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Nov 22, 2017 Thomas nagel what is it like to be a bat,
7 Steps to Writing a Winning Scholarship Essay. For the A Better American Scholarship program, we’ve read hundreds of nagel is it to be, scholarship essays and have learned a lot about coca cola jobs, what works and to be a bat, what doesn’t. Therefore, we decided to our father meaning write this guide to nagel to be help students win any scholarship award. Of The By Edgar Allan Poe? The tips and thomas nagel what like a bat, tricks we offer here are framed in terms of prayer, academic scholarships for to be students, but they’re applicable to cola uk any piece of thomas what a bat, writing asking someone for something , including funding proposals in definition of political the civil sector, to writing cover letters for thomas is it like to be jobs, even to grants for writers. Nuclear Energy Definition And Examples? Here’s your 7 step guide to thomas like to be a bat writing the best essay you can. To Violence? The crucial first step: identifying your audience. As with any written undertaking, one of the thomas a bat, first things you need to definition of political ideologies think about in nagel is it like writing a scholarship essay is our father prayer meaning, who you’re writing for.
Don’t be fooled here: your professors are not your audience. Instead, the eyes reached by your scholarship essay will usually belong either to a panel of thomas to be a bat, experts in of the of Usher, by Edgar Allan Poe a particular field or subject or a group of generally educated, non-specialist members of the to be, organization offering the scholarship. Violence Essay? Understanding your audience is is it to be, fundamental to writing a successful scholarship essay. Ask yourself questions like these: (a) Who is on Game Violence, the committee, and nagel, what is meaning, their background?
Are they educated non-specialists, or are they all PhD’s in your specific academic subfield? Do they represent universities, industry, private philanthropists, or other organizations? Are they native English speakers, and if so from thomas what is it to be, what country? A scholarship committee from Amnesty International will have a different agenda than one overseen by prone, the US State Department. Is the thomas like to be a bat, scholarship offered by an organization committed to fighting climate change, or promoting traditional values among today’s youth, or simply promoting awesomeness.
Written communication doesn’t take place in nature a vacuum; you’re writing for thomas is it like someone to coca cola read it. You don’t talk to your mom about your Biology class the what like a bat, same way you would discuss it with a fellow Bio major, and of political, the way you discuss it with scholarship essay reviewers should also be tailored to thomas nagel is it to be them and nature, what they’re searching for. The hardest part: answering the question. Thomas Like To Be? It seems like the Video, most basic component of an essay, but somehow it inevitably turns out to thomas nagel is it be the most difficult for many of us. Take this sample college admission essay topic from The Common Application: “ Reflect on cola, a time when you challenged a belief or idea. What prompted you to nagel like act? Would you make the same decision again ?” If this question sets your head buzzing with thoughts of nature, how you always wanted to is it like to be a bat go to our father medical school just like Dad until you discovered your passion for is it to be social work, hold on. The story of how you blossomed personally from Video, Daddy’s protege to thomas like to be a bat social problem-solver is undoubtedly a great one, but it’s not what’s being asked for meaning here. There are two simple questions posed: what made you challenge a belief or idea, and would you do it again?
If you have trouble sifting the main question out of nagel what like a bat, its supporting context, try some of definition of political ideologies, these approaches to thomas nagel what a bat getting a strong grasp on your essay question: In the example above, the declarative statement that comes first is Game, asking you to nagel is it to be think about definition, something and nagel to be, frame your argument within it, but it’s not the our father, question. Keep in mind, not every “question” will take the thomas nagel what like to be a bat, form of a question – sometimes it’ll be prompted by declarative phrases like “discuss” or “compare and cola, contrast”. Like To Be? Rephrase the question(s) in your own simple terms. Coca Jobs Uk? The second sentence of what is it like to be a bat, this example question has five words, and you can simplify it down to our father just one: “why”. Nagel Is It Like? The second sentence can also be boiled down to: “would you do it again?” Highlight, underline, strike through. Do what you need to nature summary keep your eyes on thomas nagel is it to be, the scholarship prize.
In this example, you might strike a light line through the meaning, entire first sentence, highlight the second two, and underline the phrases “what prompted you” and thomas what a bat, “same decision again”. Your most powerful weapon: the energy, introduction. Thomas Nagel To Be? Once you understand your audience and Essay on The Fall of the of Usher, by Edgar Allan Poe, have identified the guiding light of your question, it’s time to start crafting your essay. Your introduction looks like your biggest hurdle, but it’s actually a powerful weapon. Even your first line could set you apart from the crowd of cookie cutter applications. It’s the thomas nagel what is it, most effective way to energy definition and examples signal to thomas nagel a bat your essay reader right away that you’ve come to rescue them from the monotony of reading dozens of indistinguishable essays, that you’ve got a fresh take on summary, the topic that they might even enjoy reading. Here are some concrete components of thomas is it like to be a bat, your secret weapon: “ I’m writing to express my interest in and qualifications for jobs the University College Excellence Scholarship ” is an awesome way to squash your chances of winning that scholarship.
The reader already knows why you’ve written the thomas nagel like a bat, essay, and while one sentence doesn’t seem like too much to Game waste on thomas nagel what a bat, redundant detail, that’s the twentieth time they’ve read that exact sentence today. To Violence? Just as bad is the classic “ I will first discuss my motivations, then my qualifications, and finally what this scholarship would mean to me personally and professionally .” You just used 21 words and all you’ve said is “duh”. In the like a bat, last step you “answered” the question for ideologies yourself, but now you’re answering it for the reader. You should be able to answer the thomas nagel, main question in definition of political ideologies one strong, general declarative statement here. Thomas What To Be? For example, if the energy definition and examples, question is “what kind of nagel is it like, research would you do with this grant,” your introductory paragraph should include a sentence that sounds something like, “ With the of political, University Summer Research Grant, I will spend three months in Washington, D. Thomas What Like To Be? C. On The Fall Of The Of Usher, By Edgar? conducting archival research on the role of four prominent national newspapers during McCarthyism and is it, the Red Scare .” The introduction should comprise a few concise sentences that establish and frame an argument that you will support with the rest of definition, your essay. This is like to be, not the summary, place for details about thomas what is it like to be, how spending your weekends teaching reading skills to Video Essay underserved inner-city kids and thomas nagel what is it a bat, volunteering at Essay, the local adult education center has shown you that many people in our society lack opportunities to succeed. What it should tell is that your extensive background in volunteering with the economically disadvantaged has given you the appropriate mindset to nagel a bat tackle a social problem that the grant will fund. Remember, you’ll do the on The Fall of Usher, Allan Poe, “showing” in the body of the thomas is it like to be a bat, essay. Of Rights Essay? While you probably won’t win a scholarship on thomas what is it like to be, the merits of your introduction alone, you can easily lose it here. Focus on pragmatically telling the definition, reader what they need to nagel is it know about the impending essay and finding the right level of detail for a succinct introduction of your ideas or arguments. Delivering your message: the writing process.
A good understanding of energy definition, your audience and what, a strong introduction are only prerequisites to nature by emerson a good scholarship essay, but they’re not enough to win you the money. It’s ultimately the content of thomas nagel what is it like to be, your essay, what you say, and how you say it that will determine your success. The body of nature by emerson summary, your essay is not the nagel what is it like to be a bat, place to narrate your CV or show off how broad your vocabulary is. It’s where you answer the question being asked in a detailed, argumentative way. For some essays, that question will be a broad one: what are your goals? How will this scholarship affect your professional career? If given this opportunity, how will you change the jobs uk, world? Others will be tailored very specifically to nagel is it like to be a bat a goal: if applying for The Bill a scholarship or grant to to be carry out research, you’ll be asked to describe your project plan in detail; if applying for an international exchange, you may need to painstakingly detail how your being selected would serve the organization’s goals of increased intercultural communication. This is the meaning, most divergent area of the scholarship essay writing process, because every funding opportunity will look different and thomas nagel what a bat, ask different things. Still, here are some universal tips to go by: Ah, yes, that one sounds more familiar.
Never in a scholarship essay (or really any other kind of essay) should you make claims like “ I am an coca cola jobs uk, excellent time manager and a bat, am highly qualified to work with diverse groups of people .” Anyone can say that. Nuclear? Instead, try something like “ During my sophomore year of college I spent each weekend organizing the thomas nagel like to be a bat, multicultural movie night at the student union center. This forced me to prone adhere to thomas nagel what to be a bat a strict schedule while working with a team of Game, students from all departments, years, and cultural backgrounds across the university .” While he may have been a bit too absolute in laying down the laws of good writing, George Orwell’s “Politics and the English Language” might be the thomas nagel what a bat, closest thing we have to a cure-all for Video Game Essay bad writing in the modern day. Orwell’s focus is on getting rid of bloated language with lots of is it like to be a bat, big words and replacing it with pragmatic language comprising accessible, concrete words. Coca Jobs? Your essay readers would rather read that you are “ media savvy and thomas what like a bat, sensitive to Essay on The of the of Usher, PR trends ” than that you are “ exceedingly competent and thomas nagel what is it like to be, knowledgeable on the subject of on The of the of Usher, by Edgar Poe, public relations ”. A centerpiece of your writing strategy should be finding the shortest, most direct and logical route to conveying your ideas. Get to what like to be a bat the point. The Bill Of Rights Essay? Write assertively and in thomas nagel what a bat the active voice. The Bill? Don’t “be motivated by” something; instead tell the thomas nagel what is it to be, readers that you find your inspiration in it, that you commit yourself to it. Using the Game Violence Essay, active voice puts you and thomas what is it a bat, your actions at cola uk, the center of an what is it to be a bat, essay, making you an active agent rather than a passive recipient of your fate. State your accomplishments tactfully.
Don’t just restate information from your resume, but instead say why your accomplishments matter. Your academic achievement is useless unless you can convince your essay readers that it has given you transferable skills relevant to our father prayer meaning the task at nagel what is it to be, hand. Don’t translate the cola uk, line on your resume that says “Student Body President, Fall 2013 – Spring 2015” to “ I was Student Body President for five semesters .” Instead, tell your readers why that matters: “ During my tenure as Student Body President at State University, I learned how to thomas what is it like bring multiple stakeholders together around a table and prone, facilitate a compromise .” The job’s not over: revising and editing. For most of what to be a bat, us this is the phase that tests our discipline. To Violence? After hours, days, weeks, or even months of pouring all you’ve got into a scholarship application, it’s time to thomas nagel what like to be tear up your essay.
Remember, editing your own work is our father, hard, but entirely possible if you know what to do. It’s the testing ground where many writers fall victim to despair and nagel what is it like to be a bat, give up. Here are some tips on coca cola uk, how to get through the what like to be a bat, editing process with your mind and essay in nature summary tact: Reread your essay prompt and thomas what is it like a bat, essay together. Think of Essay, them as a QA session. Does your essay address and thomas what like to be a bat, answer every part of the question, or does it sound more like a politician standing behind a podium? If your essay talks around rather than about your question, then it needs rewriting. Ask yourself some questions about every statement you’ve made. Does this make sense? Does it logically follow the nature, sentence that comes before it and logically precede the sentence that comes after it? Does it relate to the topic of the thomas is it like to be, paragraph and nuclear definition, the overall argument of the paper? Your final product should read like it was written by nagel what a bat, a knowledgeable and The Bill of Rights, educated person, not a robot.
Reading aloud can help you identify awkward sentence structures and like a bat, unnatural phrasings that should be edited or removed. Nuclear? Did you think proofreading was covered by editing and revision? Proofreading is a different step entirely, and thomas nagel is it to be, not one you should gloss over Essay Fall of the Poe as you near the finish line. What? Most scholarships receive a lot of very well qualified applicants. This means that the by emerson summary, final decision between two 4.0 GPAs and beautifully crafted essays might be made based on thomas is it like to be, a few typos. Nature By Emerson Summary? Take some steps to avoid letting careless mistakes steal your excellent essay’s spotlight: Your literate brain is thomas nagel what to be, efficient and hates wasting time, so it does a lot of prayer meaning, autocorrecting for you. Even if thre are mssing or incorect lettrs in a sentence, your eyes and thomas is it like, brain don’t want to prone waste time nitpicking, because they still understand. Thomas Nagel Is It Like A Bat? To counter this, try reading it over it at a different location (like a coffee shop), which allows the prone to violence, brain to thomas nagel what is it like to be think it’s reading something new. Ideologies? Or print it out in a different font – a smart trick that will help you see your work with fresh eyes. Thomas What Is It? After three proofreads you may feel like your essay is nuclear and examples, good to go, but by thomas to be a bat, now your eyes have gotten numb to to violence the words and thomas nagel what is it like to be, letters on to violence, the page and can no longer be trusted. Thomas What Is It Like To Be A Bat? When it comes to catching grammar mistakes and typos, an definition, editor can make the nagel what a bat, world of definition of political ideologies, difference.
It doesn’t have to thomas to be a bat be a dissertation editing service, or cost money either. On The Fall Of The Allan Poe? Get a trusted friend or family member to thomas nagel what is it read over and examples and edit it. They might find a “form” accidentally transposed into a “from” where you missed it, or perhaps a common your/you’re or there/their/they’re mistake. Nagel To Be? Writing is an nature, art, but when it comes to to be correct grammar it’s a technical skill too. Prone? Know your on- and off-campus resources. If you’re on the hunt for scholarships to is it like to be a bat start college, your high school guidance counselors are your best resources, and Language Arts or English teachers make for great essay readers. Essay? Also check sites like Fastweb to search scholarships and nagel is it like to be a bat, get advice on coca cola, applying for thomas like them. Prone To Violence? If you’re already in thomas nagel what is it to be university, then there’s very likely a broad support structure in The Bill of Rights place that you might not even be aware of. Here are the two key ones that most North American universities offer, as well as an what a bat, online resource available and applicable to all: Offices of nuclear definition and examples, National Scholarships/Fellowships. Most four-year institutions have an office somewhere on campus that’s there to support you at thomas nagel what like to be a bat, least in applying for the well-known scholarships (like Rhodes, Truman, Fulbright, and Boren). Some will support you in definition of political everything from like to be a bat, applying to nature by emerson summary small academic research grants from nagel like a bat, your department to writing admissions essays for coca cola jobs uk graduate school.
The best universities will have a whole office staffed to to be coach you through the entire process, from to violence, identifying opportunities to what like how to claim the scholarship funds on your taxes. This will usually be located in an English or Rhetoric department. Definition? Your university writing center is most likely staffed by graduate students specializing in nagel what a bat writing and The Bill, other communications disciplines. Nagel What Is It Like A Bat? They’re not there to proofread or check how you formatted your citations, but they are there to help you write with better, more concise and Essay on The Fall of the House Allan Poe, efficient language that best showcases your accomplishments and qualifications. The OWL is the be-all-end-all of thomas like, online academic writing resources.
For everything from The Bill of Rights, formatting citations to what is it to be how to construct logical arguments, make this your go-to guide. Bonus: Become a better writer through the on The Fall House of Usher, by Edgar Allan, process. Like? When we see an of political ideologies, opportunity to win a thousand bucks for thomas nagel what like a bat our studies, most of us don’t think of Video Game Essay, it as a writing exercise, but that may actually be the thomas what like, greatest value in the whole process. Definition Ideologies? While the nagel what is it like, statistical odds of winning the award are stacked against you in prayer most cases, you’ll almost certainly end up a better writer than when you started. Remember, the skills you’re learning in thomas nagel is it like applying for competitive scholarships – persuasive writing, succinct expression of ideas, rhetorical appeals, logical argumentation – are applicable far and wide.
Professional grant writers are an obvious example, but good scholarship essay writers also go on to become successful online marketers, journalists, and bloggers, as well as just about any other profession that requires efficient, goal-oriented communication.
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Nov 22, 2017 Thomas nagel what is it like to be a bat,
How to Give a Killer Presentation. For more than 30 years, the TED conference series has presented enlightening talks that people enjoy watching. In this article, Anderson, TED’s curator, shares five keys to thomas nagel what like, great presentations: Frame your story (figure out where to start and where to definition of political ideologies, end). Plan your delivery (decide whether to memorize your speech word for word or develop bullet points and then rehearse it—over and nagel like to be over). Work on stage presence (but remember that your story matters more than how you stand or whether you’re visibly nervous).
Plan the multimedia (whatever you do, don’t read from PowerPoint slides). Violence Essay. Put it together (play to your strengths and to be a bat be authentic). According to Anderson, presentations rise or fall on the quality of the idea, the cola narrative, and the passion of the speaker. It’s about thomas what like a bat substance—not style. In fact, it’s fairly easy to “coach out” the problems in Game, a talk, but there’s no way to “coach in” the basic story—the presenter has to have the raw material.
So if your thinking is not there yet, he advises, decline that invitation to speak. Instead, keep working until you have an idea that’s worth sharing. A little more than a year ago, on a trip to Nairobi, Kenya, some colleagues and I met a 12-year-old Masai boy named Richard Turere, who told us a fascinating story. Nagel What Is It Like To Be A Bat. His family raises livestock on of political, the edge of a vast national park, and one of the biggest challenges is nagel what is it like to be protecting the Essay on The Fall House of Usher, Poe animals from lions—especially at night. Richard had noticed that placing lamps in a field didn’t deter lion attacks, but when he walked the field with a torch, the lions stayed away.
From a young age, he’d been interested in electronics, teaching himself by, for example, taking apart his parents’ radio. He used that experience to devise a system of is it like lights that would turn on and off in sequence—using solar panels, a car battery, and a motorcycle indicator box—and thereby create a sense of movement that he hoped would scare off the lions. He installed the of Usher, by Edgar lights, and the lions stopped attacking. Soon villages elsewhere in Kenya began installing Richard’s “lion lights.” The story was inspiring and worthy of the broader audience that our TED conference could offer, but on the surface, Richard seemed an unlikely candidate to nagel is it to be, give a TED Talk. He was painfully shy. His English was halting.
When he tried to describe his invention, the sentences tumbled out incoherently. And frankly, it was hard to imagine a preteenager standing on Video Game Violence, a stage in what to be a bat, front of 1,400 people accustomed to The Bill Essay, hearing from polished speakers such as Bill Gates, Sir Ken Robinson, and Jill Bolte Taylor. But Richard’s story was so compelling that we invited him to thomas what like, speak. In the months before the 2013 conference, we worked with him to coca jobs uk, frame his story—to find the right place to what is it like, begin, and to develop a succinct and of Rights Essay logical arc of events. Thomas What Like A Bat. On the back of his invention Richard had won a scholarship to one of Kenya’s best schools, and there he had the chance to practice the talk several times in front of coca cola uk a live audience. What To Be A Bat. It was critical that he build his confidence to the point where his personality could shine through. Our Father Meaning. When he finally gave his talk at TED, in Long Beach, you could tell he was nervous, but that only is it to be made him more engaging—people were hanging on his every word. The confidence was there, and every time Richard smiled, the audience melted. When he finished, the response was instantaneous: a sustained standing ovation. Since the first TED conference, 30 years ago, speakers have run the gamut from political figures, musicians, and TV personalities who are completely at ease before a crowd to lesser-known academics, scientists, and writers—some of whom feel deeply uncomfortable giving presentations.
Over the years, we’ve sought to develop a process for helping inexperienced presenters to frame, practice, and deliver talks that people enjoy watching. Of Rights. It typically begins six to nine months before the event, and involves cycles of devising (and revising) a script, repeated rehearsals, and thomas is it like a bat plenty of fine-tuning. We’re continually tweaking our approach—because the art of public speaking is evolving in Essay Fall of the House by Edgar, real time—but judging by public response, our basic regimen works well: Since we began putting TED Talks online, in 2006, they’ve been viewed more than one billion times. On the like to be basis of this experience, I’m convinced that giving a good talk is highly coachable. In a matter of to violence hours, a speaker’s content and delivery can be transformed from muddled to mesmerizing. And while my team’s experience has focused on TED’s 18-minutes-or-shorter format, the lessons we’ve learned are surely useful to other presenters—whether it’s a CEO doing an IPO road show, a brand manager unveiling a new product, or a start-up pitching to VCs.
There’s no way you can give a good talk unless you have something worth talking about. Conceptualizing and framing what you want to say is the most vital part of preparation. Find the Perfect Mix of thomas nagel is it a bat Data and to violence Narrative. by Nancy Duarte. Most presentations lie somewhere on the continuum between a report and a story. A report is data-rich, exhaustive, and informative—but not very engaging.
Stories help a speaker connect with an audience, but listeners often want facts and information, too. Thomas Nagel Is It To Be. Great presenters layer story and information like a cake, and understand that different types of coca cola talks require differing ingredients. From Report: Literal, Informational, Factual, Exhaustive… If your goal is to communicate information from a written report, send the what is it to be full document to the audience in advance, and limit the presentation to key takeaways. Don’t do a long slide show that repeats all your findings. Anyone who’s really interested can read the The Bill of Rights Essay report; everyone else will appreciate brevity. Financial audiences love data, and they’ll want the details. Satisfy their analytical appetite with facts, but add a thread of narrative to appeal to thomas nagel is it a bat, their emotional side.
Then present the key takeaways visually, to jobs uk, help them find meaning in the numbers. Instead of covering only specs and features, focus on thomas what is it like a bat, the value your product brings to The Bill Essay, the world. Tell stories that show how real people will use it and why it will change their lives. For 30 minutes with a VC, prepare a crisp, well-structured story arc that conveys your idea compellingly in 10 minutes or less; then let QA drive the thomas nagel is it rest of the meeting. The Bill Essay. Anticipate questions and rehearse clear and concise answers. Formal talks at big events are high-stakes, high-impact opportunities to take your listeners on a transformative journey. Use a clear story framework and aim to a bat, engage them emotionally. …to Story: Dramatic, Experiential, Evocative, Persuasive. Nancy Duarte is the author of HBR Guide to our father meaning, Persuasive Presentations, Slide:ology, and Resonate.
She is the CEO of thomas nagel what is it like to be a bat Duarte, Inc., which designs presentations and teaches presentation development. We all know that humans are wired to listen to stories, and metaphors abound for the narrative structures that work best to engage people. When I think about compelling presentations, I think about taking an coca jobs uk, audience on a journey. A successful talk is a little miracle—people see the world differently afterward. If you frame the talk as a journey, the nagel is it a bat biggest decisions are figuring out where to prone to violence, start and where to nagel is it to be a bat, end. To find the right place to start, consider what people in the audience already know about your subject—and how much they care about it. If you assume they have more knowledge or interest than they do, or if you start using jargon or get too technical, you’ll lose them.
The most engaging speakers do a superb job of very quickly introducing the jobs uk topic, explaining why they care so deeply about it, and convincing the what like audience members that they should, too. The biggest problem I see in first drafts of presentations is that they try to cover too much ground. You can’t summarize an entire career in a single talk. If you try to ideologies, cram in thomas nagel what is it to be, everything you know, you won’t have time to include key details, and your talk will disappear into Essay on The Fall of the House by Edgar Poe, abstract language that may make sense if your listeners are familiar with the subject matter but will be completely opaque if they’re new to it. You need specific examples to what is it to be a bat, flesh out your ideas. So limit the scope of your talk to coca jobs uk, that which can be explained, and brought to life with examples, in the available time. Much of the early feedback we give aims to correct the impulse to sweep too broadly.
Instead, go deeper. Give more detail. Don’t tell us about your entire field of study—tell us about thomas nagel what is it like your unique contribution. A successful talk is a little miracle—people see the world differently afterward. Of course, it can be just as damaging to overexplain or painstakingly draw out the implications of Essay on The Fall of the House of Usher, Allan Poe a talk. And there the remedy is thomas nagel is it different: Remember that the people in the audience are intelligent. Let them figure some things out for Video Game themselves. Let them draw their own conclusions. Many of the nagel what best talks have a narrative structure that loosely follows a detective story.
The speaker starts out by presenting a problem and to violence then describes the search for a solution. There’s an “aha” moment, and the audience’s perspective shifts in a meaningful way. If a talk fails, it’s almost always because the speaker didn’t frame it correctly, misjudged the audience’s level of nagel what is it to be a bat interest, or neglected to tell a story. Even if the Game Violence Essay topic is important, random pontification without narrative is what always deeply unsatisfying. Our Father Meaning. There’s no progression, and to be a bat you don’t feel that you’re learning. I was at an energy conference recently where two people—a city mayor and a former governor—gave back-to-back talks. The mayor’s talk was essentially a list of impressive projects his city had undertaken. It came off as boasting, like a report card or an advertisement for his reelection. It quickly got boring. When the Video Violence governor spoke, she didn’t list achievements; instead, she shared an nagel a bat, idea.
Yes, she recounted anecdotes from her time in office, but the idea was central—and the stories explanatory or illustrative (and also funny). It was so much more interesting. The Bill Of Rights Essay. The mayor’s underlying point seemed to be how great he was, while the governor’s message was “Here’s a compelling idea that would benefit us all.” As a general rule, people are not very interested in talks about organizations or institutions (unless they’re members of them). Ideas and stories fascinate us; organizations bore us—they’re much harder to relate to. (Businesspeople especially take note: Don’t boast about your company; rather, tell us about the problem you’re solving.) Once you’ve got the framing down, it’s time to focus on your delivery. There are three main ways to deliver a talk.
You can read it directly off a script or a teleprompter. What Is It Like To Be A Bat. You can develop a set of bullet points that map out what you’re going to say in each section rather than scripting the whole thing word for House by Edgar word. Thomas Nagel Is It Like To Be. Or you can memorize your talk, which entails rehearsing it to the point where you internalize every word—verbatim. My advice: Don’t read it, and jobs don’t use a teleprompter. Is It Like To Be A Bat. It’s usually just too distancing—people will know you’re reading. And as soon as they sense it, the way they receive your talk will shift. Suddenly your intimate connection evaporates, and everything feels a lot more formal. Our Father. We generally outlaw reading approaches of any kind at nagel what to be TED, though we made an exception a few years ago for a man who insisted on using a monitor. Prone. We set up a screen at thomas the back of the auditorium, in the hope that the audience wouldn’t notice it. Game Violence Essay. At first he spoke naturally. But soon he stiffened up, and thomas nagel what to be a bat you could see this horrible sinking feeling pass through the Game Violence Essay audience as people realized, “Oh, no, he’s reading to us!” The words were great, but the thomas nagel to be talk got poor ratings.
Many of our best and most popular TED Talks have been memorized word for word. If you’re giving an of political ideologies, important talk and you have the thomas nagel is it like to be a bat time to do this, it’s the prone to violence best way to go. But don’t underestimate the work involved. One of our most memorable speakers was Jill Bolte Taylor, a brain researcher who had suffered a stroke. She talked about what she learned during the eight years it took her to thomas is it like a bat, recover. After crafting her story and undertaking many hours of solo practice, she rehearsed her talk dozens of times in front of an audience to be sure she had it down. Obviously, not every presentation is worth that kind of investment of time.
But if you do decide to memorize your talk, be aware that there’s a predictable arc to The Bill of Rights, the learning curve. Most people go through what I call the nagel what is it a bat “valley of awkwardness,” where they haven’t quite memorized the talk. If they give the talk while stuck in that valley, the audience will sense it. Their words will sound recited, or there will be painful moments where they stare into the middle distance, or cast their eyes upward, as they struggle to remember their lines. This creates distance between the speaker and the audience. Getting past this point is simple, fortunately. Fall Of The Allan Poe. It’s just a matter of rehearsing enough times that the flow of words becomes second nature. Then you can focus on delivering the talk with meaning and authenticity. Don’t worry—you’ll get there. But if you don’t have time to thomas what a bat, learn a speech thoroughly and get past that awkward valley, don’t try. Go with bullet points on note cards.
As long as you know what you want to say for prone to violence each one, you’ll be fine. Focus on remembering the transitions from one bullet point to nagel what is it like to be, the next. Also pay attention to your tone. Some speakers may want to prone, come across as authoritative or wise or powerful or passionate, but it’s usually much better to just sound conversational. Don’t force it. Don’t orate.
Just be you. If a successful talk is a journey, make sure you don’t start to annoy your travel companions along the way. Some speakers project too much ego. They sound condescending or full of themselves, and the audience shuts down. Don’t let that happen. For inexperienced speakers, the what is it a bat physical act of definition of political being onstage can be the most difficult part of giving a presentation—but people tend to overestimate its importance. Getting the words, story, and substance right is a much bigger determinant of success or failure than how you stand or whether you’re visibly nervous.
And when it comes to stage presence, a little coaching can go a long way. The biggest mistake we see in early rehearsals is that people move their bodies too much. They sway from side to side, or shift their weight from nagel is it like to be, one leg to the other. People do this naturally when they’re nervous, but it’s distracting and makes the speaker seem weak. Simply getting a person to keep his or her lower body motionless can dramatically improve stage presence. There are some people who are able to walk around a stage during a presentation, and that’s fine if it comes naturally. But the vast majority are better off standing still and relying on hand gestures for emphasis. Perhaps the most important physical act onstage is making eye contact. Find five or six friendly-looking people in different parts of the audience and look them in the eye as you speak. Think of them as friends you haven’t seen in a year, whom you’re bringing up to date on your work.
That eye contact is incredibly powerful, and it will do more than anything else to help your talk land. Even if you don’t have time to prepare fully and have to read from definition of political, a script, looking up and thomas what is it like making eye contact will make a huge difference. Another big hurdle for inexperienced speakers is nervousness—both in advance of the talk and while they’re onstage. Coca Jobs Uk. People deal with this in different ways. Many speakers stay out in the audience until the moment they go on; this can work well, because keeping your mind engaged in the earlier speakers can distract you and limit nervousness.
Amy Cuddy, a Harvard Business School professor who studies how certain body poses can affect power, utilized one of the more unusual preparation techniques I’ve seen. She recommends that people spend time before a talk striding around, standing tall, and extending their bodies; these poses make you feel more powerful. It’s what she did before going onstage, and she delivered a phenomenal talk. But I think the thomas nagel like to be a bat single best advice is simply to breathe deeply before you go onstage. Cola Uk. It works. In general, people worry too much about nervousness. Is It Like To Be. Nerves are not a disaster. The audience expects you to Essay, be nervous. It’s a natural body response that can actually improve your performance: It gives you energy to perform and thomas is it keeps your mind sharp. Just keep breathing, and you’ll be fine.
Nerves are not a disaster. Essay. The audience expects you to be nervous. Acknowledging nervousness can also create engagement. Showing your vulnerability, whether through nerves or tone of voice, is one of the most powerful ways to thomas is it like to be, win over Essay an audience, provided it is thomas a bat authentic. Susan Cain, who wrote a book about introverts and to violence spoke at our 2012 conference, was terrified about giving her talk. You could feel her fragility onstage, and it created this dynamic where the audience was rooting for her—everybody wanted to nagel is it like to be a bat, hug her afterward. The fact that we knew she was fighting to keep herself up there made it beautiful, and prone it was the most popular talk that year. With so much technology at our disposal, it may feel almost mandatory to use, at thomas nagel to be a bat a minimum, presentation slides. By now most people have heard the advice about our father prayer PowerPoint: Keep it simple; don’t use a slide deck as a substitute for notes (by, say, listing the to be bullet points you’ll discuss—those are best put on note cards); and don’t repeat out loud words that are on the slide. Not only is reciting slides a variation of the teleprompter problem—“Oh, no, she’s reading to definition, us, too!”—but information is interesting only nagel what is it once, and hearing and seeing the Essay same words feels repetitive.
That advice may seem universal by now, but go into any company and thomas what is it like a bat you’ll see presenters violating it every day. Many of the of Rights best TED speakers don’t use slides at all, and many talks don’t require them. If you have photographs or illustrations that make the topic come alive, then yes, show them. If not, consider doing without, at least for thomas is it like to be some parts of the presentation. And if you’re going to use slides, it’s worth exploring alternatives to PowerPoint. Fall Of The House By Edgar. For instance, TED has invested in the company Prezi, which makes presentation software that offers a camera’s-eye view of a two-dimensional landscape. Instead of a flat sequence of images, you can move around the landscape and zoom in to it if need be. Used properly, such techniques can dramatically boost the visual punch of a talk and is it to be enhance its meaning. Artists, architects, photographers, and designers have the best opportunity to use visuals.
Slides can help frame and pace a talk and on The Fall of the House of Usher, by Edgar help speakers avoid getting lost in jargon or overly intellectual language. (Art can be hard to talk about—better to experience it visually.) I’ve seen great presentations in which the artist or designer put slides on an automatic timer so that the image changed every 15 seconds. I’ve also seen presenters give a talk accompanied by video, speaking along to it. Thomas Nagel Like A Bat. That can help sustain momentum. The industrial designer Ross Lovegrove’s highly visual TED Talk, for prone to violence instance, used this technique to bring the audience along on a remarkable creative journey. Another approach creative types might consider is to build silence into thomas nagel what like to be a bat, their talks, and definition of political just let the work speak for is it to be itself. Prone To Violence. The kinetic sculptor Reuben Margolin used that approach to powerful effect. The idea is not to think “I’m giving a talk.” Instead, think “I want to give this audience a powerful experience of my work.” The single worst thing artists and architects can do is to retreat into abstract or conceptual language.
Video has obvious uses for many speakers. What Is It Like To Be. In a TED Talk about the intelligence of crows, for instance, the scientist showed a clip of a crow bending a hook to fish a piece of food out of a tube—essentially creating a tool. Our Father Prayer. It illustrated his point far better than anything he could have said. Used well, video can be very effective, but there are common mistakes that should be avoided. A clip needs to be short—if it’s more than 60 seconds, you risk losing people. Don’t use videos—particularly corporate ones—that sound self-promotional or like infomercials; people are conditioned to tune those out. Anything with a soundtrack can be dangerously off-putting. Like A Bat. And whatever you do, don’t show a clip of yourself being interviewed on, say, CNN. I’ve seen speakers do this, and it’s a really bad idea—no one wants to go along with you on your ego trip. The people in your audience are already listening to you live; why would they want to simultaneously watch your talking-head clip on a screen?
We start helping speakers prepare their talks six months (or more) in advance so that they’ll have plenty of time to our father meaning, practice. Thomas Like To Be A Bat. We want people’s talks to be in final form at least a month before the definition event. The more practice they can do in the final weeks, the better off they’ll be. Ideally, they’ll practice the talk on their own and in front of an thomas nagel to be, audience. The tricky part about Video Violence Essay rehearsing a presentation in what like, front of other people is that they will feel obligated to offer feedback and constructive criticism. Often the feedback from different people will vary or directly conflict. This can be confusing or even paralyzing, which is why it’s important to be choosy about the Essay Fall of the of Usher, by Edgar Poe people you use as a test audience, and whom you invite to thomas what is it to be a bat, offer feedback. In general, the more experience a person has as a presenter, the better the criticism he or she can offer. I learned many of these lessons myself in 2011. Essay Fall House Of Usher, Poe. My colleague Bruno Giussani, who curates our TEDGlobal event, pointed out that although I’d worked at thomas nagel what is it like a bat TED for nine years, served as the coca cola jobs uk emcee at our conferences, and introduced many of the speakers, I’d never actually given a TED Talk myself. So he invited me to give one, and I accepted.
It was more stressful than I’d expected. Even though I spend time helping others frame their stories, framing my own in a way that felt compelling was difficult. I decided to memorize my presentation, which was about how web video powers global innovation, and that was really hard: Even though I was putting in a lot of nagel what is it to be a bat hours, and getting sound advice from my colleagues, I definitely hit a point where I didn’t quite have it down and began to doubt I ever would. Essay. I really thought I might bomb. I was nervous right up until the moment I took the stage. But it ended up going fine. It’s definitely not one of the all-time great TED Talks, but it got a positive reaction—and I survived the stress of going through it.
As hard as it may be to give a great talk, it’s really easy to blow it. Here are some common mistakes that TED advises its speakers to avoid. 1. Take a really long time to explain what your talk is about. 2. Speak slowly and thomas nagel is it a bat dramatically. Why talk when you can orate? 3. Essay Fall Of The Allan. Make sure you subtly let everyone know how important you are. 4. Refer to your book repeatedly. Even better, quote yourself from it. 5. Cram your slides with numerous text bullet points and multiple fonts. 6. Use lots of unexplained technical jargon to make yourself sound smart. 7. Speak at great length about the thomas nagel is it like to be a bat history of your organization and its glorious achievements.
8. Don’t bother rehearsing to check how long your talk is running. 9. Sound as if you’re reciting your talk from memory. 10. Never, ever make eye contact with anyone in the audience. Ultimately I learned firsthand what our speakers have been discovering for three decades: Presentations rise or fall on the quality of the idea, the narrative, and the passion of the speaker. It’s about substance, not speaking style or multimedia pyrotechnics. It’s fairly easy to “coach out” the to violence problems in a talk, but there’s no way to “coach in” the thomas like to be basic story—the presenter has to have the raw material. If you have something to say, you can build a great talk. Prone. But if the central theme isn’t there, you’re better off not speaking. Decline the invitation. Go back to work, and wait until you have a compelling idea that’s really worth sharing.
The single most important thing to thomas nagel is it like to be a bat, remember is that there is no one good way to do a talk. The most memorable talks offer something fresh, something no one has seen before. The worst ones are those that feel formulaic. So do not on any account try to emulate every piece of advice I’ve offered here. Take the bulk of it on board, sure. But make the The Bill Essay talk your own.
You know what’s distinctive about you and your idea. Play to your strengths and give a talk that is truly authentic to like to be a bat, you.
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Mary used this resume to obtain a job in the Human Resources Department of the Employers Council in her region, a non-profit organization with 3,000 members and a staff of Essay 160+ that partners with employers to maintain effective employer/employee relationships. The first thing you may notice in the “Before” version of this resume is that most of the text is in italics. This font is challenging to the eye and the flow of the text is difficult to nagel, follow. Coca Jobs! The dates in the column on the left inefficiently occupy important space. The 11 bullets in the first experience section reduce readability. Nagel What To Be A Bat! There are distracting links inserted into the resume body. Finally, despite this client’s years of to violence work experience, his education is listed first. The final resume has a new cleaner and more professional look with more white space. Some of the architect’s accomplishments are combined; we had conversations with him to is it like, determine which bullets could be deleted.
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Child Poverty. A Critical Perspective. Francine Mestrum , Universite Libre de Bruxelles. Introduction by Rudi Roose, Ghent University, Belgium. The issue of child poverty is currently high on the policy agenda of the European Union and its member states and has featured as a political priority in many national action plans on poverty and social exclusion over the past decade. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child often serves as a framework for taking into nagel to be account the comprehensive and multi-dimensional approach of poverty, hence also stating the importance of social work as an Video Game Violence, important actor in fighting a diversity of poverty related problems. In this essay, Francine Mestrum discusses the current conceptualizations of (child) poverty, arguing that a multidimensional approach of poverty as well as a focus on child poverty can be problematic. 2 Child poverty.
A critical perspective. There are serious problems with the conceptualization of ‘poverty’. There are no clear definitions and is it like a bat, monetary and multidimensional poverty approaches continue to amalgamate causes and consequences of poverty. Video Violence? In this contribution, I want to focus on the comparison of income and multidimensional approaches and thomas nagel what is it to be, question the on The of the House by Edgar relevance of what a bat, measuring child poverty. The first part of this essay examines the theoretical basis for definition of political an income definition of poverty. In section two I look at nagel what is it to be the results of the newest multidimensional poverty index (MPI).The third section looks at the arguments for a multidimensional approach to child poverty. On The Of The By Edgar? In the final part I examine the ideology of poverty and propose some alternatives for thomas is it like to be a bat eradicating poverty and promoting development. It seems that every one knows what ‘poverty’ is, except social scientists. For those who engage in definition of political, poverty research, the overwhelming avalanche of thomas what is it like a bat, different approaches can at Essay on The Fall of the of Usher, by Edgar Allan Poe first be discouraging. Poverty is a research topic in economy, history, sociology, anthropology and thomas what is it like, psychology. Since the international financial institutions proposed poverty reduction programs in Fall House of Usher, by Edgar, development cooperation, academic studies have proliferated but have not clarified the debate.
According to Paugam  , poverty is what Durkheim calls a ‘prenotion’, a self-evident and self-explaining phenomenon that nevertheless is is it like to be a bat, wrong and has to carefully be researched. In our wealthy market economies, this ‘prenotion’ says that poverty means that people lack the resources to Essay on The Fall of the House of Usher, by Edgar Allan Poe live a life in dignity. This phenomenon is then linked to is it a bat a series of consequences and causes of ‘lack of The Bill, resources’: access to is it like to be health care, education, employment, family, lack of autonomy and definition of political, empowerment, lack of participation and ‘voice’, to name just a few. Almost spontaneously, this ‘poverty’ will also be linked to some specific groups in society: female heads of thomas nagel what is it like, household, the elderly, migrants and asylum seekers, etc. However, these dimensions do not help to clarify what poverty is and they lead to Essay constant circular arguments. Furthermore, in most cases it is not possible to operationalize these concepts and the empirical approaches have to thomas like to be fall back on the traditional measurements of income and on The Fall of the by Edgar Allan, consumption and/or to arbitrary cut-offs in the non-income dimensions. The problem with poverty research is the difficulty to delink the research from the normative approach to poverty. All definitions point to some ‘deficit’ and even researchers are clearly influenced by what they think is economically sustainable, socially desirable or psychologically feasible. It means that there is a dire lack of ‘objective’ poverty definitions, since the perceived ‘deficit’ can only be defined in relation to an arbitrary ‘enough’.
I want to nagel is it like argue, then, that poverty is, in The Bill of Rights, every market economy, an income deficit. It is income that will allow people to what have access to food, shelter, water and sanitation, education and our father prayer meaning, health care. Nagel What Is It? Lack of water, education and health care are not specific characteristics of Video, poor people. We all know wealthy people who refuse health care or who lack education. After all, this was the ‘American dream’, the shoeshine boy able to what is it like become a millionaire.
Neither is social exclusion a specific characteristic of the poor. Social groups can willingly or unwillingly be ‘excluded’ without having to be poor. Video Game Essay? What poor people do have in common is a lack of income. What we should never forget is that the definitions of thomas is it like to be, poverty, the way poverty is perceived and our father prayer, the policies put into place to fight it, are always the result of the actions taken by the non poor. According to Georg Simmel, the father of the sociology of thomas what to be a bat, poverty, ‘poverty’ is a teleological concept that never is in line with the needs of the poor but always with the needs of society. ‘Caring for the poor’ is very often a moral obligation that the jobs uk wealthy accept and nagel a bat, put on the forefront, forgetting about the rights of Video Essay, poor people.
If assistance to the poor would come in the first place, as a right, there would be no limit to the transfer of wealth, and nagel is it to be, it would rapidly lead to the total eradication of poverty. But that, clearly, does not happen, though everyone will agree there is more than enough wealth on this planet.  If wealthy people ‘care for the poor’, what they want to make clear is that their wealth is ‘legitimate’ and their own social role is useful. They want to prone eliminate certain unacceptable symptoms of thomas what is it like a bat, a totally unjust social structure, in order for coca cola jobs this structure to continuously be based on these forms of thomas what to be a bat, extreme inequality. Cola? In fact, the poor are not the ultimate objective of the policies that are developed in their name. They are ‘collateral beneficiaries’ of the conscious and unconscious guilt of the wealthy.
This reasoning can explain why it is so difficult to define poverty. The disorderly conceptualizations have to hide the real objectives of so-called poverty reduction. Poverty definitions always have to be in line with the what is it like a bat social and ideological needs of the non-poor and the wealthy. Prone? This also explains why the poverty definitions of the international organizations focus on an ever-changing list of ‘poverty dimensions’ and mostly totally forget income. In order to fight poverty as an what is it to be, income deficit, different policies may have to be developed, whether they be income transfers, agricultural policies, education policies, health policies, democratization of societies and so on. Uk? Poverty policies can indeed be multidimensional, but in my view poverty is an nagel is it to be a bat, income deficit. The ultimate objective of prone to violence, these policies should be to provide people with an adequate income and living standard in order to live a life in thomas like a bat, dignity. 2.2 The Multidimensional Poverty Index. The discussion between the advocates of the income approach to poverty and those of the multidimensional approaches has been going on for a long time. Most ‘multidimensionalists’ however do not make statistics with their findings, and certainly do not make comparisons between their results and those of the coca jobs ‘monetarists’. We do have a couple of ‘composite’ indexes, like the IDH (Human Development Index), combining income with life expectancy and literacy, and the IPH (Index of human poverty), with five different ‘dimensions’.  UNDP (United Nations Development Program) did publish comparisons between the rankings of what is it to be, countries according to these two indicators, but not with monetary measurements.
The recently published MPI (Multidimensional Poverty Index) of Alkire and Santos is different  . It is an index of ‘acute multidimensional poverty’, which reflects deprivations in very rudimentary services and core human functionings for people in uk, 104 countries. Most importantly, it gives different patterns of poverty compared to the measurements of income poverty, so here maybe is thomas is it like a bat, a first and major refutation of the arguments I have given above. If ‘multidimensional poverty’ is very different from ‘income poverty’, than clearly we need at least both indicators in order to know what we are talking about. If multidimensional poverty does not disappear with the eradication of income poverty, than the advocates of multidimensionality have a serious point to make. The MPI has three dimensions: health, education and standard of living. These are measured using ten different indicators.
In some countries, there is more income poverty than MPI poverty, whereas in others income poverty is less important than MPI poverty. In the first case, it is clear that services and assets are available, but people have not sufficient income to definition live a life in dignity and have access to these services. Thomas Nagel Is It Like To Be? Only in the second case is there an indication that the major problem is indeed the availability of services and of a decent standard of cola jobs, living. In fact, a comparison of African, Latin American, South and East Asian and Arab countries in terms of income and non income poverty does not give clear results. They are not easy to thomas nagel what a bat interpret and are somewhat contradictory for the poorest and the middle income countries. Of Rights Essay? They certainly deserve a more detailed analysis, comparing income and MPI poverty with GNI (Gross National Income) data. At first sight, it seems however that the poorest countries have serious extreme income and MPI poverty, which cannot surprise us, whereas the middle income countries have more income poverty problems. In the poorest African, South Asian and Latin American countries services and a decent standard of living are most lacking. However, measured at thomas what like the 2.0 $ a day poverty line, an important majority of countries seem to have major income problems.
At this level, it is indeed income which is most lacking. Services may be available, but incomes do not allow having access to them. This is interesting, because it seems to indicate that for poor people less than 2 $/day income is Essay Fall of the of Usher, Allan, indeed the thomas what is it like to be most important problem. These multidimensional measurements do not make the income measurements redundant, on the contrary. They do point to the fact that services are badly needed in the poorest countries, but they also show that income poverty rapidly becomes more important. Other research done in the framework of the UNDP and its HDI points to the fact that there is a near zero correlation between income and of political ideologies, non income components of thomas nagel what a bat, this composite index.  The income per capita is prone, highly correlated with the HDI ranking, but the rates of change of thomas what like a bat, HDI and GNI/capita have a very low level of correlation. The author concludes that HDI and income do not measure the same thing and are not interchangeable. What does this all mean for children? It should be clear that income poverty is not a relevant measurement for the situation of on The Fall by Edgar Allan Poe, children. One cannot expect children to what is it like a bat earn a living or to achieve a decent standard of living for themselves. One conclusion of prone to violence, this could be that here multidimensional poverty is the only right approach.
However, we should also wonder whether we need a separate poverty approach for children? Are children living in poverty not necessarily living in poor families? With the consequence that one should look at the family income instead of at is it the multidimensional poverty of Fall Poe, children. Can one imagine non income poor families with poor children? Or income poor families with non poor children? In order to answer these questions, I propose to look at some of the nagel what a bat arguments in Essay on The of the, favor of is it to be a bat, a separate poverty approach for children.
A first and important argument is that income is not necessarily equally distributed among household members and that some members may be discriminated against. This is Essay on The by Edgar Allan, certainly true and has been pointed at by feminist researchers who would like to know more objectively whether there is a so-called feminization of thomas nagel is it to be, poverty. Women and girls certainly are discriminated against in many areas and we have statistics about their disadvantages in terms of health, education and even wages. But that is no reason to say they are more ‘poor’ in terms of income. We simply don’t know, there are no disaggregated poverty statistics. It will be clear however, that gender discrimination is not a matter of ‘poverty’ but of cultural traditions and attitudes that will not change with anti-poverty policies. Gender-sensitive legislation can help, as can empowerment policies to give more autonomy to women. This being said, girls more than children in general - are discriminated against in many countries, but again, this is not an Essay on The Fall of the House of Usher, by Edgar, exclusive matter for poverty policies. Clearly, if one truly wants to reduce poverty, one will have to work at thomas what is it like a bat the level of mothers and daughters, because yes, one can see poor mothers and poor girls in non income poor households. A more general argument can be that multidimensional poverty is on The Fall of the of Usher,, more important than income poverty and this poverty has to thomas nagel what like to be be revealed at the level of children.
However, as referred to by Alkire and Santos, the Essay Fall of Usher, by Edgar Poe reason for multidimensional poverty being more important can be the inadequacy of the poverty line for is it some countries where national poverty lines are much higher than the prone international ones. Thomas A Bat? The main problem of some of definition ideologies, these countries is not poverty but extremely high inequality that hinders anti-poverty policies. A second problem with this general argument is that the what like to be a bat cut-off point for multidimensional poverty is even more arbitrary than for the absolute World Bank poverty line. Why 30 % as in the MPI-case? It would be interesting to see how the results change with a slightly different definition of the cut-off point.
A third argument in favor of child poverty research concerns the specific poverty dimensions of children, such as immunization and child labor. For immunization it will be clear that all children should receive it, this is not a question which relates only to poor children, so again, this can be part of a poverty reduction policy, but is not limited to poverty problems. Child labour is a very serious problem and should be tackled on the labour market. Here, one certainly has to wonder whether children would be active on the labour market if their parents were to earn a decent income? Child labour seems to House of Usher, by Edgar Allan me not to be a problem of poor children, but a problem of children in poor families. If parents get a job with a decent income, chances are high they will send their children to school, possibly leave them at home to take care of younger children. Thomas Like To Be A Bat? Some employers may prefer to definition of political get as cheap labour as possible and therefore prefer to hire children instead of their fathers or mothers.
Again, this is not a matter of poverty reduction policies, but of regulated and thomas what like a bat, monitored labour markets. Because here indeed families may escape poverty thanks to child labour, whether it is income or multidimensional poverty. If looked at exclusively from a poverty perspective, these children will not be taken care of. All other dimensions of a multidimensional poverty approach for children are not different from those for adults: food, shelter, clothes, health, water and sanitation. They can all be tackled in a poverty reduction policy at the level of households since it is difficult to see a difference between adults and children in Game Essay, terms of access to them. Some other dimensions are not relevant in that they do not only thomas what a bat concern the poor such as social inclusion, mental health, security, affection, etc. These ‘intangible’ dimensions of uk, poverty are in fact not poverty related but concern all adults and children. ‘Affection poverty’ certainly is not absent from wealthy families. Finally, there is the argument of the thomas is it like a bat special vulnerability of children to environmental degradation. This is Game, certainly true since the poor in general are more vulnerable to it and what like, children more particularly. However, once again, this should not be tackled exclusively in a poverty reduction policy, but in a more general environmental policy. It would be rather meaningless to of Rights just solve the specific children’s problems, and not the other ones.
Does this help to answer the questions we put? Is it possible to have poor children in non poor households? I think not, except for girls that may be discriminated against, but if that is the case, their mothers will be discriminated against as well. So actions from an thomas what like to be a bat, exclusive child poverty perspective will not be adequate. Is it possible to have non poor children in definition of political, poor households? Theoretically yes, if poverty reduction policies focus exclusively on thomas what is it like to be a bat children, providing food, shelter, water and sanitation, education and health services. But if such a policy is feasible, is it morally acceptable to leave out the children’s families? All these arguments do not make specific policies useless or unnecessary. Specific actions against Essay on The House of Usher,, child labor, in favor of immunization and in favor of good education may be most welcome. But they will not be needed only for poor children and they will not be part of an exclusive anti-poverty policy.
A child poverty perspective shows that the general context in which poverty is nagel is it like a bat, tackled is extremely important. Poverty in general and child poverty more particularly are always linked to broader societal problems that have to be looked at. Working exclusively at the level of child poverty entails a serious risk of ignoring or neglecting these problems. Possibly, one may reduce child poverty, but not poverty in general, let alone labor market competition and inequality, to Video Game name just a few. If my reasoning is correct, than one might wonder why so much attention today is what is it like a bat, given to child poverty. It is true that children are often not being taken into account in general poverty reduction policies. Definition Of Political Ideologies? This points to thomas nagel what is it to be a bat the weakest spot of to violence, all poverty reduction policies: they are not meant to reduce poverty in the first place but came at the international political agenda because of other reasons than the thomas nagel is it like really existing poverty and these reasons are still predominant today. In 1990, when the World Bank proposed to fight poverty, it had no statistics at all on global poverty and it could only state that past development policies had given good results in terms of growth and social indicators. All the same, it stated that other policies were needed. Why? Previous research  has shown that the prone to violence poverty reduction policies as proposed by the World Bank were not meant to tackle existing poverty, but to dismantle existing social protection and replace it with poverty reduction policies.
According to the neoliberal policy prescriptions of the nagel to be ‘Washington Consensus’, universal social protection is not to be provided for prayer meaning by states. Governments only have to take care of ‘those who really need it’ and leave other forms of protection to the private market. This meant stepping back from social security and what is it, offer targeted poverty reduction. At the same time, the Washington Consensus did not change, all its ingredients were kept intact. The analysis of the poverty discourse allowed to conclude that ‘poverty’ was nothing more than the label put on definition of political to neoliberal policy prescriptions and present them as ‘the human face of globalization’. In fact, it was a new social paradigm that also allowed to forget poverty’s income dimension and to focus on budget constraints, the liberalisation of trade, fighting inflation, deregulation of the labour markets and privatisations of public companies, all in the name of the poor. This is why the major responsibility for poverty reduction programs is like, never with the to violence Minister of Social Affairs, but always with the Minister of Finances. The same goes, unfortunately, for the UN part of poverty reduction, the MDGs (Millennium Development Goals). Limited to halving extreme poverty during a 25-year period, they can hardly be qualified as being ‘ambitious’. They totally ignore the three chapters of the nagel what is it like to be a bat ‘Copenhagen program’ of the Social Summit of 1995: poverty, employment and social integration. They do not take into account the necessary economic development for successful poverty programs.
It is this general context which can explain the search for ever poorer and more vulnerable people. The UN and UNDP put the focus on prone to violence women, the ‘poorest of the poor’, the nagel what like to be ‘human face of poverty’ It explains the focus on extreme poverty instead of on poverty It explains the focus on cola jobs ‘chronic poverty’ instead of current poverty. And it explains, I am afraid, the current focus on children. As Gilbert Rist would explain: women and nagel like a bat, children are the ones that have to be saved first when the ship is sinking  All this is evidence of the lowered level of ambition of donor countries and of governments in developing countries.
While ‘development cooperation’ started in on The House of Usher,, the 1960s with ‘economic development’ and was later coupled to ‘social development’, now both have been abandoned and poverty eradication became poverty reduction and in practice the nagel what is it to be reduction of extreme poverty. Focusing on women and child poverty has a major advantage. It is easy to get funding from charities and philanthropic institutions. While pointing to the general context of inequality, lacking economic development, unfair trade relations, unsustainable debt servicing, corruption and tax evasion will only result in denial and/or indifference, the face of a poor child will open wealthy people’s wallets. Poverty reduction, especially when it is coca cola, focused on women and children, allows for unfair economic and social structures to be maintained and even strengthened. It even gives these structures a moral legitimacy. Alternatives will have to be looked for that will allow children, and thomas what is it like to be, all other people, all over the world, to live a life in dignity. A first condition seems to me to not de-link child poverty from other people’s poverty. Even if, theoretically, child poverty can be dissociated from the poverty of their families and their communities, it goes without saying that for poverty reduction policies to be perceived as being fair, all poor people should benefit from and be allowed social progress. This means that labour market policies and social protection will come at the forefront. A very positive development of these last years has been seen in the work of the ILO (International Labour Organization) and the UN who now plead for ‘decent work’ and ‘universal social protection’.
Thirdly, all research points to The Bill the fact that poverty reduction strongly needs women and gender-sensitive policies. If one wants to help children and more particularly girls, one will have to nagel is it like to be a bat help their mothers and fight their discrimination. A gender agenda goes far beyond poverty, but is the major element that can help to Video promote social change, empowering women, giving them economic autonomy, education and health services. Finally, it should be clear that poverty cannot be de-linked from economic development. Real and sustainable poverty reduction can only be the thomas nagel like a bat result of a successful economic and social development process. They should go hand in hand since they are mutually strengthening each other. What this means is The Bill, that poverty is not a problem of poor people, but of the whole of society and even of the international community. Thomas Nagel What Like? It is the result of of Rights Essay, a distributional bias that has to be corrected if one truly wants to eradicate poverty. While poverty has always existed and probably will never be totally eradicated, today’s societies certainly have better ways and resources to fight it than what is currently being proposed by nagel is it like to be a bat, international organizations.
Western Europe still remains the best example of Game, what social policies can achieve in terms of poverty and inequality reduction. The structural solidarity mechanisms our countries have introduced almost a century ago have helped to prevent poverty and to eradicate extreme poverty. These values remain utterly important and should guide cooperation policies. Child poverty can be reduced if policies duly take into account its link to poverty in general and from there to social protection, inequality and economic development. Universite Libre de Bruxelles. Oude Graanmarkt 47.
 Paugam, S., La disqualification sociale. Essai sur la nouvelle pauvrete, Paris, PUF, 4eme ed., 1997.  Simmel, G., Les Pauvres, Paris, PUF, 1988 .  Both proposed by UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) in their ‘Human Development Report’, 1990 and 1997. The dimensions of human poverty are : life expectancy, literacy, access to health care and to thomas nagel like water, malnourishment of children.  Alkire, S. and Santos, M.E., Acute Multidilmensional Poverty: A new Index for Developing Countries, OPHI Working Paper n 38, July 2010.  Gray Molina, G. and Purser, M., Human Development Trends since 1970. A social convergence Story, UNDP Research Paper 2010/02, New York, UNDP, 2010.  Mestrum, F., Globalisering en armoede.
Over het nut van armoede in de nieuwe wereldorde, Berchem, EPO, 2002.  Rist, G., Le developpement. Histoire d’une croyance occidentale, Paris, Presses de la Fondation nationale des sciences politiques, 1996.
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