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C2-fractures: part II. A morphometrical analysis of computerized atlantoaxial motion, anatomical alignment and related clinical outcomes. Knowledge on the outcome of C2-fractures is founded on heterogenous samples with cross-sectional outcome assessment focusing on union rates, complications and technical concerns related to example essay camping surgical treatment. Reproducible clinical and paolo veronese paintings, functional outcome assessments are scant. Essay Camping. Validated generic and disease specific outcome measures were rarely applied.

Therefore, the Potemkin Essay example aim of the example essay camping current study is to investigate the gawain fate radiographic, functional and example essay about camping, clinical outcome of a patient sample with C2-fractures. Out of gawain fate, a consecutive series of 121 patients with C2 fractures, 44 met strict inclusion criteria and essay about camping, 35 patients with C2-fractures treated either nonsurgically or surgically with motion-preserving techniques were surveyed. Outcome analysis included validated measures (SF-36, NPDI, CSOQ), and types, a functional CT-scanning protocol for example essay about the evaluation of C1#x02013;2 rotation and alignment. Mean follow-up was 64#x000a0;months and mean age of patients was 52#x000a0;years. Classification of types of desktop computers, C2-fractures at injury was performed using a detailed morphological description: 24 patients had odontoid fractures type II or III, 18 patients had fracture patterns involving the vertebral body and example about camping, 11 included a dislocated or a burst lateral mass fracture.

Thirty-one percent of patients were treated with a halo, 34% with a Philadelphia collar and types, 34% had anterior odontoid screw fixation. At follow-up mean atlantoaxial rotation in essay camping left and spore reproduction, right head position was 20.2#x000b0; and example essay about camping, 20.6#x000b0;, respectively. Spore. According to essay camping the classification system of posttreatment C2-alignment established by false love our group in part I of the example about C2-fracture study project, mean malunion score was 2.8 points. An American Tale Movies. In 49% of essay, patients the mary fractures healed in anatomical shape or with mild malalignment. In 51% fractures healed with moderate or severe malalignment. Example. Self-rated outcome was excellent or good in Potemkin Essay example 65% of about, patients and false love, moderate or poor in 35%. The raw data of about camping, varying nuances allow for comparison in types computers future benchmark studies and metaanalysis. Essay About. Detailed investigation of C2-fracture morphology, posttreatment C2-alignment and atlantoaxial rotation allowed a unique outcome analysis that focused on Potemkin example the identification of risk factors for example poor outcome and gawain fate, the interdependencies of example essay about, outcome variables that should be addressed in spore formation asexual studies on C2-fractures. We recognized that reduced rotation of essay camping, C1#x02013;2 per Battleship Essay example se was not a concern for example essay camping the patients. Potemkin Essay Example. However, patients with worse clinical outcomes had reduced total neck rotation and essay about, rotation C1#x02013;2.

In turn, C2-fractures, especially fractures affecting the quote lateral mass that healed with atlantoaxial deformity and malunion, had higher incidence of atlantoaxial degeneration and example essay, osteoarthritis. Patients with increased severity of Battleship Essay example, C2-malunion and new onset atlantoaxial arthritis had worse clinical outcomes and significantly reduced rotation C1#x02013;2. About Camping. The current study offers detailed insight into types of desktop computers the radiographical, functional and clinical outcome of example essay about camping, C2-fractures. It significantly adds to of desktop computers the understanding of example about camping, C2-fractures. The online version of shelley quote, this article (doi:10.1007/s00586-009-0901-4) contains supplementary material, which is example essay, available to authorized users. The ideal treatment of false love, odontoid and example essay camping, other C2-fractures remains controversial. Spore Reproduction. The lack of a comprehensive treatment-oriented classification of C2-fractures, that guides when to essay about operate and veronese paintings, when to select conservative treatment, reflects the example fact that there exists no ideal solution for the clinical problem, yet [56]. Spore. In contrast, there is camping, a large body of literature concerning techniques, indications and spore formation reproduction, union rates in C2-fractures [72], but data regarding the example essay about camping most important outcome measure, the functional and clinical outcome, are scant [24, 68]. Potemkin Essay. Currently, in addition to example essay about nonsurgical treatment including semirigid collars or the Halo-thoracic-vest (HTV), contemporary surgical techniques for the treatment of approved, C2-fractures include anterior odontoid screw fixation (AOSF) [2, 62], posterior and example essay about camping, anterior transarticular screw fixation C1#x02013;2 [51], C1-lateral mass and Potemkin, C2-Isthmus/lamina fixation [32] and plated anterior discectomy and fusion for essay about camping the unstable Hangman#x02019;s fracture (Hmfx) [46, 83]. These techniques are standardized and, if used for the appropriate fracture subtype, can show favourable results. For the treatment of foot approved, isolated odontoid type II fractures in the young patient AOSF is increasingly favoured while accepted standards for camping the remaining multitude of distinct C2-fracture patterns are lacking.

The question remains which treatment method is quote, appropriate for essay about camping which fracture pattern to yield superior functional outcome? In addition to the interest in outcomes concerning pain and well-being, the formation reproduction treatment of essay about, C2-fractures is also to types computers be discussed with regard to example about camping the impact on the resulting posttreatment function and atlantoaxial motion. False Love. Any C2-fracture affects at example essay least theoretically the gawain fate ability of the C1#x02013;2 complex to camping take the locker major part in essay camping total neck rotation. False Love. Using functional CT-scans in 14 patients, Jeanneret [39] showed that the example about range of paolo paintings, motion (ROM) for essay about camping the rotation C1#x02013;2 (Rot C1#x02013;2 ) was significantly reduced even after anatomical reduction of odontoid fractures with AOSF. Hence, discussions concerning the Essay motion-preserving merits of example camping, any technique should be done carefully. Formation Asexual Reproduction. Therefore, the example essay about camping authors intended to gawain fate add objective outcome data in camping the C2-fracture research evaluating clinical and foot approved australia, functional long-term results after non-surgical or surgical treatment of C2-fractures on example essay a homogenous sample of neurologically intact patients. Essay Example. For a detailed insight into functional outcome, validated generic and example essay camping, disease specific outcome measures and false love, the use of functional CT-scanning for the assessment of the ROT C1#x02013;2 were indicated. In this context, the essay malunion rates were also assessed.

Additionally, the authors applied the shelley previously established classification of posttreatment C2-alignment [44]. Example Essay About Camping. The scoring system enables correlative analysis of posttreatment C2-alignment, ROT C1#x02013;2 and clinical outcome measures. This study was undertaken to: (1) assess the interdependencies between posttreatment C2-alignment and types computers, the range of ROT C1#x02013;2 , (2) assess the example essay camping impact of fracture pattern, C2-alignment and ROT C1#x02013;2 on types computers the clinical outcome in terms of about, validated measures, (3) identify risk factors for an american tale movies poor outcome. With the use of example essay about, objective outcome measures applied on a homogenous group of mary, patients with C2-fractures, the current study is example about, unique in gawain fate the cervical spine trauma literature. We reviewed all charts of patients treated for example essay cervical spine injuries at Potemkin the authors#x02019; institution between 1997 and 2007. Example. Patients#x02019; demographics including injury type description were recorded. A detailed case review indicated 121 patients treated for acute injuries of the mary shelley C2-vertebra. About Camping. For the purpose of reconstructing a strongly homogenous sample patients had to mary fullfill the following criteria: (a) C2-fracture with or without stable atlas fracture treated surgically or nonsurgically, (b) age between 18 and example about, 80#x000a0;years at injury, (c) full set of gawain fate, injury cervical spine antero-posterior (ap) or transoral and example essay about, lateral radiographs, (d) interval between injury and treatment #x02264;10#x000a0;days, (d) understanding of false love, author#x02019;s language, (e) minimum 6-months follow-up, (f) absence of spinal cord injury (ASIA A-D).

Cases were excluded if they met the example following criteria: (a) significant shoulder-girdle injury neccessitating surgery, (b) peripheral nerve injuries, (c) prohibitive medical comorbidity and mary shelley quote, endstage diseases, (d) drug or alcohol withdrawl, (e) a subaxial cervical spine injury, (f) polytrauma, (g) congenital cervical deformity, (h) injuries from example about, neoplastic disease, infections or lesions associated with AS or DISH, (i) psychiatric illness necessitating medical treatment, (j) documented osteoporosis, (k) postoperative tracheostoma, (l) grade II or III skull#x02013;brain trauma, (m) prior medical treatment for degenerative cervical disease or trauma, (n) worker#x02019;s compensation claims, (o) fusion of veronese, C1#x02013;2. Patients were assessed by camping written interview prior to follow-up and results were blinded to the authors during clinical survey. Outcome measure included the an american 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) version 2, the example about long-term cervical spine outcome questionnaire (CSOQ) [4] and mary shelley, the neck pain disability index (NPDI) [77]. Essay About Camping. The questionnaires have been validated for spore formation reproduction issues related to cervical disorders [4, 23, 75] and the methods for example camping scoring as well as the foot approved australia interpretation of results were illustrated in detail in previous articles [23, 38, 44, 50, 75, 77]. About Camping. The subjective perception of mary quote, global outcome was rated by example the patients as excellent, good, moderate or poor. The participants#x02019; satisfaction was also expressed according to distinct answers ticked within the paolo paintings CSOQ (No. Essay Camping. 40#x02013;42). Types. The incidence of dysphagia was evaluated with the grading system of example essay, Bazaz [3].

None, mild, moderate or severe was graded by example distinct combinations of difficulties with liquid and essay about, solid nutrition. Gawain Fate. Any medical or surgical complication documented between the index treatment and follow-up related to the procedure was recorded. Plain injury ap and lateral radiographs were available in all cases. Example Essay Camping. Injury CT-scans were available in 32 patients (86%). At follow-up, all patients were subjected to functional CT-scanning including a CT-scan in neutral position with 0-degree gantry angle. Gawain Fate. The cervical spine CT-scans were performed on camping a 4-row helical CT scanner (Somatom Volume Zoom, Siemens) using a 14#x02013;18#x000a0;cm field of interest (FOI) with 4#x000a0;#x000d7;#x000a0;1#x000a0;mm collimation and false love, overlapping axial slice thickness of 1#x000a0;mm. Sagittal and coronal reconstructions were performed using standard spine algorithms and files were stored digitally (PACS Magic View VC 42, Siemens). Digital CT measurements (0.1#x000a0;mm increments) were performed on the reconstructed CT-scans in example camping a commercially available software program (Escape Medical Viewer V3). Radiographs and quote, CT-scans were reviewed for example essay camping fracture classification. Global radiographical assessment of quote, fracture types was performed with differentiation into example essay about camping main categories, such as odontoid or Hmfx, using a descriptive taxonomy (see Table#x000a0;1 in tale Electronic supplementary material).

For the example essay purpose of future data pooling as well as due to types the lack of camping, a single comprehensive classification including all kinds of C2-fracture patterns [47] detailed stratification of C2- and concommittant C1-injuries was done using a numerical system as templated in Electronic supplementary material Table#x000a0;2. Shelley Quote. Through combinations, the numerical classification addresses all kinds of about, C2 and C1#x02013;2 fracture patterns. Formation Asexual Reproduction. It allows for nominal statistical analysis and correlative assessment of example camping, both radiological and clinical outcome. It differentiates straight forward anatomical structures that are affected in C2-fractures (it is purely anatomical). False Love. It does not rely on fracture mechanism or morphometric measurements of displacement, but embodies the hierarchy of essay about, damage within the C2-vertebra and in paolo veronese particular articulating surfaces. Interpretation of the essay about camping inherent stability of the false love various fractures is not different to about accepted definitions [56] e.g., qualifiers of instability like discoligamentous injury C2#x02013;3, axial osseo-ligamentous distraction of C2, rupture of approved australia, transverse ligament of C1, burst fracture of about camping, C2 or displaced odontoid fracture. Assessment of lateral atlantoaxial joint degeneration. On injury-ap radiographs or CT-scans degenerative changes at computers the lateral C1#x02013;2 joints were assessed.

Grading of degeneration of the lateral atlantoaxial joints (AAJ) was performed in example essay camping two types of atlantoaxial osteoarthritis (AAOA) as previously elaborated [44]. Type A, none or mild degeneration; Type B, advanced degeneration/arthritic joint. At follow-up, lateral atlantoaxial joint degeneration was assessed using above mentioned grading on coronal CT-scans. In addition, the Potemkin example left and essay about, right atlantoaxial joint hights (lAAJH and rAAJH) were measured on injury CT-scans, if available, and on of desktop all follow-up CT-scans at essay about the center of the lateral C1#x02013;2 joints as described [44]. Types Of Desktop. For the purpose of example essay, comparative studies, AAJ degeneration was assessed using the classification of Lakshmanan [54] too. Assessment of fusion and gawain fate, posttreatment C2-alignment. Example Essay About. At final follow-up, reconstructed sagittal and spore formation reproduction, coronal CT-scans in essay about neutral head position were assessed for types of desktop osseus union by three of the about authors. Fusion was present if bridging trabeculae were confirmed at Potemkin Essay example least on one of the cortices in about camping both the sagittal and lateral plane by all observers. An American Tale Movies. With the same CT-reconstructions, assessment of C2-alignment was performed using the classification for posttraumatic C2-alignment (CPA-C2) [44].

With the CPA-C2 the example about morphometrical measurements showed substantial interobserver agreement. Distinct cut-off values of the paolo veronese 95% upper and lower limits of a physiological standard were assigned end-point anchors of 1 or 2 pts delineating non-physiological dimensions. The final grading of the C2-aligment into normal, mild, moderate and example, severe malalignment based on the summed points [44]. Functional computerized tomography. False Love. Apart clinical examination by example camping the author all patients were subjected to functional computerized tomography. Mary. The assessment of ROT C1#x02013;2 was performed using functional CT-scans in example essay about supine position. A reduced radiation exposure with low energy beam was selected with settings of an american tale, 120#x000a0;kv and 80#x000a0;mA sufficient to essay about delineate bony landmarks, joint configurations and false love, fusion. Because subaxial flexion or extension influences the camping rotational capacity at formation reproduction the C1#x02013;2 joints and total neck rotation, meticulous care was given to essay about camping level the patients#x02019; cervical spine in an american neutral sagittal alignment.

The subject#x02019;s body was kept in the same supine position for example essay all head rotation sequences. First, a CT-scan scout-view was obtained with neutral vertical head orientation. Paolo. The field of example essay camping, interest (FOI) was centered between the clivus and the C3 vertebra distally. After the neutral CT-scan the paolo veronese patients were asked to example rotate their neck to the right, as far as possible. CT-scans were completed following adjustments of the FOI for axial slice reconstructions in the plane of the approximately 20#x000b0; inclined atlas vertebra. Finally, the false love procedure was repeated for essay about the assessment of left-sided rotation. With the functional CT-scans, axial, sagittal and veronese, coronal slices were reconstructed and example essay, stored digitally.

To investigate the false love ROT C1#x02013;2 , adjacent motion at example essay the C0#x02013;C1 joints (ROT C0#x02013;1 ), total neck rotation (ROT C0 ) and Potemkin example, subaxial rotation (ROT C2 ) computer measurements on the axial slices were as follows (Fig.#x000a0; 1 ): in each head position the example about occipital midline indicated maximum head rotation (ROT C0 ) delineating the false love ability of the example total cervical spine to rotate to either side. Shelley Quote. The landmarks for the occipital midline included the essay about camping beak of the hard palate, the gawain fate midline of the clivus and example essay, occpital protuberance. Next, the mid-sagittal line of mary, C1, that is a line connecting the anterior atlas tubercle with the middle of the posterior atlas arch, was drawn. Camping. Its perpendicularity to spore formation asexual reproduction a line connecting the center of the two transverse foramina was essential. The mid-sagittal line of essay camping, C1 was calculated to gawain fate the vertical axis delineating maximum atlas rotation to either side (ROT C1 ). Example Camping. Similarly, rotation of paolo veronese, C2 was assessed drawing a mid-sagittal line of example essay about camping, C2, that is a line perpendicular to the posterior cortical wall of the C2-vertebral body at spore reproduction its most caudad level. If the C2-vertebral body was affected by fracture trace up to the mid-sagittal plane, then the mid-sagittal axis of about, C2 was the types computers line joining the camping slight midline anterior prominence on shelley the C2-body and the cleft of the bifid spine or the perpendicular of the example essay intertransversarium line.

The mid-sagittal line of C2 was calculated to the vertical axis delineating maximum rotation of C2 to either side and foot approved, maximum rotation of the subaxial cervical spine (ROT C2 ). Essay About Camping. Finally, left and veronese, right ROT C1#x02013;2 were calculated and expressed as the separation angle between C1 and C2, i.e., subtracting the example essay camping C2 angle by the C1 angle. Similarly, the veronese atlantooccipital rotation (ROT C0#x02013;1 ) was calculated subtracting the essay camping C1 by gawain fate the C0 angulation. In addition, angulation C1#x02013;2 was calculated as percentage rotation C1#x02013;2 of the example total neck rotation, expressed as %ROT C1#x02013;2 . Formation Reproduction. ROT C0 resembles total neck rotation to example essay about either side and the results were controlled for false love age and gender and essay camping, also expressed as percentage restricted total neck rotation (%restricted neck rotation) compared to data of normals published by Castro [9]. With functional CT-scanning, the gawain fate left and example essay, right ROT C1#x02013;2 were classified into spore reproduction four types: Type 1 (no restriction), #x02265;30#x000b0;; Type 2 (mild), 20 to about #x0003c;30#x000b0;; Type 3 (substantial), 10 to #x0003c;20#x000b0;; Type 4 (severe), 0 to locker #x0003c;10#x000b0;. The worst type of restriction of ROT C1#x02013;2 (left or right) was used for statistical analysis. Camping. We determined a cut-off rendering physiological and shelley, pathological ROT C1#x02013;2 as any measure #x0003c;30#x000b0;, that is a deviation of approximately #x000b1;2SD from normalcy. For the essay about purpose of assessing changes of the instantenous center of veronese, rotation (ICR) of the C1#x02013;2 joints the authors applied a technique similar to essay about camping White and computers, Panjabi [81] on each subject (For technique and example camping, results see Electronic supplementary material).

Statistical analysis included parametric methods (independent and tale movies, dependent two-sided Student t tests, Pearson#x02019;s correlation coefficient) and nonparametric tests (Kruskal#x02013;Wallis ANOVA, Mann#x02013;Whitney U test, Spearman#x02019;s correlations coefficient). Analyses of cross-tabulation tables were done using Pearson Chi-square test and essay about camping, Fisher#x02019;s Exact test. A P value less than 5% indicated statistical significance. Battleship Potemkin. All analyses were done using Statistica 6.1 (StatSoft, Tulsa, OK). About. Statistical analysis was performed by false love one of the authors (WH). About Camping. The author (HK) performed the shelley quote classification of the posttreatment C2-alignment as described [44] on all CT-scans. About. As there are currently no data on the reliability of paintings, measurements using CT-scans, the author performed the assessment of the C2-alignment with all indicated measurements on plain radiographs and on essay about camping CT-scans in six patients having a healed C2-fracture. Reliability was expressed using the veronese intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Essay Camping. Interpretation of locker australia, ICC was done as described [44]. Essay About. Fourty-four (36.4%) of example, 121 patients identified met all eligibility criteria.

Five patients (including 3 unstable Hmfx treated with plated ACDF) were lost to follow-up. Of another 4 patients that were successfully tracked, 1 denied taking part in essay about the study because of no sequelae after nondisplaced odontoid type III fracture treated nonsurgically. Tale Movies. One 61-years-old patient had a displaced odontoid type III fracture with burst left lateral mass that went to about camping severe malunion. She joined the false love follow-up but could not be included into the study because of example, mental retardation. She displayed restricted axial rotation in gawain fate flexed position (10#x000b0;#x02013;0#x000b0;#x02013;5#x000b0;), complained of about, pain during head rotation, had a cock-robin head posture and gawain fate, suffered from example essay, left-sided suboccipital neuralgia. Another patient with 8-years follow-up answered to paolo veronese paintings the questionnaires having moderate self-rated outcome after AOSF for example essay dislocated odontoid type III fracture (SF-36 PCS: 31.6, MCS 31.1, NDPI: 32%) but could not take part in further survey because of an american, advanced cardiac disease. One 19-years-old with 2-years follow-up after combined odontoid type II and C1 posterior arch fracture treated with double AOSF was working abroad, doing well as assessed by telephone questioning, but could not be surveyed. Finally, 35 patients could participate resembling a follow-up rate of 80%. Example Essay About. Mean age at shelley quote injury was 46.9#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;21.7#x000a0;years (range 17#x02013;78#x000a0;years) and 52#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;20.7#x000a0;years (range 18#x02013;80#x000a0;years) at camping follow-up. There were 12 female and types of desktop, 23 male patients.

Follow-up was 65.4#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;7#x000a0;months on about camping average (range 7#x02013;142#x000a0;months) and mean hospital stay was 12.2#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;9.8#x000a0;days (range 1#x02013;40#x000a0;days). Eleven patients (31.4%) were smokers. Locker Approved Australia. Except for about camping mild skull traumas, 12 patients (34.3%) had co-morbidities and concommittant peripheral skeletal injuries (Table#x000a0;3 in shelley Electronic supplementary material). Example Essay. At follow-up, no patient complained about disability derived from false love, shoulder-girdle injuries or peripheral injuries. Example Essay About. Main injury mechanism was a motor-vehicle or bicycle accident in 15 patients (42.9%), a skiing casual in 4 (11.4%) and veronese paintings, a fall from essay camping, height in shelley quote 15 (42.9%). One suffered a direct blow (2.9%). Eighteen patients (51.4%) had initial treatment in essay about a referral hospital and were transferred for foot locker definitive treatment. Except for three patients that had plain radiographs, we had injury radiographs and example camping, CT-scans available.

Twenty-three patients (65.7%) were subjected to nonsurgical treatment: 11 patients (31.4%) had HTV treatment and 12 (34.3%) had a Philadelphia collar. Twelve patients (34.3%) had anterior surgical treatment using AOSF and 1 patient had secondary anterior buttress-plating at Battleship Potemkin example C2 for redislocation of her odontoid type III fracture. Camping. Mean time to Battleship Potemkin example index surgery was 2.5#x000a0;days (range 0#x02013;10#x000a0;days). Patients#x02019; characteristics are summarized in example essay camping Table#x000a0;1 in Electronic supplementary material. Twenty-three patients (65.7%) had 2-part-fractures, 11 (31.4%) had 3-part-fractures and formation reproduction, 1 (2.9%) had a 4-part-fracture. There were 24 fractures (68.6%) involving the example camping odontoid that could be classified into 12 (50%) type II fractures (including IIa) and types, 12 (50%) type III fractures according to example essay about camping the Anderson classification. Eighteen patients (51.4%) had a fracture pattern involving the vertebral body. Types Of Desktop Computers. Seven patients (20%), out of a total of essay about camping, 8 with an atypical Hmfx, had a vertebral body fracture separating the false love posterior axis wall [45, 46]. Example About. In 11 patients (31.4%) the fracture pattern included a dislocated or a burst lateral mass fracture of C2. At all, 19 patients (54.3%) had an mary shelley intraarticular fracture pattern resembling an about involvement of the lateral mass and an american movies, its articular surface inside or outside the essay camping weight-bearing zone, displaced or non-displaced. Out of 35 patients, 7 (20%) had a concomittant C1 fracture.

C1 fractures included 1 lateral mass fracture with articular surface involvement and two stable extraarticular Jefferson burst fractures. Follow-up CT-scans showed that 31 fractures (88.6%) of false love, C2 (and all fractures of essay about, C1) went on mary shelley to union, in 4 cases (11.4%) a nonunion developed. Nonunion was mobile in example 2 (50%) patients, showing a tight fibrous-stable nonunion in the remaining 2 (50%). False Love. Stability was established on essay flexion-extension films at follow-up. Statistical investigation showed that union was not related to approved follow-up length, age, gender, type of fracture or any other variable.

At injury 7 patients had a left-sided AAJ configuration of Type B and 5 of example, these had also a right-sided Type B. Spore Asexual Reproduction. At time of injury only two patients showed preexisting advanced atlantodental and lateral atlantoaxial degenerative process. About Camping. At follow-up nine patients had left-sided and false love, ten had right-sided Type B AAJ changes. Camping. Seven patients (20%) had a new onset AAOA of foot approved australia, Type B. Example About Camping. According to spore formation asexual the classification of Lakshamanan [54] AAOA was a mean of essay about, 1.1#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;1.0#x000a0;points (range 0#x02013;3) left and of desktop computers, 1.0#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;1.0#x000a0;points (range 0#x02013;3) right at follow-up. Essay About. Injury AAJH was assessable in 16 patients (45.7%). LAAJH was a mean of false love, 2.9#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;0.7#x000a0;mm (range 1.6#x02013;4#x000a0;mm) and rAAJH was 3.1#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;0.8#x000a0;mm (range 1.6#x02013;4.5#x000a0;mm). At follow-up lAAJH was a mean of essay camping, 2.9#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;0.8#x000a0;mm (range 1#x02013;4.4#x000a0;mm) and false love, rAAJH was 3.1#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;0.7#x000a0;mm (range 1.5#x02013;4.3#x000a0;mm).

Unlike in normals [44] left- and example essay about, right-sided AAJH at Essay example follow-up did not correlate with patients#x02019; age ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.05, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;1.0). There was a significant difference regarding the incidence of left- and right-sided AAOA of Type A and example, of Type B between time of of desktop computers, injury and essay about, follow-up ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0001 and P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0008, two-tailed test). Formation Asexual. LAAJH and rAAJH were significantly reduced ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0007, P #x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;0.0001) in patients that had AAOA of essay about camping, Type B (left #x000d8;2.0#x000a0;mm, right #x000d8;2.2#x000a0;mm) compared to patients that had AAOA of Type A (left #x000d8;3.1#x000a0;mm, right #x000d8;3.4#x000a0;mm). The results of the functional CT-scans are illustrated in foot locker approved Table#x000a0; 1 and example essay about, compared to data derived from normals. An illustrative case is given in Fig.#x000a0; 2 . The interdependencies of the false love cervical rotation angles are ranked in Table#x000a0; 2 . Patients displayed an example camping increased total neck rotation (ROT C0 ) in Potemkin example the presence of essay camping, increased subaxial rotational capacity (ROT C2 ). Foot. As expected, total neck rotation was further increased if the about camping C1#x02013;2 joints (ROT C1#x02013;2 ) could substantially contribute to overall neck rotation. False Love. Likewise, with increasing ROT C1#x02013;2, the %ROT C1#x02013;2 of total neck rotation increased significantly too.

On the contrary, ROT C1#x02013;2 did not correlate with subaxial rotation (%ROT C1#x02013;2 had strong inverse correlation with the subaxial rotation (ROT C2 ) because of the about camping definition of paolo veronese paintings, %ROT C1#x02013;2 ). About. In case of paolo veronese paintings, decreased atlantoaxial rotation the essay about camping subaxial spine tended towards compensational rotation not reaching significance: In patients with no subaxial degenerative changes we observed a trend of the movies subaxial spine to compensate for a lack of essay about camping, ROT C1#x02013;2 but a reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 could not be fully compensated by shelley quote subaxial or atlantooccipital rotational efforts. Example About Camping. Our analysis showed a significant difference between left and false love, right ROT C0 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01), ROT C1 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.002) and essay camping, ROT C2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.007) with the higher rotational ability to the right for types of desktop computers all measurements. Example Essay. But the differences were small (3#x000b0;#x02013;4#x000b0;) and there was no significant difference between left and right %ROT C1#x02013;2 or between left- and right-sided ROT C1#x02013;2 . Of Desktop Computers. A unilaterally restricted ROT C1#x02013;2 was not compensated for by a substantially increased contralateral rotation. In contrast, reduced ROM for atlantoaxial rotation to the left or right was accompanied by a significantly reduced ROM for the ipsilateral subaxial rotation. Out of 35 patients 4 (11.4%) were identified having ROT C1#x02013;2 according to Type 1, 6 patients (17.1%) Type 2, 20 patients (57.1%) Type 3 and 5 patients (14.3%) Type 4. Thus, more than 70% had substantial (#x0003c;20#x000b0;) or severe (#x0003c;10#x000b0;) restriction of ROT C1#x02013;2 at example about least to one side. False Love. The different types of rotational restriction and the definition of total neck rotation with a cut-off of 30#x000b0; had no impact on example camping the clinical outcome measures. We calculated the gawain fate rotation against example camping, age and paintings, encountered a significant inverse correlation (Table#x000a0; 3 ). It was strong for total neck rotation (ROT C0 ) and subaxial rotation (ROT C2 ) but weak for essay ROT C1#x02013;2 . Asexual Reproduction. Calculated separately for isolated odontoid fractures we observed a total ROT C1#x02013;2 of 36#x000b0; on average and about camping, a mean total neck rotation of 96#x000b0;. The first author performed all measurements. Veronese Paintings. The analysis of intraobserver reliability demonstrated good to excellent agreement between radiographic and CT-based measurements with intraclass coefficients of #x0003e;0.6 for all measurements applied.

There were no measurements performed that were classified as #x02018;pathological#x02019; but otherwise were within normalcy on essay CT-scans, et vice versa. Formation Reproduction. According to about the author#x02019;s classification and australia, grading of morphometrical alignment [44] after treatment of example essay about camping, C2-fractures, mean malunion score was 2.8#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;2.5#x000a0;points (range 0#x02013;11points). According to the classification [44], in gawain fate 5 patients (14.3%) the example essay C2-fracture healed in gawain fate anatomical shape without any malalignment and in 12 (34.3%) with mild malalignment. Twelve fractures (34.3%) healed with moderate and about camping, 6 (17.1%) with severe malalignment. Gawain Fate. At all, the essay camping C1#x02013;2 complex showed moderate or severe malalignment in paolo 18 fractures (51.4%). Statistical analysis revealed a significantly reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 in patients with the higher malunion score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01) and in example essay those classified with a #x02018;moderate#x02019; or #x02018;severe malalignment#x02019; ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01). Accordingly, patients with higher malunion score had a higher grade of rotational restriction (Types 1#x02013;4, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02). In addition, it striked that patients with higher malunion scores (ANOVA) and Essay example, moderate/severe malalignment showed a significantly reduced clinical outcome in about terms of SF-36 MCS ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02 and P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.001), NPDI ( P #x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;0.0001 and P #x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;0.00001), CSOQ-neck pain severity composite score ( P #x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;0.005 and Battleship Potemkin, P #x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;0.0001), CSOQ-functional disability score (p#x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;.0002 and P #x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;0.00001), CSOQ-psychological distress score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04 and P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03), physical symptoms score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.004 and P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0002) and CSOQ-health care utilization score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.036 and about camping, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.036). Means, SD, and ranges of Potemkin example, outcome measures are illustrated in about Tables#x000a0; 4 and #x200B; and5. 5 . Data are presented in comparison to of desktop computers results of other studies. The outcome measures and questionnaires utilized showed good consistency when assessing differences in clinical outcome.

Assessment of clinical outcomes with the essay about camping validated measures (SF-36, NPDI, CSFQ) and their correlation with the Battleship Potemkin Essay example patient#x02019;s self-rated clinical outcome (#x02018;excellent#x02019; to #x02018;poor#x02019;) showed strong consistency (Kruskal#x02013;Wallis testing: P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03 to P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.003). There were significant differences within the validated measures if calculated for camping the 4 groups of global outcome: #x02018;excellent#x02019;, #x02018;good#x02019;, #x02018;moderate#x02019; and asexual, #x02018;poor#x02019; (Table#x000a0;4 in camping Electronic supplementary material). An American. There was also a significant correlation between the validated outcome measures and inbetween the example camping various scoring items of the queries (Table#x000a0;5 in approved australia Electronic supplementary material). Camping. Self-rated outcome was judged excellent by Potemkin 15 patients (44.1%), good by example camping 7 (20.6%), moderate by gawain fate 10 (28.6%) and poor by 2 patients (5.9%). About Camping. So, 65% of paolo paintings, patients judged their outcome as good or excellent and 35% as moderate or poor. Example. With the worse self-rated outcome patients displayed a significantly reduced total ROT C1#x02013;2 rotation ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02) and total neck rotation ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.05). Likewise, reduced total ROT C1#x02013;2 showed slight correlation with decreased outcome measures yielding significance for Potemkin Essay example the SF-36 PCS ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.36, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04), the essay NPDI ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.34, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.05) and an american tale movies, the CSOQ-shoulder pain severity composite score ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.44, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01). Essay About Camping. Patients with reduced total neck rotation had decreased outcomes yielding stronger significance for the SF-36 PCS ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.53, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.002), the of desktop computers NPDI ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.37, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04) and the CSOQ-shoulder pain severity composite score ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.45, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01). When calculating the age and example, gender matched percentage restriction of of desktop computers, total neck rotation [9] against camping, the clinical outcome measures, correlations existed for the SF-36 PCS ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.54, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.001), the NPDI ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.38, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03), the foot locker australia CSOQ-shoulder pain severity composite score ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.45, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.007), the CSOQ-neck pain severity composite score ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.39, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02) and example about, the CSOQ-functional disability score ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.35, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04). Paolo Veronese Paintings. Summarizing, reduced clinical outcome was more reflected by a decreased total neck rotation rather than a reduced C1#x02013;2 rotation. Example Essay About Camping. As it was with the shelley ability to rotate the example essay neck, statistical analysis revealed a decreased clinical outcome for Potemkin Essay example elderly patients in example essay about terms of the gawain fate NPDI ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.41, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02) and the SF-36 PCS ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.56, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.001).

Older patients had higher health care utilization demands in terms of the example about CSOQ ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.36, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04). Elderly patients had a significantly shorter follow-up period ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.45, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.006) that might put age and Battleship Potemkin Essay example, outcome related interdependencies into perspective. Essay. It is of note that patients with worse outcomes had reduced total neck rotation, however, the locker australia %ROT C1#x02013;2 did not correlate with the clinical outcome reflecting that a reduced absolute rotational ability affecting the example essay about whole cervical spine was a factor of an american movies, aging, motion induced pain and a low functional outcome. Significant gender-related differences existed in essay about terms of the paolo veronese NPDI ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03), the about camping CSOQ-psychiological distress score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.005) and the physical symptoms score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01). Gawain Fate. These results have to be interpreted with the awareness of gender distribution with varying fracture patterns and ages.

So, 8 of essay about, 11 patients (73%) with a burst or dislocated lateral mass fracture were female. False Love. Similarly, when assessing intraarticular fracture pattern as a variable, 8 of example, 12 females depicted reduced motion pattern and increased pain-levels. An American Tale Movies. Neither the example essay camping presence of a nonunion nor combined C1#x02013;2 fractures, nor any complication or whether surgery was performed or not had impact on spore asexual reproduction clinical outcome or cervical rotation (Table#x000a0; 3 ). Example Camping. Notably, the number of main fragments identified (2-part, 3-part, 4-part-fractures of C2) had significant impact on gawain fate the %ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03) but not on the clinical outcome measures. About Camping. If the smallest denominator was assumed to be an intraarticular fracture pattern involving the foot locker C2-superior articulating facets then patients had significantly reduced total ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03) and in particular reduced %ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.006). Rotational abilities were strongly affected by the presence of an intraarticular fracture pattern.

Calculating any intraarticular fracture pattern against the outcome measures did reveal trends, but did not yield significance. Essay Camping. In this context it is tale, of note that only essay camping, 11 patients were identified to mary shelley quote have had a dislocated fracture or burst pattern involving the essay about articular pillar and lateral mass. If calculating rotation and false love, clinical outcome against example essay camping, the presence of locker, a burst or dislocated lateral mass fracture in camping eight patients at all, the spore formation asexual reproduction statistical analysis still revealed a trend for reduced %ROT C1#x02013;2 , but it striked that this group of patients had significantly reduced outcomes in terms of the SF-36 MCS ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.006), the NDPI ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04), the example about CSOQ-functional disability score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01) and the CSOQ-physical symptoms score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01). Spore Formation Reproduction. SF-36 PCS scores did not reach statistical significance but a strong trend existed (SF-36 PCS #x000d8;35.7#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;9.0 vs. #x000d8;43.0#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;10.2). Differences of essay, 2.5 points are thought to be a clinically meaningful difference for quote the SF-36 [18, 80].

Patients that had the essay about vertebral body affected (51%) had reduced total ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02), but %ROT C1#x02013;2 and types computers, total neck rotation were not significantly reduced. However, these patients had worst scores with the example essay about camping CSOQ-functional disability score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.007) and approved, the SF-36 MCS ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.05). This group of example essay, patients included most of the dislocated burst lateral mass fractures, patients with intraarticular fractures and paolo veronese paintings, the group with highest malunion scores. Eleven patients (31.4%) had at least one lateral AAJ of Type B and 6 of these 11 (54.5%) had signs of C2-nerve root mediated pain with radiculopathia suboccipitally. Example About. At all, 20 patients (57.1%) reported on spore formation asexual reproduction pain when approaching the mid-range or extremes of example essay camping, axial head rotation in neutral or sagittally flexed head position or reported on gawain fate tenderness and localized pain at the C2-spinous process during daily activities. According to essay about distinct questions within the CSOQ 20% of false love, patients reported that they would need additional treatment for example essay about their neck condition in paolo the future.

Sixty-one percent of patients judged they would be extremly or moderately satisfied if their neck condition would be the same as at follow-up, while 20% judged they would be moderate or extremely dissatisfied if the neck condition would remain the essay same (20% ticked #x02018;neither satisfied nor dissatisfied#x02019;). Twenty-three percent reported that the actual result was somewhat or much worse as expected, 49% reported it was somewhat or much better than expected, and 28% as expected. Concerning AAOA, the presence of false love, Type B changes at camping follow-up had significant impact on the rotational ability and outcome measures. False Love. Type B patients displayed significantly decreased total ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.006) and about camping, %ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04) but not significantly reduced total neck rotation. Clinical outcomes were worse than in patients with Type A changes in of desktop terms of the SF-36 PCS ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01), the example about camping SF-36 MCS ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01), the formation asexual NPDI ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.002), the example about camping CSOQ-psychological distress score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0005), the movies CSOQ-physical symptoms score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01) and health care utilization score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02). The same interdependencies existed even more in example essay about camping patients that had newly developed Type B changes with a significantly decreased total ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01) and %ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02) as well as reduced outcome measures in an american tale terms of example essay camping, SF-36 MCS ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0009), NPDI ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.003), the CSOQ-neck pain severity composite score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04), CSOQ-functional disability score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02), CSOQ-psychologic distress score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0009), CSOQ-physical symptoms score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04) and of desktop, CSOQ-health care utilization score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.006). Example Camping. Patients that had preexisting AAOA of an american, Type B, that had just progressed, had significantly reduced left and example about, right AAJH ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04 and foot approved australia, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03) as compared to essay camping Type A patients, but clinical outcome measures were not different (Table#x000a0; 4 ). Fracture of the tale C2 articular pillar. Example About Camping. In 8 of locker, 11 patients (72.7%) with displaced or burst lateral mass fractures the left side was affected. Example Essay Camping. At follow-up, these patients had significantly reduced left-sided AAJH ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02).

With increasing malunion score, ROT C1#x02013;2 was significantly reduced, the mary shelley quote most on example about camping the left side ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0005). When calculating for the intraarticular fracture pattern that affected the left side in 11 of 19 patients (58%) it also striked that left-sided %ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.005) and left-sided ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02) were significantly affected in comparison to the contralateral side. The findings of left-sided preponderance were incidental, but substantiated that the intraarticular and particularly burst fracture patterns show their main adverse effects on veronese paintings the development of essay about camping, ipsilateral AAOA, reduced total ROT C1#x02013;2 and %ROT C1#x02013;2 and C2-malunion scores. The latter had the false love largest impact on clinical outcome measures. Fourteen patients (40%) were already retired at time of example about, injury unrelated to disorders of the paintings neck. Of 21 patients occupied at time of essay about camping, injury 15 achieved a level of Potemkin Essay example, W1 (42.9%) according to Denis#x02019; Work Scale, 1 had W2 (2.9%), 2 had W3 (5.8%) and example camping, 3 patients (85.7%) were not able to resume previous full-time employment or were unable to work because of paintings, neck related impairment. Eighteen patients (85.7%) went back to essay a full-time employment with a mean time out of work of 17.0#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;6.8#x000a0;weeks (range 3#x02013;24#x000a0;weeks) after injury. With the spore asexual dysphagia grading system of Bazaz [3] the mean score was 1.4#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;0.7 (range 0#x02013;3) for liquids and 1.7#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;1.0 (range 1#x02013;4) for solid nutrition.

Buzz-scores were not significantly affected by anterior surgery. In summary, 7 out of example essay camping, 35 patients (20%) sustained a complication: 1 (2.9%) with odontoid type II fracture had delayed-union in types of desktop computers the HTV but eventually fused after 6#x000a0;months. Another patient suffered from example about camping, neuralgia at a former pin-site with subsequent phobia wearing huts. One patient had screw-related dysphagia following double AOSF but denied screw removal. Another had hard-to-treat C2-referred pain lasting for 8#x000a0;months after nonsurgical treatment of an false love odontoid type III fracture with split-impression fracture of the camping lateral mass. Another had early fracture redislocation after double AOSF for odontoid type III fracture with oblique split-impression fracture of the paolo veronese lateral mass. Camping. The fracture healed uneventful. One female patient with 10#x000a0;years follow-up had HTV treatment for a displaced odontoid type III fracture with en bloc fracture-separation of the movies comminuted lateral mass. Example. Symptomatic nonunion with severe malalignment developed and the patient was subjected to tale anterior retropharyngeal release with reduction and C2-buttress-plating 6#x000a0;months after the essay index treatment. Implant removal was performed 1.5#x000a0;years after index therapy. Example. After 3#x000a0;years the camping patient showed up reporting a progression of myelopathic signs during a 4-weeks period which was found to be related to anterior subluxation of locker approved, C1 on C2.

The patient denied a second trauma. Intraoperatively, there was no significant sagittal motion C1#x02013;C2. Example About. After posterior decompression of C1 the patient recovered completely. Foot Locker Approved Australia. Finally, during survey of our patients a 76-year old was subjected to example essay C1#x02013;2 Magerl fixation for painful C1#x02013;2 joint destruction (Fig.#x000a0; 3 ). The patient achieved immediate pain resolution after immobilization of the C1#x02013;2 joints. Mary Shelley. The current study is example essay about, a unique approach to the outcome investigation of Potemkin Essay, C2-fractures, and essay camping, it is the largest reporting of functional CT-scanning in patients with cervical trauma. The author identified several articles [47, 49, 68] reporting on miscellaneous C2-fractures included into an american cross-sectional outcome analysis or using nonvalidated instruments; most studies are reluctant to further delineate distinct fracture morphology and camping, outcome variables in Battleship example heterogenous samples [5, 25#x02013;27, 29, 62, 68]. Therefore, we intended to seek objective outcome data through assessment of camping, validated outcome measures, functional outcome using dynamic CT-scanning, a detailed classification of fracture pattern and formation reproduction, an analysis of example essay about camping, posttreatment C2-alignment using a classification system based on mary valid measurements [44]. The efforts are indicated as there is no consensus on example the ideal treatment for of desktop all subtypes of example essay about camping, C2-fractures [2, 29, 43, 46, 62].

Our study yielded for reproduction a homogenous sample. Essay. We assessed different fractures (odontoid, vertebral body, Hmfx,#x02026;), but unlike prior studies with difficulties addressing all fracture patterns, the authors#x02019; characterization of C2-fractures at mary shelley quote injury and at follow-up implicates the example essay camping focus on spore formation identical morphological characteristics within the C2-fracture subtypes. Consequently, beside general outcome analysis of C2-fractures, we sought to analyse the essay camping influence of distinct morphological subtypes (intraarticular fracture pattern, number of main fragments, burst component,#x02026;) on gawain fate the remaining rotation C1#x02013;2 and the clinical outcome. We wanted to example identify risk factors for poor outcome and thereby identified the gawain fate severity of example, malunion. Locker Approved. We aimed out example essay, being able to identify at an early stage of treatment those fractures prone to locker symptomatic malunion and poor outcome, thus resulting in an adaption of essay, treatment protocols (nonsurgical vs. surgical, nonfusion vs. fusion procedure).

Rarely, the type of anatomical alignment and associated outcome after various motion-preserving treatments is false love, reported [1, 10#x02013;12, 21, 26, 34, 41, 42, 46, 47, 57, 63, 71, 74, 78]. A meaningful number of example essay camping, subtypes of C2-fractures exists where complete reduction, normal C1#x02013;2 rotation and a physiological anatomy is types computers, difficult to essay about camping restore [1, 10, 11, 34, 42, 43, 71, 82]. Likewise, a non-anatomical posttreatment C2-alignment, resembling a malunion, can cause significant symptoms even indicating fusion C1#x02013;2 [13, 26, 30, 42, 47, 51, 52, 67, 70, 71, 78, 79] as it had to foot locker approved australia be done in about camping one of our cases (Fig.#x000a0; 3 ), two others being scheduled (Fig.#x000a0; 4 ). Gawain Fate. Malunion in example C2-fractures can produce significant sequelae and mary quote, we sought to stratify those C2-fracture subtypes prone to example essay about malunion after motion-preserving therapy: In the literature, the an american tale approximate rate of malunion in odontoid fractures was reported to be 12#x02013;22% [57, 63]. Using the classification we established in part I of the project [44] we identified 49% of example about, patients having either no or only mild malalignment but 51% having moderate or severe malalignment of locker australia, C2 or the example about C1#x02013;2 complex. Of Desktop. Patients with advanced malalignment had significantly reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 and, even more important, the presence of about, advanced malunions had a strongly significant adverse impact on all clinical outcome measures. This study offers evidence for the correlation between a distorted posttreatment C2-alignment, including distortion of the physiologic C1#x02013;2 relationships, and formation asexual, worse clinical outcomes, both involving restricted ROT C1#x02013;2 . About. Our findings substantiate previous studies that noted reduced outcomes in gawain fate patients with distorted C1#x02013;2 joint configurations [19, 26]. Camping. Dvorak [18] reported on 34 Jefferson fractures and demonstrated that patients with residual lateral displacement of the types computers lateral mass of example camping, C1#x000a0;#x02265;#x000a0;7#x000a0;mm were more likely to of desktop computers report worse functional status in terms of the SF-36.

In another study [17] on essay 90 isolated subaxial facet injuries, the group of false love, 18 patients treated nonoperatively contained the about camping most benign fracture patterns but had significantly worse clinical outcomes (NASS, SF-36 subscales). Dvorak hypothesized that the gawain fate worse outcome even after non-displaced, non-surgically treated facet fractures is due to example essay about camping the development of veronese, secondary degenerative changes with malalignment at the injury level. Similarly, we observed that malunion as a result of distorted C2-lateral mass, altered C2-articular surfaces, widening of the example essay vertebral body or increased odontoid tilt caused a remarkable drop in outcome measures and ROT C1#x02013;2 . Quote. We demonstrated that maintaining anatomic C2-alignment has a decisive role for example essay about clinical outcomes (Table#x000a0; 5 ). Functional outcome and foot locker approved, atlantoaxial rotation. After motion-preserving C1-ring osteosynthesis in example essay about camping five Jefferson fractures, Ruf [65] reported a mean left and Potemkin Essay example, right ROT C1#x02013;2 of 20.6#x000b0; and example camping, 18.6#x000b0; using dynamic MRI-scans. The patient with worst C1#x02013;2 incongruency had the false love worst functional and clinical outcome which was attributed to essay about the distorted C1-2 articular surface pattern. Of Desktop. Jeanneret [39] measured left and right ROT C1#x02013;2 25#x000b0; and 24#x000b0; after AOSF using functional CT-scans.

Likely due to example sample size and spore asexual reproduction, fracture analysis, the study did not find any correlation between residual ROT C1#x02013;2 and fracture pattern, quality of essay about camping, reduction or osteosynthesis. We investigated the Battleship ROT C1#x02013;2 after treatment of C2-fractures. Example Essay About. In our sample with 35 patients, only 30% had normal ROT C1#x02013;2 or mild restriction, but 70% had substantial (#x0003c;20#x000b0;) or severe (#x0003c;10#x000b0;) restriction of ROT C1#x02013;2 at types of desktop least unilateral. Likewise, in example essay about camping Jeanneret#x02019;s sample only 38% had normal motion C1#x02013;2 and gawain fate, Verheggen [10] noted that only 61% of patients revealed standard rotation after AOSF. Essay Camping. We explored the approved australia rotational interdependencies (Table#x000a0; 2 ) and observed that in example essay about case of types of desktop computers, decreased C1#x02013;2 rotation, the example about camping subaxial spine yielded for mary shelley compensation, but did not reach significance and essay camping, is suggested to types of desktop computers be an example essay effect of pain-mediated (due to malunions) overall restriction of rotation and coincident a factor of aging. Gawain Fate. Concerning age, some elderly patients showed advanced subaxial spondylosis and about, normally the spore C1#x02013;2 rotation increases compensatorically with aging [9]. Calculating the camping ability for formation asexual reproduction neck rotation against essay, age we observed a significant inverse correlation, pronounced for false love total neck rotation (ROT C0 ) and subaxial rotation (ROT C2 ). Although we expected an example increased %ROT C1#x02013;2 in the elderly, the correlations were weakest for the %ROT C1#x02013;2 and ROT C1#x02013;2 rendering other factors decisive for foot australia reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 also in the elderly patients. Concerning compensational mechanisms we observed that unilaterally restricted ROT C1#x02013;2 was not compensated for example camping by a substantially increased contralateral rotation. In addition, reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 to one side was accompanied by false love a significantly reduced ipsilateral subaxial rotation. Example Essay Camping. We did not observe a significantly increased C0#x02013;1 rotation in veronese case of reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 as it was in children with pathological stickiness C1#x02013;2 [58, 60].

We had a mean ROT C0#x02013;C1 of example camping, 2.6#x000b0; and 2.7#x000b0; to foot locker the right and left suggesting a normal coupling between C0 and example camping, C1 [58]. Only a few patients exhibited increased motion above 2SD but never achieved ranges of paolo veronese, 30#x000b0; as in the forementioned study. Overall, we demonstrated a significant reduction of example essay about camping, ROT C1#x02013;2 in types of desktop the C2-fractures with decreasing order in odontoid, vertebral body and example camping, atypical Hmfx, and fractures affecting the articular pillar of C2. Like Jeanneret, we investigated the reasons for reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 . Battleship Essay Example. While reduction of total neck rotation after the example about C2-fractures is assumed to be a function of pain-related restriction of formation asexual reproduction, overall motion [42], aging and degenerative processes, we showed the reduction of ROT C1#x02013;2 and %ROT C1#x02013;2 to about be significantly associated with the degree of computers, anatomical distortion and about camping, the severity of mary shelley quote, malunion, outperforming the statistically analysed influence of pain in terms of the outcome vehicles. Essay About Camping. Our patients had no other cervical injuries and the source of veronese paintings, pain could be focused at C1#x02013;2. Example About Camping. Statistically a pain-related reduction of formation reproduction, ROT C1#x02013;2 and camping, an associated reduction of shelley quote, total neck rotation existed, but the essay about severity of types, malunion had the example about highest effect on false love the rotational ability of example camping, C1#x02013;2.

There was a slight correlation between total ROT C1#x02013;2 and of desktop, clinical outcome measures, but no correlation existed for example essay about the %ROT C1#x02013;2 and foot locker approved australia, the clinical outcome. Example Essay Camping. It seemed that the restriction of rotation was perceived by formation reproduction the patients to example essay about camping be an types of desktop acceptable #x02018;price#x02019; to essay camping pay causing less disability if they did not perceive motion induced pain. Likewise, Grob [31] reported the residual neck rotation in 35 fusions of Battleship Potemkin, C1#x02013;2 for AAOA with a mean of 58#x000b0;. Notably, rotation was not different between the patients reporting a #x02018;good#x02019; or a #x02018;poor#x02019; outcome. Example About. Our current findings substantiate that loss of ROT C1#x02013;2 and total neck rotation do not cause worse outcomes. In normals the C1#x02013;2 joints are responsible for up to 60% of total neck rotation equaling 30#x000b0;#x02013;45#x000b0; [16, 25, 58, 64, 73]. Even though the Essay example osseus contour of the example about lateral C1#x02013;2 joints looks concave on radiographs, the padding of mary shelley quote, joint cartilage converts the example essay about articulating surfaces to gawain fate biconvex discs [58] with the about camping cartilage cover averaging 1.5#x02013;2#x000a0;mm [48, 51]. The spaces anterior and posterior where the articular surfaces diverge are filled by of desktop intra-articular meniscoids [48]. Example About Camping. In neutral head position the gawain fate summit of the example camping atlantal convexity rests on false love the convexity of the axial facet.

As C1 rotates, one atlantal facet slides down the essay posterior slope of its axial facet, and false love, the contralateral atlantal facet slides down the anterior slope of example camping, its facet (Fig.#x000a0; 4 ) [8]. Because of the australia convex shape of the example about camping articular surfaces each facet of C1 and mary shelley quote, C2 moves downwards and forwards/backwards at example the same time during rotation [15, 69]. Mary Shelley. The articular surfaces of essay, C1 and C2 touch each other at false love the mid- point during the essay about rotational process. The understanding of false love, this process is crucial for camping recognizing the C1#x02013;2 joints as a source of pain. Pang [58] established the blue print of false love, normal rotation C1#x02013;2 by example essay camping analysing CT-based motion curves containing three distinct phases [58, 59]: a single motion phase (C1#x000b0;#x000a0;=#x000a0;0#x000b0;#x02013;23#x000b0;) when only paolo paintings, C1 turns; a double motion phase (C1#x000b0;#x000a0;=#x000a0;24#x000b0;#x02013;65#x000b0;) when both C1 and C2 are turning in the same direction because of example about camping, ligamentous yoking; and asexual reproduction, a unison motion phase (C1#x000b0;#x000a0;=#x000a0;65#x000b0;#x02013;90#x000b0;) when both C1 and C2 turn as a fixed couple. The authors showed that neck rotation was initiated at the C1#x02013;2 joints and example essay camping, rotation of gawain fate, C1 occured before C2 rotated [64]. About Camping. Therefore, any rotation of the head is conferred to the C1#x02013;2 facets and in the current sample with an overall reduced total ROT C1#x02013;2 of Essay example, 40#x000b0; the example essay about camping articulating surfaces of C1 and C2 must, at some point, have encountered a restraint.

As Jeanneret [39], Pang [58], Ruf [65], Kim [42] and gawain fate, others pointed out, soft or bony interlock can have its source in malunited vertebral bodies, odontoid or lateral mass fractures, intraarticular scarring and example camping, pieces of Essay example, cartilage wedged into about camping the joint spaces, or can be a sequelae of capsular and periarticular ligamentous scarring like arthrofibrosis. Gawain Fate. We demonstrated that an altered joint anatomy of example camping, C1#x02013;2 caused reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 and %ROT C1#x02013;2 , sometimes deformation being striking and paolo veronese, the restraint of essay about, axial rotation obvious (Fig.#x000a0; 3 j). Concerning the loss of rotation, our findings echo previous observations describing significantly reduced rotation C1#x02013;2 after prolonged immobilization, e.g., with temporary Magerl fixation [7, 71], after ligamentous and capsular injuries to the C1#x02013;2 joints [60] and asexual, after intraarticular or malunited fractures of C2 [52, 57]. Example About Camping. In addition to articular surface deformities, distortion of the rotational axis of C1 and C2 in paolo veronese paintings terms of example essay about camping, deviated instantaneous center of types, rotation (ICR C1#x02013;2 ), e.g. as a sequelae of example essay, a widened C2-vertebral body, deformed lateral mass or tilted odontoid is thought to movies contribute to reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 [37]. We investigated the ICR C1#x02013;2 and observed a trend towards an anterior shift of the ICR C1#x02013;2 (Electronic supplementary material). Currently there is about, no definition of normal ICR C1#x02013;2 or grading of an american tale, any deviation of the essay camping ICR C1#x02013;2 , so observations warrant further research. False Love. Jeanneret noted three patients with restricted ROT C1#x02013;2 and example essay camping, explained the decreased motion with intraarticular comminution of the veronese paintings C1#x02013;2 joints that was supposed to produce painful posttraumatic AAOA [39]. AAOA can disrupt the example essay camping smooth, gliding joint motions [60] and shelley, a clinical hallmark of AAOA is known to be the significantly reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 [20, 31, 35, 66]. Accordingly, our patients with AAOA (preexisting and essay about camping, new onset Type B joints) had significantly decreased total ROT C1#x02013;2 and %ROT C1#x02013;2 . The same interdependencies were stressed if calculated separately for patients with new onset degeneration of example, Type B as a result of intraarticular fracture pattern or lateral mass comminution.

The patient#x02019;s subjective perception of the treatment-related outcome has increasingly become the example essay about camping focus in spinal care. The current study is one of the approved first to example assess clinical outcomes of fractures at C1#x02013;2 using validated outcome measures [18] applied on a sample, homogenous for veronese the neurologically intact, with exclusion of many confounding patient based variables through hard selection process. Notably, we identified significant impairment in essay about camping generic (SF-36) and Battleship, disease specific (CSOQ, NPDI) outcome vehicles. Example About Camping. The use of validated measures allowed an objective comparison of C2-fractures morphologically classified with other spinal injuries: Tables#x000a0; 4 and #x200B; and5 5 illustrate that our outcome was better than reported with, e.g., Jefferson burst fractures, except for the SF-36 MCS. Tale. On the other hand in comparison to, e.g., subaxial discoligamentous injuries in example about camping the neurologically intact treated with plated ACDF our results were inferior. For our purpose of identifying prognostic factors we investigated whether pain and disability in patients with reduced outcomes depended on mary shelley quote (1) a restricted ability for example essay about camping axial rotation, (2) distortion of C1#x02013;2 anatomy and false love, severity of essay, malunion, or (3) intraarticular damage with subsequent degeneration and false love, development of AAOA. The statistical analysis revealed that clinical outcome was in the majority influenced by about camping the severity of malunion.

Malunion was a frequent sequelae of an american, intraarticular and particularly burst lateral mass fractures with subsequent evolvement of AAOA over time. Example About Camping. At all, 65% of patients judged their outcome as good or excellent. But 35% judged their outcome as moderate or poor and Battleship, 20% assumed that they would need additional treatment for example essay about camping their neck condition in Battleship Essay example the future. In contrast, in literature the example essay results of veronese, various treatment modalities for example C2-fractures, particularly for odontoid fractures, were frequently recognized as #x02018;good#x02019; if not #x02018;excellent#x02019; [25, 62, 72]. Example. In the essay about past, detailed data have been sparse commonly not exceeding cross-sectional assessments and despite the paolo veronese prevailing opinion that overall outcome was favourable, long-term analysis identified persisting symptoms of pain and example camping, stiffness in a meaningful number of mary shelley quote, patients [1, 11, 57, 76]. Example About. Platzer [62] reported on 110 patients subjected to AOSF. Outcome was 1.4#x000a0;points on a #x02018;Smiley-Webster#x02019; scale, judged #x02018;good to of desktop excellent outcome#x02019;. Essay About. Astonishingly, only 14% were reported complaining about locker limitations in daily living, occasional or chronic pain symptoms and decrease of example about, cervical motion. Potemkin Essay Example. Unfortunately, the essay sample was heterogenous including neurologically injured, one-third was reported to have significant co-morbidities or injuries and veronese paintings, morphological characteristics of C2-fractures were lacking.

In contrast, after AOSF subjective-rated pain can be found in 10#x02013;40% [1, 11, 57, 76]. M#x000fc;ller [57] reported on 27 odontoid fractures subjected to AOSF. Example Essay. Fourty-one percent of patients demanded pain medication and an american tale movies, 29% noted motion related pain, only essay about camping, 18% were completely satisfied with their outcome and 22% of foot, fractures went on to malunion. Several patients were noted to have combinations of reduced ROM, persistant pain, a malunion or AAOA. M#x000fc;ller [49] stressed the importance of anatomical alignment in C2-fractures and example about, the findings of the veronese paintings current study give evidence that with an essay about increasing number of C2-fragments, deformation of the C2 vertebral body and approved australia, particularly fractures of the example about camping C2 lateral mass clinical outcome drops: Fractures involving the C2 articular pillar can be isolated articular or lateral mass fractures or extensions of formation, vertebral body fractures [5, 26] and example essay about, were found to be prone to mary shelley a high rate of non-anatomical union [21] frequently indicating secondary fusion of example essay camping, C1#x02013;2 [30, 67, 70]. Up to 50% of spore, Hmfx involve the articular facets of example about, C2 and in the largest sample regarding anterior fusion C2#x02013;3 for mary shelley the treatment of unstable Hmfx, Koller [46] observed a decreased functional and example essay about camping, clinical outcome with a subset of quote, patients having reduced rotation C1#x02013;2 and example essay about camping, motion induced C2-referred pain. Computers. Similar to example camping our study, several of gawain fate, these patients showed incongruency and essay about camping, deformity of the false love C1#x02013;2 joints and example about, a positive correlative relationship between the severity of Battleship Potemkin Essay example, malunion C1#x02013;2 and reduced clincial outcomes. Example Camping. Likewise, Fujimura et al. [26] reported on tale movies 31 C2-vertebral body fractures subjected to example about camping nonsurgical treatment including 3 burst and 17 sagittal fractures of the an american tale movies lateral mass. In 15 of 17 sagittal fractures malunion C1#x02013;2 was recognized at example essay about follow-up, 8 of the Battleship 17 fractures (47%) went to AAOA reporting moderate or severe nuchal pain.

At all, patients that had suffered from lateral mass fractures had moderate to severe pain in 82%. Essay Camping. Since Jeanneret#x02019;s series, several reports substantiate that C2-fractures affecting the upper facets of foot australia, C2 can show symptomatic C1#x02013;2 incongruency at follow-up [26, 40, 42, 52] and our study adds objective data delineating a significantly decreased outcome in essay about camping terms of veronese, validated measures with increasing C2-malunion. Accordingly, from the current results the authors support primary fusion C1#x02013;2 in example camping C2-fractures with comminuted or displaced C1#x02013;2 joints showing a high risk of Battleship Essay example, malunion and poor outcomes. Literature [20, 26, 31, 35, 39, 40, 52, 66] and our current results demonstrate that the C1-2 facet joints can be a meaningful source of example essay about, pain. Thirty-one percent of our patients had at least one lateral C1#x02013;2 joint displaying advanced AAOA, more than half had signs of C2-nerve root conferred radiculopathy and motion induced suboccipital pain. The pain was not caused by nerve root or C2-ganglion compression, as there was no abnormal interlaminar space at C1#x02013;2 [6] in an american any patient. Facet joint pain is likely to be transmitted by camping unencapsulated receptors and free nerve endings in foot locker approved the joint capsule and synovial lining [35]. With aging or posttraumatic changes, degeneration with capsular laxity and synovitis can occur and camping, finally AAOA can arise with a mechanical nature of pain [35, 36].

As in our sample, pain derived from the C1#x02013;2 facet joints is Battleship Essay, frequently described in example about nonneuropathic terms such as #x02018;pressurelike#x02019;, #x02018;deep boring#x02019;, #x02018;dull#x02019;, and #x02018;heavy#x02019; [20, 35] and located almost exclusively at the ipsilateral retromastoid and shelley quote, occipital region [14, 20, 22, 28, 31, 35, 66]. Example Essay. As in Battleship Potemkin the current study the main manifestations of C1#x02013;2 degeneration and AAOA are pain with significantly restricted ROM [22, 31], elicited or exacerbated by ipsilateral neck rotation [20, 22, 28, 35, 66]. Our current findings are in line with previous authors#x02019; symptoms predominating on the side of the example essay about camping more significant lateral mass arthropathy, some patients even reporting crepitation [22, 45]. False Love. The pain in AAOA is example essay about, secondary to foot locker approved an irritative phenomenon in example about camping the joint itself. Mary Quote. When motion is example essay about camping, eliminated in false love the joint, the irritation within ceases and pain generation is example essay about, halted [22].

Therefore, immobilization and gawain fate, definite posterior fusion C1#x02013;2 relieves pain in patients with sequelae of about, AAOA [22, 28, 31, 35, 55] like in one of gawain fate, our cases with intractable pain resulting from a C2-vertebral body fracture with a burst pattern at the lateral mass (Fig.#x000a0; 3 , #x200B; ,4). 4 ). Several authors noticed AAOA to example essay about camping be a distracting source of foot locker australia, pain [20, 31, 35, 36] and example about, one of the sequelae following C1#x02013;2 fractures [26, 33, 39]. In part I of false love, our project we elaborated the about camping incidence of AAOA with 5% in normals with a mean age of 50#x000a0;years [84]. Locker Australia. Nevertheless, degenerative AAOA [28, 31] and essay camping, posttraumatic AAOA seem to be a neglected and underdiagnosed clinical entity [20, 22, 35, 36, 39]. Thus, we sought to contribute to the understanding and gawain fate, awareness of essay, C2-joint referred pain. Formation Asexual Reproduction. With a detailed assessment of clinical and about, radiographic outcome, we identified posttraumatic AAOA in 20% of an american movies, cases. We observed a strong correlation between the presence of posttraumatic AAOA and worse clinical outcome.

Hence, beside its influence on ROT C1#x02013;2 , the essay about camping restoration of C1#x02013;2 anatomy is gawain fate, another important factor to be considered in C2-fracture treatment to avoid C2-malunion and essay about, accelerated atlantoaxial degeneration. With growing awareness and types of desktop computers, the more liberal use of CT-scans using 3D-reconstructions, distinct fracture subtypes that frequently come along with odontoid, Hmfx or vertebral body fractures (e.g. articular surface involvement of example about, C2 or vertebral body widening) will be diagnosed more often. Battleship Potemkin Essay. The current study entailed a new approach to camping the outcome investigation of C2-fractures emphasizing the Potemkin morphological stratification of essay camping, distinct fracture subtypes. Using a functional CT-scanning protocol to mary shelley assess rotation C1#x02013;2, validated outcome vehicles and applying a validated classification for the posttreatment alignment of C2 and example camping, the C1#x02013;2 complex, we demonstrated that malunion in C2-fractures had strong association with development of AAOA and a significant impact on false love clinical outcomes, atlantoaxial and example camping, total neck rotation. Further studies will have to false love analyse the impact of different treatment strategies not only on fusion rates, but also on the anatomical alignment achieved and example camping, its effect on outcome.

Electronic supplementary material. Foot Locker Approved Australia. Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

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Human nature , Intelligence quotient , Nature versus nurture 947 Words | 3 Pages. studies have influenced the nature versus nurture debate. Due date: 2nd May 2013 Name: Veronica Pedersen Student ID: . S2858555 Tutor: Mr Riyad Rahimullah Words: 1370 When determining and discussing the question “how adoption and an american tale, twin studies have influenced the nature versus nurture debate” it is important to identify the essay about key terms. False Love? The nature versus nurture debate is an ongoing debate focusing on how much our environment ( nurture ) and our genes ( nature ) affect us as human beings. Behavioural genetics , Eugenics , Human behavior 1713 Words | 6 Pages. ?The concept ‘ nature vs . nurture ’ refers to the debate surrounding the influence of genetic factors and the . environment in example camping, determining personality. It still remains contentious as to whether our personality is primarily determined by inherent genetics (biological approach) or by environmental conditioning (behaviourist approach).

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Biological determinism , Eugenics , Evolutionary psychology 1042 Words | 4 Pages. FINAL PAPER: NATURE VS . Essay About Camping? NURTURE Bradley Duckworth 3/9/12 My thoughts on Nature vs . . Gawain Fate? Nurture are very different from the secular world because the about camping secular world doesn’t understand how a relationship with Jesus Christ can completely change a person. I believe my wife is a perfect person for the discussion of nature vs . False Love? nurture . I must begin with some history my wife. Erin never knew her biological father. She met her biological father for the first time just last year at the age of 33. As we get. Charles Darwin , DNA , Eugenics 905 Words | 3 Pages. Virtual Child Paper: Nature vs . Essay? Nurture I have always held the belief . that Nature v Nurture is not a zero-sum game.

To steal a line from T.S. Elliot’s The Hollow Men, I believe humans are born into this world a “shape without form.” That shape, of course, is our nature ; the sum of false love our genetic make-up and natural tendencies based on some combination of predisposition and innate sense of self. The form, then, necessarily reflects our experiences and the. Developmental psychology , Human nature , Nature versus nurture 901 Words | 3 Pages. Paper- Nature vs . Nurture Argument This paper is going to covers Nature verses . Essay About? Nurture argument. It will include the history and the essential characteristics. As well I will give you my view on the debate. Nature verses Nurture is an old ongoing disagreement over the comparative influences that genetic factors and mary quote, involvement make to the growth of psychological characters and behaviors. Today’s science understands the characteristics and behaviors growing from dealings of Nature and Nurture. Eugenics , Evolutionary psychology , Human behavior 998 Words | 3 Pages.

Running head: NATURE VS . NURTURE . The argument of essay about nature vs . nurture has remained an gawain fate, unsettled debated that dates back th? to the 19? century. To this day, new studies are being conducted in hopes of example about discovering whether nature or nurture has a greater impact on the development of human beings. Researchers use various methods while investigating the answer, including surveys and case studies. One such case study involved the “Genie Case”? a provoking story of a little girl, which proved. Behavioural genetics , Eugenics , Human nature 2909 Words | 12 Pages. 2014 Nature vs . Veronese? Nurture “We have moved from example introspection, speculation, and observation to experiment, . neurophysiology, and imaging. From the classical Greek era onward, the gawain fate dualism between mind and body has existed as the constant dilemma.” (Merikangas, 2004).

A predicament of whether nature or nurture plays a larger role in child development has been an ongoing debate within psychology referred to example essay about as Nature vs . Nurture . Nature is what is inherited with conception, your genetics, and nurture is referred. Human nature , Innatism , Nature versus nurture 1824 Words | 5 Pages. Big Debate vs . Big Duet: Nature vs . Nurture Halil B. Genc Quincy College Abstract . Paolo Veronese Paintings? Nature vs . Example About? Nurture ? The debate has obsessed the minds of psychologists and false love, philosophers for example about many years. However, for the object-orienteer, it has never been a problem: an formation, object inherits all of its properties. In this work we ask if an object should not be subject to environmental effects. Example Essay About? We answer this question in the affirmative by demonstrating many cases in which the character of an object must be affected. Biological determinism , Eugenics , Genetic determinism 1758 Words | 5 Pages. One of the most debated topics in Psychology is the agreement of the influence of character, by how a person is raised or by an american their genetics. . “ Nature vs . Nurture ”, this issues addresses what impact, if any, parenting has on youth, as well as if DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or genes, influences our actions or behaviors. Example About Camping? The nature vs . nurture debate is one of the biggest debated issues in the child development theory. Which is more bearing on a child’s development, environment or genetics? This debate.

DNA , Gene , Genetics 769 Words | 3 Pages. The Controversy of mary Nature vs. Nurture. Michelle Esteban December 22, 2011 Arlene Rider Introduction to Psychology Nature vs . Example About Camping? Nurture . Controversy The Nature vs . Nurture controversy was begun by false love British researcher Sir Francis Galton, who invented the example about camping term “ Nature vs . Nurture ” (Wood, Wood, amp; Boyd, 2005). He began the debate about whether intelligence happens because of our environment, or because of the genes we are given at birth (Wood, et al., 2005). There is much debate in the scientific community about which is more.

Biological determinism , Eugenics , Evolutionary psychology 825 Words | 3 Pages. The nature versus nurture debate is one of the oldest issues in sociology (Davidson, 1991, n.p.). The debate centers on Potemkin, the . relative contributions of example about camping genetics and Battleship Potemkin example, environmental factors to human behavior (Davidson, 1991, n.p.). About? Today, the majority of experts believe that behavior and development are influenced by both nature and shelley quote, nurture (Macionis, 2009, p. 73). Essay About Camping? The biggest question now is which one affects human development more: nature or nurture ? According to Macionis (2009, p. 72), in formation, the past. Evolutionary psychology , Human behavior , Human nature 1117 Words | 3 Pages. Nature vs . Nurture Issues The crux of the nature side of the example about camping debate is that genetics or other . natural influences are mostly, if not all, responsible for the characteristics pertaining to the personality, behavior and shelley, intelligence of an individual. Essay? Conversely, the mary shelley quote nurture debate largely argues that the main contribution to example about camping how a person develops is made by the influence of the Battleship people and events that interact with that person throughout their life. While many contemporary psychologists and other. Biological determinism , Human nature , Intelligence quotient 547 Words | 3 Pages.

As Nature Made Him: Nature vs. Nurture. ?Jacey S. Washington Brierly AP English Lang Comp 1 October 2013 Nature vs . Nurture : Where Do We Draw the . Line? The argument over about camping, nature vs . nurture has continued to Battleship Potemkin example torture society by presenting cases in which we simply don’t know which rules to apply. One of these cases is sex change.

Sex change is a very big step to take in a person’s life and it involves the careful consideration of many factors; but it is not a simple answer to essay about a complex problem such as hermaphroditism or even blotched. Biology of gender , David Reimer , Gender 1145 Words | 4 Pages. Nature vs . Nurture As far as how an individual personality is biologically determined, no one really knows just in . False Love? what manner it is accumulated. In an article conducted by John Hockett, he describes the differences as such; “ Nature is a trait which does not change with age, while nurture is an influence, uncorrelated with nature and making for individual differences which change with the length over time or number of years through which it acts”. In other words, nature is camping, permanent and an american movies, nurture . Biology , DNA , Gene 835 Words | 3 Pages. ?In this piece of work I will describe what nature and nurture are and I will discuss the nature vs . . nurture debate in relation to the individual development. What is nature vs . nurture ? There are plenty of factors that motivate our growth and development throughout our life such as: Nature is the example essay camping theory that our personality, intelligence and our sexual adjustment is inherited by Battleship our families DNA.

Nature is the example essay camping environment around us that is shelley quote, argued to change the way we are brought up and behave. Eugenics , Human nature , Nature versus nurture 1286 Words | 4 Pages. Eduardo Estrella English 115 11/27/2012 Nature vs Nurture There has always been a large controversy over . Essay About Camping? whether inherited genes or the environment influences and mary quote, affects our personality, development, behavior, intelligence and example essay about, ability. This controversy is most often recognized as the nature verses nurture conflict. Shelley? Does how you are raised affect your views as an example, adult more than what your genetic codes dictate? If your family has always been carpenters, are you destined to be a carpenter. Classical conditioning , Human nature , Innatism 1470 Words | 4 Pages. Allison Harris Nature vs . Nuture University of New Hampshire For more than 50 years sane voices . have searched for an answer to the everlasting debate of nature vs nurture . The debate causes quite a controversy, whether inherited genes or the Battleship Potemkin example environment influences and effects personality. Is our development born ( nature ) or made through our experiences ( nurture )? Some believe that is strictly our genes; others believe it is the environment; while others believe that. Human nature , Innatism , Nature versus nurture 1329 Words | 4 Pages. Nature versus Nurture : Homosexuality Statistics show that about 9 million Americans identify as gay.

Are homosexual individuals . born or made? Nature versus nurture helps identify and analyze both sides. Nature refers to example people’s genes. Spore Formation? Nurture is example, learned behavior. Homosexuality is one of the most controversial, debated, and misunderstood topics.

The American Psychological Association (APA) categorized homosexuality as a mental disorder but it was removed from the list of diagnoses and disorders. Bisexuality , Coming out , Homosexuality 901 Words | 3 Pages. Keith Mierzejewski Methods of Critical Thinking Research Paper December 11, 2010 Nature vs . Gawain Fate? Nurture One of . the most enduring debates in the field of psychology is the controversial idea of nature vs . nurture . Throughout the endless history of the example camping debate, no clear conclusion has been met, only veronese paintings hypotheses have been formed. At the center of the debate, human behaviors, ideas, and feelings are being determined, whether they are learned or inherited. Determining physical traits, such as eye color. Genetics , Human behavior , Human nature 1981 Words | 6 Pages.

Konteh Perspectives on Human Nature Prof. Example About? Kurt Frey Nature vs Nurture For the past five . weeks we have studied three different but influential people in our perspective on human nature class. They are Freud, Plato and Tzu. The main discussion between all of them is nature versus nurture . I will discuss the difference between nature and nurture and then I'll apply to each of shelley these philosophers and how they react to example essay about camping it. When looked up in the dictionary the term nature means the universe and its. Evolutionary psychology , Human nature , Nature versus nurture 1294 Words | 4 Pages. and discipline ( Nature )? Or, are these attributes learned and/or taught through conditioning and false love, training ( Nurture )? The . nature versus nurture debate is about the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities ( nature , i.e. nativism, or philosophical empiricism, innatism) versus personal experiences ( nurture ) in determining individual differences in physical and behavioral traits. The philosophy that humans acquire all or most of example essay their behavioral traits from nurture is known as tabula. Biological determinism , Genetic determinism , Human behavior 975 Words | 3 Pages. the debate of whether nature or nurture plays the quote role in the child's development.

Does a child develop from example genetic factors or . does the mind begin as a tabula rasa and form based upon Essay, environmental factors? Since both of these are theories, neither of them can be proven, but comparing and contrasting them can give one the means to decide if human development is based upon nature or nurture . Nature refers to an individual's innate qualities or nativism. For example, nature is in your genes. The. Eugenics , Human behavior , Human nature 1126 Words | 3 Pages. ? Nature vs . Nurture Homosexuality, Addictions and Intelligence There have always been disputes on whether the . decision to be homosexual or heterosexual was based on example essay, biological or environmental factors. These disputes are known as the Nature vs . Nurture argument.

The two sides argue over Potemkin Essay, how gender is essay about camping, chosen within a person. Based on shelley, reproductive organs, sex is easily determined at birth: male or female. Gender, however; is the sexual identity an individual takes on. It is possible for sex and. Gender , Genetics , Homosexuality 815 Words | 3 Pages.

to explore whether or not the example essay about camping addictive behavior of alcoholism is genetically based. To understand, we must first have a definition of what alcoholism is and paintings, . the difference between the concepts of nature and nurture . Once these are understood, we'll look at the role that both nature (genetic) and nurture (environment/ upbringing) have been said to essay about camping play in alcoholism. The definition of alcoholism can be described as a chronic illness, which is marked by spore asexual reproduction uncontrolled consumption of alcoholic beverages. Alcoholism , Behavioural genetics , Human nature 1189 Words | 4 Pages. Nature Vs . Nurture When we first started learning about the example essay camping age old question of gawain fate nature . vs . nurture , I agreed with the concept of nature . I hated the idea of essay nurture , that no one is truly unique. I was against that. False Love? I liked to think that everyone is individual. But then as I thought more about it, I started to not like the idea of Nature . That we dont have a choice in who we are, that it has all been decided for us. Example About Camping? I was thinking about a lot of things that could affect how someone is. Human nature , Intelligence quotient , Nature versus nurture 1925 Words | 5 Pages.

Fundamentalism and Nature vs. Nurture. Based on what I have learned in PSYC. Potemkin? 101, principals of example essay psychology, the false love theory I have taken an interest in example about camping, is functionalism and tale, nature . vs . nurture theory. These theories have given me ways to function better and to know the example essay about camping different between nature and nurture . Functionalism is the doctrine that makes something a thought, desire, pain (or any other type of mental state) depends not on its internal constitution, but solely on its function, or the movies role it plays, in the cognitive system of which. Eugenics , Human nature , Natural environment 909 Words | 3 Pages.

Topic: Nurture strongly influences early human development. Discuss. We are born with nature and nurture . As a . Camping? result, we are defined by nature and nurture . Throughout the centuries, there are a lot of questions and arguments about false love, whether nature or nurture plays a more important role in camping, early human development. Nature , which is heredity, means the process by which characteristics are given from a parent to their child through the genes (Cambridge Advanced Learner’s dictionary, 2003). It has. Human nature , Infant , Innatism 656 Words | 3 Pages. psychological debate of “ nature vs . nurture ”. This paper will address the nature vs . . Gawain Fate? nurture debate, how adoptions plays a role in the debate, give a history of adoption, and tell the example camping story of a personal friend who was adopted and overcame the false love tragedy of his nature and was able to essay about camping triumph through his solid nurturing. The nature vs . nurture debate is one of the longest in the field of psychology. It is concerned with the importance of individual’s inborn qualities, their nature , versus their personal.

Adoption , Babe Ruth , Charles Loring Brace 1028 Words | 3 Pages. Taylor4, S. Waters-Metenier1, E. Bramon1, A. Regojo1, R. M. Murray1 and F. Rijsdijk5 Nature vs . nurture is . a topic that has been debated for gawain fate centuries. Pro- nature goes with the camping theory that genetics and biological inheritance determine behavior, while pro- nurture perspective follows the theory that the shelley quote environment in example essay about camping, which one is tale, raised in and experiences determine behavior. Nature and nurture together shape development. Essay About? Although the two differ, they do work hand in hand in the sense that. Biological determinism , Genetics , Human behavior 808 Words | 3 Pages. about the worldwide debate on spore formation asexual, nature vs . nurture . There are scientists who argue that people develop . characteristics mainly based on example camping, their genetic makeup, and then their are people who say that environment and social interactions has more to do with a person’s traits than do genes. Gawain Fate? People often question why people are the example essay way they are. Nature and Nurture often have a big impact on an american tale movies, a person, and about camping, can help in explaining why they are a certain way. The nature vs . nurture debate encompasses a variety. Eugenics , Human nature , Intelligence quotient 1323 Words | 4 Pages.

Nature and Nurture Argument Have you ever wondered where you got your different talents from? Where did you get your talent for . singing or your skill for playing certain sports? Were these things taught to false love you by your parents or was it predetermined by your genes? It is understood clearly that eye color and are physical characteristics and are hereditary. Example Camping? But where do we get our individual personality, our intelligence, our behavior? For some it’s not clearly understood. The nature versus nurture. Biological determinism , Genetic determinism , Human nature 951 Words | 3 Pages. Psych 111 030 Paper #1 Elliot Schaja Dr. Grayson 2/14/2011 Nature vs . Nurture A . personal characteristic that fits well into the nature vs . nurture debate is my Arithmetic ability. Quote? While this attribute can be defined as my actual math ability, measured by my high school and college grade-point-average in Math courses as well as my SAT scores on example essay, the Math section, I am also referring to the advantages assimilated with “being good at math.” This includes being able.

Human nature , Intelligence quotient , Nature versus nurture 1018 Words | 3 Pages. Debate in Psychology: Nature vs . Movies? Nurture Below is a timeline that will be used for the class debate on the issue . of Psychology’s Nature vs . Nurture . Carefully follow directions to prepare, debate and discuss this highly controversial issue in the psychological world today. Be sure to understand that you must debate on the side of the essay about camping debate that was assigned to you, even if it does not reflect your personal feelings. Note the paolo criteria based on group and personal participation. Timeline: 20. APA style , Bibliography , Citation 987 Words | 4 Pages. for them. The age-old question regarding nature and nurture can be argued either way and has by countless learned and brilliant . people. Essay About? Examples are aplenty supporting both sides. But what does this mean form me? I am an 18 year old young man trying to shape myself into an ideal person, I have tendencies, habits, talents, these come from both sides of this paradox we have before us, nature or nurture , what is false love, it?

For me I think it is a little of both, nurture can explain a lot of what is Joseph Cox. Human nature , Intelligence quotient , Nature versus nurture 920 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Nature Nurture debate within psychology discusses the extent in example camping, which heredity (genetic) and the environment separately . affect and influence the individual. Some psychologists argue that nature (heredity) is the gawain fate most significant and influential on essay camping, an individual. “Heredity is the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.” Nature argues that people are born with set characteristics that develop; changing over movies, time and that the affect that the. Human nature , Nature versus nurture 884 Words | 3 Pages.

Nurture strongly influences early human development Early human development is a very important process for example essay camping an individual’s future. For . Paolo Veronese? centuries, philosophers and psychologists have been debating whether heredity or environment is more important in determining the path of example essay about human development. An American Movies? People believe that human development is influenced by inheritance but it can be more concise that nurture plays an essential role. Nurturing at essay about camping, an early stage is important because it helps an individual to. Charles Darwin , Genetics , Human behavior 864 Words | 3 Pages. ? Nature : refers to an individual's qualities, Example: Nature is your . genes. The physical and personality traits determined by your genes stay the mary same irrespective of about camping where you were born and raised.

Factor: Nature factors that trigger an individual to gawain fate commit crime are influences by biological and family factors. Nurture : refers to personal experiences Example. Someone could be born with genes to example essay about give them a normal height, but be malnourished. Human nature , Intelligence quotient , Nature versus nurture 1059 Words | 4 Pages. Nature vs Nurture in Frankenstein. Nature vs . Nurture in Frankenstein In the novel Frankenstein by gawain fate Mary Shelley, the camping relationship of . Gawain Fate? external appearance and internal feelings are directly related.

The creature is created and essay about, he is movies, innocent, though he is about camping, severely deformed. His nature is to be good and kind, but society only views his external appearance which is an american tale movies, deformed. Human nature is to judge by external appearance. He is automatically detested and labeled as a monster because of his external appearance. He finally. Frankenstein , Human nature , Mary Shelley 884 Words | 3 Pages. The role of nature vs . nurture is relatively important, because the debate seeks to understand how a person . develops factors such as personality, behaviors and intelligence. There are many child development theories that have been proposed by researchers and theorist which outline the example about camping developmental stages that infants, babies, children and adolescents go through and identify the typical ages at which these milestones occur. Managing children’s aggressive behavior has been a concern for parents and.

Crime , Evolutionary psychology , Genetics 1394 Words | 5 Pages. Nature vs . Nurture is a topic that has been long debated by psychologist and everyday individuals alike. Twin . studies have been used by scientists to provide enlightenment on environmental and hereditary influences on behavioral development. While certain elements in a child’s upbringing and environment are bound to influence the paintings way he or she will grow up to socialize, interact, and internalize this world we live in, researchers are interested in the relative importance of genetic predispositions. Behavioural genetics , Human nature , Nature versus nurture 1283 Words | 4 Pages. ? The Problem of Nature and Nurture in Psychology How we see the influences of essay about camping genetics and environment . on behavior Abstract This paper defines the nature versus nurture problem in psychology, and explains why this problem is important in the science of spore psychology. It then gives the authors opinion of environment and camping, nature as being the more influential, and why the author believes this.

The paper gives. Eugenics , Genetics , Human behavior 1188 Words | 7 Pages. violence? This question brings to mind the gawain fate age old psychological theory, Nature vs . Nurture . Are people born . predisposed for violence? Is there something genetically different about example about camping, serial killers and murderers?

Can their behavior be explained by gawain fate a difference in their very make-up? Or are they made violent by seeing violence, having un-supportive and demanding parents, being mentally, sexually, and physically abused? Nature vs . nurture is essay, one of the most sought after answers in the field of paolo paintings psychology. Antisocial personality disorder , Human behavior , Human nature 1010 Words | 3 Pages. This essay is essay camping, going to Battleship Potemkin example discuss the role of intelligence in human beings examining both internal and external factors. Intelligence and whether . Example Essay? it is innate or develops as one evolves, is gawain fate, one of humanity’s greatest debates. In everyday life one has to make decisions, solve problems and make sense of the example essay about world and what is happening in it. From an external point of view the false love intelligence of a human being develops through a constructive, cognitive process. Since the 1950s, cognitive developmental.

Cognition , Cognitive psychology , Cognitive science 1971 Words | 6 Pages. Typography and Nature vs . Nurture Jonathan M. Grush Truman State University Date Submitted: November 19, 2010 . Author Note Jonathan M. Grush, Exercise Science, Truman State University Please address all correspondence to: Jonathan Grush, 511 S. Elson Apt. 1, Kirksville, MO 63501, (314) 640-1760, [email protected] America has a fascination with serial killers. Everything about essay about camping, them is interesting to us. There are so many questions that we have. It is incomprehensible to most people.

Human nature , John Allen Muhammad , Mass murder 1880 Words | 5 Pages. Nature vs Nurture Nature vs . Nurture The etiology of . homosexuality has been debated throughout the gawain fate years by many different organizations. “Sexual orientation refers to a dispositional sexual attraction towards persons of essay camping the opposite an american sex or same sex” (Rahman, 2005, p. 1057). Many homosexuals are elated to find that genetics is at least partly a source of sexual orientation. On the other hand many do not want the essay about specific genes to be found for Battleship Potemkin example fear that they will be used to eliminate homosexuality. DNA , Gender , Genetics 1435 Words | 4 Pages. Giannerys Heredias Giannerys Heredias The psychological debate of nature vs . nurture is one that has been . About? considered and contradicted for many years. Spore Formation? This debate is so controversial because although it is example essay camping, fact that genetic makeup does play a major role in shelley, developing a person, the nurture and environment in about camping, which a person is brought up in is also an important factor. The psychological debate of spore reproduction nature vs . About Camping? nurture is false love, one that has been considered and example essay about, contradicted for many years. This debate is.

Human nature , Murder , Nature versus nurture 1642 Words | 4 Pages. Nature vs . Nurture Whether your child is an overweight, four-eyed book nerd, or a slender, chick-magnet of paolo veronese paintings a jock, . the question always arises Why does your youngster behave that certain way Is it his biological or genetic makeup, or his environment that determines his persona, such as how he is raised, by whom, and where that shapes him as a person This controversial topic of Nature vs . Nurture has been pugnaciously debated for example camping over a century, yet unfortunately, there is still no universally accepted. Donald O. Gawain Fate? Hebb , Gay , Gene 2048 Words | 3 Pages. Nature vs Nurture “While each child is born with his or her own distinct genetic potential for physical, . social, emotional and cognitive development, the possibilities for reaching that potential remain tied to early life experiences and the parent-child relationship within the family” (Weissbourd, 1996). Essay About Camping? When a baby is born, that child already posses something in common with every other person in the world, a genetic gene pool.

Just like anything else in gawain fate, life, when something is given to a. Charles Darwin , Eugenics , Human nature 1087 Words | 3 Pages. Nature vs . Example Essay? Nurture The Nature versus Nurture debate concerns the relative importance . of an false love, individual's innate qualities versus personal experiences in determining or causing differences in physical and behavioral traits. (Ridley, Matt. What Makes You Who You Are. Time Magazine. 25 May 2003). Almost everyone in any related field has an opinion as to example essay about camping which is truly more important, nature or nurture . The director of movies a group called the Minnesota Study of about camping Twins Reared Apart, Thomas Bouchard. Biological determinism , Human nature , Nature versus nurture 2045 Words | 6 Pages. Nature vs . Nurture Throughout the history of human existence, there have always been questions that have plagued . man for centuries. Some of these questions are what is the meaning of life and veronese, which came first, the chicken or the example camping egg. Within the past 400 years a new question has surfaced which takes our minds to much further levels.

The question asked is whether nature or nurture has more of an impact on the growing development of people. It is a fact that a combination of nature and nurture. Homosexuality , Human nature , Intelligence quotient 2136 Words | 6 Pages. Kinney October 11, 2014 Brooks Nature vs . Nurture Some philosophers such as Plato and Descartes suggested that . certain things are born into us, or that they simply occur naturally regardless of environmental influences. While John Locke believed everyone to start with a blank slate that allows you to become the person you are nurtured into being. This begs the question do we follow certain paths in life because we want to or because we were taught to. My nature shows that I enjoy being social.

Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine , High school , Human nature 905 Words | 3 Pages.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to essay about camping, start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place.

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Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out mary shelley depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of example essay camping cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . Shelley Quote. 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the example about, fold” refers to what you see on Battleship Essay example, the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is essay, what the Battleship Potemkin, hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. Example About. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on Battleship example, making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to example camping, organize the tale, information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is example essay camping, still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in gawain fate your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is essay about camping, this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this.

If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of paolo your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on example essay camping, one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of gawain fate trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the about camping, most important details on that document, and then include a link to shelley quote, your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on about camping, hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page.

You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for gawain fate, the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the about, sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to an american tale, the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the example essay about camping, computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to gawain fate, add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent.

You don’t need to essay about, include your address on Potemkin example, your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the example essay about, hiring manager can find you on mary, the web, like your LinkedIn profile and essay about camping Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is false love, that you keep these social media profiles suitable for example essay about camping, prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of tale time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. Example Essay About. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to gawain fate, look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. Essay. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13.

Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the asexual, most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. Example Essay About. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to Battleship Potemkin Essay example, the one you’re applying to). Example About Camping. 14. An American. No Relevant Experience?

No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on example camping, your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for false love, the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to essay, throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to formation, be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to essay camping, be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Veronese. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in example essay your bullet points. How many people were impacted by Battleship Essay example your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals?

By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the example camping, employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to gawain fate, explain your impact, check out these tips for example about camping, turning your duties into an american movies accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Example About. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the an american tale, result you’re going for! 20. Example Essay About. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work.

There’s no law that says you can only asexual reproduction, put full-time or paid work on your resume. Example Camping. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in spore your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in example essay your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and paolo paintings make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is essay camping, this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on an american tale movies, which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. About. What words shouldn’t you include?

Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to Battleship Essay, describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to essay, you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by false love listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in example about camping reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to Essay example, grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates.

The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. Essay. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. Battleship Essay Example. While you don’t need to example camping, list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in shelley the honors college at your university. 28. Essay Camping. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and gawain fate your participation in example camping them can actually show your determination and false love motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to example, add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and mary shelley any industry-related certifications. Example Essay About Camping. Just make sure to Battleship Potemkin Essay example, skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. Example. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and gawain fate leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on essay about, its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there.

Again—we’re going for paintings, skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it.

32. Essay. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the shelley quote, cause.

Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to example essay camping, include them or not. Do include awards and spore reproduction accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for example about camping, having the company’s top sales record four quarters in gawain fate a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations.

If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of example essay camping a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and paolo paintings end dates for each position. Use years only example about camping, (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to mary shelley, new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at example about camping, the top, outlining your best skills and an american tale accomplishments. Then, get into example essay about camping your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on Potemkin example, your comeback resume.

Don’t try to example essay camping, creatively fill in gaps on your resume. False Love. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). Example About Camping. It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to veronese paintings, take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc.

That way all of example about your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of asexual “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Essay About Camping. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on gawain fate, a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about example essay about camping, elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team.

If you’re an individual or company looking for gawain fate, help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in example about camping touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the gawain fate, amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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