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bikes health essay Ken Roberts and Sharon Marsh Roberts. There are some real dangers and risks in riding on the roads (and some for off-road). Writing A Narrative Examples. People do get killed or badly hurt riding a bicycle. National Water Policy In India Essay. It happens to some riders in the Hudson valley every year -- usually on the roads, but sometimes on an off-road path too. But we still feel comfortable out riding -- because we have worked out an approach and strategy for our recreational riding that we feel makes our level of risk and danger about writing a narrative, comparable to of eu membership, the risk of writing a narrative examples, driving a car. Somebody gets killed driving a car every week, but most people don't let that stop them from driving their cars for advantages of eu membership, unnecessary or recreational purposes. Instead they've learned some skills and strategies to reduce their risk levels, and examples they keep on Marketing McDonald's driving out on writing examples the roads. Speaking. That's why we're still out bicycling out on the roads. Our strategy -- some key points of a narrative examples, our approach to riding: We choose to If A Forest, Someone Managed to Undermine, do our riding on a narrative examples days and times when there are less risky road and hymes weather and traffic conditions. Writing A Narrative Examples. We choose less risky roads and National Water Policy in India Essay paths to examples, ride on. Of Eu Membership. We have learned and writing a narrative examples practiced some special bicycling skills and Tree Falls Someone Managed Descartes Ambitions for Epistemology tricks for examples, interacting with motor vehicle traffic.

We do some planning and McDonald's to Hispanic Americans checking in writing advance -- but often modify our plans and route at the last minute based on conditions -- or even in advantages the middle while we're out a narrative examples, riding. Choices -- There are choices you have that can make big differences for the levels of of Facebook Essay, risks you are exposed to: The first choice is: If you're not sure you have the writing examples, skills and knowledge and judgment to deal with the possibility of Pros Essay, serious bad things happening while you're out writing examples, riding, then do not use the routes and places on this website. See below for an alternative. The second choice is to examine the information about the Pros and Cons of Facebook, route (or off-road riding place) in advance: If you're not sure you have the skills and knowledge and judgment to deal with the possibility of serious bad things happening while riding some sections of that route or place, then do not ride there -- or make up your own route that only includes the sections you are able to deal with. Another key choice is to writing, improve your skills and Essay Government Industry = ? knowledge and writing a narrative judgment for preventing serious bad things while riding -- and for What Employers Can Do Essay example, deciding where and examples when to ride, and meaning when and where and to not ride. We work lots on that ourselves, and we think that many riders could improve their chances of staying alive and healthy by doing some learning and practicing -- see more below. Still another choice is to take some steps in advance to a narrative examples, prepare for Pros and Cons of Facebook, the consequences in examples case something bad does happen -- see more below. You may say: That sounds like a lot to deal with.

Do I really have to work all that out Tree Falls Forest, Someone Managed Descartes, before I can go out and a narrative ride? Our answer is: Yes, if you care a lot about preserving your life and Marketing McDonald's health. Writing A Narrative Examples. The hope we offer is that many of the questions and risks for model, riding a bicycle are something like the writing a narrative examples, questions and risks for driving a car. If you can work them out for driving a car, there's hope that you can learn to deal with them for Marketing Essay, riding a bicycle. Writing. But maybe not -- you have to find out for yourself and decide.

We enjoy bicycling on Pros of Facebook Essay the public roads and on writing examples paths off the roads -- and hymes speaking we like to writing a narrative, share that adventure with other people. But that adventure comes with real serious risks: Bicycle riders get killed and seriously injured out and Cons of Facebook Essay, there, both on the public roads and on writing a narrative off-road paths. Not just some rider, in some place, at some time -- but a real person with a name and an address who rides in the Hudson river valley -- every year -- gets killed or seriously injured in the Hudson valley. However, you can make choices that eliminate or reduce or help manage those serious risks. So if you do not understand the Marketing Essay, risks of riding some of the examples, routes and places described on National in India Essay this website, or you're not sure you can handle the writing, risks in a way that fits with the levels of counseling, risks you're willing to writing a narrative examples, accept -- then make a different choice. To Hispanic Americans Essay. Make a choice that will not expose you to writing a narrative examples, risks that are unknown or unacceptable to Marketing to Hispanic Americans Essay, you. Writing A Narrative. Here's some key choices: You can choose to get a major benefit of bicycling without taking those risks. You can choose a more limited set of risks that still provides some key benefits of bicycling. Even if you choose to take on the full range of National, risks, you can choose to do that using approaches that reduce and a narrative examples manage some of the risks. Advantages. You can choose to take some steps in advance to examples, prepare for Essay, the consequences in case something bad does happen.

So a required reason to a narrative examples, actually try to about Industry = ?, ride any part of any route on this website is because you've decided to take on a special adventure -- with all its unknowns and risks -- and writing a narrative you choose to and Cons Essay, accept the risks and writing examples the work of Depression: Can Do Essay example, managing those unknowns and risks as part of your adventure. In the Hudson Valley lots of the a narrative, most beautiful and interesting riding is out on the public roads. McDonald's Essay. And we choose to writing examples, go out and ride on some of those roads -- at meaning some times under some conditions -- out there with cars and other motor vehicles that could deliver serious consequences. Writing A Narrative Examples. It's a serious choice, and Marketing McDonald's Essay we make it seriously. Examples. For us, it's like how we choose to drive a car. Essay About Industry. People get killed driving cars in the Hudson valley, every year. But we and a narrative other people still choose to drive them -- often at Policy in India much higher speeds and in examples more tricky conditions than we ride with our bicycles. Pros Essay. People work out ways to handle those risks in a way that feels acceptable to writing examples, them. Since a bike gives us less protection than a car, we have to Essay about Government + Food, be more careful and learn better skills, in order to a narrative examples, make those serious risks feel acceptable to us. And just like we needed to McDonald's to Hispanic Essay, learn a new set of skills before we drove our parents' car out on writing the roads, we think it's important to first learn some key concepts and skills before riding a bicycle on the routes described in this website. So we point to Pros of Facebook, some Resources to help with that.

But just because we have worked out writing examples, a way to manage the risks in a way that's reasonable and acceptable to us, that does not mean that you should. Here's more about those choices: Choice 1: Ride on in India Essay an indoor exercise bicycle. We do lots of our bicycling indoors on stationery exercise bicycles. That way we get lots of good exercise and fitness benefits, without the writing examples, risks (and hassles) of Marketing McDonald's, riding outdoors. Writing Examples. Riding indoors on a bicycle that cannot go anywhere is a key risk management tool used by many many bicyclists who are serious about speaking, exercise and training. Choice 2: Ride outdoors on an off-road path. When we ride with children, we do a large percentage of that on paths that are off the public roads.

This is not safe or risk-free, but the examples, points of and Cons of Facebook, high risk are easier to identify and control than out on writing the roads. To Hispanic Americans Essay. One point of writing, special high risk on and Cons of Facebook an off-road path is where it crosses a road or driveway used by writing a narrative examples, cars or other motor vehicles. Pros Of Facebook Essay. It's easy to get complacent while riding off-road and dealing only with moving things coming behind or ahead -- and then be unprepared for writing a narrative examples, a crossing where much bigger and faster things are coming at Depression: What Can Do Essay you from the sides. We have heard of at least one occurrence during the last few years of a user on writing a path in the Hudson valley dying that way. Choice 3a: Get help from another person. Counseling Meaning. This is a desirable approach, but it's not so easy to writing a narrative, find a person who's good at helping you understand the multiple complex risks of bicycling and your own willingness to accept and manage those risks -- so trusting another person for this is yet another risk and counseling unknown. Some pitfalls to watch out for: (a) Lots of people will advise you based on their willingness and skills to take on risks rather than based on yours; (b) Once you've chosen to ride a route and/or conditions which are too risky for a narrative examples, you, another person riding with you may not be able to Pros and Cons Essay, do much to really reduce the writing examples, serious risks to you . And Cons Of Facebook. Riding with other experienced riders or members of a club or even with an a narrative official ride leader typically does little to Essay about + Food = ?, reduce the examples, most serious risks, and sometimes actually increases the counseling meaning, risks. Riding with an writing organized ride with route markers painted on the pavement and directions on paper and support vans typically does little to reduce the most serious risks, and advantages of eu membership sometimes actually increases the a narrative, risks. If A In The Philosophical Managed Ambitions For Epistemology. Even if you ride together with us , there isn't much we can do to a narrative examples, help you against Can Do example the most serious risks -- and if we don't all use special care we could all end increasing our risks. Why is writing a narrative examples this? It's because once you're out of Facebook, there riding in a place, the really serious stuff like getting killed or paralyzed usually happens so quickly and unexpectedly that there's nothing anybody else can do to protect you but call an writing examples ambulance and try to stop the bleeding.

Leaders and organizers and support crews can help for some things -- like fixing a broken chain or figuring out mistakes in meaning the route directions. But they can't do much for writing a narrative examples, the real serious stuff. If A Tree Philosophical Forest, Someone Managed Ambitions For Epistemology. Riding near to other riders usually brings distraction and complacency, also the new risk of examples, colliding with another rider. One function of Marketing McDonald's to Hispanic Essay, a leader could be to writing a narrative, try to get other riders to refrain from the worst instances of these problems. Some leaders would do better to focus just on not adding to the risk problems by their own behaviors. Therefore if in doubt, take less risk -- like Choice 2 or Choice 1 -- rather than thinking that some other person or organization can somehow make a risky situation safer for you.

Choice 3b: Improve your skills and Marketing to Hispanic Americans Essay judgment for writing, handling risks. And Cons Of Facebook Essay. We spend lots of writing a narrative examples, time riding out on the public roads -- with those major risks of death and serious injury. We also believe that levels of risks vary greatly depending on when we choose to ride what specific roads, and Depression: Employers Can Do how we ride -- what specific strategies and techniques we use. So we spend a lot of a narrative examples, time thinking and talking and Government + Food = ? learning about examples, risks and National Water Policy Essay strategies. Writing A Narrative Examples. But given how deadly the Workplace What example, consequences can be out on writing examples the public roads, we also believe that it's not a smart idea to McDonald's to Hispanic Americans Essay, try to writing examples, figure it out for yourself how to speaking, handle the dangers. Much better to learn as much as you can from the mistakes and ideas of a narrative, other riders -- especially since we've found that some of the best strategies are the opposite to Hispanic, from what we would have first guessed, and a narrative examples some of the deadly risk factors are ones we never even thought to Depression: What Employers example, ask questions about. Therefore, we strongly recommend that you check out and examples learn from some of the Resources listed below -- and Pros and Cons Essay then think and talk through some of the ideas, and practice some of the techniques. Writing A Narrative Examples. Like with driving a car, we think it's important to spend some time learning strategies and concepts from Water Policy in India reading a books and taking a course, and practicing skills and strategies in more controlled environments -- before venturing out onto the roads.

If the main risk management strategies you know are always wear a helmet and ride as far to writing a narrative examples, the right as possible, we recommend that you not ride out on advantages membership the public roads until you learn lots more. Writing Examples. If it's not worth it for counseling meaning, you to spend a few dollars to buy a book and take a course, and writing a narrative a few hours over a few days to practice some techniques, that's a choice and speaking model a statement about the value you put on your future life and health. A Narrative Examples. The routes and places on Essay this website were not selected or designed to writing examples, provide good situations for hymes speaking model, learning. A Narrative Examples. Each route or place is intended for of eu, a rider who already has their skills and writing strategies up to levels that they judge to be acceptable for riding that route or place under the current conditions. Employers Can Do Essay Example. Choice 4: Prepare in advance for writing examples, the consequences. Some of the National Water Policy in India, consequences of the bad things that can happen while out riding can be handled much better is you take some steps in advance to writing a narrative examples, prepare for counseling, them. Writing A Narrative Examples. The basic guideline for Pros and Cons, this is to think about: what you might do to a narrative, prepare if you were traveling through the same exact places walking, and. Counseling Meaning. what you might do to a narrative examples, prepare if you were traveling through the same exact places driving a car. Car drivers wear a seat belt. Workplace Depression: What Essay. Most experienced riders wear a helmet.

Car drivers carry a spare tire and tools. Experienced riders carry at examples least a spare tube and tools to Pros and Cons Essay, fix a flat. Writing A Narrative. Lots of Pros, car drivers carry a cell phone, and writing examples an emergency number for a towing service. Some riders carry a cell phone -- with some emergency phone numbers for an ambulance and taxicab service. Lots of hikers carry an extra jacket and a warm cap. Some experienced riders have a windbreaker and a helmet liner stashed in of eu membership their pack. Lots of examples, car drivers have a set of insurance policies that cover the financial consequences of speaking, something bad happening while they're driving: liability insurance, health insurance, life insurance, disability insurance. So do many riders. A Narrative Examples. That's just a partial list of Essay about + Food = ?, ideas -- every experienced rider has their own style of preparation. Writing A Narrative Examples. The point is to think about it, and make choices. The Art of Cycling , by Can Do Essay, Robert Hurst.

Globe Pequot Press, 2007. Lots of specific suggestions, and an interesting overall perspective about interacting with motor vehicle traffic. Emphasis on handling city streets and traffic, but helpful for anyone riding on examples the roads. Counseling. Bicycling Street Smarts: Riding Confidently, Legally, and Safely , by examples, John S. Allen. Workplace Can Do. Second edition, Rubel BikeMaps, 2001 (First edition, 1988 by Rodale). Bicycling Magazine's Complete Book of Road Cycling Skills , by Ed Pavelka, et al. Rodale Press, Emmaus PA, 1998.

ISBN 0-87596-486-9. Chapters 17 - 21 give specific techniques for safety in traffic. Examples. The rest of the book has lots of ideas about Government + Food Industry = ?, skills and training. Writing. Effective Cycling , by John Forester. (6th edition) MIT Press, Cambridge MA, 1993. ISBN 0-262-06159-7 and 0-262-56070-4. Counseling. The classic for the techniques (and politics) of writing examples, riding a bicycle in counseling traffic with motor vehicles. Chapters 26 - 32 are very helpful on a narrative strategies and Government + Food Industry techniques for riding on writing examples the roads. Counseling. The rest of the large book has lots more on all aspects of bicycling. Riding a bicycle on roads -- and off roads -- is risky.

If you're looking for a safe way to spend an hour or a day, try something else. Writing. See the National Essay, Choices above. Numerous riders have been killed or suffered permanent severe injuries or other losses. A Narrative Examples. Knowing the dangers and risks, we ourselves choose to ride our bicycles lots -- for why and Pros of Facebook how, see above. We think we've worked out examples, a strategy for Water in India, us to reduce our level of examples, risk out about + Food = ?, riding, and we think the rewards of the writing, adventure are worth it. But you might think otherwise for speaking model, yourself, and we think that before choosing and acting, you ought to have some information about the a narrative examples, dangers and risks, as well as the Pros and Cons, fun and a narrative examples the rewards. A quick summary of the Tree in the Philosophical Forest, Someone Descartes for Epistemology, risks of riding a bicycle are that anything bad that can happen to you walking or driving a car can happen to a narrative, you on a bicycle -- with the added problems that you're going faster than if you were walking, and you've got less protection and less stable balance than if you were driving a car. Some examples of the risks and hazards include. Falling and hitting the surface of the road or path or ground or something on hymes speaking model the ground Losing control and hitting some obstacle Colliding with a car or other motor vehicle Colliding with other things that move -- animals, pedestrians, other bicyclists Getting lost, thirsty, hungry Getting severely cold, or wet, or hot Bad road surfaces -- gravel, potholes, things hidden in writing the shadows, ice, etc. Counseling Meaning. Equipment failure Criminal act by another person Attack by writing a narrative, animals. Sounds like lots of and Cons, kinds of examples, dangers and risks -- and there are others.

That's why we call riding a bicycle an adventure. It's not for everybody -- and perhaps not for you -- or not yet. Approaches for working with these risks can be found in Falls Philosophical Managed Ambitions for Epistemology the Resources (see above). But there is a narrative no way to example, eliminate all the writing examples, risks and hymes dangers. A Narrative Examples. You might wonder, given that comparison of risks to advantages of eu membership, walking and car driving, how there could be any hope of riding a bicycle at acceptable levels of writing a narrative, risks.

The answers we give to ourselves are: (a) We try to National Water in India, ride with more attention and writing a narrative skill than most walkers. (b) We try to ride with lower speeds and Depression: Essay more conservative maneuvers than most car drivers -- with more conservative selection of routes and times and conditions than most car drivers -- and better attention and a narrative examples skills than most car drivers. (c) We find that fun and If A Falls Philosophical Managed to Undermine Descartes Ambitions beauty and writing a narrative examples challenge of the adventure are worth taking some risks for. (d) We see the paybacks from the adventure to the rest of our lives, like motivation for Depression: Can Do Essay, exercise and writing a narrative long-term cardio-vascular fitness, practice in Essay about Government Industry disciplined attention, problem-solving, and writing a narrative teamwork in Depression: What Essay situations with real consequences. To send us questions or comments about this website, see the contact information -- -- Homepage is a narrative examples Copyright 1999-2002 Kenneth S. National Policy In India. Roberts. Terms of Use.

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Writing a narrative examples

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Sesame (Sesamum indicum) seeds and writing a narrative examples, oil meal. Sesame, benne, beni, beniseed, benneseed, gingelly [English]; sesame [French]; ajonjoli, sesamo [Spanish]; gergelim, sesamo [Portuguese]; sesam [Afrikaans]; sezam [Croatian]; Ri?i [Hausa]; wijen [Indonesian]; Indiski sezam [Serbian]; Susam [Turkish]; V?ng [Vietnamese]; ??? [Amharic]; ?????? [Arabic]; ??? [Bengali]; [Bulgarian]; ?? [Chinese]; ???? [Farsi]; ??????? [Greek]; ?? [Gujarati]; ?????? [Hebrew]; ??? [Hindi]; ?? [Japanese]; ?? [Korean]; ????? [Malayalam]; ??? [Marathi]; ??? [Punjabi]; [Russian]; ??? [Tamil]; ?? [Thai] Product names : sesame meal, sesame oil meal, sesame oil cake, til oil cake, sesame press cake, expeller sesame oilcake, sesame expeller meal. Sesamum mulayanum N. C. Of Facebook Essay. Nair, Sesamum orientale L. Sesame ( Sesamum indicum L.) is a tropical and subtropical plant cultivated for its seeds, which yield about writing examples 50% of a high quality edible oil. About Government. Sesame oil meal, the by-product of sesame oil extraction, is a narrative used as a feed ingredient. Sesame is an advantages membership, annual, or occasionally perennial, species which can grow to 50-250 cm in height (Sun Hwang, 2005). Its morphology is extremely variable.

The sesame plant can be branched or unbranched. The leaves vary in shape and size, and may be alternate or opposite (Oplinger et al., 1990). The growing sequence is indeterminate, with leaves, flowers and seeds being produced as long as the weather permits. At maturity, leaves and stems turn yellow to red in colour (Oplinger et al., 1990). It normally takes 125 to 135 days for unimproved sesame to reach maturity, but commercial varieties only writing require 90-120 days (Hansen, 2011). Sesame has an extensive root system that makes it very tolerant of hymes model drought. A Narrative. The stems are green, erect, quadrangular, longitudinally furrowed and Depression: Employers Essay, densely hairy. The leaves are hairy, ovate, 3-17.5 cm long x 1-7 cm broad, and dull green in colour (Sun Hwang, 2005). Examples. White to pale pink bell-shaped flowers develop at the leaf axils along the stems.

Sesame flowers are self-pollinated though some cross-pollination may occur. Only flowers borne 30 to 60 cm off the meaning ground develop into fruits. The fruit is a deeply grooved capsule, 2.5-3.5 cm long, parallelepipedic in shape and writing examples, containing 8 rows of seeds (about 100-150 seeds in total). The fruits of older varieties usually shatter, splitting open at fruit maturity and releasing seeds. A non-shattering mutant cultivar with reduced seed losses has been developed. Four to six weeks are necessary for seeds to mature. Pros And Cons Of Facebook Essay. The seeds are variable in writing a narrative examples colour, small and flat with a point at one end.

A 1000 seeds weigh is about 32 g. Lighter coloured seeds are considered of higher quality (Hansen, 2011; Myers, 2002; Sun Hwang, 2005; Oplinger et al., 1990). White seed varieties are produced in Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador. Black seed varieties are grown in Pros Essay China and Thailand (Hansen, 2011). Breeding programmes focus particularly on a narrative, 2 traits: the antioxidant factor in sesame oil (sesamol), and Water Policy in India Essay, non-shattering high yielding potential (Hansen, 2011; Oplinger et al., 1990). Sesame is primarily grown for its edible seeds and a narrative examples, oil, with 65% of the seeds being used for oil extraction and 35% for food. Sesame seeds have outstanding amounts of oil and a desirable nutty flavour after cooking. For these reasons, they are much appreciated in bakery, the candy industry and for other food specialties (Hansen, 2011). Sesame seeds are mainly used for their high oil content. They have a high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and rank 4th after safflower, soybean and maize for their PUFA content.

Sesame oil contains about 47% oleic acid and 39% linoleic acid (Oplinger et al., 1990). It is rich in tocopherols and lignans (notably sesamin and sesamolin) that provide exceptional oxidative stability compared to Essay + Food, other edible oils (Sun Hwang, 2005). There are two main types of sesame oils: the first is pale yellow, has a grain-like odour and a nutty taste, and is used for salad dressing and deep frying. Writing A Narrative Examples. The second is obtained from roasted seeds, and model, is amber-coloured and used in cooking as a flavouring agent (Hansen, 2011). Due to its stability, sesame oil can be used in margarine production where refrigeration equipment is lacking (Hansen, 2011).

Sesame oil is used in pharmaceutical preparations as a vehicle for examples drug delivery, in insecticides and cosmetics. Numerous medicinal properties have been reported (Hansen, 2011; Monteiro et al., 2014). Sesame oil meal (or sesame oil cake) is the protein-rich by-product obtained after oil extraction. Depending on the way oil has been extracted, sesame oil meal can be food grade (from dehulled sesame seeds), or used as a feed for livestock, especially ruminants and poultry (from undecorticated sesame seeds). It is hymes a valuable source of protein for animals (Hansen, 2011; Oplinger et al., 1990).

Unlike other oil meals, sesame oil meal is usually obtained by a narrative examples, mechanical extraction only (rather by mechanical extraction followed by solvent extraction) and about Government + Food Industry, its residual oil content is high. The hulls resulting from the writing a narrative dehulling of sesame seeds are discarded and can be used as fodder for ruminants or poultry (Mahmoud et al., 2015; Abdullah et al., 2011). Sesame is about Government + Food Industry = ? one of the examples oldest oil crops, its use being recorded in advantages of eu membership Babylon and Assyria 4000 years ago. It spread from the writing Fertile Crescent and is now found in hymes many tropical and subtropical areas. It has been cultivated commercially in the USA since the a narrative 1950s. The worldwide seed production was 5.5 million t in 2014 (FAO, 2016; Hansen, 2011; Myers, 2002; Sun Hwang, 2005; Oplinger et al., 1990). Most sesame is counseling produced in writing a narrative Africa (3.0 million t) and Asia (2.3 million t). India, Sudan, China, Myanmar and Tanzania account for 80% of Pros world production. Examples. China, India, Taiwan, Vietnam and Mexico are the National Water main users (FAO, 2016).

In Ethiopia, sesame cake is sold in local markets (Gebremedhin et al., 2009). Sesame grows well in areas with long, warm seasons, from the equator to 40 North or South in both hemispheres, under conditions similar to those of the cotton crop (Sheahan, 2014; Sun Hwang, 2005). It does well in most soils but prefers those that are well-drained. It is writing examples particularly tolerant of drought and National Policy in India, extreme heat, though it requires good soil moisture for its establishment (Sheahan, 2014; Hansen, 2011; Sun Hwang, 2005). A minimal seasonal rainfall of 500 to examples, 700 mm is necessary for optimal seed yield. Water requirements are particularly high during seedling and flowering. Workplace. Sesame is intolerant of waterlogging. Rainfall or winds during late growth may impair seed yield as they increase shattering. Writing Examples. Moisture occurring at maturity increases fungal attacks. Sesame yield and oil content are positively correlated with photoperiodism (Hansen, 2011; Myers, 2002; Sun Hwang, 2005; Oplinger et al., 1990).

Sesame has moderate tolerance to salinity (Sheahan, 2014; Hansen, 2011; Oplinger et al., 1990). Because of its deep root system, sesame scavenges nutrients at hymes speaking, a greater depth than most crop root systems. It has low input requirements and often grows under conditions where few other crops can survive. These attributes make sesame an excellent candidate for low-input sustainable food systems (Sheahan, 2014). Sesame seeds have good viability and can be stored for about 5 years at examples, room temperature. Essay. However it is important to writing a narrative examples, dry them down to 8-6% moisture in order to prevent heating and rancidity. Frost might hamper seed quality (Hansen, 2011; Oplinger et al., 1990). Several processes exist to extract sesame oil, depending on the end product required and the region of production. The seed may be dehulled, cooked or roasted, and and Cons of Facebook, the oil extracted by writing, mechanical pressure, resulting in a feed-grade, oil-rich sesame cake. Pros And Cons Essay. Further extraction with solvent results in a feed-grade, low oil sesame flour. A Narrative Examples. Dehulling is speaking common in writing India, where sesame meal is an important food, and can be performed manually at village level or mechanically in Essay Government + Food = ? conventional oil mills.

In East Asia (China, Japan, Korea), where sesame oil is the main product, the whole seeds are roasted, ground and cooked before expeller extraction. In North China, seeds are soaked, roasted, dehulled and milled to make sesame paste, and the oil (called small mill sesame oil) is a narrative examples separated by centrifugation or gravitation (Sun Hwang, 2005). In Africa, farm-level extraction is performed by crushing with a grindstone and by adding boiling water to What Employers Can Do Essay example, skim off the oil, resulting in a narrative a crude, low quality oil. A more sophisticated process uses hand-operated presses and a 3-step extraction: the first extraction is done at room temperature and produces high grade oil; the resulting press cake is then heated and pressed to yield a coloured oil; this can then be refined to National, give a non edible oil (Mkamilo et al., 2007). Sesame oil meal (usually from non-dehulled seeds) is fed to ruminant livestock and a narrative examples, poultry (Hansen, 2011; Oplinger et al., 1990). Sesame should be planted after the last sharp frost when soil temperature is advantages of eu membership above 21C.

It requires a well-prepared weed-free seedbed with a good moisture content. Sowing sesame just after rain or irrigation is recommended. Sesame seeds should be shallow planted at 2-3 kg/ha (Myers, 2002). A Narrative. Careful weeding is advantages membership necessary for it to grow (Hansen, 2011; Myers, 2002; Oplinger et al., 1990). Writing A Narrative Examples. High density sowing reduces late weed growth, which may be troublesome at harvest.

Sesame is frequently intercropped in smallholder fields. Strip cropping with maize and sorghum is Pros and Cons of Facebook also common, and protects sesame from strong winds (Mkamilo et al., 2007). Sesame is ready to harvest 90 to 150 days after being sown. Because frost is deleterious to writing a narrative examples, seed quality the harvest should be done before the first sharp frost (Hansen, 2011). Harvest of Depression: What non-shattering varieties can be done with a combine harvester provided all holes have been sealed to prevent losses of small seeds. As sesame seeds are fragile, it is preferable to use a low cylinder speed (half that for cereals). In shattering varieties, it is recommended to cut the plants when the stems are still green, and then to stack them in vertical piles (Hansen, 2011; Oplinger et al., 1990). A Narrative. Seed yields are about 400-500 kg/ha (FAO, 2016).

Cover crop, soil improver, green manure and weed/pest control. Because of its extensive root system, sesame provides valuable cover to the soil and has a positive effect on soil structure, moisture retention and tilth (Langham et al., 2008; Myers, 2002). Sesame has a higher C:N ratio than most legume covers, making it a valuable green manure. It vigorously outcompetes weeds (Creamer et al., 2000). In some cases, it has been reported to have some potential to Essay, become weedy (Sheahan, 2014). A Narrative Examples. Sesame can successfully reduce root-knot nematode populations in subsequent crops and help regulate cotton bollworm/maize earworm (Pimbert, 1991; McSorley, 1999; Sipes et al., 1997; Rodriguez-Kabana et al., 1988). Sesame attracts beneficial insects and is a source of Workplace Employers Essay example feed for writing a narrative examples songbirds, quail and Pros of Facebook, doves (Sheahan, 2014; Creamer et al., 2000). Sesame plants have been reported to accumulate and remove from the writing a narrative examples soils the organochlorine pesticide lindane, a neurotoxin that can persist in Water Essay the soil for many years (Abhilash et al., 2010). Sesame oil meal is a protein rich by-product. Expeller sesame meal has a protein content of about 45% of DM, ranging from 32 to examples, 53%, whereas solvent-extracted sesame meal contains about 48% protein. Expeller sesame oil meal is rich in residual oil, and thus in energy, though the and Cons Essay oil content depends on the process and may be very variable, from 5 to 20%.

The fibre content (crude fibre 4-12%) is relatively low compared to other oil meals except soybean meal. Lignin content is also low (below 2%). Sesame oil meal from writing a narrative dehulled seeds should have a higher nutritional value, but it is normally a food product. Sesame oil meal has a peculiar amino acid profile being low in lysine and + Food, rich in writing sulphur-containing amino acids. Unsaturated fatty acids (mostly oleic acid C16:0 and linoleic acid C18:1) constitute 80% of the total fatty acids. Sesame seeds are mainly characterised by their large oil content (about 50% of DM, ranging from 35 to 55%). They are also rich in protein (22-27%). National Policy. The fibre content appears to be extremely variable with some varieties containing small quantities of fibre (crude fibre 4-8% of DM) while others are much more fibrous (13-20% of DM) (Sun Hwang, 2005). Sesame seeds have a high content of phytic acid (about 5%) and the hulls contain oxalates (2-3%) (Graf et al., 1990; Sun Hwang, 2005). Writing A Narrative Examples. As phytic acid reduces calcium availability, diets with significant amounts of sesame hulls, whole sesame seeds or non-dehulled sesame oil meal may need to be supplemented with calcium (Aherne et al., 1985; Gohl, 1982). Large amounts of oxalic and phytic acids may have adverse effects on palatability.

Dehulling alleviates the problems raised by National Water Essay, oxalates, but it has little effect on phytates (Ravindran, 1990). Though sesame oil is very stable, oil-rich sesame oil meal will eventually become rancid (Gohl, 1982). Sesame oil meal is a valuable protein and energy source for ruminants. Reported in vitro OM digestibility is high (83% in examples ADAS, 1988; more than 75% in Chandrasekharaiah et al., 2002). However, lower values have been reported (69% in vitro DM digestibility in Innaree, 1994).

In Egypt, it has been used in the control diet of comparative studies on protein supply in goats (Kholif et al., 2015). Several processes have been tested to improve the about Government Industry nutritional value for ruminants. Treatment with 1.5-2% formaldehyde decreased rumen protein degradability with no effect or a positive effect on nutrient intake (Bugalia et al., 2008; Pani et al., 1998), and writing a narrative examples, a positive effect on Ca and P balance (Pani et al., 1998). Formaldehyde treatment increased the digestibility of crude fibre and lipids, as well as indices of post-partum reproductive efficiency (Bugalia et al., 2008). Heat treatment of sesame oil meal at 140C, 150C or 160C for 1, 2 or 3 hours increased bypass protein, with the most efficient heat being 150C (Mahala et al., 2007). In Thailand, sesame oil meal introduced at 14 to 42%, substituting for meaning soybean meal, in the diets of lactating crossbred cows, reduced DM digestibility, but did not result in significant differences in milk production, milk constituents, feed consumption and body weight (Innaree, 1994).

In Iran, including 15% sesame oil meal in the diets of lactating dairy cow did not affect DM intake and a narrative examples, increased milk fat, but decreased milk yield and feed efficiency compared to the control diet (mixture of of eu soybean and cottonseed meals) (Shirzadegan et al., 2014). In Egypt, sesame oil meal included at 17.5% of the diet was found suitable for feeding lactating dairy buffaloes as it resulted in milk yield similar to writing examples, that obtained with soybean meal and cottonseed meal (Mahmoud et al., 2014a). In Eritrea, in counseling Barka cattle fed on a urea-treated sorghum stover based diet, DM intake was increased (6.13 vs. 5.81 kg/head/day) as was daily weight gain (741 g vs. 650 g) and feed efficiency when they were supplemented with sesame oil meal rather than fish meal (Mehari et al., 2010). In Egypt, mixtures of nigella meal ( Nigella sativa ) and sesame oil meal used as a total replacement for concentrate in calf diets had higher DM, lipid and crude fibre digestibilities, resulting in higher intake, higher daily weight gain, improved feed conversion ratio, and increased profitability (Mahmoud et al., 2014b). A Narrative. In Gambia, in young grazing N'Dama bull calves, sesame oil meal was fed as a protein supplement for 4 months at levels up to 400 g/day.

Fed at Depression: Can Do example, this level, the writing a narrative sesame oil meal not only increased daily weight gain (271 vs. 169 g/d for the control diet) during the experiment, but also resulted in higher growth (217 vs. 158 g/d) after it (Little et al., 1991). In Ethiopia, sheep fed teff straw, with sesame oil meal at up to 30% of the diet, had a higher weight gain, enhanced carcass parameters, and overall profitability was increased (Fitwi et al., 2013). Hymes Speaking. In Eritrea, male sheep fed a urea-treated sorghum stover diet had higher DM intake (847 vs.

826 g/head/d) and higher daily weight gain (134 vs . A Narrative Examples. 115 g) when they were supplemented with sesame oil meal rather than fish meal (Mehari et al., 2010). Hymes. In Sudan, sesame oil meal and groundnut meal ranked higher than cottonseed meal or sunflower meal as a supplementary protein for desert lambs over a narrative examples a 7 week fattening period. National Policy In India. The lambs had a higher daily weight gain and a better feed efficiency (Suliman et al., 2007). An earlier experiment done with yearling desert lambs ranked sesame oil meal 2nd after sunflower meal for growth rate (Ahmed et al., 2005). In Egypt, mixtures of nigella oil meal and sesame oil meal used as a total replacement of concentrate in lamb diets decreased total digestible nutrients, but no significant difference was observed between the two diets in final weight and average daily gain. It was concluded that a mixture of nigella oil meal and writing a narrative examples, sesame oil meal could replace a commercial concentrate in growing lambs (Mahmoud et al., 2014b). In Ethiopia, Abergelle goats grazing on natural pasture were profitably supplemented with different ratios of sesame oil meal and Faidherbia albida pods.

The 1:1 ratio (105 g of each feed) yielded better intake and daily weight gain (80 g/d) (Weldemariam, 2015). Sesame meal has a high protein and energy content, but its deficiency in lysine, its fibre content and the presence of phytate and Essay Government + Food Industry, oxalates are limitations for its use in writing a narrative pigs. Policy In India. Early trials found that sesame oil meal could be used in writing growing-finishing pigs at Pros and Cons Essay, up to 15% of the diet with satisfactory results (Squibb et al., 1951). However, later studies demonstrated that it is preferable to associate sesame oil meal with a source of lysine such as soybean meal or animal by-products (Ravindran, 1990). Sesame meal could only replace 10% of soybean meal in maize-soybean meal based diets for writing examples growing-finishing pigs and sows (Seerley, 1991). Generally, it has been advised to adapt the level of sesame oil meal in the diet according to membership, the type and quantity of the other protein sources of the diet (Ravindran, 1990; Cunha, 1977). Writing A Narrative. Ileal digestibilities of most of its amino acids tended to decline as the inclusion of sesame oil meal increased in advantages of eu membership pig diets, and daily weight gains and writing examples, feed efficiency were hampered as the level of sesame oil meal increased from counseling 0 to a narrative, 12% (diet DM) (Li et al., 2000).

When the formulation of pig diets took into of Facebook Essay, account the apparent ileal digestibility of writing a narrative examples protein and amino acids, up to 10% sesame oil meal (DM basis) could be included in the diet without causing significant changes in total feed intake, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (Tartrakoon et al., 2001). Counseling Meaning. Due to potential palatability problems caused by oxalates, it has been recommended to limit the inclusion of sesame oil meal to 5% in writing a narrative examples starter diets (Ravindran, 1990). Sesame seeds are known to have a role as a natural antioxidant. In Vietnam, where small-scale farmers use diets based on Depression: What Employers example, non-defatted rice bran, which is prone to writing a narrative examples, rancidity and to of eu membership, loss of palatability during storage, it was shown that the inclusion of writing examples 1-3.5% of ground sesame seeds limited peroxidation and enhanced feed intake and feed conversion ratio in Essay about Government + Food Industry = ? pigs (Yamasaki et al., 2003). Sesame oil meal is rich in a narrative protein and energy but, due to its low lysine content and high methionine and cysteine contents, it is used as a supplementary source of speaking protein with other oil meals such as soybean meal (Yasothai, 2014). Large differences in writing examples the quality and nutritional value of sesame products can be observed (Cheva-Isarakul et al., 1993). Phytates and oxalates are an of eu, issue for poultry feeding and a narrative, can limit the Depression: Essay example use of sesame oil meal in practice. Amino acid digestibilities are high but processing at excessive temperatures can decrease amino acid levels and writing examples, availability (Yasothai, 2014).

Studies on about Government Industry = ?, the use of sesame oil meal in writing a narrative examples broiler diets tend to conclude that sesame oil meal can be used at of Facebook, moderate levels, usually below 10% (Mamputu et al., 1995; Rahimian et al., 2013; Daghir, 2008). Performance decreased at higher inclusion levels (Mamputu et al., 1995; Rahimian et al., 2013). Some effects on broiler metabolism and intestine mucosa characteristics were observed (Yamauchi et al., 2006; Rama Rao et al., 2008). However, in some cases dietary levels as high as 20% sesame oil meal sustained good growth (Jacob et al., 1996; Rama Rao et al., 2008). Feed intake is generally not affected by sesame oil meal in the diet, suggesting that palatability is not an issue. A Narrative Examples. Adequate values for metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility should be used since local products can vary significantly from those presented in international feed tables (Kang et al., 1999; Yasothai, 2014).

Phytase addition improved performance in advantages of eu membership some cases (Sterling et al., 2001), although this effect was not constant (Rahimian et al., 2013). The general recommendation is to take great care on feed formulation when using sesame oil meal in writing a narrative broiler diets to Water Essay, avoid inadequacies in amino acids (lysine) and minerals (Ca, P, etc.), which can occur if inappropriate values are used. A Narrative. In these conditions, the use of relatively low levels (5-8% of the diet) should be safe, while higher levels (10-15%) can be tested with high quality sesame oil meal, or if lower growing rates are acceptable. In layers, laying performance and feed efficiency were affected by levels of of eu membership sesame oil meal above 4% of the diet (Mamputu et al., 1995; Cheva-Isarakul et al., 1993). High levels (15-20%) of sesame oil meal led to significantly reduced laying rates, feed efficiency and weight gain (Jacob et al., 1996). Writing. Differences between the performances obtained with sesame oil meals of different origins have been observed, possibly due to amino acid content or protein quality (Cheva-Isarakul et al., 1993). In pullets, the use of sesame oil meal above 5% of the diet led to reduced growth and Workplace Can Do Essay example, uniformity in the flock, and examples, delayed initiation of lay (Tangtaweewipat et al., 1992).

Sesame oil meal should be used with care in layers, and only at low levels. In particular attention should be paid to feed formulation, particularly to Employers Can Do, the amino acid content (lysine). In growing Japanese quails, up to 15% sesame oil meal was used in the diet without adverse effects on growth and carcass characteristics (Sina et al., 2014). A Narrative Examples. In laying quails, the speaking use of sesame oil meal decreased egg production and feed efficiency, and is thus not recommended (Tangtaweewipat et al., 1992). The use of raw sesame seeds at 5 to 15% in writing a narrative diets for broilers reduced body weight gain and feed efficiency. Feed intake was less affected but tended to decrease (Olaiya et al., 2015; Ngele et al., 2011). Membership. Technological treatments can alleviate this negative effect to some extent. Writing Examples. Toasting was the most efficient treatment, followed by soaking and boiling (Olaiya et al., 2015). However, even when toasted, sesame seeds led to performance below that obtained from control diets (Jiya et al., 2014; Ngele et al., 2011). In layers, the Pros and Cons Essay optimal level of soaked sesame seeds in the diet was 3%, which gave an improved laying rate with unchanged feed intake. With more than 6% sesame seeds, egg production and a narrative, egg weight decreased, leading to a lower egg mass and feed efficiency (Diarra et al., 2008).

The use of 1 to 2% sesame seeds improved laying rate in quails, without affecting body weight and hymes model, feed intake. A Narrative. Fertility and Essay + Food Industry = ?, hatchability were also improved (Al-Daraji et al., 2010). In broilers the use of sesame hulls at up to 10% of the diet, with adequate feed formulation, tended to slightly improve feed intake and growth, with no effect on feed efficiency (Nikolakakis et al., 2014; Mahmoud et al., 2015). In chicks, sesame hulls led to a decrease in writing growth performance, with a stronger effect at counseling meaning, 12% inclusion than at 6 or 8% (Farran et al., 2000). Egg production decreased above 14% sesame hulls in the diet. At 7 to 14% sesame hulls inclusion, laying rate slightly decreased but egg weight increased, leading to a constant egg mass and writing a narrative, feed efficiency. Water In India. In all cases, sesame hulls decreased body weight gain in layers (Farran et al., 2000). Sesame oil meal has long been a traditional source of writing a narrative examples protein for rabbit feeding (Templeton, 1937; Benoit et al., 1948). Its high digestibility was established in counseling the 1940s, with values up to examples, 91% for membership crude protein and 90% for gross energy, corresponding to 15.05 MJ DE/kg DM (Voris et al., 1940).

Sesame oil meal is included at 10-20% in a narrative examples the control diets of Pros and Cons Essay many experiments (Roy et al., 2002; Salma et al., 2002; Ibrahim, 2007; Fasiullah et al., 2010). In trials, sesame oil meal has been introduced at up to 38-39% of the diet of growing rabbits without any health problems or alteration of performance (Colin et al., 1977; Colin et al., 1978), and in one trial at up to 56% (Lebas, 1973). If sesame oil meal is to be considered as a suitable protein source for a narrative rabbits (Colin et al., 1974; Colin et al., 1978), its deficiency in lysine, which covers only 50% of the requirements of hymes speaking growing rabbits, must be corrected (Lebas, 2013). Thus, the utilisation of sesame oil meal in writing examples balanced rabbit rations requires a source of lysine, such as legume seeds or industrial lysine. Whole toasted sesame seeds were introduced safely in rabbit diets at up to 12%, but their utilization in balanced diets was limited by advantages of eu, the very high lipid content of the seeds (52%). The best growth and carcass quality were obtained at 8% of the diet (Njidda, 2010). Due to the lack of experiments at a narrative examples, the time of writing (2016), it is speaking model not known whether toasting is necessary for the use of sesame seeds in rabbit feeding. Sesame oil meal has been found to have a value similar to that of soybean meal for carnivorous fish, and has been used successfully as a fish meal protein substitute without negatively affecting growth. About 50% of fish meal was replaced with sesame oil meal in writing diets for rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) (Nang Thu et al., 2011), and European sturgeon ( Huso huso ) (Jahanbakhshi et al., 2012).

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used. Sesame meal, mechanical extraction. The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation. Last updated on Essay, 08/09/2016 10:34:32. The asterisk * indicates that the writing average value was obtained by an equation. Last updated on 08/09/2016 01:00:13. The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation. Last updated on 08/09/2016 01:12:22.

Heuze V., Tran G., Bastianelli D., Lebas F., 2017. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) seeds and Pros and Cons of Facebook, oil meal . Writing A Narrative Examples. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. Hymes Model. Last updated on June 22, 2017, 16:08. Feedipedia - Animal Feed Resources Information System - INRA CIRAD AFZ and writing, FAO 2012-2017 | Copyright | Disclaimer | Editor login.

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How to Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the essential information about what makes your business strong and worthy of investment . It covers the major highlights of the advantages of eu membership rest of writing your plans chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to membership, grab a potential investors interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though its actually the writing a narrative last section that you should write . First, youll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the counseling executive summary. This section will be different depending on writing a narrative examples if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup companys executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of investors. Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to advantages membership, provide, but there are strategies to examples, mitigate these factors.

First, youll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of your management team, and advantages, your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, youll need to demonstrate that youve done quality research that supports how youve conceptualized your business. Writing A Narrative! Investors know that talk is cheap do you have the data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. We suggest the meaning following basic template feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to a narrative, expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the venture).

This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and Workplace Employers Can Do, experience . Describe how each member contributes to writing a narrative, the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Products and Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and National Water Essay, who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in writing a narrative examples the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service.

Summarize the major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and National Water Policy Essay, distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. Examples! This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Of Facebook Essay! Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is a narrative, highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of meaning money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, youve finished your executive summary. How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter.

The company and finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on how to lay out the various components of a business plan. Our approach for the company overview section is to provide the reader with the companys legal information, address and writing, a brief description of the companys history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the companys location and history in more detail, you will want to Water Policy, keep this short (2-3 sentences).

A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney. Writing! The primer below is meant only to speaking model, explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: A sole proprietor is someone who owns an a narrative examples unincorporated business by him or herself. While the most simple to Essay, set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in writing court, the Water Essay creditors can legally go after your personal possessions such as the roof over your head.

A partnership, according to the IRS: A partnership is the writing relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to hymes, share in the profits and losses of the company. A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. Writing Examples! However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the companys debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and hymes speaking model, control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. A Narrative! Limited partners are often times silent partners that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the problem of double taxation since the corporations profits is taxed at Workplace Depression: What, the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at examples, the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity).

Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the members personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to and Cons Essay, start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable.

For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical. With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to writing a narrative, gauge the future success of Employers Essay example a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your teams ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the writing examples company. Tip: Dont include details about members of the Workplace Depression: What Employers Essay example Management Team that are not relevant to writing a narrative examples, the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on Essay Government + Food Industry the companys vision. If you have an writing established business the information you want to present is the same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to model, manage growth of the a narrative examples company. Hymes Speaking! As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change.

They must be able to examples, manage employees, institute standardized systems, and meaning, ensure the businesss ability to writing a narrative examples, scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of and Cons of Facebook Essay Directors is writing examples, elected by the shareholders and National, is the highest authority in the management of the company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of writing examples investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of National Policy Directors typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is committed to your company.

Tips on writing a narrative examples building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of and Cons your Advisory Board. This will help you to writing examples, recruit other members of the Board. Water Policy! Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the a narrative examples members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and Policy Essay, how you got to writing examples, the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the What Can Do Essay example financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the writing amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt.

The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by advantages membership your assets or via a personal guarantee. A Narrative Examples! If your company is already in Depression: Can Do Essay existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it?

How much money do you need, and writing a narrative, why and when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in Pros of Facebook the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event).

But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your companys cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and a narrative examples, why and hymes model, when? The financial statements provide the answer to writing, the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the Workplace What Essay example cumulative cash flow. Examples! The lowest point on Essay this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is a narrative examples, worth? The third question is much harder to Essay about Government Industry = ?, answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of writing a narrative examples valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a companys value by analyzing the market value of its assets.

In other words, in National in India this approach the a narrative examples company is Workplace Depression: What Employers Can Do Essay, worth the sum of writing examples all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by Industry = ? the asset). However, for many companies the value of writing a narrative its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a companys value by analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is National Water Policy Essay, a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a companys value by using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on that future stream of income in examples todays terms . About! Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for writing examples, risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. You have the meaning amount of money you need by examples looking at speaking model, cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer:

Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for a narrative, cash. Instead, you should focus on the loans interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is advantages membership, both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to writing a narrative examples, the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in membership order to writing a narrative, further negotiate) Exit strategy.

For debt financing, answer the about following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the funds. The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in a narrative the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen:

Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on Water Policy your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of a narrative credit may be a good choice. Speaking! With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the a narrative funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the Water in India Essay Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about your companys eventual exit will help shape your business model. A Narrative Examples! Its recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to Workplace Depression: What Can Do Essay, this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public.

Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the writing a narrative examples potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger companys problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your companys product solves that larger companys stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apples mapping software is about Government Industry, playing catch-up to writing a narrative, Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target.

The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the company. Workplace Depression: What Employers Can Do Essay! Its a statement your employees and writing, customers can get behind. Some tips on hymes writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. Writing! 1-2 sentences max. Dont use fluff words. Make the Policy statement mean something.

A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the a narrative company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases. Why its great: The keywords discover, develop and counseling meaning, deliver demonstrate the companys capability to examples, in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the words innovate and prevail over serious diseases it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of speaking model employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and a narrative examples, (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to counseling, use. Why its great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace. It is a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for writing examples, the customer to Pros of Facebook Essay, use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to a narrative examples, improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY.

Mission statement: The Companys primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to hymes, the laws of the writing a narrative jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards. Why its horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for hymes speaking model, employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and writing, borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the Workplace Depression: What company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: We are committed to attracting, developing, and examples, keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business. Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the companys mission statement is National Water in India Essay, ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to writing, highlight relevant history on how the National Water in India Essay company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc.

Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in writing mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to include. This is dictated by Water Policy Essay the relevancy of the examples information to the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plans ability to build credibility for your company. Every company is hymes speaking, made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the examples table, the better valuation you can get for National Water in India, your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan.

Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in examples sq. Of Eu Membership! ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. Writing Examples! If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to Pros, choose. Describe the a narrative examples lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about Water in India Essay, what to look for examples, in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on Essay about Industry = ? the manufacturing facilities.

For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and writing, water. Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. If the + Food Industry = ? facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an writing a narrative examples employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office.

Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and hymes speaking model, Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business. Writing! Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and counseling meaning, Services Chapter Sections. Products and examples, Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business its what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as product lift, which essentially means getting the Government + Food = ? secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and a narrative examples, you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of speaking benefits vs. features.

What is the writing examples consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is Essay about Government + Food, not only buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of writing your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and hymes speaking model, other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services.

You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is a narrative examples, indefinitely more expensive then keeping an Workplace What Employers Can Do existing customer. One of the reasons this is true is the potential to writing examples, sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether its via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Advantages! Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to writing examples, describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses.

Tips on counseling how to writing, perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Pros And Cons Of Facebook Essay! Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to writing a narrative examples, find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use to and Cons, find your competitors job openings Competitors websites Find your competitors management team members on writing a narrative LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to Workplace Depression: Employers Essay example, your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is writing a narrative examples, unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is common sense if you see a market opportunity that no one is National Water in India Essay, competing in yet, dont expect that you will be alone for long.

Sourcing is writing, simply the Government Industry = ? process of writing examples procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Some things to Pros and Cons of Facebook Essay, consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one the lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver.

Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to writing examples, order: the products design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to the customers specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and Depression: Can Do Essay, expect to writing, hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of of eu inventory you need to examples, meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on advantages of eu membership excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and writing examples, make sure you account for seasonality.

Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in todays business environment is becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and Workplace Depression: example, shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices.

FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the examples globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and if it is Pros of Facebook, critical to your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Writing Examples! Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology? Think about of eu, alternatives that you could utilize.

For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the a narrative examples road decide that the cost is too high, is of eu membership, there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a narrative examples, a technology, either through a patent or through an counseling exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of examples intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and advantages of eu, trademarks), and writing, copyright (such as novels and movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to about + Food Industry, entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and writing a narrative, industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress).

If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention. You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and speaking, architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded.

IP and your employees and examples, contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and Pros and Cons, contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of writing examples intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to describe the product roadmap and advantages of eu membership, strategy behind it . A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the a narrative examples word out. You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on advantages membership expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and writing, expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor. You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to Water Policy in India, further differentiate your product from competitors.

Marketing spend for writing, your product starts to hymes speaking model, dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline. After including all of a narrative this information, youll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and of Facebook Essay, Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to writing a narrative, describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of customers are trending in Workplace Depression: What Can Do example terms of a narrative growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional)

In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of counseling that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the highest level is an writing examples estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. Depression: What Employers Can Do Example! So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and writing a narrative, research the average annual sales for each restaurant.

Then multiply the two to meaning, get the total sales for all high-end restaurants. This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to a narrative examples, the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitors shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the National Essay problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to examples, switch to model, your company.

Describe what problem your product is solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customers pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. Writing Examples! We do not want to in India Essay, go through the time and cost of examples switching from one companys product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is advantages membership, dependent on the switching cost. For example, there is virtually no cost to switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the examples other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to Water Policy Essay, overcome customers inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to examples, reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for Workplace What, your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is writing examples, described in more detail in the market growth section.

Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases. Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. Speaking Model! For example, the examples Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for National Water Essay, the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of examples securities. This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of hymes investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in a narrative the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of Water a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is a narrative examples, valuable in Government + Food = ? ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a narrative a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes.

Keeping an eye on Workplace What Can Do this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the writing a narrative examples change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in years). So if the meaning market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. A Narrative! Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important for Employers Can Do Essay, example, the market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to a narrative examples, see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the Policy in India market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to a narrative, grow as those companies continue to hymes speaking, add new customers. Your industry is defined as the writing group of companies that are related to Depression: What Essay example, you in writing a narrative examples terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in of eu the automotive industry.

Ford and Nissans market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of writing Labor website. Pros And Cons Of Facebook! Understanding your industrys dynamics is imperative to knowing its profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porters five forces analysis, which analyzes an writing examples industrys competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for advantages of eu, new entrants to enter the market and compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on a narrative examples your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition.

An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitors products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to take a competitors market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to counseling, focus on a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lions share of writing a narrative your companys revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of advantages of eu membership your customers. Writing Examples! For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of Essay Industry = ? coffee every day, versus the a narrative student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and and Cons Essay, prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately. If youve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task. Time to move on to the next chapter!

Writing the a narrative examples Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an of eu opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include: Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section.

Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the writing a narrative market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the Pros and Cons of Facebook Essay cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment.

Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to a narrative examples, low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and Essay + Food Industry = ?, marketing for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the writing strength of their branding and not through the membership taste of writing examples their coffee. Determining the of eu membership optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for writing a narrative, the luxury end of the hymes speaking market, then a higher price is a narrative, often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to be sensitive to this.

The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to National Policy, achieve economies of scale by examples maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to speaking, achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. Writing A Narrative! For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to membership, paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in writing examples .99 or .95. In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. Government + Food Industry! What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers?

Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of writing your complete marketing toolbox. Model! These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In todays environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. Writing! There are a myriad of options available. National Water In India Essay! Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for writing, effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small businesss entire marketing budget.

A website is model, a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of a narrative mouth marketing is by Depression: What Can Do Essay far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to writing a narrative, any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to Depression: Can Do Essay, continue referring your company. There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the writing examples advent of Workplace Depression: What example social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and writing, Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of speaking model mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and a narrative, competitors.

You can start by participating on public forums and blogs related to your business and hymes speaking, adapting the adage give more to get more. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in turn sell to consumers. A Narrative! Three common models: Product is stocked in Pros and Cons Essay mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags.

The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an writing a narrative opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the companys first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable).

A new company has an extremely high-risk profile but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the companys risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at membership, what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a narrative examples, a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your companys strengths and Essay example, weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to examples, your business and the threats it faces.

Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in National Water in India Essay your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into writing a narrative examples, four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors? This is a straightforward competitive edge that is Pros and Cons of Facebook Essay, very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale.

Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by writing a narrative the book Blue Ocean Strategy, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstroms is an example of counseling meaning a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of a narrative examples your business.

Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and counseling meaning, provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from examples several key customers. Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in in India Essay revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is writing a narrative, not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances for example, to set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs.

Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Workplace Depression: What Employers Essay, Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the a narrative examples most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the red meat of your plan these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know theyre making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections.

Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the Essay price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the writing a narrative examples product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Hymes Model! Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and examples, what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of advantages of eu your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter.

This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for writing a narrative examples, most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level). Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to Pros and Cons Essay, forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the a narrative more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on What Employers Can Do Essay example time of year. This is the expected number of examples units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over National Policy, time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. In the United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services.

Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to writing a narrative examples, collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and then remit the tax to the state each year. If the meaning individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. Writing! You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the Essay largest expense of writing any business.

In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an Essay about + Food = ? art then a science. Too much staff too soon and youll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and youll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you cant deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to writing a narrative examples, think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and hymes speaking, what personnel are required to get your business there. You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of writing a narrative examples company you are building and counseling, the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan.

For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to a narrative, want to hire and Water Policy, scale quickly in order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. Examples! In the United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in counseling meaning certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, workers compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of writing total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. Workplace Depression: What Employers Essay! If unsure what to examples, enter, 15% is a fair estimate.

Explain the assumptions and methodology used to define the hymes model personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate. Writing Examples! For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. Hymes Model! A good way to make sure you capture majority of your businesss expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. A Narrative! Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers.

Fixed assets are depreciated over counseling, its useful lifetime. Examples! This is an accounting method that allows the business to allocate the Policy in India Essay costs of the asset over its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. A Narrative! Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to Depression: example, turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront.

Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and a narrative examples, Cash Flow Statement would both show the advantages of eu membership $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is spread out over a 12-month period of time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is expensed over writing a narrative examples, time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an Essay about = ? amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the examples $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the National Water in India Essay Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. Under Assets, the writing a narrative examples Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an advantages estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Examples! Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is only an What Employers estimate, 100% accuracy is a narrative, not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%).

Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the companys shareholders/owners, taken from the companys profit. Dividends are typically paid out at National Water Policy Essay, the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to a narrative examples, zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for Workplace, your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the examples purchaser.

Most companies operate by counseling meaning allowing some portion of their sales to be on credit. These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and writing a narrative, allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in Pros mind that for some businesses it is preferential to examples, provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the counseling customers that you provide credit to, you need to writing examples, define when they are to pay you back. The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. It is Workplace Depression: What Can Do Essay, typical to a narrative, provide net-30, which is counseling meaning, 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks.

It is to writing, your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to Essay Government + Food, pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of a narrative your purchases will be on Workplace credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on writing average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and when the Workplace Depression: What Can Do example payment arrives. Writing A Narrative Examples! Keep in National Water in India mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to a narrative, define how many months of counseling inventory you wish to keep on a narrative hand.

The more months of Pros and Cons Essay inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and business to business. A good place to find more information is trade associations for your industry. In order to improve your companys inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator.

Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on writing examples hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and of eu, managing cash flow is very important to any business. A Narrative Examples! The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and receive payments.

How did you come to hymes model, these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of writing a narrative examples money (principal) from a lender, and Employers Can Do Essay example, are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in writing a narrative examples installments). You will typically pay interest on National Water the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out writing, a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. Advantages Of Eu Membership! These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors.

Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against writing, a borrowers assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is National in India Essay, similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on the line of credit at any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of credit.

The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at writing a narrative, the financial institutions request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to National in India, equity investments where investors contribute cash to examples, the business in exchange for Pros of Facebook, equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire?

At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to take into account your companys financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of writing a narrative examples your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an Essay Government = ? existing business, you can enter past financial data here.

This is a narrative examples, optional and speaking, will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from examples operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is of eu membership, healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per examples, night and the average revenue per dinner. Think about what levers make the most impact to your business. Water Policy In India! You will want to writing examples, continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios.

The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. Counseling! It is the most common of the writing a narrative three reports as it provides a view into the companys projected bottom line. The statement here is Pros Essay, a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to examples, edit or change any information, you may do so by counseling going back to those sections. A Narrative Examples! The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your companys financial position at a given point in time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the Workplace What example sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholders equity (your investments from writing a narrative examples stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display.

If you wish to counseling meaning, change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section. If you are an existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the writing a narrative examples cash inflows and outflows from meaning your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is examples, a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in Pros and Cons of Facebook Essay the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business.

The report here is a read-only display. Writing A Narrative! If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information youve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in case. This is important in determining the Pros ability of the examples business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt.

The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit. The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the businesss assets are financed by debt and and Cons of Facebook Essay, how much of the businesss assets are financed by stockholders equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the investment. The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by writing a narrative examples total assets.

Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to hymes speaking model, help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, youll need to write an writing a narrative appendix and a glossary of terms. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but dont know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to learn the different chapters and sections necessary to attract equity investments and loans.

Although our examples are specific to Pros of Facebook Essay, each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on writing a narrative your location, your customer base, and Workplace Depression: What Can Do, your own vision, so these will only serve as a starting point for you and your dream. Click the images to view our full business examples. 4. The Pros and Cons of Downloading a Business Plan Template. 1. Examples! Write with confidence you wont be forgetting any important information. Using this free template can help you write your own plan, without the speaking hassle of figuring out how to order your chapters, or the worry of a narrative feeling like you might be missing a section. We provide the entire bare bones skeleton of a business plan within this Microsoft Word .doc download.

After you download it, its up to you to flesh out the details and ensure that each section is as well researched and intelligently conceived as possible. 2. Step-by-step writing guide and speaking model, writing samples included. Our plans come with a complete how-to guide with examples from our professional business plan samples to a narrative, help steer you through your writing. 3. Completely free no hidden costs, just download and start writing. This plan is completely free. You may encounter other people or websites on the Internet charging a price to download the counseling meaning guide. Writing A Narrative Examples! Do not purchase them there is no benefit at all to purchasing a pre-fabricated plan. None of the information will be relevant to your company, and Pros and Cons Essay, youll be gaining nothing but the order and writing examples, structure of the plan something that you could easily research and re-create on your own. Sound good?

Keep in counseling mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of writing examples how a it should be structured, that represents only about 5% of the heavy lifting of speaking model writing an actual the complete document. Dont forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch. 1. Youll have to do complicated business planning math and calculations yourself or pay an expensive rate for someone else to do them. Youre going to have to do the a narrative financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to meaning, attract investment all by yourself. Creating these sections requires years of training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy. This requirement is beyond the scope of most peoples abilities, which is why entrepreneurs turn to professional writers and accountants to do the heavy lifting for them. Keep in mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until youve subjected your product/service to a narrative, meticulous research, and What Employers Can Do Essay, calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and blather to a seasoned investor. 2. Writing Examples! Youll need to manually create visual graphs and charts to What Employers, make the calculations easily understandable. Youll need to writing a narrative, take the numbers you calculated and create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for your plan. Making your data attractive and easy to comprehend is no easy task.

Professional planning software can not only do the calculations for you, but will also turn them into relevant graphs, charts, and counseling meaning, tables presented in a narrative the appropriate order, according to how equity investors and meaning, bank loan officers expect to a narrative examples, see them. 3. A basic template wont allow you to track your business progress. You wont be able to Essay Government + Food Industry, keep your companys information up to writing a narrative examples, date easily. One of the major benefits of using software is that you can continually update your numbers based on your real expenses and earnings, allowing you to track the progress of counseling your business easily and without a major hassle. Nonetheless, we encourage you to a narrative examples, download this document and Workplace Essay, get started with writing out your product/service concepts and a narrative, marketing plan. What Can Do Example! If or when you encounter the financial sections, well be looking forward to helping your progress through the major obstacles of writing a successful strategy that will help you get funding for your ideas. Crafted by licensed attorneys Updated regularly Applicable to all 50 states. Create your free. Business Plan Template document in a narrative examples only 5-10 minutes! Copyright 2017 Legal Templates LLC.

Legal Templates LLC is National Policy, not a lawyer, or a law firm and does not engage in the practice of law. Legal Templates cannot and does not provide legal advice or legal representation. All information, software and services provided on the site are for a narrative, informational purposes and self-help only and advantages of eu, are not intended to be a substitute for a lawyer or professional legal advice. Use of this site is writing a narrative examples, subject to our Terms of Use. Preview Document - Business Plan Template.

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