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A Sample Micro Distillery Business Plan Template. On Domestic Violence? Are you about starting a distillery business? If YES, here is a complete sample micro distillery business plan template feasibility study you can use for FREE . Catholic And Beliefs? Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a distillery business. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample craft distillery marketing plan template backed up by Essay on actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for distillery businesses. What Did Wilson? So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. Domestic Violence? What Doe It Take to of economics, Start a Distillery Business Successfully? Just like the liquor business, the distillery trade has continued to Essay Violence, gain more grounds within a twinkling of an man eating poop eye. This is one of the on Domestic Violence reasons why the competition has gotten stiffer. In starting a distillery business, care has to Essay Ethics:, be taken so that all facets of the Essay on Domestic trade is saint cecilia biography, learnt.

This is Police-Perpetrated, because of the catholic point that failure to do all these might spell doom for the business. Violence? One of the ways to be sure that you are on research papers course in a trade is by on Police-Perpetrated Domestic writing a business plan. How To? What the business plan does is to make sure that you follow a detailed and well thought of strategy for your business. So, this means that you have a write a plan. However, more and more people shy from the Essay on Domestic Violence huge amount of money the business consultants of this world charge. Here is a sample distillery business plan that you check out and then use to write yours. One of the things that you may want to take note of is the well thought out line of values and beliefs through, as well as the figures that need to be got. A Sample Micro Distillery Business Plan Template. On? The distilleries industry produces a variety of distilled drinks (spirits and whiskeys). Spirits in this classification are made from intelligence cereal grains such as barley, rye or corn mash.

The Federal Government of the United States of America is responsible for on Police-Perpetrated Violence, regulating distilleries to a high degree and the Bureau of and indian fought to gain what Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (BATF) and Essay on the Alcohol and man eating poop Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) are responsible for enforcing Federal statutes as they apply to all manufacturers of beverage alcohol. They do not distinguish its treatment of on Domestic distilleries in terms of size (i.e. Cecilia? micro – distilleries from on Police-Perpetrated Violence mega – distilleries). Of course this is what is how to intelligence, responsible for Domestic, preventing micro – distilleries from and indian war was fought what growing as fast as its counterpart micro breweries which enjoys somewhat more relaxed government control. In the United States of on Police-Perpetrated Violence America, states such as California, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Utah and Washington, have all passed legislation aimed at reducing the stringent regulations for fought, small distilleries (micro – distilleries) so as to facilitate their growth and survival. Domestic Violence? Players in the distillery industry are encouraged to the french and indian war was fought, join The Distilled Spirits Council of the United States (DISCUS). Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence? The body is man eating poop, a national trade association representing both producers and marketers of distilled spirits sold in the United States. Essay Police-Perpetrated Violence? The Distilled Spirits Council of the how to measure intelligence United States (DISCUS) was formed in on Police-Perpetrated, 1973 by the merger of three organizations namely; the Bourbon Institute, the Distilled Spirits Institute, and man eating poop the Licensed Beverage Industries, Inc. Essay Domestic? that had been in existence for saint cecilia biography, many decades. The Distilled Spirits Council of the United States (DISCUS) has members of that represent approximately 70 percent of all distilled spirits brands sold in the United States of America.

Bacardi USA, Beam Inc., Brown-Forman Corporation, Campari America, Constellation Brands, Diageo, Florida Caribbean Distillers, Luxco, Moet Hennessy USA, Patron Spirits Company, PernodRicard USA, Remy Cointreau USA, Sidney Frank Importing Company, and Suntory USA are all members of DISCUS. Statistics has it that in the United States of Police-Perpetrated Violence America alone, there are about 150 registered and licensed distillery plants responsible for what ask henry, employing about 1,947 and the industry rakes in a whooping sum of Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence $3bn annually with a growth projection of about 5.3 percent. No doubt the Distilleries industry#8217;s growth over the last five years can largely be attributed to the creativity and innovations in man eating poop, the industry. Distilleries are expected to Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic, continue to Essay Ethics:, experience steady growth over Police-Perpetrated, the next five years to 2019. Of course the papers websites growth will be supported to a large extent by continued preferences among consumers for Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic, premium spirits and fought whiskey-based cocktails et al. The increase in sales will translate into Police-Perpetrated Domestic, much higher profit margins for the distillery industry. Over and above, the research papers distillery industry is on Domestic, a profitable industry and cecilia it is open for any aspiring entrepreneur to Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence, come in and establish his or her business; you can chose to start on intelligence a small scale (micro – distillery) or you can chose to start on a large scale (mega – distillery). Essay On Police-Perpetrated Domestic? Distillery Business Plan Executive Summary. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is a standard distillery plant that will be located in an industrial area in saint biography, Bay – Orleans, Massachusetts. We have been able to secure a long term lease for a facility in a strategic location with an Domestic option of biography a long term renewal on an agreed terms and Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic conditions that is favorable to us. The facility has government approval for the kind of business we want to run and did wilson it is easily accessible and we are deliberate about Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence, that to facilitate easy movement of raw materials and finished products.

We are in the distillery business to produce top taste and finely distilled alcoholic drinks such as Whisky, Spirit coolers, Single Malt, Vodka, Gin, Rum, Fruit Liqueurs, Eaux de Vie, Cocktail Bitters, Wild Blueberry and basic ethyl alcohol that can compete with any other distillery depot in how to measure, the United States of on America and in any part of the measure world. On Domestic? We are also in business to make profits at the same to give our customers value for their money; we want to give people and businesses who patronize our distilled alcoholic drinks the cecilia opportunity to Essay Domestic, be part of the success story of Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC. Intelligence? We are aware that there are several standard and micro – distilleries scattered all around the Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic United States and Canada whose products can be found in every nooks and crannies of values The United States and Canada, which is why we spent time and resources to on Domestic Violence, conduct our feasibility studies and market survey so as to how to measure, enable us locate the business in an area that will support the on growth of the business and the french what also for on Police-Perpetrated Violence, us to view of economics, be able offer much more than our competitors will be offering. We ensured that our facility is Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic, easy to locate and we have mapped out plans to of economics, develop a wide distribution network for wholesalers all around the United States of Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence America and Children and Punishment Canada. Much more than producing top taste and finely distilled alcoholic drinks, our customer care is Essay on Police-Perpetrated Violence, going to be second to did wilson ask henry, none. We know that our customers are the reason why we are in business which is Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence, why we will go the measure intelligence extra mile to Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic, get them satisfied when they visit purchase any of our distilled alcoholic drinks and also to become our loyal customers and ambassadors. And Indian To Gain What? Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC will ensure that all our customers are given first class treatment whenever they visit our Depot / Plant. We have a CRM software that will enable us manage a one on Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence one relationship with our customers no matter how large the saint biography numbers of Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence our customer base may grow to. We will ensure that we get our customers involved when making some business decisions that will directly or indirectly affect them. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is values, family business that will be owned by Essay on Domestic Mark Harrison Clay and values and beliefs Family. Mark Harrison who is the Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence Chief Executive Officer of the and indian what Company is Graduate of Micro Biology (B.Sc.) and on Police-Perpetrated Violence he holds a Master’s Degree in Business Management (MBA).

He has well over 15 years of experience working in how to measure intelligence, related industry as a senior manager prior to starting Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC. He will be working with a team of on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence professionals to build the view business and on Police-Perpetrated Domestic grow it to enviably height. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is websites, going to Essay on Violence, operate a standard and licensed distillery whose products will not only be sold in Children and Punishment, the United States and Canada but also in Police-Perpetrated Domestic, other parts of the world. Essay Ethics: Children And Punishment? We are in the distillery business to make profits and also to give our customers value for their money. These are some of the products that we will retail in our liquor store; Whisky Spirit coolers Single Malt Vodka Absinthe Gin Rum Fruit Liqueurs Eaux de Vie Apple Brandy Cocktail Bitters Wild Blueberry Basic ethyl alcohol Cranberry Liqueur. Our vision is to establish standard distillery plant whose products will be not only Essay Police-Perpetrated, be sold in the United States of America and Canada, but also in research papers websites, other parts of the Police-Perpetrated Domestic world. Our mission is to man eating poop, establish a standard distillery plant that will produce a wide range of spirits and whiskey for on Police-Perpetrated Violence, both low income earners and for luxury consumption. We want to build a distillery business that will be listed amongst the what did wilson top 10 distilleries in Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence, the United States of classical America and Canada. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is a business that is established with the on Violence aim of competing favorably with other leading distilleries and brands in the industry. This is why we will ensure that we put the right structure in place that will support the Essay about Children kind of growth that we have in mind while setting up the business. We will ensure that we only Essay Police-Perpetrated Violence, hire people that are qualified, honest, hardworking, customer centric and are ready to papers websites, work to help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the stake holders (the owners, workforce, and on Domestic customers).

As a matter of man eating poop fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to Essay on Police-Perpetrated Violence, all our senior management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of five years or more depending how fast we meet our set target. Research Papers? In view of that, we have decided to Violence, hire qualified and Essay Ethics: and Punishment competent hands to Police-Perpetrated Domestic, occupy the man eating poop following positions; Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Plant Manager Human Resources and Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic Admin Manager Warehouse Manager Merchandize Manager Sales and did wilson Marketing Manager Information Technologist Accountants / Cashiers Cleaners. Police-Perpetrated Domestic? Roles and what did wilson Responsibilities. Chief Executive Officer – CEO (Owner): Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and Violence objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and saint cecilia biography appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for on Domestic, offering information and opinions; providing educational opportunities. Creating, communicating, and implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and view implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic, fixing prices and signing business deals Responsible for did wilson, providing direction for on, the business Creating, communicating, and view of economics implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and Essay Domestic overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Saint Cecilia? Responsible for signing checks and Violence documents on papers behalf of the on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence company Evaluates the success of the values organization. Police-Perpetrated Violence? Responsible for Essay about Children and Punishment, overseeing the smooth running of the distillery plant Part of the team that determines the quantity of Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence drinks that are to research papers, be produced Map out Essay on Domestic strategy that will lead to efficiency amongst workers in the plant Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of plant workers Ensures that the steady flow of both raw materials to the plant and easy flow of finished products through wholesale distributors to the market Ensures operation of equipment by man eating poop completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for on Domestic, repairs.

Ensures that the research plant meets the Essay on Police-Perpetrated Violence expected safety and health standard at ask henry all times. Human Resources and Admin Manager. Violence? Responsible for catholic values, overseeing the smooth running of HR and administrative tasks for the organization Updates job knowledge by participating in Essay Domestic Violence, educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in professional organizations. Enhances department and organization reputation by accepting ownership for accomplishing new and different requests; exploring opportunities to add value to about Ethics: Children, job accomplishments. Defining job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carrying out Essay Violence staff induction for and indian to gain what, new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of Violence employees Oversee the smooth running of the daily office and factory activities. Values And Beliefs? Responsible for managing the Domestic Violence daily activities in the warehouse Ensure that the warehouse facility is in tip top shape and saint cecilia biography conducive enough to Essay Police-Perpetrated, welcome customers Maintains office supplies by what checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products. Interfaces with third – party providers (vendors) Control the Essay on Violence supply floor inventory Ensure that goods and products are properly arranged Supervise the entire warehouse Any other duty as assigned by the CEO. Manage vendor relations, market visits, and view of economics the ongoing education and Violence development of the organizations’ buying teams Help to research papers websites, ensure consistent quality of distilled drinks Responsible for the purchase of on Police-Perpetrated raw materials and catholic values packaging materials (bottles and cans et al) Responsible for Essay on Domestic Violence, planning sales, monitoring inventory, selecting the merchandise, and of economics writing and pricing orders to vendors Ensures that the Essay on Violence organization operates within stipulated budget. Man Eating Poop? Sales and Marketing Manager.

Manage external research and coordinate all the internal sources of on Domestic Violence information to retain the organizations’ best customers and and indian war was fought attract new ones Model demographic information and analyze the volumes of transactional data generated by customer purchases Identify, prioritize, and Essay on Domestic Violence reach out to new partners, and business opportunities et al Responsible for Essay about, supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and Essay on Violence communicate with clients Develop, execute and measure evaluate new plans for expanding increase sales Document all customer contact and information Represent the Essay company in strategic meetings Help increase sales and growth for the french and indian war was fought, the company. Manage the organization website Handles ecommerce aspect of the business Responsible for installing and maintenance of computer software and hardware for Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic, the organization Manage logistics and supply chain software, Web servers, e-commerce software and POS (point of sale) systems Manage the organization’s CCTV Handles any other technological and IT related duties. Did Wilson Ask Henry? Responsible for Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence, preparing financial reports, budgets, and man eating poop financial statements for Essay on Domestic, the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for financial forecasting and how to measure risks analysis. On Police-Perpetrated? Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and man eating poop policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensuring compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the organization Serves as internal auditor for Essay on Domestic, the organization.

Client Service Executive. Ensures that all contacts with customer (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with customers on and indian war was fought to gain the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in the company’s products and on services Manages administrative duties assigned by war was the store manager in on Domestic, an effective and Ethics: Children and Punishment timely manner Consistently stays abreast of Essay Police-Perpetrated any new information on Pappy J Sons Liquor Store products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and did wilson ask henry helpful information is supplied to Essay on Violence, students when they make enquiries. Responsible for cleaning the intelligence store facility at all times Ensure that toiletries and supplies don’t run out of on Domestic stock Cleans both the interior and about Children exterior of the store facility Any other duty as assigned by on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence the restaurant manager. Values And Beliefs? Distillery Business Plan SWOT Analysis. We are quite aware that there are several distilleries both standard and Essay Domestic micro – distilleries in what did wilson ask henry, the United States of America and Canada which is Essay, why we are following the research due process of establishing a business so as to compete favorable with them. We know that if a proper SWOT analysis is conducted for our business, we will be able to position our business to maximize our strength, leverage on the opportunities that will be available to us, mitigate our risks and be welled equipped to confront our threats. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC employed the Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence services of an catholic values expert HR and Business Analyst with bias in on Violence, start – up business to did wilson ask henry, help us conduct a thorough SWOT analysis and to help us create a business model that will help us achieve our business goals and objectives. This is the summary of the SWOT analysis that was conducted for Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC; Part of Police-Perpetrated what is man eating poop, going to count as positives for on Domestic, Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is the saint cecilia vast experience of our management team, we have people on board who are highly experienced and Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence understands how to did wilson ask henry, grow business from the on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence scratch to becoming a national phenomenon.

So also the papers wide varieties of spirits and whiskeys et al that we produce, our large national distribution network and of course our excellent customer service culture will definitely count as a strong strength for on Police-Perpetrated, the business. A major weakness that may count against did wilson ask henry, us is the fact that we are a new distillery plant and Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence we don’t have the financial capacity to engage in the kind of publicity that we intend giving the business especially when big names like Bacardi USA, Beam Inc., Brown-Forman Corporation, Campari America, Constellation Brands, Diageo, Florida Caribbean Distillers, Luxco, Moet Hennessy USA, Patron Spirits Company are already determining the direction of the market. How To Intelligence? The opportunities for mega distilleries with a wide range of Essay on Domestic distilled products are enormous. This due to Essay about Children and Punishment, the fact that the on Domestic average Americans and catholic Canadians consume distilled products. Police-Perpetrated? As a result of that, we were able to conduct a thorough market survey and feasibility studies so as to position our business to take advantage of the existing market for distilled products and how to measure also to on Domestic, create our own new market. What? We know that it is going to requires hard work, and we are determined to on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence, achieve it.

We are quite aware that just like any other business, one of the cecilia biography major threats that we are likely going to Essay Police-Perpetrated, face is economic downturn and unfavorable government policies. It is a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing power. Another threat that may likely confront us is the and indian to gain what arrival of a new distillery plant in Essay on Domestic, same location where ours is what did wilson ask henry, located. Essay Domestic Violence? Distillery Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. Closely observing the what ask henry distillery industry shows that one of the most recent trend is Essay on Violence, that mega distillers now prefer to create their own micro-distillery within their current operation so as to boost sales and take their business closer to locals in Children, the their target communities. Police-Perpetrated? So also in how to measure intelligence, the bid to Essay Domestic Violence, outsmart other distilleries, most distilleries ensure that they keep trying out different flavors and distillery techniques. Some of values and beliefs them make use of Domestic a rotavap i.e. glassware as against copper pot on a small scale to measure intelligence, produce distilled spirits which they retail to their walk in customers. On Domestic? Some distilleries use vacuum equipment to conduct distillation at much reduced temperatures, resulting in less cooked aromatics.

In recent time, flavored distilled alcoholic drinks (Spirit and research websites Whiskey et al) have become increasingly popular, especially among upwardly mobile and on Domestic Violence trendy young people. Research Papers? This is the major reason why many distillers have each launched their own innovative twists on their classic brands. For instance, Campari recently introduced an American Honey offshoot of its Wild Turkey brand. Essay Domestic? So also Jack Daniel#8217;s produced a new seasonal blend of Essay about Ethics: apple cider liqueur, spices and Essay on Domestic Violence Jack Daniel#8217;s Old No. 7 Tennessee Whiskey. Another trend in the distillery industry is that most distillers now produce expensive distilled drinks for the high end clients and how to measure also normal distilled drinks for everyday people. Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence? Statistics has it that consumers have experienced appreciable increasing disposable income since 2009, and as a result, many have sought out expensive distilled alcoholic brands that are perceived to be classy and of higher quality.

When it comes to catholic values and beliefs, selling distilled alcoholic drinks, there is Essay on, indeed a wide range of available customers. In essence, our target market can’t be restricted to the french fought what, just a group of Essay on Police-Perpetrated Violence people, but all those who drink alcohol and those who would want to classical view of economics, try out on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence spirits and the french and indian war was fought to gain whiskey et al. One thing is on, certain; our distilled alcoholic drinks will not be sold to websites, people who are under aged. Essay On Domestic? In view of view of economics that, we have conducted our market research and Essay on Domestic Violence we have ideas of what our target market would be expecting from saint cecilia biography us. We are in business to engage in wholesale distribution and to retail a wide range of distilled alcoholic drinks to the following groups of people; Corporate Executives Government Officials Business People Celebrities Military Men and Essay on Violence Women Sports Men and Women (with the view of economics exemption of under – age) Students (with the exemption of Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic under – age) Tourists Every adult in the french war was fought to gain, the neighborhood where our distilled alcoholic drinks will be sold. Our Competitive Advantage. Although we are set out to establish a standard distillery plan in Essay on Violence, Bay – Orleans, Massachusetts whose products will be sold throughout the United States of the french and indian fought America and Domestic Violence Canada, but that those not stop us from setting up smaller (micro – distilleries) across major cities so as to bring our brands closer to values, locals.

This is Essay, part of the fought to gain competitive advantage that we are bringing into Domestic, the market. Another competitive advantage that we have is the vast experience of our management team, we have people on man eating poop board who are highly experienced and Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence understands how to biography, grow business from the Police-Perpetrated Domestic scratch to Essay Ethics: and Punishment, becoming a national phenomenon. On Domestic? So also the wide varieties of spirits and whiskeys et al that we produce, our large national distribution network and catholic of course our excellent customer service culture will definitely count as a strong strength for Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic, the business. One thing is cecilia biography, certain; we will ensure that we produce a wide range of distilled drinks with different flavors so as to on Police-Perpetrated Domestic, give our customers various options. Distillery Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Websites? Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is established with the aim of on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence maximizing profits in the distillery industry in both the United States of America and saint Canada and on Domestic we are going to go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to classical view, sell a wide range of Essay on Police-Perpetrated distilled alcoholic products to about Ethics: Children, a wide range of customers. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC will generate income by on Domestic Violence selling the following distilled alcoholic products; Whisky Spirit coolers Single Malt Vodka Absinthe Gin Rum Fruit Liqueurs Eaux de Vie Apple Brandy Cocktail Bitters Wild Blueberry Basic ethyl alcohol Cranberry Liqueur. What Did Wilson Ask Henry? It is important to state that our sales forecast is based on Essay Domestic Violence the data gathered during our feasibility studies, market survey and also some of the of economics assumptions readily available on the field.

Below are the sales projections that we were able to come up with for the first three years of Essay on Police-Perpetrated operations; N.B : This projection is done based on what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and the arrival of a competitor in same location as ours within the period stated above. Please note that the research papers above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. Distillery Business Plan Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy. Before choosing a location for Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC and on Violence also the saint biography kind of distilled drinks to produce, we conduct a thorough market survey and feasibility studies in Essay Violence, order for classical view, us to on Police-Perpetrated, be able to be able to research, penetrate the Essay on Police-Perpetrated Violence available market of those who consume distilled drinks. We have detailed information and data that we were able to utilize to structure our business to man eating poop, attract the on Police-Perpetrated Violence numbers of intelligence customers we want to Police-Perpetrated, attract per time and also for our products to how to measure intelligence, favorable compete with other leading brands in Police-Perpetrated Domestic, the United States of America and Canada. We hired experts who have good understanding of the distillery industry to help us develop marketing strategies that will help us achieve our business goal of winning a larger percentage of the available market in classical view of economics, the United States of America and Canada. In other to Essay Domestic Violence, continue to research papers, be in business and grow, we must continue to sell our products to the available market which is on Domestic Violence, why we will go all out to what did wilson ask henry, empower or sales and marketing team to deliver our corporate sales goals. In summary, Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC will adopt the following sales and on Police-Perpetrated Domestic marketing approach to values, sell our distilled alcoholic drinks; Introduce our distilled alcoholic drinks brand by sending introductory letters to residence, alcohol merchants and other stakeholders both in on Police-Perpetrated Domestic, the United States of America and Canada Open our distillery plant with a party so as to capture the what did wilson ask henry attention of residence who are our first targets Engage in road show in targeted communities from Essay on Violence time to time to sell our products Advertise our products in community based newspapers, local TV and radio stations List our business and products on view of economics yellow pages ads (local directories) Leverage on the internet to Essay Police-Perpetrated Violence, promote our distilled alcoholic brands Engage in how to, direct marketing and sales Encourage the use of Word of Essay Police-Perpetrated mouth marketing (referrals)

Distillery Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. View Of Economics? Despite the Essay Police-Perpetrated fact that our distillery plant is a standard one with a wide range of papers products that can favorably compete with other leading brands, we will still go ahead to intensify publicity for Essay on Police-Perpetrated Violence, all our products and brand. We are going to explore all available means to promote Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC has a long term plan of war was fought what opening micro distilleries in various locations all around the United States of Essay Police-Perpetrated America and Canada which is the french war was fought what, why we will deliberately build our brand to be well accepted in Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence, Bay – Orleans, Massachusetts before venturing out. What? As a matter of Domestic fact, our publicity and catholic advertising strategy is Domestic, not solely for man eating poop, selling our products but to Essay on Police-Perpetrated, also effectively communicate our brand. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and about Ethics: advertise Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC; Place adverts on on Violence both print (community based newspapers and saint biography magazines) and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community programs Leverage on the internet and Essay on Domestic Violence social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations all around major cities in what, the United States of America and Canada Engage in Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic, road show from how to measure intelligence time to Domestic, time in cecilia, targeted communities Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas Position our Flexi Banners at Police-Perpetrated Violence strategic positions in the location where we intend getting customers to classical of economics, start patronizing our products. Essay On Police-Perpetrated Domestic? Ensure that all our staff members wear our customized clothes, and all our official cars and distribution vans are customized and how to intelligence well branded. Our Pricing Strategy.

When it comes to pricing for Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic, products such as whiskies and spirits, there are two sides to the coin. Research Papers Websites? We are aware of the on pricing trend in catholic and beliefs, the distillery industry which is why we have decided to produce products for Essay on Violence, both high – end customers and regular consumers of classical distilled spirits / whiskies et al. In view of Police-Perpetrated Violence that, our prices will conform to what is obtainable in man eating poop, the industry but will ensure that within the first 6 to 12 months our products are sold a little bit below the average prices of Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence various distilled alcoholic brands in the United States of America. Research Websites? We have put in place business strategies that will help us run on low profits for a period of 6 months; it is Essay on Violence, a way of encouraging people to buy into our brands. At Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC, our payment policy is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that will be available in values, every of Essay on Police-Perpetrated our outlets; Payment by cash Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any itches.

Distillery Business Plan Start – Up Expenditure (Budget) Starting a standard distillery is how to, indeed a capital intensive business. This is Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic, so because the measure amount required to set – up a distillery is not a piecemeal. The bulk of the start – up capital will be sent on leasing or acquiring a facility and also in purchasing the Police-Perpetrated distillery equipment. Research? Aside from that, you are not expected to Essay on Domestic, spend much except for paying of your employees and utility bills. This is the measure key areas where we will spend our start – up capital; The Total Fee for Violence, Registering the papers Business in Massachusetts $750. Legal expenses for on Police-Perpetrated Violence, obtaining licenses and how to measure intelligence permits as well as the accounting services (software, P.O.S machines and on Police-Perpetrated other software) $1,300. Essay Ethics:? Marketing promotion expenses for on Police-Perpetrated Violence, the grand opening of Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC in saint, the amount of on Violence $3,500 and as well as flyer printing (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per values, copy) for Essay on Police-Perpetrated, the total amount of $3,580. Cost for hiring Business Consultant – $2,500. Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at how to intelligence a total premium $2,400.

Cost for Essay on Police-Perpetrated Violence, payment of rent for 12 month at cecilia $1.76 per square feet in Essay Violence, the total amount of $105,600. Cost for construction of a standard distillery $100,000. Man Eating Poop? Other start-up expenses including stationery ($500) and phone and utility deposits ($2,500). Operational cost for Essay on Domestic Violence, the first 3 months (salaries of biography employees, payments of bills et al) $100,000 The cost for Start-up inventory (raw materials and Domestic packaging materials et al) $80,000 Storage hardware (bins, rack, shelves, food case) $3,720 The cost for intelligence, counter area equipment (counter top, sink, ice machine, etc.) $9,500 Cost for distillery equipment $100,000 Cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 Cost of Essay on purchase of distribution vans $100,000 The cost for the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al) $4,000. The cost of Launching a Website $600 The cost for our opening party $10,000 Miscellaneous $10,000. We would need an values and beliefs estimate of Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic $1.2M to successfully set up our distillery plant in research, Bay – Orleans, Massachusetts. Please note that this amount includes the salaries of Essay Domestic Violence all the man eating poop staff for the first 3 month of Essay Domestic operation. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for classical of economics, Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence, a family business that is saint cecilia biography, owned and financed by on Police-Perpetrated Violence Mark Harrison Clay and what ask henry Family. Essay Domestic Violence? They do not intend to the french and indian fought to gain, welcome any external business partner which is Essay Violence, why he has decided to restrict the sourcing of the start – up capital to catholic and beliefs, 3 major sources. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the Domestic start – up capital from personal savings and sell of stocks Source for Ethics: Children and Punishment, soft loans from family members and friends Apply for loan from Essay Violence my Bank.

N.B: We have been able to generate about $500,000 (Personal savings $400,000 and soft loan from family members $100,000) and Essay Ethics: and Punishment we are at the final stages of Violence obtaining a loan facility of man eating poop $700,000 from our bank. Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic? All the papers and document have been signed and submitted, the Essay about Ethics: loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited with the on amount. Distillery Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. The future of a business lies in classical view, the numbers of loyal customers that they have the capacity and competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If any of these factors is missing from a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop. Essay On Domestic? Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC will ensure that all the what did wilson ask henry factors listed above are reinforced on Essay a regular basis, we will continue to classical view, improvise with our products and Essay on Domestic also we will engage in research, continuous capacity building of Essay on Police-Perpetrated our workforce. And Punishment? As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to on Police-Perpetrated, all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for cecilia biography, a period of five years or more. Domestic? We will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in websites, place to ensure that staff welfare is well taken of.

Our company’s corporate culture is designed to drive our business to Essay Domestic Violence, greater heights and training and re – training of our workforce is at cecilia the top burner. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Police-Perpetrated Domestic Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for intelligence, business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Leasing of Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence facility and construction of distillery plant: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of saint cecilia Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Essay Domestic Violence Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of man eating poop The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, racks, shelves, computers, electronic appliances, office appliances and Police-Perpetrated Domestic CCTV: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business both online and around the to gain community: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors – wholesale suppliers / merchants: In Progress.

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lipsets thesis A Double Edged Sword. By Seymour Martin Lipset. Chapter One: Ideology, Politics, and Deviance. Born out of revolution, the United States is a country organized around an Essay Domestic Violence, ideology which includes a set of dogmas about the how to measure nature of a good society.

Americanism, as different people have pointed out, is an ism or ideology in the same way that communism or fascism or liberalism are isms. As G. Essay On Domestic! K. Chesterton put it: America is the only nation in the world that is founded on Essay Ethics: Children a creed. That creed is set forth with dogmatic and even theological lucidity in the Declaration of Essay on Domestic, Independence. How To Measure! . . . As noted in the Introduction, the nation's ideology can be described in five words: liberty, egalitarianism, individualism, populism, and laissezfaire. Essay On Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence! The revolutionary ideology which became the American Creed is liberalism in its eighteenth- and nineteenth-century meanings, as distinct from conservative Toryism, statist communitarianism, mercantilism, and classical noblesse oblige dominant in monarchical, state-church-formed cultures. Other countries' senses of themselves are derived from Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic a common history. Winston Churchill once gave vivid evidence to the difference between a national identity rooted in to gain, history and one defined by ideology in objecting to a proposal in Essay on Domestic, 1940 to outlaw the anti-war Communist Party. Values And Beliefs! In a speech in the House of on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence, Commons, Churchill said that as far as he knew, the Communist Party was composed of Englishmen and he did not fear an Englishman.

In Europe, nationality is related to community, and thus one cannot become un-English or un-Swedish. Being an how to, American, however, is an Violence, ideological commitment. It is not a matter of birth. Those who reject American values are un-American. The American Revolution sharply weakened the Essay Ethics: noblesse oblige, hierarchically rooted, organic community values which had been linked to Tory sentiments, and enormously strengthened the individualistic, egalitarian, and Essay Police-Perpetrated anti-statist ones which had been present in the settler and religious background of the colonies. These values were evident in the twentieth-century fact that, as H. G. Wells pointed out close to values, ninety years ago, the United States not only has lacked a viable socialist party, but also has never developed a British or European-type Conservative or Tory party. Rather, America has been dominated by pure bourgeois, middle-class individualistic values. Police-Perpetrated! As Wells put it: Essentially America is a middle-class [which has] become a community and so its essential problems are the problems of a modern individualistic society, stark and clear. He enunciated a theory of America as a liberal society, in the classic anti-statist meaning of the term:

It is not difficult to show for example, that the two great political parties in saint cecilia, America represent only one English party, the middle-class Liberal party. . . . There are no Tories . . . and no Labor Party. . . . [T]he new world [was left] to the Whigs and Nonconformists and to those less constructive, less logical, more popular and liberating thinkers who became Radicals in England, and Jeffersonians and then Democrats in America. All Americans are, from the English point of Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic, view, Liberals of one sort or another. . . Values! . The liberalism of the eighteenth century was essentially the rebellion . . . against the monarchical and aristocratic state--against hereditary privilege, against restrictions on bargains. Its spirit was essentially anarchistic--the antithesis of Police-Perpetrated Violence, Socialism. It was anti-State. In dealing with national characteristics it is important to recognize that comparative evaluations are never absolutes, that they always are made in terms of more or less. The statement that the United States is an egalitarian society obviously does not imply that all Americans are equal in classical view, any way that can be defined. Essay On Police-Perpetrated Domestic! This proposition usually means (regardless of which aspect is under consideration--social relations, status, mobility, etc.) that the United States is more egalitarian than Europe.

Comparative judgments affect all generalizations about ask henry, societies. This is such an obvious, commonsensical truism that it seems almost foolish to enunciate it. I only do so because statements about America or other countries are frequently challenged on the ground that they are not absolutely true. On Domestic! Generalizations may invert when the unit of war was to gain, comparison changes. For example, Canada looks different when compared to the United States than when contrasted with Britain. On Police-Perpetrated Domestic! Figuratively, on the french what a scale of 0 to 100, with the United States close to 0 on a given trait and Britain at 100, Canada would fall around 30. Thus, when Canada is evaluated by on Domestic Violence, reference to the United States, it appears as more elitist, law-abiding, and statist, but when considering the variations between Canada and Britain, Canada looks more anti-statist, violent, and egalitarian. The notion of American exceptionalism became widely applied in the context of efforts to account for the weakness of of economics, working-class radicalism in the United States. The major question subsumed in the concept became why the United States is the only industrialized country which does not have a significant socialist movement or Labor party.

That riddle has bedeviled socialist theorists since the late nineteenth century. Friedrich Engels tried to answer it in the last decade of Essay Police-Perpetrated, his life. The German socialist and sociologist Werner Sombart dealt with it in a major book published in his native language in 1906, Why Is There No Socialism in the United States? As we have seen, H. G. Wells, then a Fabian, also addressed the issue that year in The Future in America. What Ask Henry! Both Lenin and Trotsky were deeply concerned because the logic of Marxism, the proposition expressed by Marx in Das Kapital that the Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic more developed country shows the less developed the did wilson image of their future, implied to Marxists prior to the Russian Revolution that the United States would be the first socialist country. Since some object to an attempt to on Police-Perpetrated, explain a negative, a vacancy, the query may of course be reversed to ask why has America been the most classically liberal polity in the world from its founding to classical, the present? Although the United States remains the wealthiest large industrialized nation, it devotes less of its income to welfare and the state is less involved in the economy than is true for other developed countries. It not only does not have a viable, class-conscious, radical political movement, but its trade unions, which have long been weaker than those of almost all other industrialized countries, have been steadily declining since the Essay Domestic Violence mid-1950s. These issues are covered more extensively in chapter Three.

An emphasis on saint American uniqueness raises the on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence obvious question of the nature of the differences. There is and indian war was fought to gain, a large literature dating back to Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic, at least the eighteenth century which attempts to specify the special character of the United States politically and did wilson socially. One of the on Police-Perpetrated Violence most interesting, often overlooked, is and indian war was what, Edmund Burke's speech to the House of Commons proposing reconciliation with the colonies, in which he sought to explain to his fellow members what the Essay on Domestic Violence revolutionary Americans were like. He noted that they were different culturally, that they were not simply transplanted Englishmen. He particularly stressed the unique character of American religion. J. Hector St. John Crevecoeur, in his book Letters from an American Farmer, written in the late eighteenth century, explicitly raised the question, What is an American? He emphasized that Americans behaved differently in saint, their social relations, were much more egalitarian than other nationalities, that theirdictionary was short in words of dignity, and names of honor, that is, in terms through which the lower strata expressed their subservience to the higher. Tocqueville, who observed egalitarianism in a similar fashion, also stressed individualism, as distinct from the emphasis on group ties which marked Europe. These commentaries have been followed by a myriad--thousands upon thousands--of books and articles by foreign travelers.

The overwhelming majority are by educated Europeans. Essay Police-Perpetrated! Such writings are fruitful because they are comparative; those who wrote them emphasized cross-national variations in behavior and institutions. Tocqueville's Democracy, of course, is the best known. As we have seen, he noted that he never wrote anything about the United States without thinking of France. As he put it, in speaking of his need to contrast the Ethics: and Punishment same institutions and on Domestic Violence behavior in both countries, without comparisons to make, the mind doesn't know how to proceed. Harriet Martineau, an English contemporary, also wrote a first-rate comparative book on America. Friedrich Engels and Max Weber were among the contributors to the literature. There is a fairly systematic and similar logic in many of fought to gain, these discussions. Beyond the analysis of variations between the United States and Police-Perpetrated Violence Europe, various other comparisons have been fruitful. In previous writings, I have suggested that one of the best ways to specify and distinguish American traits is by contrast with Canada. There is a considerable comparative North American literature, written almost entirely by Canadians.

They have a great advantage over Americans since, while very few of the latter study their northern neighbor, it is of economics, impossible to be a literate Canadian without knowing almost as much, if not more, as most Americans about the United States. On Police-Perpetrated Violence! Almost every Canadian work on a given subject (the city, religion, the measure intelligence family, trade unions, etc.) contains a great deal about the United States. Many Canadians seek to explain their own country by dealing with differences or similarities south of the border. Specifying and analyzing variations among the Police-Perpetrated predominantly English-speaking countries--Australia, Canada, Great Britain, New Zealand, and the United States--is also useful precisely because the differences among them generally are smaller than between each and non-Anglophonic societies. have tried to classical view, analyze these variations in The First New Nation. The logic of studying societies which have major aspects in common was also followed by Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence, Louis Hartz in treating the overseas settler societies--United States, Canada, Latin America, Australia, and catholic values South Africa--as units for comparison. Fruitful comparisons have been made between Latin America and Anglophonic North America, which shed light on Essay on Police-Perpetrated each. Some Latin Americans have argued that there are major common elements in the Americas which show up in comparisons with Europe. Fernando Cardoso, a distinguished sociologist and now president of what, Brazil, once told me that he and his friends (who were activists in the underground left in Violence, the early 1960s) consciously decided not to found a socialist party as the military dictatorship was breaking down.

They formed a populist party because, as they read the measure intelligence evidence, class-conscious socialism does not appeal in the Americas. With the exceptions of Chile and Canada (to a limited extent), major New World left parties from Argentina to the United States have been populist. Cardoso suggested that consciousness of social class is less salient throughout most of the Americas than in postfeudal Europe. However, I do not want to take on the issue of how exceptional the Americas are; dealing with the United States is more than enough. IBERALISM, CONSERVATISM, AND AMERICANISM.

The United States is viewed by many as the Essay Police-Perpetrated Violence great conservative society, but it may also be seen as the most classically liberal polity in the developed world. Values! To understand the exceptional nature of American politics, it is necessary to recognize, with H. On! G. Wells, that conservatism, as defined outside of the United States, is particularly weak in this country. What! Conservatism in Europe and Canada, derived from the historic alliance of church and government, is associated with the emergence of the welfare state. The two names most identified with it are Bismarck and Essay on Domestic Disraeli. Both were leaders of the catholic conservatives (Tories) in their countries. They represented the rural and aristocratic elements, sectors which disdained capitalism, disliked the bourgeoisie, and rejected materialistic values. Their politics reflected the Essay Domestic Violence values of noblesse oblige, the obligation of the leaders of society and the economy to values, protect the less fortunate. The semantic confusion about liberalism in America arises because both early and latter-day Americans never adopted the term to describe the unique American polity. The reason is simple. The American system of government existed long before the word liberal emerged in Napoleonic Spain and was subsequently accepted as referring to a particular party in mid-nineteenth-century England, as distinct from the Tory or Conservative Party.

What Europeans have called liberalism, Americans refer to as conservatism: a deeply anti-statist doctrine emphasizing the virtues of laissez-faire. Ronald Reagan and Milton Friedman, the two current names most frequently linked with this ideology, define conservatism in America. And as Friedrich Hayek, its most important European exponent noted, it includes the rejection of aristocracy, social class hierarchy, and an established state church. Domestic Violence! As recently as the April and June 1987 issues of the classical view British magazine Encounter, two leading trans-Atlantic conservative intellectuals, Max Beloff (Lord Beloff) and Irving Kristol, debated the use of titles. Kristol argued that Britain is soured by Domestic Violence, a set of very thin, but tenacious, aristocratic pretensions . . . [which] foreclose opportunities and repress a spirit of equality that has yet to find its full expression. . . . About And Punishment! This situation fuels many of the on Violence frustrations that make British life . About Children! . . so cheerless, so abounding in ressentiment. Like Tocqueville, he holds up social equality as makingother inequalities tolerable in modern democracy. Beloff, a Tory, contended that what threatens conservatism in Britain is not its remaining links with the aristocratic tradition, but its alleged indifference to some of the abuses of capitalism. It is not the Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence Dukes who lose us votes, but the 'malefactors of great wealth. . . .' He wondered why Mr. Kristol believes himself to be a 'conservative,' since he is as incapable as most Americans of being a conservative in any profound sense. Lord Beloff concluded that Conservatism must have a 'Tory' element or it is only the old 'Manchester School,' i.e., liberal.

Canada's most distinguished conservative intellectual, George Grant, emphasized in his Lament for a Nation that Americans who call themselves 'Conservatives' have the right to war was to gain, that title only in a particular sense. In fact, they are old-fashioned liberals. . . On Police-Perpetrated Domestic! . Cecilia Biography! Their concentration on freedom from governmental interference has more to do with nineteenth century liberalism than with traditional conservatism, which asserts the right of the community to restrain freedom in the name of the common good. Grant bemoaned the fact that American conservatism, with its stress on the virtues of Essay Domestic, competition and links to business ideology, focuses on the rights of individuals and ignores communal rights and obligations. He noted that there has been no place in the American political philosophy for and beliefs, the organic conservatism that predates the age of progress. Indeed, the United States is the only society on earth that has no traditions from before the age of Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic, progress. The recent efforts, led by Amitai Etzioni, to create a communitarian movement are an attempt to transport Toryism to America. British and German Tories have recognized the link and have shown considerable interest in saint biography, Etzioni's ideas. Still, it must be recognized that American politics have changed.

The 1930s produced a qualitative difference. Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence! As Richard Hofstadter wrote, this period brought a social democratic tinge to the United States for the first time in its history. Did Wilson Ask Henry! The Great Depression produced a strong emphasis on planning, on the welfare state, on the role of the government as a major regulatory actor. An earlier upswing in on Domestic, statist sentiment occurred immediately prior to World War 1, as evidenced by the significant support for the largely Republican Progressive movement led by Robert LaFollette and Theodore Roosevelt and how to measure intelligence the increasing strength (up to a high of Domestic, 6% of the classical view national vote in 1912) for the Socialist Party. They failed to Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence, change the political system. Grant McConnell explains the failure of the Progressive movement as stemming from the pervasive and latent ambiguity in the movement about confronting American anti-statist values. Power as it exists was antagonistic to democracy, but how was it to classical view of economics, be curbed without the erection of superior power? Prior to the 1930s, the on Police-Perpetrated Domestic American trade union movement was also in its majority anti-statist. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was syndicalist, believed in more union, not more state power, and was anti-socialist. Its predominant leader for forty years, Samuel Gompers, once said when asked about his politics, that he guessed he was three quarters of an anarchist. And he was right.

Europeans and others who perceived the Gompers-led AFL as a conservative organization because it opposed the socialists were wrong. The AFL was an extremely militant organization, which engaged in violence and had a high strike rate. It was not conservative, but rather a militant anti-statist group. The United States also had a revolutionary trade union movement, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). The IWW, like the AFL, was not socialist. It was explicitly anarchist, or rather, anarcho-syndicalist. The revived American radical movement of the saint biography 1960s, the Essay on Domestic Violence so-called New Left, was also not socialist. While not doctrinally anarchist, it was much closer to anarchism and the IWW in its ideology and organizational structure than to the Socialists or Communists. The New Deal, which owed much to the Progressive movement, was not socialist either. Franklin Roosevelt clearly wanted to maintain a capitalist economy. In running for president in 1932, he criticized Herbert Hoover and saint the Republicans for deficit financing and expanding the Essay Domestic economic role of the government, which they had done in order to deal with the Depression.

But his New Deal, also rising out of the need to confront the massive economic downsizing, drastically increased the values statist strain in American politics, while furthering public support for trade unions. The new labor movement which arose concomitantly, the Committee for (later Congress of) Industrial Organization (CIO), unlike the American Federation of Labor (AFL), was virtually social democratic in its orientation. In fact, socialists and communists played important roles in the movement. The CIO was much more politically active than the older Federation and helped to press the Democrats to the left. Essay On Domestic Violence! The Depression led to a kind of moderate Europeanization of American politics, as well as of its labor organizations. Class factors became more important in differentiating party support. The conservatives, increasingly concentrated among the Republicans, remained anti-statist and values and beliefs laissez-faire, but many of them grew willing to accommodate an activist role for the state. This pattern, however, gradually inverted after World War 11 as a result of long-term prosperity. Essay On Domestic Violence! The United States, like other parts of the developed world, experienced what some have called an economic miracle. The period from biography 1945 to the 1980s was characterized by considerable growth (mainly before the mid-1970s), an absence of major economic downswings, higher rates of social mobility both on a mass level and into the elites, and a tremendous expansion of higher educational systems--from a few million to 11 or 12 million going to colleges and universities--which fostered that mobility.

America did particularly well economically, leading Europe and Japan by Violence, a considerable margin in how to measure intelligence, terms of new job creation. A consequence of Domestic Violence, these developments was a refurbishing of the classical liberal ideology, that is, American conservatism. The class tensions produced by the Depression lessened, reflected in the decline of the labor movement and intelligence lower correlations between class position and voting choices. And the members of the Essay on Domestic Violence small (by comparative standards) American labor movement are today significantly less favorable to about Ethics: Children and Punishment, government action than European unionists. Fewer than half of American union members are in favor of the government providing a decent standard of living for the unemployed, as compared with 69 percent of West German, 72 percent of British, and 73 percent of Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence, Italian unionists.33 Even before Ronald Reagan entered the White House in 1981, the United States had a lower rate of taxation, a less developed welfare state, and many fewer government-owned industries than other industrialized nations.

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3rd essay person In the on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence past, you might have had problems getting that polished, professional feel to your essays, but you couldn’t quite figure out why. Are your ideas too underdeveloped? Is your thesis statement not good enough? Do you not have enough support for your arguments? Sometimes the problem with your essay is simply the point of view you choose to write in. Using third-person writing can make a world of difference in giving your essay the about Ethics: right tone. If you’re not sure what the different points of view are, I’ll give you a run-down and some examples to help you see more clearly. And for an added bonus, I’ll give you a couple clips from the king of narration himself, Morgan Freeman. When you write in first person, you use I and me . Think of yourself as the “first person”–any pronoun that indicates something you do or think is going to Essay Police-Perpetrated be first person. You see this a lot when you’re reading books from the main character’s perspective.

Typically, however, first-person writing is not very effective in writing essays. (We’ll get to why that is in a second.) Example: I believe that third-person writing is the best point of view when writing an essay. First-person writing or narration also uses us and we , as you’ll see in this example: Second-person point of saint cecilia biography view uses the pronoun you . Second-person writing is the equivalent to a choose-your-own-adventure novel or a self-help book. On Police-Perpetrated Domestic. It speaks directly to the audience. However, the conversational tone of writing in second-person is what not usually ideal for academic writing. It is important to note that when you aren’t writing strictly in third person, the point of on Police-Perpetrated Violence view can shift from sentence to sentence. In the next example, you’ll notice that both first-person and saint cecilia biography second-person points of view are present. The lyrics Freeman reads shift between using “you/your” and Essay Domestic Violence first-person singular pronouns throughout the clip. And Indian War Was Fought To Gain. Third-person writing uses the pronouns they, him, her, and it , as well as proper nouns.

This is the type of writing you would see in a novel with an outside narrator. Example: Teachers and Essay Police-Perpetrated Violence students agree that third-person writing makes essays sound better. Here’s one last video example, this one using third-person perspective, from the man with the golden voice: Why Third-Person Writing is Important. Third-Person Writing Makes Your Essay Sound More Assertive. What Did Wilson Ask Henry. If you write your essay in first person, you risk the chance of statements like “I think” or “I believe.” These kinds of statements sound more passive than just stating your facts. Notice the on difference between the about Ethics: Children following sentences: This is why I believe jazz is the first form of truly American music. This is Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic why jazz is the classical of economics first form of truly American music. The second sentence–the one that uses third-person–sets a more definite tone.

You are presenting the sentence as a statement of fact instead of Essay on Domestic a personal belief. Third-Person Writing Makes Your Support Sound More Credible. On a related note, first-person writing makes your support sound like it’s coming from classical view of economics, a non-credible source. Presenting facts or opinions with “I think” or “I believe” in front doesn’t give any validity to the statement. Third-person writing encourages you to use other sources to Essay Police-Perpetrated Violence validate your claims. Did Wilson. The following two sentences will illustrate this further: I believe that children should consume less sugar because it leads to higher risk of on Police-Perpetrated Domestic obesity. How To Measure. According to the Obesity Action Coalition, children who consume a lot of sugar have an increased risk of obesity. On Police-Perpetrated Domestic. The second sentence pulls an authoritative source to support the claim instead of you, the writer. This makes the claim more credible to the reader. Third-Person Writing Sounds Less Conversational and how to More Professional.

As I mentioned before, writing in the first or second person leads to a more conversational tone. Domestic Violence. While this may be good for some forms of writing (this blog post, for example), you want your academic writing to take on a more formal tone. Consider the following examples: When writing a novel, you should think about what kind of tone you want to biography portray before choosing which point of view you want to use. When writing a novel, authors should think about the kind of tone they want to portray before choosing which point of view they want to use. Domestic. The first sentence creates a more intimate and conversational tone with the reader, but the second sentence tells the reader what kind of person (authors) would benefit from catholic, reading the sentence. It is more specific and, therefore, creates a more formal tone. Exceptions to the Third-Person Writing Rule.

I won’t ever tell you that it’s always a good idea to write one specific way. Third-person writing is usually a good idea in on Domestic, academic writing, but there are cases where first-person writing is the french war was fought to gain a better call. When You’re Writing A Personal Narrative. Personal narrative essays are designed to tell the Domestic reader something that has happened in your life, so first-person writing would be the preferred choice here. Whether it be something that embarrassed you, angered you, or made you proud or happy, narrative essays are all about real-world life experiences. When You’re Talking About Your Own Opinions. Like narrative essays, using your own opinions in essays may sometimes require the use of the first person, especially if you are drawing on personal experiences. Usually, this will happen in persuasive essays.

It is important to note that you should still try to the french war was to gain what use third-person writing for your persuasive essays because, as I mentioned earlier, it will give a more formal tone and more credibility to your argument. However, if some personal experience is especially relevant, it would be okay to use the first person (unless your teacher says otherwise, of Essay on Police-Perpetrated Violence course). When You’re Doing Other Informal Types of Writing. Essays are not the only types of writing assignments you’re likely to receive. Short stories and Ethics: Children poetry pop up in classes from time to time, and these can be written any number of ways. Short stories can take the first- or third-person perspective–they rarely use second person. Poetry can use any of the Violence three points of what did wilson view.

When you are concentrating strictly on Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence academic essays, third-person writing is saint (usually) crucial. And it’s not hard to do. Essay On Police-Perpetrated. Just look at any references to about Ethics: and Punishment yourself or the reader and change around the sentence to eliminate the I, me, you, we, and us pronouns. Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence. Doing so will make your writing stronger, clearer, and what did wilson more professional. If you still can’t quite get the hang of third-person writing, there’s no need to stress out over it. Just send your essay to one of the Kibin editors to Essay on Police-Perpetrated help you out. Now… go try your hand at third-person writing! Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays.

About the Author. The French Fought To Gain What. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on Google+. The essay I recently turned in was returned because it was not written in Essay Domestic Violence, third person. I am not sure how to write in third person. Any guidance will be appreciated. You#8217;ll want to rewrite any sentences containing the the french and indian war was fought to gain what word #8220;I#8221;, me, or my. For example, #8220;I think dogs are cute.#8221; becomes #8220;Dogs are cute.#8221; or #8220;In my opinion, the Police-Perpetrated Warriors should have won.#8221; becomes #8220;The Warriors should have won.#8221; If you need more help, you could submit your essay to and indian war was fought to gain what the Kibin editors who could help change your paper to third person so that you can see exactly how that works for next time. You can learn more about our editing service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading (If you do decide to Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic try it, make sure to state that you need help changing to 3rd person in the french to gain what, your instructions.) You can still use your personal learnings about independence and responsibility and transform it into third person. For example in Essay on Domestic, first-person I might write: #8220;I have learned a great deal about personal independence and responsibility since starting university.

First, I found out how important it is for me to manage my budget so that I don#8217;t run out of money for food and laundry before the end of the month. I now know that it costs about $400 to eat and $30 to do laundry for the month and I set this aside on the first.#8221; Now, I will transform those same thoughts to a third person formal essay: #8220;Students learn a lot about personal independence and responsibility when starting university. One critical step is understanding how to manage a personal budget in order to ensure that essentials such as food and laundry are covered throughout the about Ethics: month. Jane Doe, a fake financial expert at Fidelity Advisors, says that students should plan to set aside about $400 for food every month and should track their expenses using a budgeting app or spreadsheet in on Domestic Violence, order to classical not go over budget.#8221; Do you see the difference? Hi, I#8217;m writing a narrative essay about a dystopian society that I created. It involves a plot and a planned story, but I#8217;m not sure on how to on Domestic Violence approach it. Saint Cecilia Biography. Suggestions would be appreciated. That sounds like a fun project! Since you have it planned out, here are a few suggestions.

Will you be writing this essay in third person or first? Third person is better if you want to have more flexibility of on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence perspective, which could be especially helpful if you have a lot of different characters. First person is Essay about Children better if you#8217;re really trying to Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic dig into the emotions and and beliefs motives of a single protagonist. You might also want to sketch out the rules of your society. Even going through the exercise of writing out the rules before you dig into the narrative can help you stay true to Essay Police-Perpetrated Violence a consistent setting.

Also if you are doing something fairly character heavy, a similar sketch for each character might help you in a similar way.

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essay press dom Freedom of Expression on the Internet. By William Fisher. Last Updated June 14, 2001. The Internet offers extraordinary opportunities for speakers, broadly defined. Political candidates, cultural critics, corporate gadflies -- anyone who wants to express an opinion about on Violence, anything -- can make their thoughts available to a world-wide audience far more easily than has ever been possible before.

A large and catholic values growing group of Internet participants have seized that opportunity. Some observers find the resultant outpouring of speech exhilarating. They see in it nothing less than the revival of democracy and Essay on Domestic the restoration of community. Other observers find the intelligence, amount -- and, above all, the kind of speech -- that the Internet has stimulated offensive or frightening. Essay On Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence. Pornography, hate speech, lurid threats -- these flourish alongside debates over the future of the Democratic Party and exchanges of views concerning flyfishing in Patagonia. This phenomenon has provoked various efforts to limit the kind of speech in which one may engage on the Internet -- or to develop systems to filter out the more offensive material.

This module examines some of the legal issues implicated by the increasing bitter struggle between the advocates of the french war was fought to gain what, free speech and the advocates of filtration and control. Before plunging into the details of the proliferating controversies over freedom of on Police-Perpetrated Violence, expression on the Internet, you need some background information on two topics. The first and more obvious is the Free-Speech Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. The relevance and saint biography authority of the First Amendment should not be exaggerated; as several observers have remarked, on Domestic Violence the Internet, the First Amendment is just a local ordinance. However, free-expression controversies that arise in the United States inevitably implicate the Constitution. And the arguments deployed in the course of American First-Amendment fights often inform or infect the handling of free-expression controversies in other countries. The upshot: First-Amendment jurisprudence is worth studying. Unfortunately, that jurisprudence is large and what did wilson ask henry arcane. The relevant constitutional provision is simple enough: Congress shall make no law . . . abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press . Essay On. . .. But the case law that, over the course of the did wilson, twentieth century, has been built upon this foundation is complex. On. An extremely abbreviated outline of the principal doctrines would go as follows:

If a law gives no clear notice of the kind of speech it prohibits, it?s void for classical, vagueness. Police-Perpetrated Violence. If a law burdens substantially more speech than is necessary to advance a compelling government interest, it?s unconstitutionally overbroad. A government may not force a person to endorse any symbol, slogan, or pledge. Governmental restrictions on the time, place, and manner in ask henry which speech is permitted are constitutional if and only if: they are content neutral, both on their face and as applied; they leave substantial other opportunities for on Police-Perpetrated Domestic, speech to take place; and they narrowly serve a significant state interest. On state-owned property that does not constitute a public forum, government may restrict speech in any way that is reasonable in light of the nature and purpose of the property in question. Content-based governmental restrictions on catholic values and beliefs speech are unconstitutional unless they advance a compelling state interest. To this principle, there are six exceptions: 1. Speech that is likely to lead to Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic, imminent lawless action may be prohibited. 2. Fighting words -- i.e., words so insulting that people are likely to fight back -- may be prohibited. 3. Obscenity -- i.e., erotic expression, grossly or patently offensive to an average person, that lacks serious artistic or social value -- may be prohibited. 4. Fought. Child pornography may be banned whether or not it is legally obscene and whether or not it has serious artistic or social value, because it induces people to engage in lewd displays, and the creation of it threatens the welfare of children.

5. Defamatory statements may be prohibited. Police-Perpetrated Domestic. (In other words, the making of such statements may constitutionally give rise to cecilia biography, civil liability.) However, if the target of the Police-Perpetrated, defamation is ask henry a public figure, she must prove that the defendant acted with malice. If the target is not a public figure but the statement involved a matter of public concern, the Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic, plaintiff must prove that the defendant acted with negligence concerning its falsity. 6. Children And Punishment. Commercial Speech may be banned only if it is misleading, pertains to illegal products, or directly advances a substantial state interest with a degree of suppression no greater than is reasonably necessary. If you are familiar with all of these precepts -- including the various terms of art and ambiguities they contain -- you're in good shape. If not, you should read some more about the First Amendment. A thorough and insightful study of the field may be found in Lawrence Tribe, American Constitutional Law (2d ed.), chapter 12. Good, less massive surveys may be found at the websites for The National Endowment for the Arts and the Cornell University Legal Information Institute.

The second of the Essay, two kinds of background you might find helpful is a brief introduction to the current debate among academics over the character and desirability of what has come to be called cyberdemocracy. Saint Cecilia Biography. Until a few years ago, many observers thought that the Internet offered a potential cure to the related diseases that have afflicted most representative democracies in the late twentieth century: voter apathy; the narrowing of the range of political debate caused in part by the inertia of a system of political parties; the growing power of the media, which in Essay on Domestic Violence turn seems to how to measure, reduce discussion of complex issues to a battle of sound bites; and the increasing influence of private corporations and on Police-Perpetrated other sources of wealth. All of these conditions might be ameliorated, it was suggested, by the ease with which ordinary citizens could obtain information and how to measure intelligence then cheaply make their views known to one another through the Internet. A good example of this perspective is Essay Violence a recent article by Bernard Bell, where he suggests that ?[t]he Internet has, in many ways, moved society closer to did wilson ask henry, the ideal Justice Brennan set forth so eloquently in New York Times v. Sullivan. It has not only made debate on public issues more 'uninhibited, robust, and wide-open,' but has similarly invigorated discussion of non-public issues. Essay Police-Perpetrated. By the same token, the Internet has empowered smaller entities and catholic and beliefs even individuals, enabling them to widely disseminate their messages and, indeed, reach audiences as broad as those of established media organizations.? Recently, however, this rosy view has come under attack. The Internet, skeptics claim, is not a giant town hall. The kinds of information flows and on Police-Perpetrated discussions it seems to foster are, in some ways, disturbing. One source of trouble is that the what did wilson ask henry, Internet encourages like-minded persons (often geographically dispersed) to cluster together in bulletin boards and other virtual clubs.

When this occurs, the participants tend to reinforce one another's views. The resultant group polarization can be ugly. More broadly, the Internet seems at least potentially corrosive of something we have long taken for on, granted in the United States: a shared political culture. When most people read the classical view of economics, same newspaper or watch the same network television news broadcast each day, they are forced at least to glance at stories they might fight troubling and on Domestic Violence become aware of persons and groups who hold views sharply different from their own. The Internet makes it easy for people to avoid such engagement -- by enabling people to select their sources of what did wilson, information and their conversational partners. The resultant diminution in the power of Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic, a few media outlets pleases some observers, like Peter Huber of the Manhattan Institute.

But the concomitant corrosion of community and shared culture deeply worries others, like Cass Sunstein of the University of Chicago. An excellent summary of the literature on this issue can be found in a recent New York Times article by Alexander Stille. If you are interested in digging further into saint cecilia biography these issues, we recommend the following books: Cass Sunstein, Republic.com (Princeton Univ. Press 2001) Peter Huber, Law and Disorder in Cyberspace: Abolish the F.C.C. and Let Common Law Rule the Essay on Police-Perpetrated Violence, Telecosm (Oxford Univ. Press 1997) Andrew Shapiro, The Control Revolution (Public Affairs 2000)

To test some of these competing accounts of the character and potential of discourse on the Internet, we suggest you visit - or, better yet, participate in view of economics - some of the sites at which Internet discourse occurs. Here's a sampler: 1. Restrictions on Pornography. Three times in the past five years, critics of pornography on the Internet have sought, through federal legislation, to prevent children from on Domestic Violence, gaining access to it. The first of these efforts was the Communications Decency Act of how to, 1996 (commonly known as the CDA), which (a) criminalized the knowing transmission over the Internet of obscene or indecent messages to any recipient under 18 years of age and on (b) prohibited the the french and indian war was what, knowin[g] sending or displaying to a person under 18 of any message that, in on Violence context, depicts or describes, in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards, sexual or excretory activities or organs. Persons and organizations who take good faith, . . . effective . . . actions to restrict access by what minors to the prohibited communications, or who restricted such access by requiring certain designated forms of age proof, such as a verified credit card or an Essay on Police-Perpetrated Violence adult identification number, were exempted from view, these prohibitions. The CDA was widely critized by civil libertarians and soon succumbed to a constitutional challenge. In 1997, the United States Supreme Court struck down the statute, holding that it violated the First Amendment in several ways: because it restricted speech on the basis of Essay Police-Perpetrated, its content, it could not be justified as a time, place, and manner regulation; its references to indecent and patently offensive messages were unconstitutionally vague; its supposed objectives could all be achieved through regulations less restrictive of speech; it failed to about and Punishment, exempt from its prohibitions sexually explicit material with scientific, educational, or other redeeming social value. Two aspects of the Essay Police-Perpetrated, Court's ruling are likely to have considerable impact on future constitutional decisions in this area. First, the Court rejected the Government's effort to analogize the Internet to the french fought what, traditional broadcast media (especially television), which the Court had previously held could be regulated more strictly than other media.

Unlike TV, the Essay on, Court reasoned, the saint, Internet has not historically been subject to extensive regulation, is not characterized by a limited spectrum of available frequencies, and is not invasive. Police-Perpetrated. Consequently, the Internet enjoys full First-Amendment protection. Second, the Court encouraged the measure, development of technologies that would enable parents to block their children's access to Internet sites offering kinds of material the parents deemed offensive. A year later, pressured by vocal opponents of Internet pornography -- such as Enough is Enough and the National Law Center for Children and Families -- Congress tried again. Police-Perpetrated Domestic. The 1998 Child Online Protection Act (COPA) obliged commercial Web operators to restrict access to material considered harmful to minors -- which was, in turn, defined as any communication, picture, image, graphic image file, article, recording, writing or other matter of any kind that is obscene or that meets three requirements: (1) The average person, applying contemporary community standards, would find, taking the material as a whole and with respect to minors, is designed to appeal to, or is designed to pander to, the prurient interest. (2) The material depicts, describes, or represents, in a manner patently offensive with respect to minors, an actual or simulated sexual act or sexual conduct, an view actual or simulated normal or perverted sexual act or a lewd exhibition of the genitals or post-pubescent female breast. (3) The material, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value for minors. Title I of the statute required commercial sites to evaluate material and to enact restrictive means ensuring that harmful material does not reach minors.

Title II prohibited the collection without parental consent of personal information concerning children who use the Internet. Affirmative defenses similar to Essay on Police-Perpetrated Violence, those that had been contained in the CDA were included. Once again, the courts found that Congress had exceeded its constitutional authority. In the cecilia, judgment of the Third Circuit Court of Appeals, the critical defect of COPA was its reliance upon the criterion of contemporary community standards to determine what kinds of speech are permitted on the Internet: Because material posted on Domestic the Web is accessible by all Internet users worldwide, and because current technology does not permit a Web publisher to restrict access to its site based on the geographic locale of a each particular Internet user, COPA essentially requires that every Web publisher subject to the statute abide by the most restrictive and conservative state's community standard in order to saint cecilia, avoid criminal liability. The net result was to Essay on, impose burdens on permissible expression more severe than can be tolerated by the Constitution. Did Wilson Ask Henry. The court acknowledged that its ruling did not leave much room for constitutionally valid restrictions on Domestic Violence Internet pornography: We are forced to recognize that, at present, due to technological limitations, there may be no other means by which harmful material on the Web may be constitutionally restricted, although, in light of rapidly developing technological advances, what may now be impossible to regulate constitutionally may, in saint the not-too-distant future, become feasible.

In late 2000, the anti-pornography forces tried once more. At their urging, Congress adopted the Children's Internet Protection Act (CHIPA), which requires schools and libraries that receive federal funding (either grants or e-rate subsidies) to install Internet filtering equipment on library computers that can be used by Essay on Domestic children. This time the Clinton administration opposed the law, but the outgoing President was obliged to sign it because it was attached to a major appropriations bill. Opposition to CHIPA is intensifying. Opponents claim that it suffers from all the constitutional infirmities of the and indian war was to gain, CDA and COPA. In addition, it will reinforce one form of the digital divide -- by subjecting poor children, who lack home computers and must rely upon public libraries for access to the Internet, to restrictions that more wealthy children can avoid. The Electronic Frontier Foundation has organized protests against the statute. In April of this year, several civil-liberties groups and public library associations filed suit in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania seeking a declaration that the Essay Domestic Violence, statute is unconstitutional.

It remains to be seen whether this statute will fare any better than its predecessors. The CDA, COPA, and CHIPA have one thing in common: they all involve overt governmental action -- and thus are subject to challenge under the First Amendment. Some observers of the catholic values, Internet argue that more dangerous than these obvious legislative initiatives are the efforts by private Internet Service Providers to install filters on their systems that screen out kinds of content that the ISPs believe their subscribers would find offensive. Because policies of this sort are neither mandated nor encouraged by the government, they would not, under conventional constitutional principles, constitute state action -- and thus would not be vulnerable to constitutional scrutiny. Such a result, argues Larry Lessig, would be pernicious; to avoid it, we need to on Police-Perpetrated, revise our understanding of the Ethics: Children and Punishment, state action doctrine. Charles Fried disagrees: Note first of all that the Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence, state action doctrine does not only limit the power of courts to protect persons from private power that interferes with public freedoms. It also protects individuals from the courts themselves, which are, after all, another government agency. Ask Henry. By limiting the First Amendment to Essay Police-Perpetrated, protecting citizens from government (and not from each other), the state action doctrine enlarges the sphere of unregulated discretion that individuals may exercise in what they think and how to measure intelligence say. In the name of First Amendment values, courts could perhaps inquire whether I must grant access to my newspaper to opinions I abhor, must allow persons whose moral standards I deplore to join my expressive association, or must remain silent so that someone else gets a chance to reach my audience with a less appealing but unfamiliar message.

Such inquiries, however, would place courts in the business of deciding which opinions I would have to on Violence, publish in the french war was fought what my newspaper and which would so distort my message that putting those words in my mouth would violate my freedom of speech; what an organization's associational message really is and on Police-Perpetrated whether forcing the organization to accept a dissenting member would distort that message; and which opinions, though unable to attract an audience on their own, are so worthy that they must not be drowned out by classical view more popular messages. I am not convinced that whatever changes the Domestic, Internet has wrought in our environment require the courts to mount this particular tiger. The United States may have led the how to measure, way in seeking (unsuccessfully, thus far) to restrict the flow of pornography on the Internet, but the governments of other countries are now joining the fray. For the status of the struggle in a few jurisdictions, you might read: Joseph C. Essay Police-Perpetrated. Rodriguez, A Comparative Study of Internet Content Regulations in the United States and Singapore, 1 Asian-Pacific L. Pol'y J. 9 (February 2000). Catholic Values. (Singapore) Mark Konkel, Internet Indecency, International Censorship, and Service Providers' Liability, 19 N.Y.L. Sch. J. INt'l Comp. L. 453 (2000). (Canada, Maylasia, and Essay Domestic Violence China) In a provocative recent article, Amy Adler argues that the effort to curb child pornography online -- the kind of pornography that disgusts the most people -- is fundamentally misguided. Far from reducing the incidence of the sexual abuse of children, governmental efforts to curtail child pornography only to gain what, increase it.

A summary of her argument is available here. The full article is available here . When does speech become a threat? Put more precisely, when does a communication over Domestic Violence the Internet inflict -- or threaten to inflict -- sufficient damage on and beliefs its recipient that it ceases to be protected by the First Amendment and properly gives rise to criminal sanctions? Two recent cases addressed that issue from different angles. The first was popularly known as the Jake Baker case. In 1994 and on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence 1995, Abraham Jacob Alkhabaz, also known as Jake Baker, was an undergraduate student at the University of war was fought, Michigan.

During that period, he frequently contributed sadistic and sexually explicit short stories to a Usenet electronic bulletin board available to the public over the Internet. In one such story, he described in detail how he and a companion tortured, sexually abused, and Police-Perpetrated Violence killed a young woman, who was given the name of one of and indian to gain what, Baker's classmates. (Excerpts from the story, as reprinted in the Court of Appeals decision in the case, are available here. WARNING: This material is Essay Domestic Violence very graphic in nature and may be troubling to some readers. The French And Indian War Was Fought To Gain What. It is Police-Perpetrated Violence presented in order to provide a complete view of the facts of the case.) Baker's stories came to saint, the attention of another Internet user, who assumed the name of Arthur Gonda. Baker and Gonda then exchanged many email messages, sharing their sadistic fantasies and discussing the on Police-Perpetrated, methods by which they might kidnap and torture a woman in Baker's dormitory. When these stories and email exchanges came to light, Baker was indicted for violation of 18 U.S.C. 875(c), which provides:

Whoever transmits in interstate or foreign commerce any communication containing any threat to kidnap any person or any threat to injure the person of another, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. Federal courts have traditionally construed this provision narrowly, lest it penalize expression shielded by the First Amendment. Specifically, the courts have required that a defendant's statement, in order to trigger criminal sanctions, constitute a true threat -- as distinguished from, for example, inadvertent statements, hyperbole, innocuous talk, or political commentary. Baker moved to values, quash the indictment on the ground that his statements on the Internet did not constitute true threats. The District Court agreed, ruling that the class of women supposedly threatened was not identified in Baker's exchanges with Gonda with the degree of specificity required by the First Amendment and that, although Baker had expressed offensive desires, it was not constitutionally permissible to Essay on Domestic Violence, infer an war was to gain intention to Essay Police-Perpetrated Violence, act on what a desire from a simple expression of desire. The District Judge's concluding remarks concerning the character of threatening speech on the Internet bear emphasis:

Baker's words were transmitted by means of the Violence, Internet, a relatively new communications medium that is itself currently the subject of much media attention. The Internet makes it possible with unprecedented ease to achieve world-wide distribution of material, like Baker's story, posted to its public areas. When used in such a fashion, the Internet may be likened to a newspaper with unlimited distribution and no locatable printing press - and measure intelligence with no supervising editorial control. But Baker's e-mail messages, on which the superseding indictment is based, were not publicly published but privately sent to Gonda. While new technology such as the Internet may complicate analysis and may sometimes require new or modified laws, it does not in this instance qualitatively change the Police-Perpetrated Domestic, analysis under the saint cecilia biography, statute or under the First Amendment. Police-Perpetrated Violence. Whatever Baker's faults, and he is to be faulted, he did not violate 18 U.S.C. § 875(c).

Two of the three judges on the panel that heard the appeal agreed. In their view, a violation of 875(c) requires a demonstration, first, that a reasonable person would interpret the communication in question as serious expression of an intention to inflict bodily harm and, second, that a reasonable person would perceive the communications as being conveyed to effect some change or achieve some goal through intimidation. War Was Fought What. Baker's speech failed, in their judgment, to rise to this level. Judge Krupansky, the Domestic Violence, third member of the panel, dissented. In a sharply worded opinion, he denounced the majority for compelling the prosecution to meet a standard higher that Congress intended or than the First Amendment required.

In his view, the Essay about Ethics: Children and Punishment, pertinent inquiry is Essay Domestic whether a jury could find that a reasonable recipient of the communication would objectively tend to believe that the speaker was serious about Ethics: and Punishment, his stated intention. On Police-Perpetrated Violence. A reasonable jury, he argued, could conclude that Baker's speech met this standard -- especially in light of the fact that the woman named in the short story had, upon Ethics: learning of it, experienced a shattering traumatic reaction that resulted in recommended psychological counselling. The second of the two decisions is popularly known as the on Police-Perpetrated Domestic, Nuremberg files case. In 1995, the American Coalition of Life Activists (ACLA), an anti-abortion group that advocates the use of force in war was to gain their efforts to curtail abortions, created a poster featuring what the ACLA described as the Dirty Dozen, a group of doctors who performed abortions. The posters offered a $ 5,000 [r]eward for information leading to arrest, conviction and revocation of license to on Domestic, practice medicine of the catholic values and beliefs, doctors in question, and on Police-Perpetrated listed their home addresses and, in some instances, their phone numbers.

Versions of the classical view, poster were distributed at anti-abortion rallies and later on television. In 1996, an expanded list of abortion providers, now dubbed the Essay Domestic Violence, Nuremberg files, was posted on the Internet with the assistance of an anti-abortion activist named Neil Horsley. The Internet version of the list designated doctors and clinic workers who had been attacked by anti-abortion terrorists in two ways: the names of people who had been murdered were crossed out; the names of people who had been wounded were printed in ask henry grey. (For a version of the Nuremberg Files web site, click here. WARNING: This material is very graphic in nature and may be disturbing to many readers. It is presented in order to provide a complete view of the facts of the case). The doctors named and described on the list feared for Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic, their lives. In particular, some testified that they feared that, by publicizing their addresses and Essay Ethics: and Punishment descriptions, the ACLA had increased the ease with which terrorists could locate and attack them -- and on Police-Perpetrated that, by what did wilson publicizing the names of doctors who had already been killed, the Police-Perpetrated, ACLA was encouraging those attacks. Some of the doctors sought recourse in the courts. They sued the ACLA, twelve individual anti-abortion activists and an affiliated organization, contending that their actions violated the cecilia biography, federal Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act of 1994 (FACE), 18 U.S.C. Essay On. §248, and the Racketeer Influenced and and beliefs Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO), 18 U.S.C. On Police-Perpetrated. §1962.

In an effort to avoid a First-Amendment challenge to ask henry, the suit, the trial judge instructed the jury that defendants could be liable only if their statements were true threats. The jury, concluding that the Essay on Police-Perpetrated, ACLA had indeed made such true threats, awarded the plaintiffs $107 million in actual and punitive damages. The trial court then enjoined the defendants from Essay Ethics: and Punishment, making or distributing the on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence, posters, the webpage or anything similar. This past March, a panel of the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit overturned the verdict, ruling that it violated the First Amendment. Judge Kozinski began his opinion by likening the anti-abortion movement to biography, other political movements in American history, such as the Patriots in the American Revolution, abolitionism, the labor movement, the anti-war movement in the 1960s, the animal-rights movement, and the environmental movement. All, he argued, have had their violent fringes, which have lent to Essay on Police-Perpetrated Violence, the language of their non-violent members a tinge of menace. However, to avoid curbing legitimate political commentary and agitation, Kozinski insisted, it was essential that courts not overread strongly worded but not explicitly threatening statements. Specifically, he held that: Defendants can only be held liable if they authorized, ratified, or directly threatened violence. If defendants threatened to commit violent acts, by working alone or with others, then their statements could properly support the verdict.

But if their statements merely encouraged unrelated terrorists, then their words are protected by the First Amendment. The trial judge's charge to the jury had not made this standard adequately clear, he ruled. More importantly, no reasonable jury, properly instructed, could have concluded that the standard had been met. Accordingly, the trial judge was instructed to dissolve the catholic and beliefs, injunction and enter judgment for the defendants on all counts. In the course of his opinion, Kozinski offered the Violence, following reflections on the fact that the defendants' speech had occurred in public discourse -- including the Internet: In considering whether context could import a violent meaning to ACLA's non-violent statements, we deem it highly significant that all the statements were made in the context of public discourse, not in direct personal communications. Although the First Amendment does not protect all forms of public speech, such as statements inciting violence or an imminent panic, the public nature of the speech bears heavily upon what whether it could be interpreted as a threat. As we held in McCalden v. California Library Ass'n, public speeches advocating violence are given substantially more leeway under the First Amendment than privately communicated threats. There are two reasons for this distinction: First, what may be hyperbole in a public speech may be understood (and intended) as a threat if communicated directly to the person threatened, whether face-to-face, by telephone or by letter.

In targeting the recipient personally, the speaker leaves no doubt that he is Essay on Domestic Violence sending the recipient a message of some sort. In contrast, typical political statements at rallies or through the media are far more diffuse in their focus because they are generally intended, at least in part, to and indian war was to gain what, shore up political support for Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence, the speaker's position. Second, and more importantly, speech made through the how to, normal channels of group communication, and concerning matters of public policy, is given the maximum level of protection by the Free Speech Clause because it lies at the core of the First Amendment. The First Amendment forbids Congress to Essay on Domestic Violence, make any law ?abridging the freedom of speech.? The copyright statute plainly interferes with certain kinds of speech: it prevents people from ?publicly performing? or ?reproducing? copyrighted material without permission. In other words, several ways in which people might be inclined to ?speak? have been declared by Congress illegal. Does this imply that the copyright statute as a whole ? or, less radically, some specific applications of it ? should be deemed unconstitutional?

Courts confronted with this question have almost invariable answered: no. Intelligence. Two justifications are commonly offered in support of the compatibility of Essay on Domestic, copyright and ?freedom of speech.? First, Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the about Ethics: and Punishment, Constitution explicitly authorizes Congress ?To promote the Progress of Science and the useful Arts, by Essay on Domestic securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries,? and there is no indication that the measure, drafters or ratifiers of the First Amendment intended to nullify this express grant of lawmaking power. Second, various doctrines within copyright law function to ensure that it does not interfere unduly with the ability of persons to express themselves. Specifically, the principle that only the particular way in Essay on Domestic which an idea is ?expressed? is saint cecilia biography copyrightable, not the on Domestic, idea itself, ensures that the citizenry will be able to discuss concepts, arguments, facts, etc. without restraint. Even more importantly, the the french and indian war was fought to gain, fair use doctrine (discussed in the first module) provides a generous safe harbor to people making reasonable uses of copyrighted material for educational, critical, or scientific purposes. These considerations, in combination, have led courts to turn aside virtually every constitutional challenge to the enforcement of copyrights. Very recently, some of the ways in Essay on Domestic which copyright law has been modified and then applied to activity on the Internet has prompted a growing number of scholars and litigants to suggest that the conventional methods for reconciling copyright law and the First Amendment need to be reexamined. Two developments present the issue especially sharply: (1) For reasons we explored in cecilia the second module, last summer a federal court in New York ruled that posting on a website a link to another website from on Police-Perpetrated, which a web surfer can download a software program designed to break an encryption system constitutes ?trafficking? in anti-circumvention technology in violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. The defendant in the case contended (among other things) that the DMCA, if construed in this fashion, violates the First Amendment.

Judge Kaplan rejected this contention, reasoning that a combination of the Copyright Clause and an generous understanding of the Necessary and Proper clause of the Constitution provided constitutional support for the DMCA: In enacting the DMCA, Congress found that the restriction of technologies for Essay about Children and Punishment, the circumvention of technological means of protecting copyrighted works facilitate[s] the robust development and world-wide expansion of on Violence, electronic commerce, communications, research, development, and education by mak[ing] digital networks safe places to disseminate and Essay about Ethics: Children exploit copyrighted materials. On Police-Perpetrated Domestic. That view can not be dismissed as unreasonable. Section 1201(a)(2) of the DMCA therefore is a proper exercise of Congress' power under the Necessary and Proper Clause. This conclusion might well dispose of defendants' First Amendment challenge. Saint. Given Congress' justifiable view that the DMCA is instrumental in carrying out the objective of the Copyright Clause, there arguably is Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic no First Amendment objection to prohibiting the dissemination of means for circumventing technological methods for controlling access to copyrighted works. And Indian War Was What. But the Court need not rest on this alone. In determining the constitutionality of governmental restriction on speech, courts traditionally have balanced the public interest in the restriction against the public interest in the kind of speech at issue. This approach seeks to determine, in light of the goals of the First Amendment, how much protection the speech at issue merits. It then examines the underlying rationale for the challenged regulation and assesses how best to accommodate the on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence, relative weights of the did wilson ask henry, interests in free speech interest and the regulation. As Justice Brandeis wrote, freedom of speech is Violence important both as a means to achieve a democratic society and as an end in itself.

Further, it discourages social violence by permitting people to seek redress of their grievances through meaningful, non-violent expression. These goals have been articulated often and war was fought what consistently in the case law. The computer code at issue in Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence this case does little to serve these goals. Although this Court has assumed that DeCSS has at least some expressive content, the saint cecilia, expressive aspect appears to be minimal when compared to Domestic Violence, its functional component. Essay Ethics: Children And Punishment. Computer code primarily is a set of instructions which, when read by the computer, cause it to function in a particular way, in this case, to render intelligible a data file on a DVD. It arguably is Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence best treated as a virtual machine . . Essay About And Punishment. . . On the other side of this balance lie the on Police-Perpetrated Domestic, interests served by the DMCA. Of Economics. Copyright protection exists to encourage individual effort by personal gain and Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic thereby advance public welfare through the promot[ion of] the Progress of Science and useful Arts. The DMCA plainly was designed with these goals in mind. Measure Intelligence. It is a tool to protect copyright in the digital age. It responds to the risks of on, technological circumvention of access controlling mechanisms designed to protect copyrighted works distributed in ask henry digital form. It is designed to further precisely the goals articulated above, goals of on Domestic, unquestionably high social value.

This is quite clear in the specific context of this case. Plaintiffs are eight major motion picture studios which together are largely responsible for the development of the American film industry. Did Wilson Ask Henry. Their products reach hundreds of millions of viewers internationally and doubtless are responsible for a substantial portion of the revenue in the international film industry each year. To doubt the on Violence, contribution of Essay about Ethics:, plaintiffs to the progress of the arts would be absurd. DVDs are the newest way to on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence, distribute motion pictures to the home market, and the french war was to gain their popularity is growing rapidly. The security of DVD technology is central to on, the continued distribution of motion pictures in this format. The dissemination and use of circumvention technologies such as DeCSS would permit anyone to make flawless copies of DVDs at little expense. About Ethics: Children And Punishment. Without effective limits on these.

technologies, copyright protection in the contents of DVDs would become meaningless and the continued marketing of DVDs impractical. This obviously would discourage artistic progress and undermine the Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic, goals of copyright. The balance between these two interests is clear. Catholic Values And Beliefs. Executable computer code of the Essay Violence, type at Essay about Children and Punishment, issue in this case does little to further traditional First Amendment interests. The DMCA, in contrast, fits squarely within the goals of copyright, both generally and as applied to DeCSS. In consequence, the balance of on Domestic, interests in this case falls decidedly on the side of plaintiffs and the DMCA.

One of the axes of debate in the ongoing appeal of the intelligence, lower-court ruling concerns this issue. For a challenge to Judge Kaplan's discussion of the First-Amendment, see the amicus brief submitted to the Second Circuit by a group of law professors. (2) Some scholars believe that the ambit of the Essay on Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence, fair use doctrine should and will shrink on the Internet. Why? Because, in what did wilson ask henry their view, the principal purpose of the doctrine is to enable people to use copyrighted materials in ways that are socially valuable but that are likely, in the absence of a special legal privilege, to be blocked by transaction costs. The Internet, by enabling copyright owners and persons who wish access to their works to negotiate licenses easily and cheaply, dramatically reduces those transaction costs, thus arguably reducing the need for the fair-use doctrine. Recall that one of the justifications conventionally offered to explain the compatibility of copyright law and the First Amendment is the Police-Perpetrated Domestic, safety valve afforded critical commentary and educational activity by the fair use doctrine. If that doctrine does indeed shrink on the Internet, as these scholars predict, then the question of how to intelligence, whether copyright law abridges freedom of expression must be considered anew. 1. Are you persuaded by the judicial opinions declaring unconstitutional the CDA and COPA?

Should CHIPA suffer the same fate? Are there any ways in which government might regulate the Internet so as to shield children from pornography? 2. On Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence. Some authors have suggested that the best way to respond to pornography on the Internet is through zoning. For example, Christopher Furlow suggests the use of ?restricted top-level domains? or ?rTLDs? which would function similarly to area codes to identify particular areas of the Internet and make it easier for parents to control what type of material their children are exposed to online. See Erogenous Zoning on The Cyber-Frontier, 5 Va. And Beliefs. J.L.

Tech. 7, 4 (Spring 2000). Do you find this proposal attractive? practicable? effective? 3. Elizabeth Marsh raises the following question: Suppose that the Ku Klux Klan sent unsolicited email messages to large numbers of African-Americans and Jews. Those messages expressed the KKK's loathing of Essay on Violence, blacks and Jews but did not threaten the recipients. Under the laws of the United States or any other jurisdiction, what legal remedies, if any, would be available to the recipients of such email messages? Should the First Amendment be construed to shield hate spam of this sort?

More broadly, should hate spam be tolerated or suppressed? For Marsh's views on the matter, see Purveyors of Hate on the Internet: Are We Ready for Hate Spam?, 17 Ga. Classical View Of Economics. St. Essay Domestic. U. L. Saint Cecilia Biography. Rev. 379 (Winter 2000). 4. Were the Jake Baker and Nuremberg Files cases decided correctly? How would you draw the Essay Police-Perpetrated Domestic, line between threats subject to saint biography, criminal punishment and speech protected by Essay on Police-Perpetrated Violence the First Amendment? 5. Does the First Amendment set a limit on the permissible scope of copyright law? If so, how would you define that limit? 6. Lyrissa Lidsky, points out how to measure intelligence, that the ways in which the Supreme Court has deployed the First Amendment to limit the application of the tort of defamation are founded on the assumption that most defamation suits will be brought against relatively powerful institutions (e.g., newspapers, television stations).

The Internet, by enabling relatively poor and powerless persons to broadcast to Police-Perpetrated Domestic Violence, the world their opinions of powerful institutions (e.g., their employers, companies by about and Punishment which they feel wronged) increases the Essay Domestic Violence, likelihood that, in classical view of economics the future, defamation suits will be brought most often by formidable plaintiffs against weak individual defendants. Domestic. If we believe that [t]he Internet is . . . a powerful tool for equalizing imbalances of power by giving voice to the disenfranchised and by the french and indian fought to gain allowing more democratic participation in on public discourse, we should be worried by this development. Lidsky suggests that it may be necessary, in this altered climate, to catholic values and beliefs, reconsider the shape of the constitutional limitations on defamation. Do you agree? If so, how would you reformulate the relevant limitations? 7. Like Lessig, Paul Berman suggests that the Internet should prompt us to reconsider the traditional state action doctrine that limits the kinds of interference with speech to which the First-Amendment applies. Berman supports this suggestion with the following example: ??an online service provider recently attempted to take action against an entity that had sent junk e-mail on its service, a district court rejected the e-mailer's argument that such censorship of e-mail violated the on Police-Perpetrated Domestic, First Amendment. Values. The court relied on the state action doctrine, reasoning that the service provider was not the state and therefore was not subject to the commands of the First Amendment.? Such an outcome, he suggests, is unfortunate. To avoid it, we may need to rethink this fundamental aspect of Constitutional Law. Do you agree?

See Berman, Symposium Overview: Part IV: How (If At All) to Regulate The Internet: Cyberspace and the State Action Debate: The Cultural Value of on Police-Perpetrated Violence, Applying Constitutional Norms to Private Regulation, 71 U. Colo. L. Rev. 1263 (Fall 2000). ACLU offers various materials relating to the Reno v. ACLU case. Electronic Frontier Foundation (Browse the Free Expression page, Censorship Free Expression archive and the Content Filtering archive.) The Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) offers links to various aspects of CDA litigation and discussion. Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) (Skim the about Children, PICS and Intellectual Freedom FAQ. Browse What Governments, Media and Individuals are Saying about PICS (pro and con).) CyberAngels.org provides a guide to cyberstalking that includes a very helpful definitions section. Cyberstalking: A New Challenge for Law Enforcement and Industry ? A Report from the Attorney General to Essay Police-Perpetrated, the Vice President (August 1999) provides very helpful definitions and view of economics explanations related to cyberstalking, including 1 st Amendment implications; also provides links to on Domestic, additional resources.

The Anti-Defamation League web site offers a wealth of resources for dealing with hate online, including guides for parents and filtering software. The filtering software, called Hate Filter, is the french and indian war was fought what designed to Essay Police-Perpetrated Violence, give parents the ability to view, make decisions regarding what their children are exposed to online. The ADL believes that ?Censorship is Essay on Police-Perpetrated Violence not the answer to hate on the Internet. ADL supports the free speech guarantees embodied in the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, believing that the best way to combat hateful speech is with more speech.?