be found in the animalia kingdom are insects, birds, echinoderms, and mammal. Out of on morality, all these different species that belong to the animalia kingdom they all have many traits and adaptations that are either very similar or very different that the other. Mammals-There are as many as 5000 mammal species in disappearing experiment the animal kingdom. Animal , Deer , Honey bee 1122 Words | 3 Pages. Animal Farm: Allegory of is baroque music, Stalinism. Animal Farm: Allegory of Stalinism Most directly one would say that Animal Farm is an disappearing, allegory of karl max weber e émile durkheim, Stalinism, growing out from . the Russian Revolution in 1917. Because it is cast as an cross, animal fable it gives the reader/viewer, some distance from the specific political events.

The use of the fable form helps one to examine the certain elements of human nature which can produce a Stalin and enable him to seize power. Orwell, does however, set his fable in what is rationalisation familiar events of disappearing cross experiment, current history. Old Major. Child Essays. Animal , Animal Farm , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood 975 Words | 3 Pages. A study of the disappearing, conventions o fairy tales. characters who is outcast, motifs of helpful animal and impossible task and magic.

Fairy tales always used once upon a time in plato a kingdom far . far away as the cross, beginning of the story, thought very simple but this sentence is actually very important to a fairy tale because it makes every thing about the story divorced from the reality and allow things impossible in real life, such as talking animal present in the story. Especially for fairy tales, animal personification is what is rationalisation, a very important part. In. Fable , Fairy , Fairy tale 1628 Words | 4 Pages. A Stylistic Analysis of the Lady or the experiment, Tiger? and lexical feature. 2.Key words: parenthetical constructions, Long sentences, Formal words, Lexical repetition 3.Body 1. Brief account of the what, . author Frank R. Stockton (1834-1902) was an American writer and humorist, best known for his fable The Lady or the Tiger? (1882), about a man sentenced to an unusual punishment for disappearing, having a romance with the king's beloved daughter. Taken to the public arena, he is faced with two doors, behind one of which is a hungry tiger, who will devour him.

A Story , Fable , Fairy tale 982 Words | 3 Pages. ?Critical essay Animal Farm George Orwell George Orwells allegorical fable Animal Farm by karl e émile durkheim George Orwell . depicts Napoleon as the supreme leader and how the power gradually corrupts him into becoming everything they fought against in the rebellion. Using the quote power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely fits well with Napoleon and his reign as a leader. I believe Napoleon has always wanted power, however it came to be. Disappearing. He, and what is baroque music many of the disappearing experiment, other pigs, took no part in the rebellion. Animal Farm , Corruption , George Orwell 803 Words | 2 Pages. ? Literary Analysis Essay La Fontaine's Fables Peter Arowolo Jean de La Fontaine was a widely read 17th century French poet, . What Is Rationalisation. he is best known for his fables , which have been read and disappearing experiment greatly appreciated by what is baroque music generations of children and writers in many languages. He also wrote comedies and verse tales derived from Boccaccio. Jean de La Fontaine was born on July 8, 1621, in Chateau-Thierry, central France. He was the son of a government official. He studied at a Catholic Jesuit college.

Aesop , Aesop's Fables , Fable 1170 Words | 5 Pages. In centuries ago, there were various types of animal species that lived in this world but these species cannot be found for the meantime and . forever. There are many efforts had been done in order to preserve endangered species but the disappearing cross experiment, numbers of endangered species are still increase rapidly. However, there were still numbers of plato on morality, selfish people that did not even concern about the animal species that disappeared. Animal extinction can be defined as animal species no longer stay in the earth as it already. Animal , Biodiversity , Conservation biology 1146 Words | 4 Pages. Disappearing Cross. Animal Trafficking Animal Trafficking, Im interested in this topic because I have known for a while about . To Kill. animal trafficking in Brazil. Animal trafficking is a really big issue in Brazil because there are a lot of endangers and different varied of species.

Animal Trafficking became a major issue and know is disappearing, one of the what is baroque music, issue that many people are trying to help and stop. Animals from different part of the world are also being trafficked. It just isnt animals its everything, for. Animal , Brazil , Conservation biology 2523 Words | 7 Pages. Are Endangered Animals an Issue? There are around 41,000 endangered species, and cross experiment around 16,000 of e émile, them are on the edge of extinction. There . are many reasons for animals to go endangered, such as habitat loss, pollution, disease, predation, illegal killing, and disappearing cross experiment poaching. Habitat loss happens by a mixture of things logging, agriculture, the building of roads and cities, and forest fires. Habitat loss affects Chinas giant panda because of the to kill play, expanding buildings in China. Pollution is affecting fish. Animal , Biodiversity , Endangered species 1411 Words | 4 Pages.

Animal Testing Why cosmetics on animals has been banned in the E.U What is Animal Testing? New cosmetics need to . be tested on disappearing experiment, animals to make sure they work and are safe for use on humans. However, there is controversy of whether or not animals should be used. There are 3 main stages of drugs cosmetics testing : 1.The drugs are tested using computer models and human cells grown in the laboratory. 2.If the drugs are declared safe on the first step, there will be tests on animals . a known amount.

Alan Price , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood , Eric Burdon 383 Words | 6 Pages.

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essays etc This page is full of essays that I wrote at University and College. I didn't get 'A's on all of them - just most of them - so steal at your own risk.This format is -of course - just temporary. History 339 Primary Documents Review Robert Jago 20015294 Document One: Debates on the Passage of the disappearing experiment Quebec Act, House of Commons, 1774: Each party in the debate accepts that it is is baroque music, right and just that the newly conquered subjects of Canada should be assimilated with regards to religion and experiment language. Where the superstructure parties differ is in disappearing cross the 'law-form' of the play country and the rights of English colonists and tradesmen therein.

The Attorney General, Lord Thurlow, proposes that it is unwise to create a democratic system of government in the new colony. He states that, 'humanity, justice, and disappearing experiment wisdom equally conspire to advise you to plato leave them [institutions] to disappearing the people just as they were'. With regard to to kill a mockingbird characters the Englishman's right to carry his laws with him over to the new colony, the disappearing cross Attorney General considers this to be as absurd an expectation as if a Londoner expected the laws of his city to follow him to the Isle of what Guernsey. On this latter point, the Solicitor General, Alexander Wedderburn, claims that the rights of cross Englishmen should be withheld from Canada so as to 'keep alive in their breasts this attachment to their native soil'. The contrary argument comes from Colonel Barre and superstructure Mr. Charles Fox, and Mr. Edmund Burke. The former argued from a jingoistic position, that the Attorney General should be more concerned with his English countrymen in Canada - who emigrated to the country in the expectation of enjoying the same rights and privileges as they had in their motherland. Furthermore, Colonel Barre claims that the imposition of the English constitution is not a punishment, but, due to experiment its liberal nature, it is a reward. Mr.

Fox expands upon the latter argument and suggests that whatever elements of English law that the essays local inhabitants may find disagreeable may be easily adjusted to better fit their temperament. Finally, Mr. Fox, foreshadowing the argument by Mr. Burke in the years to come, states that his opposition to the authoritarian constitution to be continued in Canada is based in disappearing his belief that, 'America is not to be governed by force, but by affection and interest'. Mr. Burke partially digresses from the what particular topic at hand and in stead makes the 'slippery slope' argument, that a tyrannical government in Canada will be used by unnamed forces at home as an example to show that 'stronger measures' are better suited for governing.

Finally, in another tangential argument, Lord North proclaims his support for the bill in cross experiment order to prevent the establishment of a free assembly composed entirely of Roman Catholics. Document Two: Edmund Burke, Speech on Conciliation with America: In this document Mr. Edmund Burke seems to echo Mr. Fox's argument from the previous essay. Edmund Burke argues that America's bond to the British Empire rests solely on the feeling amongst the Americans that English Liberty and English rule are one and indivisible. He argues that if Americans were shown that Liberty and English government were separable then the bond would be broken, because Americans could find 'tyranny anywhere'. Document Three: Edmund Burke, Speech on Fox's East India Bill: In this document Edmund Burke draws a distinction between a classical Charter, which may help enumerate some of the natural rights of superstructure marxism men, and cross experiment the East India Company's Charter, which illuminates the Company's rights over men. Mr.

Burke claims that all such political arrangements are artificial and are part of a social contract. While the East India Company has fairly, legally, and justly acquired its dominion in India for money, it must not disregard that in doing so it formed a social contract with the Indians and therefore it must run its lawful administration to their eventual benefit. Document Four: William Cobbett, Political Register: This document has a surprisingly twenty-first century view of the max weber e émile Raj . William Cobbett argues that the conquest of India is the greatest crime in the history of the world, it is without justification, and experiment the unceasing wars which accompany it are a waste of English lives, and a slander of English honor and glory. Document Five: William Wilberforce, Speech on the East India Company's Charter Bill: William Wilberforce fears that Britain is too easily sitting on its laurels with regards to India. He fears that the impressive edifice that is the British Raj has blinded England to how tenuous their rule is. The reason for this is that Britain has failed to win the affection of the Indians.

William Wilberforce's solution to the lack of plato affection the disappearing experiment Indians may feel towards Britain is to recreate the Indians, as an Asian race of Englishmen. Document Number 6, Thomas Munro on the Employment of Natives in the Public Service: Thomas Munro proposes that the British are courting disaster if they continue to play exclude Indians from high public office in India. He writes that the Empire's hold over them should be one of affection, and that that affection is won by allowing the Indians into the highest offices of the Empire. He writes that excluding Indians from disappearing experiment, high office would remove the incentive for Indians to educate themselves along British standards. Max Weber E émile Durkheim. Without such an education their civilization would sink still further. He concludes that British rule should be maintained permanently in cross experiment India so that the process of Anglicisation and civilisation may continue until Britain 'shall in time so far improve the character of our Indian subjects as to enable them to govern and protect themselves'. Document Number 7, Thomas Babington MacCaulay Sppech on the Government of India: Thomas MacCaulay reiterates Thomas Munro's earlier argument that Indians should be admitted to all of the high offices of India so that this incentive might help raise the general character of the Indians. MacCaulay draws on divine providence in his explanation of the British object in India. He writes: 'we shall never consent to marxism . stupify and paralyse a great people who God has committed to our charge '. MacCaulay considers that the civilizing mission in India can only disappearing cross experiment, add to Britain's honour. Plato. he concludes by epitomizing his and Thomas Munro's argument that the 'empire is the imperishable empire of our arts and our morals, our literature and cross experiment our laws'.

Document 8, William Huskisson Speech on moving for play characters a select committee on the civil government if Canada: William Huskisson attacks the feeling in Parliament that the empire must pay its own way and bring some material benefit to the Home Islands. He argues that Britain has a duty to her subjects and disappearing not the child abuse essays other way around; that Britain has formed numerous colonies in her own image and that abandoning these colonies of Englishmen [indistinguishable from themselves] would be 'an indelible disgrace'. He attacks these men as 'Little Englanders' and appeals to their patriotism by invoking Britain's civlizing mission to the world. Disappearing Cross Experiment. Document 9, Edward Gibbon Wakefield: In this document, Mr. Wakefiled describes the anarchic British settlement of New Zealand and the problem of dis-honourable settlers run riot over the natives. His solution is to send the islands a Bishop in order to supervise the is rationalisation settlers. Document Ten: Sir Thomas Foxwell Buxton, Report of the disappearing Parliamentary Select Committee on Aborigines (British Settlements): Sir Thomas first accepts that it is right and just for Britain to find new outlets for the surplus population of the Home Islands. However with this right comes the duty to supervise that colonisation in order to check an evil as great as slavery - the oppression of the natives of 'barbarous countries'.

The chief reason for their oppression is the distance between the settlers that commit the crimes and the English courts fit to punish them. What Is Rationalisation. Document Eleven: John George Lambton, Earl of Durham, Report on the Affairs of cross British North America: In this document the Earl of what is baroque music Durham proposes the union of British America into a new nation which would allow the cross experiment local population to have some say in the government. The proximity of the United States has daily shown the British Americans that enjoy a poorer material life than their southern cousins and this creates a move for separation from the Empire. The only way that this can be countered is through the fostering of national feeling which would give the durkheim British Americans 'a country which they would be unwilling to see absorbed even into one more powerful'. The Earl of Durham also finds that many people in the metropole are too ready to disappearing experiment leave the security of the British dominion over America to the common ties of affection. What Is Baroque Music. Document Twelve: Lord Edward Godffrey Smith Stanley, Speech in the House of Commons: Lord Edward Godffrey Smith Stanley, states that while Canada is a military liability to Britain, its commercial and political importance far outweigh this problem. He also writes that if certain Canadian parochials would wish to separate their country from Britain's nominal control, they must consider that while Britain does gain much from Canada, Canada gains far more materially from Britain and the Imperial connection. Document Thirteen: John Stuart Mill, Principles of Political Economy: John Stuart Mill writes that nations have a duty to colonize the world in order open the resources of the under developed nations to the world and to the benefit of all mankind. He notes that while the principle of comparative advantage is generally accepted, a similar principle, applying to labour is rarely considered, 'the exportation of experiment labourers and capital from a place where their productive power is less to a place where it is greater, increases . the aggregate produce of the labour and capital of the world'.

Document Fourteen: Richard Cobden, Speech at Manchester: Richard Cobden opposes the what is baroque music military expenditures related to maintaining an empire. He writes that surely the English do not intend to maintain the disappearing experiment empire by marx max weber durkheim, this force of disappearing cross arms, and if as some argue, arms are needed to defend trade, then why is a similar expenditure of the machines of war not needed to marx max weber e émile ensure the security of the transatlantic trade with the United States. He also argues that the solution to the frequent insurrections by the natives throughout the Empire is for experiment 'civilised men [to] treat savages like men'. Document Fifteen: Richard Cobden, Letters on India: Richard Cobden expresses the fear that like Greece and Rome before her, Britain may be 'corrupted and demoralized' by her Asian Empire. On Morality. He appears to want to hasten the end of the Raj by removing the 'screen' of the British East India Company from the administration of India, so that Parliament could meditate on the awesome responsibility of governing and cross experiment civilising more than one hundred million people. Document Sixteen: Earl of Rosebery, Speech to the Leeds Chamber of on morality Commerce: The Earl of Rosebery introduces the term 'Imperial Federation'. Disappearing Experiment. The purpose of such a community is to ensure the child abuse continued connection between Britain and her dominions. The previous claims that Britain must shoulder the burden of Empire, and that the colonies are a drain on her materially and disappearing experiment spiritually have given way to the Earl's claim that it is solely because of the Empire that the trade with the colonies is so high.

He notes that trade with Australia and its three million inhabitants is the same in real numbers as trade with the United States (a liberated colony) and its sixty million inhabitants. Document Seventeen: Benjamin Disraeli, Speech at the Crystal Palace: Disraeli attacks the 'Little Englanders' and the liberals for their attempts to undermine the Empire. Disraeli claims that if not for the devotion and superstructure loyalty of the colonies to England, the imperial ties would have been severed. Disraeli finds that the time is right for the consolidation of the Empire into a federation with an Imperial Tariff, military, and parliament. Document Eighteen: W.E. Gladstone, England's Mission: Gladstone undermines the cause of Imperial federation by calling it a 'superstition equally gross and mischevious'. He again appeals to divine providence and disappearing experiment 'England's mission' which appears to be to music create outlets for her surplus population.

The glory of founding these repositories of men is disappearing cross, that they are also repositories of English liberty and karl marx max weber e émile durkheim culture and therefore are bound to her by 'moral and social sympathies' as opposed to the writ and fiat of Downing Street. Document Nineteen: John Bright, Speech on India: John Bright renews the call to administer to India with an eye for its eventual independence along a British model. However he does not appeal to experiment a sense of future glory or 'England's mission' as justification, but instead writes that Britain should 'make amends for the original crime upon which much of our power in is rationalisation India is founded'. Document Twenty: John Robert Steeley, The Expansion of England: India for the moment excepted, John Robert Steeley finds that unique aspect of 'Greater Britain' is its shared nationality. Disappearing Cross. He draws the distinction between the British Empire and this greater British nation which is an enormous agrandisement of the national estate and allows for an Englishmen to travel anywhere on earth and still find himself at home. Plato On Morality. On a separate point, Steeley writes that the Raj has removed from the Indians the native Official class which is disappearing cross experiment, necessary for them to marxism have self government. If Britain were to remove herself from India, she would be abandoning it to chaos; therefore, for the good of the Indians (and not for the honour of those Englishmen that conquered them) the Raj must continue until the eventual goal of self-government is at hand. Britain should not delude herself about having won the love of the Indians, because unlike the disappearing cross civilising mission of plato on morality Rome in Iberia, Britain can offer the Indians only an austere 'cold daylight' to disappearing cross their previous 'warm gorgeous twilight'. Document Twenty-one: Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury, Speech in the House of Lords: The Marquess of Salisbury admonishes his fellow Lords for failing to take the initiative in what is baroque the expansion of the colonies.

He writes that the rising walls of protectionism and the advancing colonial frontiers of her competitors are putting Britain at a grave disadvantage. She must therefore act immediately at any chance to win a legacy for her grandchildren in fertile places such as Uganda lest such places become part of a German or French legacy. Cross Experiment. Document Twenty-two: Lord Curzon of Kedleston, Speech at Farewell Dinner, Byculla Club, Bombay: Lord Curzon describes the British civil servant in India as someone of the highest moral principles. He writes that these moral principles alone are the justification for the British presence in India. Document Twenty-three: Lord Milner, Speech to the Manchester Conservative Club: Lord Milner describes the innumerable benefits bestowed upon Britain by her dominions. These dominions alone will ensure that Britain will remain a great power, just as their absence will ensure her material impoverishment. His slogan, 'One throne, one flag, one citizenship' summarizes his position. Document Twenty-four: Sir Frederick Dealtry Lugard, The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa: The author enumerates the what is baroque music responsibility of British rulers to experiment the native inhabitants of abuse her colonies. This is the first part of the dual mandate in disappearing experiment the tropics. Max Weber. As part of cross experiment that mandate the British must raise the moral stature of the natives and country that they rule; in on morality order to cross experiment do so the British themselves must maintain the highest of moral standards in order to on morality ensure their prestige and authority. The second part of the mandate is the development of the tropical economy so that its resources may be available to all of mankind.

Document Twenty-five: George Bernard Shaw, The Man of Destiny: George Bernard Shaw, speaking through Napoleon expounds upon English hypocrisy. He writes that 'an Englishman does every thing on disappearing, principle'. GB Shaw writes that an English man's morals are interpreted so as to justify his nation's necessity. Plato On Morality. Document Twenty-six: J.A. Experiment. Hobson, Imperialism: A Study: Hobson's is a socialist interpretation of the support and expansion of the British Empire. The author quotes Cecil Rhodes when he said 'Her Majesty's Flag [is] the greatest commercial asset in the world'. Document Twenty-seven: J. Ramsay MacDonald, Labor and the Empire: Ramsay MacDonald derides the character of the men of the colonial service. He complains that they have done their duty in the colonies with the narrowest of minds and have refused to abuse understand the minds of the natives. Cross Experiment. He lays the blame at a national pride which has degraded into racial chauvanism.

Document Twenty-eight: General Jan Christian Smuts, Speech at Banquet given in his honor by member of both Houses of to kill play Parliament: General Smuts describes the Empire as a world in itself, or a 'Commonwealth of Nations' rather than an Empire. He writes that while there may be Empires such as India and Egypt within this commonwealth, the disappearing cross experiment bonds within it are not those of a traditional empire such as Russia or Rome, but rather ties of affection. For General Smuts, the is rationalisation British Empire, with its foundation in disappearing cross experiment the Hereditary Monarchy, stands for 'a fuller, a richer, and more various life among all the nations that compose it'. Document Twenty-nine: Clement R. Atlee, The Labour Party in Perspective: Clement Atlee states that the two pillars of the Labour party's policy for the Empire are 'self government' and 'socialisation'. The first pillar involves allowing for self-government where it is plato, possible, and where it is not possible, formally recognizing the colonies as mandates within the cross experiment League of nations structure. By opening the colonies for inspection by the League of Nations, the what is baroque Labour Party intended to ensure that the disappearing League accepted some of the responsibility for defending the colonies, thus taking some of the pressure off of the British military. The second pillar is less defined. The only what is rationalisation, concrete proposal of Atlee's is to turn over the control of the 'means of production' in the colonies to the League of Nations.

Criminology 135 Assignment Three Robert Jago 200015294 In his book, Multicultural Citizenship, Will Kymlicka expounds upon the basis of the collective rights of the several types of groups that make up Canada. Cross. He claims that there are first and marx max weber e émile durkheim foremost the two founding nations; This primary grouping is composed of the descendants of the colonizers who created the cross state in their image. To Kill A Mockingbird Characters. This primary group founded the state with their conceptions of rights and privileges in mind. Disappearing Cross. Kymlicka states that these two founding groups are rightfully afforded every chance at self-government. Together with the founders there are immigrants, or 'New Canadians'. Immigrants and superstructure marxism other non-primary (or non-founding) groups do not share in the primary groups' rights. These non-primary groups have no legitimate or just claims to have separate self-governing institutions. Most importantly, these non-primary groups have no moral right whatsoever to have their cultures or languages recognized in an official capacity. The reason that the non-primary groups do not hold the same types of nationality rights as the primary groups is because they voluntarily surrendered their rights as a distinct people by emigrating to an established state and disappearing society. The duty of New Canadians is to plato assimilate themselves into the dominant society.

The hundreds of Aboriginal peoples that inhabit Canada poses a different sort of rights than either the founders or the immigrants do. Because aboriginal or 'native' Canadians are part of in Canada because of disappearing cross force, they continue to possess the marx same nationality rights that any other sovereign people posses. Native rights were never surrendered voluntarily, therefore they continue to exist. It is should be noted that all individuals, regardless of their group affiliation [or lack thereof], have certain 'natural rights' such as the freedom of speech and disappearing assembly and of life, liberty and property. As sovereign peoples, aboriginals continue to have the right to their own justice system. They have a right to conscript people, they have a right to execute people and so on and so forth. They also have a right to be un-democratic; the rights of peoples and nations have long been recognized as entirely separate from the natural rights of individuals. With it decided that aboriginal nations continue to posses a broad range of nationality rights, the main question at hand is what is baroque music, whether or not they should exercise any of these rights. Disappearing Cross Experiment. A further question is what is the duty of the Canadian state, if any, to aboriginal individuals, who have a legal status as native and, Canadian citizens. A further question is, should non-status natives, who in many respects are similar to what new Canadians, be considered part of this equation. To begin to answer these questions there needs first to be a summary of the state of cross affairs for natives in the criminal justice system.

It is commonly agreed that the central problem behind much native crime is substance abuse , whether that be heroin on the streets of Vancouver, Alcohol in the reserves of Saskatchewan, or gasoline and what music glue in the shanties of Labrador. On some reserves, alcohol is responsible for 95% of crime, with nearly 100% of the adult population involved in disappearing cross some way or other. Furthermore, this alcohol abuse leads to a disproportionate amount of violent crime including spousal and child abuse - both of which may lead to further cycles of family violence. Outside of reserves, natives are disproportionately represented in what is rationalisation violent crime and drug related crime as well as domestic violence. Natives comprise between 8 and 68 percent of the provincial prison populations, well beyond their share of the population. There are numerous reasons why natives come into experiment, constant conflict with the law. What. One such reason for native conflict with the law is what can be termed, 'a problem of policing'. Several studies have shown that white police officers are more likely to deal with a complaint involving white people without recourse to arrest. When these same white police officers come into similar conflicts with native or black individuals they are more likely to resort to disappearing cross arrest. One response to this problem of policing is to hire native police officers to serve in areas with large native populations.

However, by enlisting natives to is baroque music police natives one can be said to cross experiment be pandering to racial biases; it is not dissimilar from enlisting whites to police whites, blacks to police blacks, and so forth - it is at best an unsettling proposal. Karl Marx Max Weber. Furthermore, besides the disappearing experiment task of making such a proposal socially acceptable there is a growing body of plato on morality evidence which shows that the racial biases that native police officers would have may not necessarily benefit natives. In a study regarding the cross use of deadly force in the United States, it was found that black officers were just as likely to shoot black suspects as were white officers. It was hypothesized that there was both an institutional and meta-cultural bias against black men and many police officers had this bias, regardless of a mockingbird play their own colour. This may also hold true for natives. Natives have traditionally been under valued in white society and this view may have been internalized by natives. The internalization of colonialism and experiment the affectations of it is apparent in Verdun-Jones and Griffiths' text.

They imply that there is a single native society with traditional communal values and that is based on consensus. What. Each of those assertions is absurd. Native societies are extremely diverse and any unifying aspects are the product of colonialism- something that the authors blame for the high rates of criminality amongst natives. Traditional native society in British Columbia was not based on communal property in the current sense, but was based on clan or familial property that was viciously guarded. There was no peace amongst the first nations of cross experiment British Columbia. Is Baroque Music. Crime fighting in pre-contact societies more often involved physical violence than consensus and cross experiment 'community healing'. As for communities as they exist today, they are the music direct products of colonialism.

Natives never had an egalitarian society with equal justice for all as each type of criminal reform listed in the text holds as an axiom. Traditional native society in British Columbia was supported upon a superstructure of slavery, violence and the absolute rights of private and family property. In order to solve the problems of native communities there must be a whole hearted acceptance of some aspects of European culture. Disappearing Cross. There must be a recognition of the pillars of common law. There must be a recognition of the formal, legal equality of men ,women, and foreigners.

There must be a recognition of the what right to confront accused, there must be a statute of limitations, a right of appeal, and all of the basic rights regarding the experiment use of evidence. Before any major reforms can be undertaken there needs to be a recognition that each level of government has some specific responsibilities with regard to natives. The native governments themselves have a responsibility first and foremost for preserving native culture and civilization [the term is here used loosely]. To Kill Characters. The federal governments under their fiduciary responsibility [held by disappearing experiment, the crown under section 22] have a duty to native individuals. These dual roles are enshrined in the Charter of karl marx max weber e émile Rights and Freedoms. What these roles mean for justice reform is cross experiment, that each government holds a separate interest and must guard this interest in any decision regarding reforms. This does impinge upon the inherent and moral right of sovereignty that the various native nations hold, but there are some political realities that supercede these rights and one of them is superstructure, that native Canadians are - in cross the least - the bearers of dual loyalties , national or ethnic and is rationalisation political. The first loyalty is to their own racial government, and the second is to the civil government in Ottawa. With regard to justice reforms, these separate roles do come into conflict. Cross. There has been at least one case brought before the courts on Vancouver Island regarding the superstructure marxism excesses of community justice. Disappearing Experiment. One man who had become known for drinking and behaving irresponsibly while living in Victoria, was kidnapped under the order of his community's native elders, and plato with the consent of his family, conscripted into a traditional native healing ceremony.

If the interests of the community had prevailed we would have heard little of disappearing experiment this case. However, the man in question exercised his rights as a Canadian citizen and invoked the charter against the community that unlawfully attacked him. The men that took him on community orders and to kill a mockingbird beat him into sobriety were charged with kidnapping and assault, much to the consternation of his family and community. The federal government also has a duty to protect the community at large - that is to say, white Canada from dangerous individuals regardless of race or nationality. Certain offenses such as forcible rape have recently been treated differently if they had been committed by a native. Because of the harsh realities of the cross residential schools, many natives were sexually abused and have begun to act this out on other people, through forcible rape, or child abuse et. al.. Any federal actions in justice reform must therefore take these many factors into consideration. First and foremost is the right of natives to have their own justice system. Second is the general issue of accountability and democracy enshrined in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Third, their is the fiduciary responsibility to native individuals, coupled with the Peace Order and Good Government related duties of the government to plato on morality ensure public safety and the general welfare of the non-native populace.

The various native governments have one sole concern on disappearing cross experiment, this issue and that is advancing their national self interest. It is an on morality, affront to the dignity of a sovereign nation to have their nationals arrested, tried and imprisoned in a foreign justice system. Cross Experiment. The most powerful regular exercise of state power is the superstructure marxism ability of the state to arrest, try , and detain its wayward citizens. The native governments, if they are to act as real nations do, need this 'big stick' in order to survive and rebuild. The nationalization of the justice system by the Native governments is imperative if they are to legitimately exercise authority over disappearing cross their citizens.. The decision on abuse essays, whether or not there should be a native justice system lay entirely with the federal government. The question before the federal government is, should it devolve, delegate, or maintain its current responsibilities for the administration of justice on the native reserves. One option for cross experiment the federal government is to create a parallel federal government of natives with the what is baroque accompanying institutions such as a court and disappearing police system. This was proposed in the Royal Commission on Native Peoples. This option is the marxism most contentious.

The rest of disappearing Canada is likely to balk at any form of consociational government between the on morality races. Any new political arrangements with natives should be on a territorial basis, because of Canadian's familiarity with this form of governmental responsibility. Another reason for the devolution of justice on a territorial basis is the sheer diversity of native nations. Disappearing Experiment. Some native peoples may not wish to accept responsibility for the administration of their own justice system for one reason or another. Perhaps they do not trust the factions within their nations to be able to impartially administer a court and is rationalisation police system. Disappearing Cross. The record to date of native government and policing has shown that impartiality and the independence of the police are far from e émile durkheim, guaranteed. The purpose for constructing a separate native justice system is to mitigate the harmful effects of disappearing colonialism which are responsible for the heightened criminality of natives. While the abuse essays proposition that colonialism has hurt natives more than it has helped them is open to question, what must be dealt with here is whether or not a separate court and disappearing policing system for each native nation will 'heal the wounds' of what is baroque music a century or two of colonial rule. The answer is, yes and disappearing cross no. On some reserves or tribes with large enough populations and what is rationalisation with the basic tenets of western-liberal justice and democracy established, a justice system would be a welcome step on the road to becoming full partners in the federation. On reserves here nepotism and ancient class and racial bigotry reign, the addition of the police would be half way towards creation of a police state.

The devolution of justice to some native nations would allow for the racialization or nationalization of many high paid and professional jobs. This would immediately give a boost to the native societies. Beyond that, native civilians would benefit from having full access to cross experiment people of what is baroque music their own race who share their cultural prejudices and traits. However, it is unclear if these utopian reserves of rights and democracy and brotherhood exist. The most likely and most beneficial choice the federal government could make for natives is to delegate the responsibility for disappearing the court system to them. This would mean the stationing of federal officers on the basis of their race and national origin [presumably native - or more specifically Salish, Tsipsian or whatever] to reserves. Furthermore it would mean the creation of a separate system of circuit or county courts for the reserves that would remain part of the what is rationalisation provincial or federal court system. Perhaps this new system could be adjunct to the federal court. A separate layer of the disappearing cross experiment federal or provincial courts that would serve justice on reserves only would be halfway between an autonomous paralell native federation, and a native archipelago of four or five hundred justice systems. This final option would have the added benefit of maintaining control of the courts in the Department of Indian Affairs and or justice. The judges would be federally appointed from a separate native court bar [just as there is a Supreme Court bar].

Furthermore the separate level of courts would be acceptable to what is rationalisation many non-native Canadians. The court would have a specific territorial entity as its jurisdiction and this entity is not composed exclusively of the people of one race. The court would administer justice on disappearing cross experiment, the territory of the reserves. Just as the supreme court of the united states refers to the laws of the states of a cases origin when rendering their decisions, the new federal court could refer to the numerous reserve or national laws when rendering its decisions. A native court, a native bar, and abuse native judges, administering local native laws do not necessarily prevent a native man for getting drunk and beating his wife.

The sense of pride at having his own court system is likely to do little as well. What is wrong with the reserves is a lack of economic opportunity and a lack of order. Economic opportunity is not within the scope of this paper, but order is. If there cannot be a separate federal police force for natives, and if policing cannot be devolved to native governments for fear if giving too much power to disappearing cross too many corrupt regimes, then what is to be done with the what is baroque police? A separate police division of the RCMP has been tried and has failed. What could work is a piece meal response that would have capable reserves with their own police forces and lesser reserves with a force of specially trained RCMP subject to disappearing local police boards. This would be coupled with a native court sensitive to coerced evidence, police prejudices and abuse essays differential use of the arresting power. The separate layers of policing may cut down on many of the unnecessary arrest of natives as well as allow people to cross have more confidence in the police and call them before a domestic disturbance turns violent. This would likely take care of many of the problems of order on superstructure, the reserves. The courts would both serve as a support for the new policing system and experiment act as a booster of superstructure national pride. With the question of law and order on the reserves out of the way, there is the question of extra-territoriality and cross the Metis and non-status natives .The key component of any separate system of justice should be that it is based on territorial distinctions.

That is the only practical way of administering justice and selling justice to a population of fair weather egalitarians like the Canadians . The Metis where they have their own territories should be allowed to be part of the native court and policing systems. Status natives living off reserve should have no recourse to the native courts if their crime was not committed on reserve. Because the marx max weber durkheim court are founded on cross, a territorial basis they have a limited exclusive jurisdiction. Non-status natives have voted with their feet in the same way that all immigrants have, and they have opted out of native national life, the reserve police and court system should not apply to what them. While natives should have no access to the reserve court system if they are not physically on a reserve they still will have problems with criminality. The only disappearing experiment, feasible solution for urban natives is to have regular police officers of native ancestry in areas with large native populations. Besides that, all that can be done is child abuse, mandatory awareness campaigns for the police, crown counsel and judges. Such training would focus on the rules of evidence and the differential use of the discretionary power by police and by prosecutors which has resulted in discrimination against natives. The presence of native police officers on the 'native beat' might allow people of native ancestry to feel more comfortable with the officers and to come to them with problems earlier.

Native police officers may treat people of their own race better than people of an other race and deal with the cross former's problems out of karl durkheim court. While this beneficial racial is disappearing cross experiment, both unsettling and less than a certainty ,the presence of native police officers in disturbances amongst natives could in the least diffuse the max weber durkheim situation and turn it from a racial confrontation to one merely of the police and a criminal. It is an uncomfortable conclusion to come to, however, it has been arrived at here. A separate Native court system, based on territory is the best means possible to correct the ill effects of the colonial experience. Because white-Canada has shown that it is unlikely to disappearing cross accept any system based solely on race and nationality - a separate native court system that would be open to all the natives of what music Canada is not politically feasible. A territorial division of disappearing cross experiment power is common in Canada, and the extension of what is rationalisation this division of powers to natives -while contentious- is disappearing, not an impossibility. If such a court was kept as an adjunct to the federal court, and had a narrow jurisdiction over the reserves only, it could correct some of the ill effects of the colonial legacy - at least on the reserves.

However many Natives do not live on reserve, though they do share in the stigma of being native. Because white police officers, prosecutors, and judges, have been shown to discriminate against natives. The evidence shows that native police officers may be as likely to discriminate against natives as are white police. Play. The best possible solution is the recruitment of experiment native police officers for areas with high native populations in the hope that they would in marx durkheim the least encourage natives to experiment report crime amongst themselves more readily than they do with white officers. In order to deal with some of the discrimination, there also needs to be a sensitivity program to include the police, judges, and prosecutors. On Morality. While these solutions fall far short of what is needed to solve the problem of native criminality, it is the farthest one can politically go in Canada toward a solution. Crim201: Canada?s sexual assault laws were, until recently, based in the customary tradition of the United Kingdom. That tradition in itself is disappearing cross, based on plato on morality, more ancient traditions. The common thread to most if not all sexual assault laws throughout history has been their exclusion of the martial relationship as a possible venue for sexual assault.

The first proposed laws on sexual assault in this study originate in classical Athens. This law was not specifically a rape law, but rather dealt with justifiable homicide. Drafted by Plato, it stated that: The man who forcibly violates a free woman or boy shall be slain with impunity by the person thus violently outraged, or by his father, or brother and sons . And should a man discover his wedded wife being violated, he shall be guiltless if he kills the violator (Cohen 1993, p.8). This law protects both men and women from sexual assault ? which is something that Canadian law did not achieve until 1983. This law still does not protect a spouse from rape by his or her partner. It is also important to draw attention to whom the offense is being committed against.

It is experiment, stated that if a man discovers ?his? wife being raped, he may respond with deadly force. The act itself is not committed against the wife but against the husband?s possession. The next law comes from the Roman Empire. Unlike Athenian and Canadian law, this law provides for to kill play characters the possibility of a woman committing rape. Also, unlike Athenian and early American law, rape or ?lewd advances? could be committed against a slave(Russell 1975, p.13). If anyone makes lewd advances, be it a man or a woman, freeborn or freed, he will be liable for the outrage and even if an attempt is made on the chastity of a slave, this too is disappearing cross experiment, deemed to be an outrage (Justinian ca 550, p. 166). This law is what is baroque music, a codification of earlier Roman law. Among the key points to note about the law is that it falls within the realm of tort. Sexual assault at disappearing experiment, this early stage was only what, a concern for the state if it was committed by a slave.

It is cross experiment, also important to note that the terms used in this law are not specifically inclusive of superstructure husbands and wives. No provision existed for the prosecution of rape within marriage. Marriage in cross the middle ages was, until 1180, an object of contention. While in Rome there were several ways in which one could be married, with different social and legal ramifications (Kolbert 1979, pp.54-57), in plato on morality Europe Pope Alexander III decreed that there should be but one (Brundage 1993, pp.247-248). The Pope ruled that marriage began after an agreement to marry had been consummated (Ibid. p.248). In several cases involving leprosy, the Pope ruled that because the marriage had been consummated, one spouse had a duty to go with the stricken spouse to the leposarium where he will ?give her sexual solace on demand? or where she will provide him with ?marital affection? (Ibid. p.249). An emphasis should be put on the term ?consummated?. By the 13th century it had been generally agreed that two sorts of rights existed in marriage(Ibid. p.251). Experiment. The first set were created with the agreement to marry, and those involved the marital rights such as property. The second set of what rights were sexual rights or ?implied consent?.

These second rights were created when the couple consummated their marriage. A 14th century court ruling shows that, while the marital rights could be dissolved by separation, these sexual rights were permanent: We hold the defendant bound to pay the conjugal debt to the plaintiff in her father?s house one night each week and to keep this obligation faithfully, until we shall order otherwise (Brundage, p.252). The marital debt was a very real and enforceable debt throughout the middle ages. Disappearing. By most definitions (positivists excepted), what the court ordered in that case was a weekly, scheduled rape. This practice continued throughout the middle ages. Rape could only be committed by a man against a free woman(Wemple 1993, p.229). Punishments usually involved a fine which varied depending on plato, the amount of force used (5 solidi for abduction and rape, 8 more solidi if he used a sword). A common punishment for a man who committed rape was that he must pay the disappearing cross experiment offended family the bride-price. If she consented to sex, the price was reduced by one third. Consent was the property of the father or brothers, and sexual assault was an offence against their property (Ibid.).

Other punishments for rape included enslavement to the offended family (if the abuse offender was a servant or only half free), and death if the cross offender had the audacity to flee to a church (Ibid.). Rape in the United Kingdom is a more puzzling affair. What Is Baroque Music. While it is commonly accepted that these mediaeval laws persisted, there is disappearing experiment, some evidence to the contrary. The doctrine on plato, common law and marital rape was stated explicitly in disappearing the 1275 and 1285 Statutes of Westminster Johnson and Sigler 1997, p11). This was reiterated by the 17th century judge Sir Mathew Hale. What Is Rationalisation. He stated that ?the wife hath given up herself in this kind unto her husband which she cannot retract? (Hall 1984, p.xvi).

He based his judgement on ?ancient common law doctrine?. While the Athenian, Roman, and Papal law cited above does suggest that Sir Mathew was factually accurate, he may not have been technically correct. Common law is an organic law which changes with each judicial ruling. Disappearing Cross Experiment. These rulings are able to overturn legal doctrines such as the kind described in this paper so far. In 1631 a man was convicted in England of what raping his wife (Hall, p.xvi). This suggests that perhaps, ?ancient common law doctrine? had long since been overturned by the time that Sir Mathew got to disappearing it. Nevertheless it persisted unchanged until it was transferred to Canada in the 18th century. In 1800, the karl marx max weber e émile durkheim laws of England such as they were on September 17th, 1792, became Canadian laws. This was accomplished with the Act for the Further Introduction of English Criminal Law into Upper Canada (Garley 1989, p.26).

These laws were ineffective. Disappearing Experiment. Between 1840 and 1892, in Ontario, there were 228 rape prosecutions and 49 convictions (Ibid. pp. 29-30). By the late 1800?s the is baroque absurdity inherent in Sir Mathew Hale?s proclamation became evident. In R. v. Clarence, the courts decided that while a husband had the right to sexual intercourse with his wife, he could not enforce that right by using force(anon. 2000). The implied consent or the ?sexual rights? were no longer considered to be absolute: Subsequent decisions restricted Hale's proposition to experiment situations where husband and wife enjoyed ordinary relations between them, thus exposing abusive husbands to prosecution for rape where they were judicially separated or where the wife had initiated divorce proceedings and had been granted a decree nisi (Ibid.). The law continued to crumble throughout the 20th century. In 1935, Southern Australia allowed for the conviction (albeit under exceptionally violent circumstances) of a husband for raping his wife.

In 1965, New Zealand permitted for the prosecution of what husbands for raping their wives when a decree nisi was in place. Scotland barred spousal rape altogether in 1989, and England followed suit in 1991 (Ibid.). Canadian rape law throughout this period changed only once. While the absolute sexual rights that were referred to in the mediaeval period and reinforced by Sir Mathew Hale did not survive the start of the twentieth century, the formal law still remained in place. It was not until 1983 that the law shielding a husband from a rape prosecution by his wife passed into history. Disappearing. The law as it stood in 1927, and titled ?Unlawful Carnal Knowledge? reads as follows: 298. Rape is the act of a man having carnal knowledge of plato a woman who is disappearing experiment, not his wife without her consent, or with consent which has been extorted by threats or fear of a mockingbird characters bodily harm, or obtained by personating the woman?s husband, or by false and fraudulent representations as to the nature and quality of the act. [emphasis mine] (R.S., 1927, 289, p.87) By 1980, this law remained unchanged(Tremeear?s 1980 Criminal Code 143, p.61). A rape by definition could not be committed by a husband against his wife. While the absolute sexual right in disappearing cross perpetuity had ceased to exist, the plato right was maintained in existing marriages though it was grounds for divorce. The result of these laws was the gross under reporting of disappearing cross rape. It was not simply because many women believed that their attackers would not be punished, but it is that many women did not believe that an attack had taken place (Russell, p.134).

Furthermore, because the state had for play so long assumed that a husband had a right to cross experiment his wife?s body, many wives had accepted and adapted to the situation. Music. For a woman to cross see her husband as a rapist and to continue to what is rationalisation live with him is often too difficult. Many are too dependent on their husbands for economic, social, and psychological reasons to leave. One solution for these women is not to see forcible intercourse as rape. Another more common adaptation is to give up the right to say no, to be always sexually available, regardless of cross experiment her wishes (Rusell 1975, p.71). Women?s poor economic and social status had allowed for their continued use as sexual objects. The law reflected this.

It is what music, a truism to state that Canada is a patriarchal society. Disappearing Cross. There are reasons why this is child abuse essays, so easily said, and the law prior to 1983 is one of them. However, the law did change. With bill c-127 (1983) the law expanded to include spousal sexual assaults as part of disappearing cross experiment its jurisdiction (Boritch, pp.234-235). What Is Baroque. Possibly because of this and reforms to the rules of evidence, the number of reported sexual assaults rose dramatically.

However, while half of all women in experiment Canada will be the victims of sexual assault in their lives (Ontario Woman?s Directorate 2000) only 6 percent of these women will report that assault to the authorities (Boritch 1997, p.213 and p.224). R. v. White (1-24 C.C.C. 3d,) is an example of a crime that would not have been prosecuted prior to what is rationalisation the 1983 reforms. R. v. White is a 1986 case, brought before the British Columbia Court of Appeal. The accused (White) was married to the victim, but they were estranged (Ibid., p.1).

The victim returned home one night to find the accused wearing surgical gloves and holding a pillow. She screamed, at which point he put the pillow over her face, and then covered her mouth with a bandage that wrapped around her head. Disappearing Cross. He then beat her, threatened to plato murder her, and disappearing then after a long discussion, she went into the bedroom, where she was raped (Ibid., p.1). Before I continue, I should add that the actions described were perfectly legal until very recently. The accused claimed that the is baroque discussion led him to cross believe that his wife had consented to abuse essays sex. He stated that he believed that sex was an attempt at reconciliation. The issue at hand in R. v. White is whether his mistaken belief that his wife consented is a valid defense. Cross. While the appeal of his conviction was dismissed, the fact that it went to trial is significant. If he had engaged in the identical activity three years earlier, he would have committed no crime. The signal difference between the law as it stands today and the law is it stood prior to abuse essays 1983, was the fact that wives are no longer considered to be the possession of their husbands.

Sexual assault by disappearing, intimates including spouses comprises 38 percent of all sexual assaults in Canada (Ontario Women?s Directorate). Child Essays. However, while 6 percent of the total number of sexual assaults are reported to police, only 1 percent of these sexual assaults by intimates are reported (Ibid.). Several reasons for disappearing cross experiment this lack of reporting are provided in surveys. One major reason for not reporting sexual assaults by intimates is that the nature of the relationship may lead authorities to karl marx e émile suspect that there really was consent. Furthermore, many women may not view a sexual assault by a husband or boyfriend as such. They may internalize the blame and say such things as, ?what did you think he wanted,? ?you drank with him didn't you,? or ?you should have expected something like this to happen.?(Ibid.).

In a search through fifty editions of Canadian Criminal Cases, I found only one case of disappearing cross experiment spousal rape that was prosecuted. The vast majority of sexual assault prosecutions continue to be for assaults by strangers, on young women. Prior rape and sexual assault laws sought to protect the chastity of the same class of young women from sexual predator. The purpose was to defend men?s property. Karl Marx Max Weber E émile. A look at which rapes are prosecuted shows that this is still the case. Sexual assault law has existed since the time of Plato. Disappearing Experiment. The point of karl marx that law, and nearly every law that succeeded it was, in the case of women, not to protect them as victims, but to disappearing cross protect their husbands, brothers, or fathers as guardians. A Mockingbird Characters. Sexual assault law developed slowly through the mediaeval period, and followed the experiment development of marriage and spousal property. While in the Roman Empire, a woman was a free citizen with the rights to dispose of plato her property, and cross enter into free contracts, in the mediaeval period, she was a possession to be transferred for a price from father to husband.

The mediaeval period saw the development of the principle of a ?sexual right? that comes into existence with the child consummation of a marriage. This right was so absolute as to allow the authorities to order a former wife to submit to a weekly scheduled rape. As this law came to England it was formalized in the 1275 and 1285 Statutes of Westminster. These confirmed a husband?s right to have sex with his wife, whenever he chose. Disappearing Experiment. In 1800, these laws came to abuse Canada. For more than a century , the absolute and unbreakable sexual rights remained unchallenged. Cross. By the start of the 20th century, they were slowly chipped away at. Essays. A husband lost the absolute right to rape his wife even after they divorced. This right was confined to a marriage where ?ordinary relations? persisted. This law stood until 1983.

With bill c-127, the sexual assault laws were finally expanded to include violence within a marriage. However, regardless of the new law, few reports of spousal rapes are made. The reasons for this are numerous, but the most troubling is the belief by many wives, that what happened was not an disappearing cross, assault. It is not until this last problem of is baroque internalized blame is disappearing cross, dealt with that two millennia of reforms can have any real deterrent value. Bibliography Annonymous (2000). The Historical Development of the Offense of plato Rape. http:canadiancrimanallaw.com/articles/srticles/rape.htm.

Boritch, Helen. Fallen Women: Female Crime and Criminal Justice in Canada, ITP Nelson (Toronto: 1997). Brundage, James A. Implied Consent to disappearing cross experiment Intercourse pp. 245-256, Consent and Coercion to Sex and Marriage in Ancient and durkheim Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993). Cohen, David. Consent and disappearing Sexual Relations in Classical Athens pp. 5-16, Consent and Coercion to on morality Sex and Marriage in Ancient and Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993).

The Criminal Code and Other Selected Statutes of cross Canada, Edmond Cloutier (Ottawa: 1948). Garley, Kenneth David William. A Trust Betrayed: Sexual Assault in Dating/Courtship Relations and karl the Response of the Canadian Criminal Justice System. Experiment. Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, B.C.:1989). Hall, Ruth and Selma James and Judit Kertesz, The Rapist Who Pays the Rent, Falling Wall Press (Bristol : 1984). Johnson, Ida M. and Robert Sigler, Forced Sexual Intercourse in Intimate Relationships, Ashgate-Dartmouth (Aldershot:1997). Justinian (trans.) (circa 550) The Digest of Roman Law: Theft, Rapine, Dammage and Insult, C.F. Kolbert ed..Penguin Books (Middlesex, England: 1979) Ontario Women?s Directorate (2000). Sexual Assault Dispelling the Myths. http:www.womanabuseprevention.com/html/sexual_assault.html. R. v. White (1986), Canadian Criminal Cases, 1-24 C.C.C. Music. (3d) Russell, Diana E.H., The Politics of Rape:The Victim?s Perspective, Stein and disappearing experiment Day Publishers (New York: 1975).

Treemar?s 1980 Criminal Code and Miscellaneous Statutes, The Carswell Company ltd. (Toronto: 1980). Wemple, Suzanne F. Consent and marx Dissent to Sexual Intercourse in Germanic Societies from the Fifth to the Tenth Century pp. 227-244, Consent and Coercion to disappearing cross experiment Sex and what music Marriage in Ancient and Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993). Feminist Crim. When the words ?women? and ?crime? are spoken, the first two words to come to many minds are ?sexual assault?. According to most statistics, more than half of all women in Canada will be the victims of sexual assault in their lives (Ontario Woman?s Directorate 2000). In some segments of the experiment population that number rises to 83 percent (Ibid.). While these numbers are high, the plato numbers of convictions for disappearing experiment sexual assault are not.

According to information presented by Helen Boritch, 10 percent of women can expect to be sexually assaulted in abuse essays any given year, while only 6 percent of these women will report that assault to the authorities (Boritch 1997, p.213 and disappearing p.224) . There is what, a very large discrepency of disappearing numbers. Superstructure Marxism. The vast majority of sexual assaults go unreported. The vast majority of experiment sexual assaults are committed by someone the victim knows (Ibid. pp.212-213). Superstructure Marxism. Perhaps the disappearing cross experiment reason that so many sexual assaults go unreported is because of this overriding fact (Ontario Woman?s Directorate). Sexual assault within families was until recently legal in superstructure Canada.

The thinking went as such: The husband cannot be guilty of rape committed by himself upon his lawful wife, for by their mutual matrimonial consent and contract the wife hath given up herself in this kind unto her husband which she cannot retract (Hall, James and Kertesz 1984, p.20). The authorities believed that common law provided for the lawful rape of a wife by her husband. While this is a patently false proposition, by the 18th century, it had become the official line (Ibid. p.xvi). I didn?t feel that I had been raped. I felt more that I was stupid because I went out with a white fraternity guy. ..so I blamed myself for going out with him. Also I didn?t think of it as rape because I knew him and because I consented to go. At the time I thought rape was a man coming out of the bushes and attacking you, so somebody you knew couldn?t rape you (Russell 1975, p.134). Disappearing Cross. For a woman to see her husband as a rapist and to plato on morality continue to live with him is often too difficult. Many are too dependent on their husbands for experiment economic, social, and marx durkheim psychological reasons to disappearing cross experiment leave. One solution for these women is not to superstructure marxism see forcible intercourse as rape. Another more common adaptation is to cross give up the right to say no, to be always sexually available, regardless of her wishes (Rusell 1975, p.71).

Crim (Deviancy) : Is there a point in my life when I considered myself to be deviant, or others considered me to be deviant? If so, how was the what music situation resolved? People are always telling me that I am ?weird?. I disagree with them. I believe that I am one of the least deviant people I know. Cross Experiment. I am very old fashioned though, so maybe that?s why I get the weird label. Nevertheless, there are few times in my life when I consider myself to be a ?deviant?. My self-concept appears to follow a dialectical pattern. I consider myself to be part of a group, and identify with that group and its values. I increasingly find myself uncomfortable with some of the things which that group does or talks about.

At some point an incident occurs, and I become isolated from the group. On Morality. I then identify with a new group, and the process starts over. Cross. In other words, my membership in the first group can be considered a thesis. The thesis consists of child abuse essays that group?s world-view, which I share in. The crisis is the antithesis, it is the stage at which the cognitive dissonance that occurred within the thesis comes out into the open. Finally the new group is the synthesis.

In the synthesis, the cross world-view that I held in the thesis group is largely gone, as are the troubles of the antithesis. The most memorable dialectical shift in my life occurred in what is rationalisation 1990-1991. In 1990, I was part of the dominant white clique at cross, my junior high school, in suburban Richmond. What. While everyone had got along in elementary school, we all divided along racial lines when we got to high school. The Chinese kids all went and spent time together, and even the Chinese kids that could not speak Chinese, went. The East-Indian kids did as the Chinese did, and the white kids followed suit. There was not anything malicious about any of it. Well, that is not entirely true.

Much of our time in the white group was spent making fun of kids in the East Indian and Chinese groups. However, we were not entirely racist, all the black kids in our school were part of experiment our group. Our group had their own ?territory?, drama and the arts were ours, as well as physical education, while we gave the East-Indian kids shop class, and the Chinese kids, computer science. The rest of the classes were required, so we could not split them up as easily, though we did manage some how. By 1990, I was firmly ensconced in this group. I had few complaints about it, I am quite good at what is baroque, making fun of disappearing cross people, so I was a valuable asset to the collective. In the summer of 1990, an incident happened which upset my place within the group. Music. On July 11th of cross that year, a group of armed Mohawks got into a shooting war with the Quebec provincial police.

My group hated French immersion kids, so it seemed obvious to me which side we would come down on. I did not worry. Much to my surprise, the general attitude among the white kids was that the government should send in plato tanks, and get rid of the ?Indians?. It had not occurred to me until that point that I am half-?Indian?. My family came down firmly on cross, the side of the Mohawks. Most of my male cousins who were old enough went off to join one blockade or another, and at least one got himself sent to prison for his troubles. To Kill. We went out to the reserve more often. Previously we had gone there for the winter ceremonies, or for birthday parties. This time we were going out there to ?plan things?. Back at home amongst my friends, I found myself increasingly isolated. I got into more and disappearing experiment more fights, both verbal and marx max weber e émile physical.

People that had been part of my group ? though not friends per cross, se, walked past me like they did not know me. I started spending time with the black kids and the girls, and while they were not as overtly racist as the white boys, they were still racist. Marx E émile. Young boys tend not to hide things, while young girls ? at least in that group- seem to believe that in order to disappearing experiment be ?nice? it is their duty to hide their opinions. By the end of the summer I found myself completely shut out max weber e émile durkheim, of the white group. I was the one of only two native kids at disappearing experiment, my school, so there was no chance of joining the native clique. The other native kid had lighter skin, so he began to pretend that he was Italian. I would say that ?I can?t blame him? but in reality I hated him and consider him to be a two-faced traitor. I spent more time on the reserve and with my younger cousins. With them, all the anger that had developed from being isolated could be vented destructively. It was o.k. in that group to hate the police and the government.

It was o.k. to through rocks at police cars and buildings as well as other things that can not be mentioned here. In fact, not only was it o.k. amongst the new clique, but it was accepted and approved of by the adults around us. The point at to kill play characters, which I switched allegiances entirely from white society to native society was at a family barbecue. The barbecue was at an uncle?s house. He was on disappearing cross experiment, the white side of child abuse essays my family. Everyone at disappearing experiment, the barbecue was white but me. Most of them were family, though there were a few family friends there. My parents stayed at superstructure, home. That day happened to be the same day that the army advanced on native positions around Montreal.

Raw footage of the attack was broadcast on live television. I was glued to the news, and was very upset. I asked everyone else to come see what was happening. Because they were family I assumed that they would take my side. The group became very upset too, but at cross experiment, the natives.

One of my uncles friends went on a rant and started saying that all those ?Indians? want out of the crisis is money to buy liquor. That is amongst the more polite things that he said. I noticed that several of my aunts and uncles agreed with him. My grandparents refused to say a word in my defense. When I did open my mouth to superstructure yell at him and give him the usual ?shpeel? about oppression et. al., I was hushed up. I got up, and experiment left. I walked home from there and told my parents. Superstructure Marxism. My father (he is experiment, very white) got into a loud argument over the phone with my uncle and my grandparents.

My mother yelled at me for going to the barbecue in the first place. What Is Rationalisation. It was after the barbecue that I decided that I would completely abandon ?white? culture in favor of native (Salish) culture, and religion. In a pique of cross experiment melodrama I went to the living room and e émile durkheim threw my bible and little plastic Canadian flag into the fireplace. I have since changed since then, I know have a European wife, and white friends, and while I am no Christian, I certainly would not burn a perfectly good bible today. However, I still align myself with the native cause, and disappearing cross have abandoned any pretenses of Canadian citizenship. It is difficult to understand which theory of deviancy applied to me in what is baroque music that situation. Perhaps demonology applied to me, I did become a heathen, though that was after the fact (Gomme, p.41). Cross Experiment. If I was not possessed by the dark forces of the ?fallen one?, maybe I was the product of my environment (Ibid., p.43). To Kill Characters. However, my environment was a townhouse complex which was at least one quarter Jewish, and was smack in the center of suburban Vancouver. If environment played any role in my formation, I would have joined the Lion?s Club, or become a Freemason.

Two theories of disappearing cross deviance hold the most possibility for explaining my situation. Plato On Morality. The first is containment theory. Containment theory is the theory of inner and disappearing cross experiment outer forces pushing and pulling someone toward deviance (Ibid., p.81). Gomme writes that: Social forces that push and pull people toward deviant behavior include?membership in an ethnic minority, restricted access to a mockingbird legitimate opportunities (Gomme, p.81). These external social forces included my peers and my extended family. On the one hand, the white side of family, and my white friends ostracized me, and openly attacked me, while on the other hand, the native part of my family, allowed me to vent my frustrations, and provided friends, and cross experiment a ready target for to kill play characters teenage anger. I would also consider that my access to ?legitimate opportunities? was hampered by the activities of the whites around me. By ostracizing me, and making school unpleasant, the whites prevented me from cross, achieving the scholastic success that was due. They also prevented me from pursuing the is baroque social relationships that I had established over four or more years. This legitimate frustration sought me to seek success in cross experiment the native community and to attempt to marx form social bonds with natives.

Internal forces that constrain an individual from deviancy include, ?a positive self-concept, a strong ego, an intense sense of personal responsibility, and a high frustration threshold? (Gomme, p.81). I know for a fact that I had none of these qualities. More often than not, a poor self-concept, and cross experiment weak ego, led me to follow the crowd, and is rationalisation go along with whatever the group told me to do. As for cross personal responsibility and the ability to be frustrated, I was suspect that I was an average teenager, and therefore, both of these things were absent. Containment theory appears to be a perfect fit. I was pushed into deviancy by the people around me. There are other theories that may be a better fit.

I will discount social control theory, because of its reliance on is rationalisation, the concept of deterrence (Ibid., p.89). I do not believe that there was either a general or a specific deterrence factor to being native. Up until 1990, being native was an curiosity, like being double jointed; it could be trotted out at parties to impress and entertain people. At that time, there was almost an incentive to be exotic. Disappearing. Incentive does not apply in my case though. Labeling theory has some interesting possibilities. The Oka crisis was an act of primary deviance (Gomme, p.100). If the Canadian State was to defend a burial ground in ? say, France ? from plato on morality, conversion into a golf course, it would be considered to disappearing be legitimate. However, because the Mohawks lacked many of the legitimate venues that a Country would have in lobbying another on the international stage, they were forced into an act of violence ? a blockade. Afterwards they were attacked, and used force to defend themselves ? something that any country would do. What Music. However because the Mohawk country is not recognized, what they did was considered to cross experiment be an act of terrorism, and they were punished for it in those terms.

As for me, the primary act of deviance was defending the is rationalisation Mohawks in the Oka crisis. While the disappearing majority of is rationalisation my peers were attacking the Mohawks, I came to their defense. My first act of defense was primary deviance because it was isolated, and did not result in ?continuous negative social reaction? (Ibid.). Because I did not consider that act of primary deviance to be deviant, I would not be self-identified as a deviant. Disappearing Cross Experiment. Gomme writes about what happened next: The application of on morality derogatory labels and cross the severing of connections to what is rationalisation conventional sphere intensify the construction of a deviant identity by disappearing experiment, forcing the devalued person to seek out others in similar situations who can provide more favorable reflections of the self. (Gomme, p.101). This description matches my situation to superstructure a tee. I was labeled as an ?Indian? (trust me, as a native, that is an disappearing cross, insult), and my social connections were severed.

I sought out child abuse, new social situations in cross which I would be accepted and my anger approved of. As I wrote at the start of this paper, I do not consider myself to abuse essays be a deviant ? in any sense of the cross experiment term. Labeling theory requires that I identify with my deviance. Is Rationalisation. I do not, and did not. Disappearing Cross Experiment. My main goal in life is to modernize native society, and help guide it toward independence.

If I accepted native society as it is, I suppose that I could be considered deviant in the labeling theory sense. However, my allegiance to native society, is a biological one, that recognizes my membership in it as a fact of biology. My formal association with native life began because I was pushed into it. When that force was removed I formed new friendships with whites. To Kill A Mockingbird Characters. It is disappearing cross, because of this that I suspect that the best explanation for my period of deviance is contained in containment theory. I would draw a comparison between my situation and marxism that of people described in ?Normalcy and Visibility?.

While I am not often mistaken as Anglo-Saxon white, I do have a passing resemblance to a straight-haired version of a Jewish stereotype; I have also passed as Catalonian, Mexican, and Greek. People do not know that I am native until I tell them; I am racially ambiguous. The article gives one major relevant factor to disappearing cross experiment living with an invisible disability. The first was that people had the child option of disappearing cross maintaining a ?semblance of normalcy? (Thorne 1993, p.9). I my case, I have the marxism option of passing as white. This is disturbingly important in this country. For example , until recently I worked in a West Side grocery store. Cross. This store had an up market clientele. Among the items the store sold were bags and cards with native designs on what, them. Disappearing. After a while began to notice that in spite of this native friendly image that the store had, even middle-class natives could not enter the store without being considered to be a shoplifter by the management. My co-workers also occasionally told stories in which natives were attacked or demeaned.

If I were to reveal my identity, I would face being excluded from these conversations. If I was excluded from these conversations, I would face being excluded from their social circle in general, and any future options for advancement that arise from being a part of the ?in? group. I decided to to kill a mockingbird play keep my mouth shut, and cross get a raise instead. If I was visibly more native that option would not have been open to me. Deviance in my case is not really deviance on superstructure, my part. When I did have a spell of deviant activity, it was caused by disappearing experiment, external forces. Marxism. When those external forces were removed, the deviancy ended. This deviancy is in some ways voluntary, because I can hide it. However, I do not believe that by experiment, engaging in a profound act of self-denial can be a reasonable choice, so the voluntary choice is somewhat less real. I have found many other people in similar situations. Child Abuse Essays. There are quite a few natives that can pass in white society, and do so, however, they maintain a true allegiance to their nation.

I have found this common thread among many other natives: they had a lot more white friends, until opinions hardened against our peoples. While we hold the same western liberal views that we have always had, we no longer see Canada, or our white liberal peers, as friends but enemies, and dangerous ones at that; and it is not something that we chose. Bibliography Gomme, Ian. The Shadow Line: Deviance and Crime in Canada, Harcourt Brace Jovonovich (Tornto: 1993). Disappearing Experiment. Thorne, S.E. (1993).

Normalcy and Visibility. In Social Explanations of child essays Criminal and Deviant Behaviour, Brian Burtch Ed., Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, B.C.: 2000). Crim 135: Essay 2 The major argument in disappearing cross favour of curtailing judicial independence and prosecutorial discretion is that the justice system needs to be more accountable, more consistent, and more predictable. Each of superstructure marxism these counts against the justice system is based on the mistaken assumption that the justice system needs to be a rational and efficient corporate body. That is to disappearing cross experiment say, that the justice system must act as a single entity with the rasion d?etre of marxism fighting, controlling, and deterring crime. The advocates of legal straightjackets have failed to cross prove their prima facie case. The justice system has no need to be a single solid structure with automated systems of judges, lawyers and parole officers. In the strictly constructed systems of our less-democratic cousins, lawyers, judges and their ilk serve only to marxism diagnose the criminal for the sole purpose of placing them in a category of offender, prisoner, and parolee.

The primary fault of the argument in favour of judicial and prosecutorial constraints is that it carries in itself the tacit assumption of disappearing experiment guilt. Is Rationalisation. By merely categorizing a citizen as an offender under the criminal code, the most authoritarian and disappearing cross experiment unaccountable element of the justice system, the police, has effectively acted as judge jury and executioner. What Is Rationalisation. The citizen, who becomes labeled as an offender under the criminal code is shunted off to a holding cell, where, another police official determines if they are to be released. This police official would, at this stage in cross the current system use subjective criteria to determine if the offender was a significant risk and should be released; in a constrained system, the plato crime would determine the availability of release automatically. In the constrained system, the belligerent, and indigent, flasher would go free; while the tenured professor whose failing student wrongfully accused him of rape would be sent before a judge. Upon reaching the judge, the charges wold determine the bail-after all, consistency is the modus vivendi of the constrained system.

Griffiths and Verdun-Jones note that those people that have been denied bail and appear at their trial in state custody are more likely to be found guilty, and, when found so, they are more likely than other convicted citizens to receive a harsh sentence. Beside the clear difficulty encountered by cross, imprisoned people in mounting a defense against the state's accusations, there is a secondary problem of facing a jury of what is baroque music their peers while in custody. To the average citizen, the appearance of one of disappearing cross their wayward neighbours in chains is likely to prejudice them against him or her. In a future system of what is rationalisation 'consistent' justice it is likely that those offences where the disappearing cross experiment punishment is what, most severe, the disappearing experiment indictable offences, that the citizen is likely to be held in custody; and, it is those same indictable offences, to be tried before a jury, where the accussed's status as a prisoner is most likely to be held against them. While the accussed's status as a prisoner is what, not a de jure proclamation of their guilt, to the average citizen of a western liberal democracy, the presence of some person that has been forcibly removed from disappearing experiment, society is a de facto statement that they are dangerous. In the model state of consistency that certain legal reformers foresee, the police, the to kill a mockingbird play justices, prosecutors, and judges would 'apply' the law according to a strict set of rules. The state's agents will act with no prejudice, no leeway, no derogation and no derivation and disappearing experiment no mercy. The police would presumably lay every applicable charge against marx e émile durkheim every accused person that is brought to their attention. Not only would a person be brought to disappearing cross experiment justice for forcible rape, but also for equally abhorrent crimes such as assault and battery, littering, loitering in superstructure marxism a public park, attempted murder, reckless endangerment, unlawful confinement, jaywalking, speeding, creating a disturbance, resisting arrest, and any other possible offence related to the crime and the flight from justice.

Griffiths and Verdun-Jones have noted that in the recently more open atmosphere of disappearing cross experiment plea-bargaining, police have become more consistent appliers of each and every conceivable law. Play. Not only cross, has a person been charged with one crime, but also of to kill every other alternative charge available. In the process of plea bargaining, a great deal of trust is needed between the disappearing cross defense counsel and the crown. This trust often resembles collusion. In the process of what is baroque music plea bargaining the multiple -though mutually exclusive- charges against an offender are often reduced to a single charge in exchange for a guilty plea and reciprocal sentencing recommendation. In reality, the accused are bargaining away irrelevant charges for the single charge that they would have faced anyway, in short, the accused gains nothing from a system of bargaining based on consistent policing. Disappearing Experiment. There is, however, nothing consistent about plea-bargaining. Plea-bargaining is at plato on morality, the heart of prosecutorial discretion. Prosecutorial discretion would go the way of inconsistent policing and it would be abolished. Consistency in prosecution requires that each and cross experiment every accused be treated identically.

In order for each accused to plato be seen to be treated identically, they must have each and disappearing cross experiment every charge dealt with in plato an open court of record. Inconsistency is not a problem with the police, prosecutors, or parole board members. Inconsistency is what enables the police, prosecutors, and parole board members to consider the human factor of the crime. I f police were to 'throw the book' at every criminal, the disappearing experiment system what bog down with minor crimes. Furthermore, while some acts may technically be crimes, they may not have been enforced in twenty or thirty years. A possible problem of inconsistency is with judges. Essays. Sentencing may vary across the country - though there is very little evidence to say if it does or does not. There are sentencing guidelines, but there are no uniform statistics on sentencing which would allow the public to determine if these sentencing guidelines are being followed. When sentencing is brought to the public's attention, it is only in the most extreme cases where a particularly lenient sentence has been given out. Disappearing Cross Experiment. Therefore the best solution for inconsistent sentencing is to produce and publish uniform statistics on sentencing in to kill play order to determine of sentencing guidelines are being followed. Any other reform of the judicial sentencing process before these statistics were produced and before their impact was observed on the judicial branch would be premature.

It is possible that many judges that have handed out lenient or severe sentences did not realize that they were significantly out of line with the Canadian mainstream. Conclusion Discretion is not a problem, perception is. The police need discretion in order to enforce laws commensurate with the changes in community values. Police also need the ability to exercise their discretion in order to enforce laws as they are best able to do and to disappearing cross not get swamped with petty crimes, while resources are needed to deal with serious offences. Prosecutors need the ability to exercise discretion in order to plea bargain. Without the ability to plea bargain, prosecutors may find that they send far too much time prosecuting ancillary legal offences while the main crime is what, not given their full attention.

The only reform necessary, is not technically a reform, but is experiment, instead a fine-tuning of the current system to allow it to function better, and that is the production and publication of is baroque music uniform statistics on sentencing. Communications 131 Review: Neil Postman?s Amusing Ourselves to Death Robert Jago 200015294 Neil Postman's Amusing Ourselves to Death focuses on cross, the change from what he calls a 'typographic' society to a televisual society. This change involves the decline of rational, linear thought which is based on the book, to disjointed, a-historical, and non-inferential thought which is based on the standards of television. Postman's prima facie argument is that the medium of karl marx communications affects forms of disappearing experiment thought. His first argument is based entirely on conjecture (though later in the book Postman does cite a study by Gavriel Solomon, p.152 footnote 4). Postman argues that television and child abuse its predecessors (the telegraph, the photograph) changed people's modes of thought through operant conditioning. Television and electronic communications in general force people to understand only the immediate and to forget the past. Several of Postman's axioms are questionable, and his data is open to experiment competing interpretations. Most importantly, Postman's study of the electronic society focused on it in an immature stage of development. Plato On Morality. Modern electronic culture is quite different from the one that Postman studied. Neil Postman's stated purpose for his book is to, show that a great media-metaphor shift has taken place in America, with the result that the content of cross much of our public discourse has become dangerous nonsense(p.16).

To that end, his book opens with a glimpse at the United States of the early nineteen-eighties and an explanation of his use of the word metaphor. For Postman the media metaphor is a metaphor that draws analogies between aspects of the marxism media and aspects of society. Postman states that in the literate age, metaphors abounded. Alice in wonderland, became a metaphor for a person wandering in 'a world of semantic nonsense' and trying to make sense out of it; Athens became a metaphor for intellectual excellence and so on. In the twentieth century, the printed word added very little in terms of metaphor. Terms such as Orwellian, thought police, but very little else transferred over from the printed page into middle class speech. The metaphor of the later twentieth century was to disappearing be dictated by television. Modes of abuse thought mimicked television production standards.

Postman charts the transition from the typographic mind, through the 'peek - a - boo' world and into the 'now. this' world of television. The larger scale of the medium metaphor is what Postman refers to cross experiment as resonance. Postman states that resonance is metaphor writ large. What Postman appears to mean here is that resonance is the stuff of marx myths, when social customs and norms, and idiosyncrasies become confused with nature. Just as one is seen as peculiar to question the effects of the construction of mountains, one is seen as equally peculiar to question such social constructs as [Noam Chomsky notwithstanding] contemporary English word usage and grammar.

After first explaining his proposition on how the dominant medium of communications affects forms of thought, Postman uses the remainder of the first part of disappearing cross his book to describe decline of the printed word in America. He begins with describing 'typographic' America at its peak. Postman describes a country -though not a nation- where the ability to read was nearly universal among men, and, where foreign reading materials were abundant (P. 34). The way in what which he describes the empowerment that the average person may have felt is interesting for my third argument [that Postman contrasted typographic America with the wrong era of the electronic age].

By 1772, Jacob Duche could write: 'The poorest labourer upon the shore of the Delaware thinks himself entitled to deliver his sentiment in cross experiment matters of religion or politics with as much freedom as the gentleman or scholar. ' (P. 33) The printing press dominated the minds of typographic Americans. Their modes of thought mirrored the construction of books and pamphlets. Books were linear, impersonal, rational, and historical. The written word was never read 'live'. People's minds functioned in these same ways. People were rational and thought historically and therefore linearly. Public discourse in typographic America was fundamentally rational and abuse essays intelligent. Disappearing Experiment. Advertising and what is rationalisation politics were based on reasoned argument [for the most part]. According to Postman, the change in public discourse occurred because of the change in the media available to the public.

The first major change that Postman notes is the invention of the telegraph. While it is interesting to note that the industrial revolution, and the rise of the cross urban centres occurred at roughly the same time as the invention of the telegraph, it is the later event that most effected the way that people think and behave. Following the telegraph came the photograph. The telegraph changed the what is rationalisation meaning of cross experiment intelligence and information. In preliterate days, intelligence was synonymous with memory. To Kill. In the typographic age, intelligence became synonymous with rationality. With the experiment electronic age heralded in by the telegraph, intelligence became the what is baroque ability to sift through large amounts of data. News in typographic society consisted of useful facts and information. Postman describes a type of apathy ratio, what he calls an 'information-action ratio' (P.69).

In typographic America, efficacy as seen through individual responses to 'news' was significantly higher than it is in modern televisual America. The telegraph made trivia in place of news. Surely people in cross Finland could finally know the day to day events that occurred in Lorado Texas, but, why would they want to? According to Postman, the telegraph made the marx durkheim United States one nation [this was also coincident with the Civil War and the United States' great era of wars of conquest]. The telegraph allowed people on the Pacific and the Atlantic shores to know the disappearing minutiae of child abuse each others every day lives. While the telegraph trivialized the public space with useless information and 'factoids' the photograph came along to experiment act as a magnifying glass for these details. The photograph increased the impact of the proliferating factoids, by giving them a face and a presence greater than a thousand words. By the time the photograph and the telegraph had become ascendant, the public discourse had irrevocably changed. Advertising became irrelevant, irrational, and the first slogans were developed [following shortly after such election slogans 'fifty-four forty or fight' or 'Tippacannoe and Tyler too' or the Democratic Party's anti-Republican song 'Nigger Doodle Dandy'].The era of the photograph and the telegraph are what Postman calls 'the peek-a-boo world'. Plato On Morality. Part two of the book focuses on the particular ills of the televisual age.

The greatest ill, and cross one that Neil Postman had focused on in the past, is the decline in education in favour of entertainment. A prime example for Postman is superstructure marxism, 'The Voyage of the Mimi' series. This series is a study that involves a great deal of cross time on behalf of children in superstructure marxism order to study whales and navigation among other things. None of these things are relevant to education in any traditional sense of the word. Postman's analysis of that particular series is cross experiment, that it is an example of the education changing in order to what meet the needs of television. While there are more books in print in the television age, they do not have the impact of their fewer but more serious predecessors.

As was the case with the Voyage of the Mimi series, books seem to have become 'audio-visual aids'. Books have lost their seriousness. Books in disappearing the modern context no longer command the attention that they once did. The printed word in the modern context is a visual aid, it celebrates the to kill dominant medium and is constructed around television's conventions. Experiment. For example, a glance at any of the what Fin de Siecle 'best 100 [or 1'000 et al.] lists that currently proliferate, would show what books are considered to be of substance to this society. In the Globe and cross Mail's list of the best history books are, a picture book, Atlas of World History, and ESPN Sport Century.

Among the what best seller lists are a book of lists, a book by a television writer, a book by a faded hockey star, a book by experiment, a movie writer, a book of trivia. While there are more books in karl marx max weber e émile durkheim print today than ever before, it is likely that they are to be gems such as ESPN Sport Century, as opposed to disappearing cross experiment Walden or the Native Son. Child. Postman concludes his book by cross, analyzing this 'dangerous' lack of substance brought on by the conventions of the television age. Postman uses two of major metaphors of the decline of western society. the first is the Orwellian. Today the totalitarian state is confined to only a few fourth rate and declining states such as Myanmar and Belarus and so its position as primary threat to Western Liberty has given way. In the place of the Orwellian thought police and big brother is Aldous Huxley's 'Brave New World'. The brave new world of marx durkheim Postman's interpretation is one where television has taken the cross place of Huxley's 'Soma' [an ecstacy like drug]. People have forsaken their liberty and democracy in favour of simple and constant pleasures. Postman concludes that television has created a Brave New World where the statescraftsmen are given free hand by a public more interested in their leader's private affairs than their economic policies. This new world where seriousness is mocked, and where depth of imagination, and attention span have gone into steep decline is plato, one that has put democracy and freedom in grave danger.

Postman proposes that the solution to the current state of affairs is to inoculate the populous through education. People would be educated to understand the television epistemology, and to not just become media savvy, but to become aware of the myths that surround the dominant medium. The current dominant medium in the United States and Canada is television. Other media, such as radio, and print are complementary to television and have very little independent sway over societal mores. Disappearing Experiment. Postman's analysis could only music, take into account society up to the mid 1980's. That society lacked the internet, and such venues as digital cable and inexpensive satellite dishes. Postman derides libertarians for attacking government censorship but failing to take on the oligarchy of the disappearing big-three networks. In his discussion of the typographic age, Postman describes the empowerment of the common man by his ability to converse and understand every subject of importance.

Postman takes especial note of Benjamin Franklin's views on the importance of the pamphlet. Each of these points noted by Postman can lead to a different final conclusion if extrapolated into is rationalisation, the internet age. To begin with, the modern era of between seventy and disappearing cross experiment five-hundred television channels should have been easily foreseen by Postman. He noted the marxism lack of attention by the general public, and how that brief attention span was created by television. The television of Postman's study was, by cross experiment, current standards, conservative, and for lack of a better word, 'deep'. The oligarchy of the three networks is gone, replaced by a constellation of specialty television networks [though production is now owned by a few industrial concerns].

Attention spans are even briefer, and every whim under the sun can be served by its own television network. Plato. Contrary to Postman's original argument that the product of a populace obsessed by entertainment is political apathy, entertainment can create political involvement. While Postman described the efficacy felt by disappearing cross, the people of the typographic age, he failed to note that part of the what is rationalisation efficacy was inspired by such public proceedings as the public hanging. Postman failed to realize that a public raised on scripted spectacle, would be enraptured by live reality. In a world of instant communications, there is enough live spectacle to keep every audience entertained. This entertainment can be translated into efficacy through such means as instant television poll, something that Postman only briefly touched on. Postman's description of the transition from literate to televised worlds and disappearing cross experiment the coincident transformation of society from plato, literate and disappearing experiment rational to base and excitable is not entirely accurate. He fails to take into child essays, consideration other factors such as the second industrial revolution and the expansion of liberty within countries which may explain the general decline in the public discourse.

Postman places the blame for the decline in rationality solely on the dominant medium of communications. Furthermore, Postman writes that people have lost the disappearing cross sense of efficacy vis a vis the state. While people may be voting less, they may be participating more. Protest groups, lobby groups, special interest groups, petitions, and is rationalisation the like have proliferated in post-industrial society. People may have transferred their trust from the state to the epistemic community and disappearing experiment they may have done this because of a new involving medium.

Bibliography Postman, Neil, Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of is baroque Show Buisness, Penguin Books (Toronto: 1986).