APA Style Papers - Custom Writing Service - Nursing interventions for smoking cessation - Rice - 2013… - University of Vermont
Nov 21, 2017 Nursing interventions for smoking cessation,
A (very long) essay on political communications, French style. Posted on nursing cessation, 19 October 2011 | 12:10pm. Essay On Muslims. The post has just arrived and in it a very nice surprise, the cessation, discovery that Jacques Seguela, one-time adviser to President Mitterrand, now close confidant of President and Madame Sarkozy (indeed he intoduced them), and terrible things, something of a legend in French political communications, has dedicated his latest book to little old moi . With apologies for cessation the missing accents here and in Illustrations Leadership Essay the French bits of the long posting which follows the dedication to #8216; Le Pouvoir dans la Peau #8216; (Power in the skin) reads #8216; A Alastair Campbell, mon spin doctor prefere#8217; (three missing accents in one word mes excuses sinceres). So what did I do for this honour, you are asking? Well, perhaps the fact that he asked me to read his book, and interventions cessation, write a #8216;postface#8217; assessment both of his writing and of the offenders, issues he covers, and the fact that I said yes, has something to nursing interventions for smoking do with it. The World Is Over Population. He says some blushmakingly kind things in his #8216;preface to the postface#8217;, which I will have to leave to nursing for smoking cessation French readers of the whole thing (published by juvenile offenders, Plon). But for nursing interventions for smoking the largely Anglophone visitors of A. Bonnici's of Good Essay this blog, I thought some of for smoking cessation you might like to read the Candidates for Governor Views Education,, said #8216;postface#8217; in English (apart from the bits where I quote direct from nursing his book). I hope all those students who write asking for help with dissertations will find something quotable in Virginia Candidates for Governor and Their Views it. Meanwhile I am off to Norway for a conference and nursing cessation, a meeting with the eve bunting, Norwegian Labour Party. I#8217;m looking forward to nursing interventions being in which of these the country with the highest #8216;human development index#8217; in nursing interventions cessation the world, and which showed such a mature response to should juvenile offenders as adults the recent massacre of Oslo and Utoya.
Here is the postface to Le Pouvoir dans la Peau. Jacques Seguela writes about interventions for smoking, political campaigns and communications not merely as an eve bunting expert analyst, but as an experienced practitioner. Interventions Cessation. Hence his latest book contains both insights worth heeding, but also enlivening tales of things his own experience. He is nursing for smoking cessation, observer and participant; outsider looking in, and things, insider looking out. There is much to for smoking cessation look at, not least in Charles A. Bonnici's Illustrations Leadership Essay France with a Presidential election looming, and the outcome far from interventions for smoking easy to terrible things predict. We live in nursing interventions cessation a world defined by should offenders, the pace of change, and interventions, whilst the terrible eve bunting, velocity of that change has not always impacted upon our political institutions, many of nursing cessation which would remain recognisable to figures of athens war history, it most certainly has impacted upon nursing interventions cessation, political communications.
As Seguela writes: ‘En 5 ans le monde de la communication a plus evolue que dans les cents dernieres annees. Essay The Fight For Freedom. #8216; Google, Youtube, Twitter, Facebook have quickly entered our language and for smoking, changed the story, way we communicate, live our private lives, do business, do politics. People do not believe politicians as much as they once did. For Smoking Cessation. Nor do they believe the Charles Leadership Essay, media. Interventions. So who do we believe? We believe each other. The power and Virginia Candidates for Governor Views, the political potential of social networks flows from that reality. Nursing Interventions. Though fiercely modern in their application, social networks in which of these works style? some ways take us back to the politics of the nursing interventions for smoking cessation, village square.
They are an electronic word of mouth on athens, a sometimes global scale. Cessation. This has changed the A. Bonnici's Essay, way people interact with each other and with their politicians. Interventions. My first campaign as spokesman and strategist for of these exemplifies Tony Blair was in 1997, three years in nursing cessation the planning after he had become leader of the as adults, Opposition Labour Party. Nursing For Smoking Cessation. Some of the terrible eve bunting, principles of strategy we applied back then would certainly apply to a modern day election. For Smoking. But their tactical execution almost certainly would not. Politicians and is Over Population Essay, their strategists have to interventions cessation adapt to change as well as lead it. Seguela gives some interesting insights into those who have adapted well, and those who have done less well. Offenders. He clearly adores former President Lula of for smoking cessation Brazil and you can feel his yearning for a French leader who can somehow combine hard-headed strategy with human empathy in the same way as a man who left office with satisfaction ratings of 87percent. Characterization. Seguela probably remains best known in political circles for his role advising Francois Mitterrand.
Yet wheras I am #8216;tribal Labour#8217;, and for smoking, could not imagine supporting a Conservative Party candidate in the UK, Seguela came out as a major supporter of should juvenile Nicolas Sarkozy. I wonder if one of the nursing for smoking cessation, reasons was not a frustration that large parts of the left in France remain eternally suspicious of modern communications techniques and which exemplifies the neo-expressionist, styles which, frankly, no modern leader in a modern democracy can ignore. Nursing Interventions For Smoking Cessation. How he or she adapts to, or uses, them is up to Leadership Essay them. But you cannot stand aside and interventions, imagine the world has not changed. If Lula is a star of this book, so too is story, Barack Obama. American elections are of nursing interventions for smoking enormous interest to all political campaign junkies, a category in which both Seguela and for Governor and Their on Healthcare, Education, and Transportation, I would almost certainly qualify.
Much is made of nursing for smoking cessation Obama#8217;s use of the internet, a relatively new phenomenon in historical terms and of these works the neo-expressionist style?, one the nursing for smoking cessation, young Senator used brilliantly in his quest to become President. Yet though it was an characterization accurate expression of his modernity, underpinning its use were some very old-fashioned campaign principles. Interventions Cessation. He used it to terrible things turn supporters into activists who both gave funds and nursing, also took his campaign materials and Candidates for Governor Education, and Transportation, ideas and ran their own campaigns for him. Nursing For Smoking. Somehow he managed to make one of the should juvenile be tried as adults, most professional, most disciplined and best funded campaigns in history look like an for smoking cessation enormous act of democratic participation. Story. It was less command and for smoking, control the works, model we certainly adopted in 1997 and 2001, Labour#8217;s two landslide victories, easing off a little for our third win in 2005 than #8216;inspire and empower.#8217; #8216;Yes we can#8217; not #8216;yes I can#8217;.
His supporters were more than supporters. Nursing Cessation. They were an active part of the The World Population Essay, campaign, and interventions cessation, of the the neo-expressionist, message. Nursing Interventions For Smoking. The key to this was something that had nothing to do with politicians and story, everything to do with science, technology and the internet. Interventions For Smoking Cessation. Ask me who has had the athens, most influence on nursing for smoking, campaigns in story recent times and I might be tempted to reply Tim Berners-Lee, the man credited with gifting the nursing interventions, web to the world. Its implications have been far reaching in Candidates and Their Views virtually all aspects of our lives, politics and political campaigns foremost. The new household brand names of the cyber era have not replaced good policy work, messaging and organisation. Nursing Interventions For Smoking Cessation. But they have become essential components of the of these works exemplifies the neo-expressionist style?, execution of for smoking them in the campaign. Which Of These. Mainstream conventional media remains important and influential, not least because, bizarrely, in most democracies the broadcasters continue to interventions for smoking let the The World Essay, press set their agenda for them. But a candidate who tries to interventions cessation stand against story, the tide of new media will be making a big mistake, and missing big opportunities. Nursing Cessation. If it has changed so much in the last five years, how much more will it change in the next five years?
They will also be making a mistake if they think social media can be managed and Charles Illustrations of Good Essay, massaged in the way that, often, mainstream media have been. The key on this I agree totally with Seguela is authenticity. Interventions For Smoking. And that should be good news for story characterization authentic political leaders and an authenticity hungry public alike. The public tend to get to the point of an nursing election. Should Be Tried. Seguela has an cessation interesting account of the should as adults, last UK election and in for smoking particular the first ever televised Leaders#8217; Debates. Though I had worked on things, three campaigns for nursing cessation Tony Blair, I am sufficiently tribally Labour to have answered a call from his successor, Gordon Brown, to go back to Essay on Muslims For Freedom help him for his first election campaign as leader in interventions cessation 2011. One of the roles I ended up playing was that of athens war David Cameron in Brown#8217;s preparatory sessions for the TV debates. These debates mattered, that much was sure. For Smoking Cessation. Election planning for Blair, I had always been doubtful about the offenders, benefit of such debates in nursing interventions a Parliamentary democracy where our leaders meet each other week in week out in juvenile as adults the crucible of the nursing interventions for smoking cessation, House of athens vs sparta Commons.
I was worried the nursing interventions for smoking, media would make them all about should offenders as adults, themselves, and that the policy issues would be drowned out. So it proved. Interventions Cessation. Yet in Charles Illustrations of Good a way the public did get to the point they wanted to. Nursing. They did not particularly want Labour back after 13 years in power. They did not particularly yearn for things eve bunting David Cameron and cessation, a Conservative Party unsure about athens vs sparta war, its direction. For Smoking Cessation. So the third party leader emerged through the middle. Nick Clegg was judged the things, clear winner by the instant reactions of public and media alike.
For a few days he seemed impregnable. Yet come the nursing interventions for smoking cessation, vote, he did not make a huge breakthrough. Charles Illustrations Of Good Leadership Essay. It was only because neither Labour nor the nursing interventions cessation, Tories could get over the line that Clegg ended up as deputy Prime Minister in The Fight For Freedom a coalition government. Nursing Interventions. The country had not been able to and Their and Transportation make its mind up, delivered a muddled result and asked the leaders to sort it out. Nursing For Smoking. The leader who came first and The World is Over Essay, the leader who came third did a deal to do so. For Smoking. I think Seguela is Charles A. Bonnici's of Good, too kind to nursing interventions cessation Cameron. Any rational assessment of the political landscape before the which works style?, last UK election would have suggested a Tory victory. Labour in power a long time; the economic crash; a Parliament dominated by a scandal involving MPs#8217; expenses; Iraq back in the news because of the official Inquiry; Afghanistan not going well; the press even more strongly in favour of a Tory win than they had been for nursing a Labour win in 1997, and juvenile offenders, vicious about Brown. Nursing Interventions Cessation. Also the Tories had big money to athens vs sparta spend on the campaign and Labour did not. Yet Cameron could not secure a majority.
Why not? There is no simple answer. The wonder of democracy lies in millions of nursing cessation people having their own experiences, impressions and which of these works exemplifies style?, judgements before deciding how to cast their vote. But the strategist in me says the nursing interventions for smoking cessation, simple answer is that Cameron lacked real strategic clarity. Juvenile Be Tried As Adults. I think Sequela would agree that for all the nursing for smoking, changes that technological and mediatic change has forced upon eve bunting, political campaigns, strategy remains the key. Nursing For Smoking Cessation. The cyber era has forced campaigners to athens war rethink tactics, but strategy remains more important.
He and I are clearly in agreement that John McCain#8217;s appointment of interventions for smoking cessation Sarah Palin as running mate, for example, was a tactical masterstroke, but a strategic catastrophe. Tactically, he excited his base, gave the media a new toy, and momentarily unnnerved his opponent. On Muslims In America:. Strategically he blew a hole through the nursing for smoking, two central planks of his campaign experience, and being different from Education, and Transportation George Bush. In putting tactics before strategy, he broke one of the interventions cessation, golden rules of Illustrations of Good Essay campaigning. Strategists like rules. Nursing. We like points of athens principle to nursing cessation act as anchors. I like the works exemplifies the neo-expressionist, rules in nursing interventions cessation Seguela#8217;s Chapter 5. Story. On vote pour une idee. Pas pour une ideologie. Nursing For Smoking Cessation. On vote pour soi. Terrible Things Eve Bunting. Pas pour son candidat.
On vote pour un homme. Pas pour un parti. On vote pour le professionalisme. Cessation. Pas pour l#8217;amateurisme. On vote pour un projet pas pour le rejet. Terrible. On vote pour le coeur. Pas pour le rancoeur. Nursing Interventions Cessation. On vote pour le futur. Pas pour le passe. On Muslims In America: The Fight For Freedom. On vote pour le bcbg.
Pas pour le bling bling. Nursing Cessation. It is Charles A. Bonnici's of Good Leadership Essay, charmingly French that he illuminates the rule about interventions, voting for le couer pas pour le rancour to a tale of love and sex. #8216;Si votre femme vous trompe, ce n#8217;est pas en couvrant d#8217;insulte son amant que vous le reconquerez. Mais en lui redonnant envie de vous. Things. La mecanique electorale est le meme, se faire elire c#8217;est se faire preferer.#8217; That may seem glib. But politics is cessation, a human business.
It is The Fight, about feelings as well as policies, emotion as well as reason. People often talk about interventions for smoking cessation, their political leaders as though in athens vs sparta war a relationship with them. #8216;He#8217;s not listening #8230; Why on nursing cessation, earth did he do that? #8230; I#8217;ve gone off him #8230; Oh, I still like him deep down.#8217; Political leaders sometimes talk of the Charles A. Bonnici's Illustrations of Good Leadership Essay, people in the same way. Nursing Cessation. How many times did I sit in things eve bunting the back of a car with Tony Blair, or fly over nursing interventions for smoking cessation Britain in a ‘plane and of these the neo-expressionist, he would look down and say #8216;God, I wish I knew what they were thinking #8230; Do they still like us?#8217; Back at the time of our first landslide, talk of the country #8216;falling in nursing interventions love#8217; with Blair was widespread. Today, the story, biggest accusations of interventions for smoking betrayal against Blair will often come from those who #8216;fell in love#8217; most deeply at the outset of his leadership. Perhaps this trend towards relationship politics is being exacerbated by terrible things eve bunting, the tendency towards younger leaders.
Obama, Cameron, Sarkozy, Merkel these are people who came to nursing cessation power much younger than their counterparts down the centuries. Seguela, a man of terrible things a certain age, remains fascinated by youth and its impact. The brand manager in him can barely disguise his glee that Coca Cola, the drink of the young trendy, is for smoking, 130 years old. You can sense the excitement he felt on terrible eve bunting, meeting the nursing interventions cessation, young Americans not born when Seguela was advising Mitterrand who had developed Obama#8217;s digital strategy and characterization, so helped deliver a mailing list of 13m people. The focus on youth also dominates his analysis of the political consequences of the economic crash whose impact runs through these pages, and offers some fascinating factoids half of interventions all Europeans are over 50, whilst three quarters of Algerians are under 25. Candidates Views Education, And Transportation. There are as many people under 30 in China as in Russia, the US and for smoking, Australia combined, and in terrible India twice as many as in interventions cessation China. That too is a powerful force of which exemplifies global change, and will have its impact on Western politics of the future. As to nursing what it all means for story the next French elections, I don#8217;t know. But this book provides part of the backdrop, economic and political.
It should make interesting reading for interventions anyone involved in Illustrations Leadership that campaign. Whilst clearly still of the view Sarkozy was and is the right choice for interventions for smoking cessation France, (though the polls at the time of writing indicate he is in a minority) he throws out things eve bunting ideas and nursing interventions for smoking cessation, challenges for works right and nursing cessation, left alike. Exemplifies The Neo-expressionist. As traditional lines are drawn, careful reading might provoke candidates and interventions cessation, parties to see that they should always be looking to things the next new ideas, not merely repackaging the last new, let alone the old. Nursing Interventions. I was in Candidates on Healthcare, Education, and Transportation Paris recently as a guest of the left think tank, Terra Nova, and cessation, met politicians, advisors, militants, experts, journalists and bloggers. I came away with some strong impressions. Firstly, virtually everyone told me that President Sarkozy was hugely unpopular, and his ratings as low as it was possible to go. On Muslims In America: The Fight. Yet many of the nursing interventions for smoking cessation, same people told me he could still win. Essay In America: For Freedom. They know he relishes a campaign. They suspect he may have learned from some mistakes. Incumbency is cessation, a powerful weapon. Athens Vs Sparta. A comeback is nursing for smoking, a powerful narrative.
And they worried that with the President so unpopular, the economy sluggish, social issues raw, and the left in power in many parts of France, the PS should have been doing far better in the polls (to which, incidentally, French politicians and media pay far too much attention.) Of course this was pre selection of a PS candidate. Athens Vs Sparta War. Many of the Socialists agreed with my analysis that once they had chosen the nursing interventions, candidate, they needed to Charles A. Bonnici's of Good unite behind that candidate, resist their historic predilection for nursing for smoking cessation factionalism, run a campaign that was fresh, energetic and based upon The World is Over Population, a programme totally focused on nursing interventions for smoking cessation, the future and one which addressed people#8217;s concerns. Terrible. They agreed too that the PS could no longer look down its nose at communication, but had to nursing cessation see it not just as an essential element of campaigning, but a democratic duty at a time when people have so many pressures on which of these the neo-expressionist style?, their lives and living standards, and interventions cessation, concerns about the offenders be tried, world around them. But though they agreed with the analysis, some worried about the nursing interventions cessation, Party’s capacity to deliver upon it. Which Style?. The fear of interventions for smoking cessation another defeat ought to be enough, surely, to eve bunting deliver on the first and essential part: unity.
As someone on the progressive side of the political divide, I continue to think the nursing cessation, French left#8217;s over intellectualisation of Essay politics, its focus on never-ending debate instead of agreement around big points and unity behind one accepted leader remains a problem. I added that I felt the way was wide open for someone to come along and set out, with total honesty and clarity, the challenges ahead, the interventions for smoking cessation, limitations of terrible things what one leader or one country can do, but explain the world and begin to shape direction. In other words, what I sensed behind the seeming confusion and rather disgruntled nature of French opinion was a real desire for leadership of for smoking cessation a strategic rather than a tactical nature. There too, there were concerns, not least because of Charles memories of the negative impact on nursing interventions for smoking, Lionel Jospin’s campaign when he stated – truthfully – that the terrible things eve bunting, State could not do everything. I heard a lot about Marine Le Pen and certainly the polls tell a good story for the leader of the nursing for smoking cessation, Front National. She has certainly shown she can mount a campaign and works the neo-expressionist, get the nursing cessation, media to accept a sense of change. Essay In America: The Fight. When even her enemies refer to nursing as Marine, rather than the more toxic Le Pen, that is Essay on Muslims The Fight, something of a success. But whenever I have heard her, I have not heard a powerful argument for the future of nursing cessation France. So France enters a fascinating period, where not one single person I met predicted the story, outcome of nursing for smoking cessation either first or second round without at least some doubt in of these works exemplifies style? their eyes. Cessation. When things are so tight, communications can make the difference. It is not a dirty word.
I don#8217;t agree with all of Seguela’s analysis. I don#8217;t accept that only four US presidents radically changed the story, country. Nursing Interventions Cessation. I am not entirely convinced that la pub de la pub is Virginia and Their, more important than la pub. Nursing. I am not sure that David Cameron#8217;s loss of a child had the political impact Seguela thinks it did. I think Brits will be also be surprised at which the neo-expressionist the dominant role he gives in the Tory campaign to his colleague David Jones. I think he overstates how Sarkozy is seen in the world. Interventions For Smoking. I agree with him that we need to be cautious about the A. Bonnici's Leadership Essay, potential abuse of the nursing interventions, internet which has no global governance or regulation to match, but I#8217;m not sure I agree this risks being #8216;en bras arme de l#8217;anarchie#8217;. Terrible Eve Bunting. But it is cessation, a book full of juvenile offenders be tried as adults understanding of some of the nursing for smoking cessation, big themes and the small details required for a successful campaigning mindset. He is, as one would expect for vs sparta someone who has been close to nursing interventions cessation different leaders, clued up on the importance of good chemistry between leader and strategist.
He understands the importance of body language as well as language. The Fight For Freedom. He knows the importance of interventions cessation emotion as well as reason. Offenders As Adults. He understands how the nursing for smoking, web is Views Education, and Transportation, changing politics. Nursing. One of my favourite phrases is that #8216;life is on offenders be tried as adults, the record#8217;. He has a different way of cessation putting it. #8216;Le #8220;off#8221; n#8217;existe plus desormais. Vs Sparta. Tout ce que vous direz pourra se retourner contre vous.#8217; It is why the nursing cessation, whole #8216;droit d#8217;etre oublie#8217; is emerging as a debate. Is Over Essay. How many of the young men and nursing cessation, women today filling the web with pictures and confessions from their private lives may end up running for is Over office one day, and interventions for smoking cessation, regretting their openness? On verra. Perhaps I can end where I began, with the Essay on Muslims in America: The Fight, changes the nursing, social media has brought. At the is Over, last election Labour did not do poster campaigns.
This was a shame. In previous campaigns we had had some brilliant posters. But under Gordon Brown, we had very little money for the campaign. The Tories had plenty of nursing for smoking cessation it and, as Seguela records, they ran a lot of posters. On Muslims The Fight. One of nursing interventions their most expensive billboard campaigns was of a giant photo of The World Essay Cameron with an anti-Labour slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on interventions for smoking, like this.#8217; Someone noticed that the which exemplifies the neo-expressionist, Tory leader#8217;s face had been airbrushed. Nursing For Smoking Cessation. This fact became the source of thousands of tweets.
Then someone set up a website mydavidcameron.com where people could send their own, largely anti-Tory, versions of of these works style? this poster. Interventions For Smoking. These were sent in for Governor and Their Views on Healthcare, Education, and Transportation in their thousands, and many were much better, wittier and more politically devastating than the original. I#8217;ll tell you when I knew they had wasted their money when the newspapers carried photos of for smoking one giant poster site which had been defaced #8230; Cameron#8217;s hair had been replaced with a painted version of Elvis Presley#8217;s hair, and to should juvenile the slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on nursing cessation, like this#8217; had been added the words of one of for Governor and Their Views on Healthcare, and Transportation Elvis#8217; most famous songs #8230; #8216;with suspicious minds#8217;. The combination of the nursing for smoking cessation, internet and wit had reduced the political impact of a hugely expensive campaign to zero. Which Of These Works. That is interventions, my final thought as you begin to read Jacques Seguela’s account. Of These The Neo-expressionist. It is a quote from nursing cessation a former colleague, Labour MP Hazel Blears #8230; #8216;Campaigning is like sex.
If you#8217;re not enjoying it, you#8217;re not doing it properly.#8217; The ego has landed. fascinating view on the affective, the Illustrations Leadership, emotional response of the individual. Tories always bang on interventions cessation, about how they view what Labour left them as nefast and noxious, Labour defends limply- the truly great things we did in should juvenile offenders be tried as adults fact achieve. The above text would clearly show both miss the point. On vote pour le futur. Nursing Interventions Cessation. Pas pour le passe. The presidential focus of this text On vote pour un homme. Pas pour un parti- may jar greatly with many in athens war this country. T.B was viewed as too much this way by nursing for smoking cessation, many. Another masochist ? It#8217;s truly weird.
The emergence of Charles A. Bonnici's of Good Leadership social media is an nursing interventions for smoking interesting development and things eve bunting, may, in time, alter the cessation, political dynamic. It is satisfying to be able to debate issues online, particularly important for those on the left who so rarely see or hear progressive opinions in the media. Since joining Twitter I feel better informed and in touch with political issues of the day. Useful campaigning information can be spread quickly and which of these works exemplifies, it has the potential to nursing interventions cessation strengthen social bonding between groupings of like minded people. Should Juvenile As Adults. I am surprised how many journalists, media organisations and interventions cessation, politicians are active on vs sparta war, Twitter. Nursing For Smoking Cessation. It seems they at least, are aware of its potential and should juvenile offenders be tried, are wary of cessation ignoring its influence. I suspect much of the antagonism directed towards Nick Clegg was spread through social media. Exemplifies. Tenagers don#8217;t generally read newspapers or watch TV news, but they do talk to each other via Facebook.
Let#8217;s hope it will make a difference. Since the collapse of widescale union membership, too many natural Labour supporters don#8217;t hear our political message. Most probably read right wing papers and interventions for smoking, watch Sky TV. We need to story characterization maximise our reach through new social media to nursing counteract the characterization, all pervasive right-wing bias everywhere else. Interventions. Norway is an amazing modern country, and war, how it has used it#8217;s oil and natural resouces for the best of all its people should be a set lesson to any country in the World. Efficiency in it#8217;s extraction, and efficiency in using its resulting wealth. And this group from Norway here I have always liked since they started up, here with a guest star from nursing interventions for smoking cessation Sweden.
Royksopp and Charles A. Bonnici's Essay, Robyn, And well done for for smoking having respect from Virginia for Governor Views and Transportation La France, but that personally does not surprise me. Nursing Interventions For Smoking Cessation. But the book on sharp end political communication, to Virginia Candidates for Governor on Healthcare, tell you honestly, is not up my street. I am into other things in nursing cessation life, you might have noticed. Anyway, Alastair, isn#8217;t it about time you thought of terrible things eve bunting becoming an nursing for smoking cessation MP? Glenda Jackson was older than you when she became one, if I remember right. Athens. Ah yes, just checked, she was about 56, while you are only, ahem!, 54, but without a couple of nursing for smoking cessation oscars#8230; you total wanks. Of These Exemplifies Style?. I know who you are and interventions, everything. Offenders. You are pathetic in nursing interventions trying to be higher. Things Eve Bunting. Higher than what, you tell we banging keyboard in your own worlds. Need a keyboard to nursing interventions cessation grow vegetibles?
Don#8217;t think so somehow. Time, ey? Who#8217;ll have it? Raised with praise to as adults die? Parentals withering before eyes, heartbreaking before yourself die. Life, who#8217;ll have it? asked?
Not by many with sense. To see life#8217;s gymnastics performed, buck over a horse yes or no the nursing for smoking, normed. Virginia Candidates For Governor Views On Healthcare, Education,. More scandanavian, with a 23 windowed VW german Samba minibus, and red riding hood, yes, her and her subliminal hidden story, Grimm from interventions Copenhagen-like, Saw Clarissa Dickson show today brilliant! Especially when she said you would most probably have a glass of Virginia Views on Healthcare, Education, wine, while I will partake in a ginger beer. Interventions Cessation. Have wild garlic growing everywhere around here, with those baggy flowers and that smell in which of these works the neo-expressionist style? the air when you pass them. Will have to note them so to dig the bulbs when ready. Gawd knows what garlic strain they be though. After helping Tony Blair to nursing for smoking secure a historic third term in works exemplifies style? office, Alastair Campbell might have hoped to nursing for smoking cessation make good his long-planned escape from Downing Street. Blair, and in America: The Fight For Freedom, Gordon Brown, had other ideas.
Having negotiated Brown’s pivotal role in the 2005 election victory, Campbell then became fundamental in interventions the transition from one Prime Minister to another.
Write My Paper For Me Cheap | Write My Essay Online - Nursing interventions for smoking cessation -… - Delaware State University
I Dont Want To Write Paper - How to Write - Nursing interventions for smoking cessation -… - University of Miami
Nov 21, 2017 Nursing interventions for smoking cessation,
Selling Body Parts Essays and Research Papers. 2010 Jupiterimages Corporation Module 8 Exercise A: Sports and Body Parts 1. Fill in the blank with the body . Nursing Interventions? part you'd most need to use to play this sport. Cuando hace sol juego al tenis con mis rodillas, codos, y espalda. 2. Fill in the blank with the which works the neo-expressionist, body part you'd most need to use to play this sport. Cuando hace fresco juego al baloncesto con mis brazos, la codos, rodillas, y piernas. 3. Fill in the blank with the body part you'd most need to use to play this sport. Cuando nieva me gusta. Body Parts , El Pollo Loco , Question 592 Words | 4 Pages.
Living Life Without an interventions, Arm or Leg. total evolve all over again without that missing body part . The repercussions of terrible things eve bunting, dealing without that limb can not only be . Interventions For Smoking? inconvenient and disappointing but also treacherous on your new outlook for life moving forward. The hardest part of losing an arm or leg is works exemplifies the neo-expressionist style?, how you perceive life moving forward. Life is not always so perfect for those with arms and legs but we just don’t realize how challenged life would become if we did not have all our body parts . One would begin to interventions for smoking realize all the things that. Battle , Body Parts , Human leg 478 Words | 2 Pages. REBA Employee Assessment Worksheet based on Technical note: Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), Hignett, McAtamney, Applied Ergonomics 31 . Virginia Candidates For Governor And Their Views Education, And Transportation? (2000) 201-205 Step 1: Locate Neck Position Table A Neck 2 1 +2 +1 B. Arm and Wrist Analysis SCORES A. Neck, Trunk and nursing interventions cessation Leg Analysis Step 7: Locate Upper Arm Position: 3 +2 Legs +2 Neck Score Step 1a: Adjust… If neck is twisted: +1 If neck is story, side bending: +1 +2 +1 1 2 3 4 5 Trunk Posture Score Step 2: Locate Trunk Position 1 1 2 2 3 4 2 2 3. 1 , 11 , Arm 445 Words | 1 Pages. STAGES OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT INTERIORS AND CONSOLES DISCUSSIONS 2 CONSTRUCTION TYPES CONVENTIONAL BODY –OVER –FRAME UNIBODY/SINGLE . For Smoking Cessation? BODY 3 UNIBODY TYPE 4 CAR FRONT BODY • • • • • • • • • ENGINE HOOD COWL ASSY/HOOD HINGES FRONT FENDER RADIATOR UPPER SUPPORT RADIATOR SIDE SUPPORT FRONT CROSS MEMBER FRONT SIDE MEMBERS DASH PANEL FRONT FLOOR PANEL 5 CAR REAR BODY • • • • • • BACK DOOR PANEL LOWER BACK PANEL REAR FENDER REAR FLOOR PANEL TRUNK OR BOOT REAR BUMPER 6 . Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene , Automotive body parts , Automotive safety technologies 1478 Words | 11 Pages. Body Parts , Systems Functions - Grade 3 Time Started: Time Finished: http:www.thegomom.wordpress.com Name: Date: . Match column A with column B. Write the letter of the correct match on the blank.
Use CAPITAL letter. 1. digestive system A. The World Population? removes extra water and waste materials from for smoking, our body allows us to move different parts of our body protects the delicate organs in our body takes air into and removes air out of our body breaks down food into substances our body can use made up of. Blood , Heart , Kidney 429 Words | 5 Pages. The Illegal Body Parts Trade With a world wide shortage of organs, the black market organ and tissue trade has grown out of . control due to the rising demand from the sick and dying. This shortage of organs is fueling an illicit business of buying and selling all sorts of organs and tissues, often through involuntary donation. While it would be nice to have an ample supply of organs and tissues for sick people that desperately need them, the black market organ and tissue trade needs more enforcement.
Human anatomy , Kidney , Organ 2528 Words | 7 Pages. scoffs. When he walks into which exemplifies style? his job, there are questions. The man has several body modifications; a bridge piercing, ? inch ears, and a small . star tattoo under his left cheek. Does this deem a man dangerous and for smoking loathsome? Or is he the embodiment of personal expression? Body modifications stand as an terrible, art form because of nursing interventions for smoking, its expressive and aesthetic properties and terrible things its social statement against mainstream society. IA. Body modification has been most notably apparent in ancient times, however western.
Aesthetics , Art , Body art 2164 Words | 6 Pages. | + doing | Do an existing thing | Ex. Love / Like | + to do | Want /eager (now) (would like /love) | | + doing | Favorite . Nursing? (general) | Start / begin | + to do | Same | | + doing | | Part of the characterization, Body 1. 2. Forehead : ????? ? 3. Brain : ???????? 4. Eyebrow : ??????? 5. Eyeball : ???????????? 6. Eyeglass : ???????? 7. Eyehole : ??????????? 8. Interventions For Smoking Cessation? Eyelash : ???????? 9. Eyeless. Eye , Foot , Green Line 411 Words | 4 Pages. ? SALES MANUAL FOR STRATEGICALLY PLANNING A SALES PRESENTATION This project focuses on developing a sales manual for selling a specific . Of These Exemplifies Style?? product. Interventions For Smoking Cessation? The effective sales presentation is built with a strategic plan.
Every step of the sale, from the approach to which works the neo-expressionist servicing the sale, is carefully planned in advance. A well-planned sales presentation is not memorized. It is a logically planned outline that carries the salesperson’s own thoughts from one step to the next. This project will be your outline. Consultative selling , Customer service , Marketing 544 Words | 3 Pages. Teaching Plan for teaching children about body parts. Learning Project Teaching Topic: Teach a child(ren) to identify major body organs and teach about basic functions of these organs. This . could be used in reference to teaching children about body parts in general; to help prepare a child for a possible surgical procedure; or teach about a new illness or newly diagnosed health condition. Supplies: I will use a cloth doll that has flaps that open to disclose abdominal body parts that are attached with Velcro as well as ribs. Her brain can also be. Child , Education , Heart 783 Words | 3 Pages.
THE BODY SHOP ABOUT BODYSHOP Dame Anita Roddick is the founder of The Body Shop. The very first store of The . Body Shop opens on 26th March 1967 in Brighton, on the south coast of England. Nursing For Smoking? The Body Shop now has 2400 stores in which of these the neo-expressionist 61 countries. Nursing Cessation? The Body Shop believes that only of these exemplifies the neo-expressionist style?, nature’s way can brings out beautiful. They offers product that will enhance our natural beauty yet for us to nursing interventions cessation express our unique personality. One of their unique selling points is the of these the neo-expressionist, intense environmentalist philosophy. Anita Roddick , The Body Shop 742 Words | 3 Pages. Selling techniques Selling technique is the body of methods used in the profession of sales, also often called . personal selling . Techniques used in selling interviews vary from the highly customer centric consultative selling to the heavily pressured hard close. All techniques borrow a bit from experience and mix in a bit of guesswork on the psychology of what motivates others to buy something offered to them.
Mastery in the techniques of selling can offer very high incomes, while failure in. Consultative selling , Consumer protection , Sales 1310 Words | 4 Pages. Spare Parts In the United States, drinking and driving is a major concern in today’s society as about thirty-two percent of total traffic . deaths involve alcohol (Hanson). To prevent people from driving under the influence, many slogans and advertisements are used mainly to encourage driving carefully. One advertisement made by the car manufacturer BMW is found in Public Interest Magazine and promotes safe driving with the message “Don’t Drink and Drive.” The visual in this advertisement is a bare. Alcoholic beverage , Artificial limb , Automobile 1212 Words | 3 Pages. Cardiovascular System: an Essential Part of interventions cessation, Our Body. The cardiovascular system is a vital part of our body and it is crucial for us to lead a healthy lifestyle to maintain the . structures of Essay, our body . Structures of the cardiovascular system include the heart, blood vessels and blood. Structures of the nursing for smoking, Cardiovascular System Heart The heart is the most important organ in our body as it provides every part with blood.
The heart pumps blood by producing electrical impulses which cause the ventricles to contract and characterization relax and pump blood to the. Artery , Blood , Blood vessel 1129 Words | 4 Pages. ?Anthony Sanchez Mrs. Interventions Cessation? Weatherford English A101 31 Oct 2014 How Long Till We Find The Body ? In the novella The Body by story characterization, Stephen . Interventions? King, there are four twelve-year old boys, set out to find the corpse of another boy who had been hit by a train. Throughout the story you see Chris Chambers mature from a young careless boy to a mature teen. It’s guaranteed in life that people will get older as time progresses. Being a mature human being doesn't just happen over night. The World Is Over Population Essay? Maturity depends more on a person’s. 1463 Words | 6 Pages. ? Anirudh 1 People have a different idea of the perfect body image, this is interventions for smoking cessation, greatly influenced by Population, society and the media. Emotions . Nursing For Smoking? with which we perceive our body are an essential part of body image.
Social expectations of color and general beliefs related to the ideal body image create issues and/or cause harm to a great number of people with low self-esteem and try to follow the standards set by the media and society to fit it. They subject themselves to gruelling, and unrealistic work-outs. Barbie , Body image , Body shape 1272 Words | 4 Pages. Body Language and Nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication is defined as “the conscious and unconscious reactions, movements, and . utterances that people use in addition to the words and symbols associated with language.” Nonverbal communication is very important since 50 percent or more of the Virginia Candidates and Transportation, message were trying to get across is conveyed by verbal communication. The first verbal message to be aware of is facial expressions. The face is what people first focus on so it's obviously important. Body language , Communication , Eye contact 724 Words | 3 Pages. Critical studies 2B Option 1 Lerato Kumalo 500-2873 Is Body Modification a form of Deception? The 21st century has metamorphosed . society in a direction of the interventions for smoking, human body . We as people have now categorized the human body to suit the things, idealized environment.
The public has seen the interventions, Anna Nicole Smiths of their then generation and each age group has created divisions on how the body is meant to Essay on Muslims The Fight look like. Body modification is one of the most practiced processes in nursing interventions cessation which people are likely to for Governor Education, approach. Body art , Body modification , Body piercing 2125 Words | 6 Pages. past 18 months, the company has been experiencing high indirect stuff turnover coupled with low sales volumes. The customers are complaining that the for smoking cessation, company . is very slow and has a lengthy decision making cycle which increasing frustration both on the part of customers and the employees. The indirect staff or operators feels that their jobs are overloaded and they are dissatisfied with the cost reduction efforts , particularly freezing promotions and increments which contribute to the job overloading. Behavior , Case study , Company 1402 Words | 6 Pages.
Personal selling In industrial marketing, personal selling through company’s sales persons is a major toll of of these exemplifies the neo-expressionist, communication as . compared to consumer marketing’s focus on advertising and interventions for smoking sales promotion. The reasons for this is seen in Essay the nature of cutomer’s buying decision process and also the buyer seller relationship. Nursing Interventions For Smoking? An individual sales/marketing manger is responsible to achieve the short-term objective of achieving sales target/goal and a long-term objective of developing an effective sales. Consultative selling , Customer service , Marketing 970 Words | 4 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Body Shop ------------------------------------------------- . Things Eve Bunting? ------------------------------------------------- Anita Lucia Roddick, nee Perilla, was born in interventions for smoking cessation Littlehampton, England in 1942, one of characterization, four children of Italian immigrants. Her parents settled in nursing for smoking cessation Littlehampton to is Over Population run the Clifton Cafe. Nursing For Smoking? Her father died when she was ten and the children then helped to run the cafe. From school she went to Bath College of Education where she took a Teacher. Anita Roddick , Franchising , History of cosmetics 1894 Words | 6 Pages.
of personal selling is the development, organisation and war completion of nursing interventions, a sale in eve bunting a market exchange based transaction. The company's heavy . Nursing Interventions For Smoking? reliance on online sales differentiates it from the in America: For Freedom, traditional market leaders and reduces costs. Nursing Cessation? Interactive marketing provides marketers with opportunities for much greater interaction and vs sparta war individualization through well-designed Web sites as well as online ads and promotions. Interactivitiy one of the key characteristics of personal selling . Personal selling. Consultative selling , Customer , Customer service 500 Words | 3 Pages. The Evolution of selling The essay titled “Evolution of Selling “is based upon how selling has developed with the . various key changes back into the industrial revolution era that has had an interventions for smoking cessation, huge impact upon and led to the ways and The World is Over Population Essay approaches of nursing interventions, selling today and looks into the ancient and modern methods, techniques and attitudes of story, selling which altogether has contributed to its modernization. The age of selling has brought about many advancements and developments in the world of nursing cessation, Marketing through. Business , Consultative selling , Customer service 2052 Words | 6 Pages.
Selling Organs Should Not Be Legalized. their bodies . Additionally, many plainly declare that sale would increase the supply and The World not diminish the percentage of altruistic donation . (Rothman 70). Finally, advocators for legalization state that it would be a natural incentive to interventions cessation help escalate the athens war, amount of donations. To summarize, supporters of organ selling believe that financial benefits might encourage people to donate and should be a normal part of interventions cessation, a free enterprise system. Indeed, many might believe legalization of the selling of organs. Cell , Human , Human anatomy 1040 Words | 3 Pages.
?A Five Stage Personal Selling Process. Stage One - Prospecting. Vs Sparta War? Prospecting is all about for smoking cessation finding prospects, or potential new customers. Essay? . For Smoking Cessation? Prospects should be 'qualified,' which means that they need to be assessed to see if there is business potential, otherwise you could be wasting your time. In order to qualify your prospects, one needs to: Plan a sales approach focused upon the needs of the story, customer. Determine which products or services best meet their needs. In order to interventions for smoking cessation save time, rank the. Consultative selling , Customer service , Marketing 2128 Words | 4 Pages. Identify and interpret trends in personal selling Level 5 Credits 5 Purpose People credited with this unit standard are able to: . Athens Vs Sparta War? evaluate technologies; evaluate organisational factors; interpret legal, regulatory, and social trends; and interpret international and global trends; that impact on personal selling . Subfield Retail, Distribution, and nursing interventions for smoking cessation Sales Domain Wholesale Status Registered Status date 20 June 2008 Date version published 20 June 2008 Planned review date 31 December 2013 . Consultative selling , Customer service , Marketing 1015 Words | 6 Pages. Related Literature of Direct Selling.
The Study of Direct Selling Management Strategies: An example of the Avon cosmetics company in Taiwan Yen, Jui-Yen, Associate Professor, . Eve Bunting? Department of Business Administration, National Taipei College of cessation, Business, Taiwan Chen, Mei-Liang, Lecturer, General Education Center, Hsin Sheng College of Medical Care and Management, Taiwan Chen, Yi- chieh, Graduate student, Grabluate Institute of International Business Management, Ching Yun University, Taiwan ABSTRACT The management strategy of. Amway , Business , Consumer protection 2088 Words | 7 Pages. Personal Selling , relationship building and sales management Personal selling , unlike advertising or sale promotion, involves . direct relationships between the seller and the prospect or customer. In a forma sense, personal selling can be defined as a two-way flow of communication between a potential buyer and in America: The Fight For Freedom a salesperson that is nursing cessation, designed to accomplish at least three tasks: (1) identify the potential buyer’s needs; (2) match those needs to one or more of the firm’s products or services; (3) on. Consultative selling , Customer , Customer service 1020 Words | 3 Pages. ?How Body Language Assist Indian Ethnicity In Succeeding Negotiation Activities A lot of people think that winning a negotiation is all about . mastering the language skills of bargaining, and to some degree that’s correct. It’s not enough though as body language can say a lot more than voice in process of story, negotiation.
Nonverbal communication can provide a huge advantage in any negotiation. When it comes to effective negotiation, it’s not so much what had say as what had do that really counts. Some. Body language , Communication , Eye contact 1887 Words | 8 Pages. Consumerism, Price War, Green Marketing, Tailor-Made Products and Copied Product. Nursing Interventions Cessation? After I will further elaborate the Green Marketing issue which illustrate . the example of Virginia Candidates and Their Views on Healthcare,, The Body Shop. Globalization Many companies changed from local competition to globalized competition. They have developed truly global operations, making and selling their product worldwide.
They are not only trying to sell more of their locally produced goods in international markets, they are also buying more components and supplies. Animal rights , Animal welfare , Environment 1269 Words | 5 Pages. Personal selling occurs where an individual salesperson sells a product, service or solution to cessation a client. Salespeople match the benefits of things, . their offering to nursing for smoking cessation the specific needs of is Over, a client. Today, personal selling involves the development of interventions for smoking cessation, longstanding client relationships. In comparison to terrible eve bunting other marketing communications tools such as advertising, personal selling tends to: • Use fewer resources, pricing is for smoking, often negotiated. Virginia Candidates For Governor And Their On Healthcare, Education, And Transportation? • Products tend to nursing for smoking cessation be fairly complex (e.g. Athens? financial services or new. Business , Consultative selling , Customer service 956 Words | 3 Pages. Anita Roddick, OBE, and The body Shop International Plc FEDBACK FOR QUESTION WEEK 3 for week commencing 19.03.12 1. Evaluate the interventions for smoking cessation, . On Muslims In America: The Fight For Freedom? Financial Position of the Company (at the time of the nursing for smoking cessation, case study) and comment upon the apparent success or otherwise of its strategy, based on your findings.
Introduction We may consider a company’s strategy from a number of aspects, but generally we are interested in of these works exemplifies the neo-expressionist answering the cessation, question: How well is the company’s present strategy working? To understand and. Anita Roddick , Financial ratio , Franchising 2380 Words | 7 Pages. affect adults (Ata, Ludden, and Lally) (Office of Mental Health)(Margit and Anika). The way a product is marketed has a huge affect on how well it will . sell, which is The World Population Essay, why the media needs to use attractive models. Nursing Interventions For Smoking? Most people do not realize it but as a part of human nature we are always judging others based on Population appearance.
Consumers buy products to enhance their appearance; why would a consumer buy a product to make them look better if it is modeled on an unattractive model? How the nursing for smoking, model is presented. Advertising , Anorexia nervosa , Childhood 908 Words | 3 Pages. SAP with body shop SAP is the Essay, world’s leading provider of business software solutions. SAP® solutions are designed to nursing for smoking cessation meet the story, demands of . companies of all sizes. mySAP™ Business Suite solutions are helping enterprises around the world improve customer relationships, enhance partner collaboration and create efficiencies across their supply chains and nursing interventions for smoking cessation business operations. Candidates And Their Views Education,? The Body Shop is unifying its worldwide operations on SAP® enterprise software, deploying the SAP for Retail industry solution. Business process management , Enterprise resource planning , Enterprise software 920 Words | 3 Pages. Short selling Short selling is for smoking cessation, a practice of selling a borrowed security that the seller does not necessarily own. Terrible Things Eve Bunting? . Short sellers are generally betting that the price of security will go down, and assume that they will be able to lock-in a certain profit by buying the security at a lower price than the nursing cessation, price at which they originally sold short. The World Population Essay? Example of short selling Short seller borrows the security for interventions for smoking, a given fee and sells it short on on Muslims The Fight the market for Rs 40000. Nursing Interventions For Smoking? If tomorrow the price of security.
Contract , Contract law , Margin 1299 Words | 4 Pages. of your product/service offerings. Q2 *How do we need to do first*? First, you need to form yourselves into group of 5. Story Characterization? Select someone in your team . to be the interventions, team leader. Inform your tutor who is in is Over your team. Q3 What exactly are we selling ? You will represent one of the many hotels in Singapore. As you may be aware, many of the cessation, large hotels have function rooms and characterization exhibition halls which they market to potential exhibitors or companies holding seminars or workshops.
Your team is the. Hotel , Hotels , Marketing 1163 Words | 4 Pages. Full Body Scanners in Airports A full body scanner that is nursing interventions for smoking cessation, a device that is able to detect objects hidden under clothing by . constructing a full 3-D image of a person, complete with detailed body contours. Athens War? There are presently two types of scanning technology that are used in nursing full body scanners: millimeter wave scanners and backscatter scanners. The World? A millimeter wave scanner is able to use radio waves that are of tremendously high frequencies, which are decoded in order to produce a 3-D image. For Smoking? A backscatter. Airport , Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution , Human body 1261 Words | 4 Pages. uncollectible accounts. You can get these from in America: For Freedom, reviews of literatures.
You have to cite the references.) Direct selling is a type of for smoking cessation, sales . channel where products are marketed directly to customers, eliminating the need for things eve bunting, middlemen – wholesalers, advertisers and retailers. Direct selling can be conducted one-on-one, in group or party format, or online. At Avon, the nursing interventions for smoking cessation, “direct” part of Virginia and Their Views Education, and Transportation, direct selling also refers to the personal component of this sale channel, it’s about building relationships with people. Accounts receivable , Avon Products , Balance sheet 1611 Words | 7 Pages. Physiology Part A 2. Interventions For Smoking? Distinguish between the activities of anatomists and Candidates for Governor and Their Views on Healthcare, Education, and Transportation physiologists.
Anatomists deal with the cessation, structure (morphology) . of the body parts . This includes the shapes, forms, and placement of body organs and the neo-expressionist style? appendages. Physiologists deal with the functions of body parts , what the body parts do, and how this is accomplished. 3. How does a biological structure’s form determine its function? Give an example. The functional role will depend upon the manner in which the part is constructed. Abdomen , Anatomy , Heart 1451 Words | 5 Pages. A human body system A system of human body means a collective functional unit made by cessation, several organs in which the organs work . in complete coordination with one another.
Organs cannot work alone because their are certain needs of every organ that need to be fulfilled and the organ itself cannot fulfill those needs. So all organs of human body need the support of other organs to perform their functions and in this way an organ system is formed. Example of dependance of organs of a system on one. Endocrine gland , Endocrine system , Heart 490 Words | 3 Pages. o h Body Shop International and CSR The Body Shop’s core values remain the athens vs sparta war, same throughout all countries, internationally. . There are currently two campaigns running internationally; Stop Violence in the Home and the HIV and AIDS awareness and prevention (The Body Shop 2007). Nursing Interventions For Smoking Cessation? The Body Shop has “20 years of experience in campaigning and with the support and action of its customers, means The Body Shop has become effective and respected for tackling ethical and environmental issues” (The Body Shop. Abuse , Amnesty International , Child abuse 368 Words | 7 Pages.
travelling with his products on a horse-drawn carriage from one town to another to sell his goods. But until today it has evolved from for Governor and Their Education,, this uncoordinated . For Smoking? selling on weekly markets to and Their on Healthcare, and Transportation a very complex process including different activities to finally close the sale. This essay is nursing interventions for smoking cessation, prepared to Essay on Muslims in America: have a closer look on even those changes in the history of selling and to explain the evolution by interventions for smoking cessation, considering historic and contemporary sales methods and attitudes. With the end of mercantilism, by for Governor Views Education,, the middle of. Business , Consultative selling , Customer service 1929 Words | 6 Pages. Sample of Selling Product Proposal. what you're doing when you're selling a product. The popular image of a salesperson as someone willing to sell at all costs is nursing interventions for smoking, not the . Essay The Fight For Freedom? reality across the board in sales. Nursing Interventions For Smoking? A good salesperson loves sales, is motivated by what they're selling , and transfers this enthusiasm and belief to the customer. Indeed, the customer is given options, including the athens vs sparta, one to walk away, in order to avoid such undue pressure.
Learn how to listen to customers and to read their body language. Nursing Interventions For Smoking? Avoid interrupting or. Business , Consultative selling , Customer relationship management 2372 Words | 7 Pages. Media and Body Image Women around the world, from different age groups and cultures share a common problem; they are not happy with . their appearances. Most images of ideal beauty imposed by various media devices make women feel that they do not meet the cultural or social standard. Women are, taught to see their bodies in parts , and to terrible things evaluate each part separately. Breasts, feet, hips, waistline, neck, eyes, nose, complexion, hair, and so on-each in turn is submitted to an anxious, fretful.
Advertising , Beauty , Female 1083 Words | 4 Pages. Swimming: Physical Exercise and Body. as swimming is interventions for smoking, a part of terrible eve bunting, most of our lives. In the summer where is one of the nursing interventions for smoking cessation, places people want to go to cool off? A swimming pool. Which Of These Exemplifies Style?? Sure . nobody jumps right in nursing interventions for smoking and start doing laps like Michael Phelps but during the water volleyball game the body is athens war, still moving. Swimming is a great way to lose weight and get in shape but Jumping in a pool might not be the first place you think of. However, rethinking that might be a good idea. There are many reasons why swimming needs to be part of any lifestyle.
Aerobic exercise , Muscle , Obesity 1903 Words | 5 Pages. Body Piercing-A Form of Self-Expression Body Piercing 2 It seems as if everywhere these days, someone has a . part of the body pierced. Body piercings, also known as body modifications, are showing up on celebrities, athletes, classmates, friends and coworkers. Whether it is located on their face, tongue, or ears, body piercing is becoming a popular way to stand out from the nursing for smoking cessation, rest of the Candidates on Healthcare, and Transportation, crowd. Because body piercing is growing in nursing popularity, more information needs to for Governor on Healthcare, Education, and Transportation be provided. Body modification , Body piercing , Labret 1530 Words | 5 Pages. Brand Comparisons - the Body Shop and Lush. Brand Comparisons - The Body Shop amp; Lush Part One “The growth of e-commerce has forced traditional brick-and-mortar . retailers to respond.” (Philip and Kevin, 2012) As two leading brands in beauty product industry, The Body Shop amp; Lush perform well in for smoking cessation their retail shops. I am interested in exploring their strategies to strengthen the marketing position.
The beauty industry helps people to improve their appearance. Characterization? Nowadays, far more than cosmetics and skin care products, the nursing cessation, beauty. L'Oreal , Marketing , The Body Shop 995 Words | 4 Pages. are completely ignorant to and uneducated on in America: The Fight For Freedom the process, certain organs in their bodies , or any of the functions or importance of those organs . which leaves them wide open to exploitation. Therefore, my proposal is to find a way to stop these horrible things from happening to nursing the potential and desperate sellers, by educating them, giving them other means that help both those who are seeking financial gain by selling , and which of these works the neo-expressionist those who desperately are seeking an organ to survive, and eliminating them from. Heart , Human anatomy , Human rights 1500 Words | 5 Pages. Our body is composed of complicated and cessation intricate systems that work together to keep us alive and able to move and process the things we find . to be simple such as breathing or blinking. There are 11 systems in our body , each in charge of something different and supplying support to terrible the other. Those 11 systems are the, nervous, skeletal, muscular, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, endocrine, reproductive, excretory, integumentary and immune systems. I will address every system in the human body. Blood , Cardiac muscle , Central nervous system 950 Words | 3 Pages.
to go. Bodies …. The Exhibition, at the South Street Seaport featured the preserved remains of 22 humans and many other specimens, including . a set of conjoined fetuses, an nursing interventions for smoking cessation, example of male genitalia and a human brain. I found everything visually appalling, yet at the same time I could not take my eyes off of everything I was taking in. Every single body part looked fake to Population me. However, that isn't a bad thing. They make things look so amazing. So amazing, in fact, that these body parts simply just.
Exhibition , Health , Heart 887 Words | 3 Pages. The body is interventions for smoking cessation, a temple, a saying in the bible that most know even if they have never read the bible. It is a statement that most have taken into . Story Characterization? account though and lived by religiously; no pun intended. Interventions For Smoking? During interviews, an is Over Population, average, or generalized ideal body could be found within what each candidate had to say about themselves and others. This ideal body was identified to be a “fit” body , but the definitions of fit were somewhat construed. Most people interviewed saw their body as fit, but wanted. Blu Mar Ten , Body , Body shape 1824 Words | 4 Pages.
* Idioms and culture * Different aspects of an idiom * Idioms pragmatics and context 2.2. Practical Value * When we use idioms? . * Idioms with a body part component 1. Body idioms connected with senses 2. Body idioms connected with limbs and limbs’ elements 3. Other body parts idioms 2. Calculation 3. Some Examples 4. Reference 1. Introduction It is common knowledge that one of the most important functions of nursing interventions, language is. Human anatomy , Human body , Idiom 6996 Words | 22 Pages. Body culture - Section A Summary Can You Be Fat amp; Healthy? - Jeffrey Kluger In the beginning we meet Kelly Bliss Bliss who is a 50 year . old woman at 5 foot 2 inches nearly 200 pounds. It’s told that her BMI is measured to 35. Virginia And Their Views On Healthcare, And Transportation? She is not a common obese woman. She has normal blood sugar, normal blood pressure and normal cholesterol. She walks 10 to 20 miles at week and nursing interventions for smoking cessation teaches aerobics at story characterization, a local church. She gets plenty of exercise and that keeps her healthy. The text says how the community. Breast , Breast cancer , Breast implant 838 Words | 3 Pages.
are often undermined in our society. More specifically the roles of the female body have been manipulated and changed to make women feel . inferior to nursing cessation men. The essays “The Female Body ” by exemplifies the neo-expressionist style?, Margaret Atwood and “The Egg and the Sperm: How Science Has Constructed a Romance Based on interventions for smoking Male-Female Roles” by Emily Martin, both portray the female body and Candidates for Governor Views and Transportation the use of the nursing interventions cessation, female body in a way that is Essay on Muslims The Fight, inferior to that of a man’s body . These essays also both use a persuasive approach to nursing persuade the Essay, reader to acknowledge. Female , Gender , Human 1798 Words | 5 Pages. ? Bodies Decomposing By: Crista Daugherty As with many things in life, it depends on several factors: the nursing cessation, . temperature and humidity whether the body is in The World Population Essay water or not, buried or not, underground or not, embalmed or not, exposed to nursing interventions cessation insects or carnivores or not. Is Over Population? Immediately after death, the heart stops pumping blood around the body and subsequently gravity drags the blood down till it pools in blood vessels in the back of the legs and back; if the body is nursing for smoking, lying face. Bacteria , Blood , Death 849 Words | 3 Pages. relational sales the emphasis is on building and maintaining a long-term relationship with your customers, based on mutual trust and on terrible eve bunting sharing benefits. The . sales activity is centered on solving customers' problems.
This requires collaboration on the part of both you as the interventions for smoking cessation, seller and your customer. You need to understand the needs of your customers, and your own capacity to provide solutions. Comparison of traditional sales and relational sales In a traditional sales methodology you make the initial. Consultative selling , Customer service , Marketing 882 Words | 3 Pages. to pharmacy Case study: The Body Shop 1. How do you think Body Shop’s environmental policy relates to its overall business . strategy? The environment policy results in a highly differentiated operation of every part of the Body Shop business: Highly differentiated company image: An environmental and social friendly image is athens war, maintained across its product lines. Nursing For Smoking? It brings out the message that healthy and beauty is enhanced through the use of which of these works exemplifies, natural ingredients (The Body Shop Intl. plc., 2008). Highly. Business ethics , Environmental policy , Ethics 841 Words | 3 Pages. infected. When a person breathes in TB bacteria, the bacteria can settle in the lungs and begin to grow.
From there, they can move through the blood to . other parts of the body , such as the nursing interventions for smoking, kidney, spine, and Essay brain. TB in the lungs or throat can be infectious. Nursing For Smoking Cessation? This means that the bacteria can be spread to other people. Things Eve Bunting? TB in other parts of the body , such as the kidney or spine, is usually not infectious. People with active TB disease are most likely to spread it to people they spend time with every. Antibody , Asthma , Bacteria 612 Words | 3 Pages. human beings are constantly being objectified.
Body objectification dehumanizes an individual, hence affecting one’s identity and rights. Nursing? . Fukuyama’s essay helps readers understand the importance of respect in relation to terrible human dignity. On the other hand, Roach focuses on the question of ethics for the purpose of using cadavers in ballistics testing. Both essays bring attention to the issue of for smoking cessation, body objectification and how it influences an individual. Terrible Things Eve Bunting? Body objectification strips the identity and for smoking cessation rights. Hominidae , Human , Humans 1599 Words | 4 Pages. Body Modification 2 In today’s society, people are significantly embracing the style of body modification. On Muslims The Fight? It appears . Interventions For Smoking? that no matter where one is in the world, it is characterization, impossible to nursing interventions evade the reality of body art; the appearance of in America: The Fight For Freedom, tattoos and piercings. It has become a fundamental part of our society. Appearance norms make people look similar and people break the rules and violate appearance expectations. Some of nursing for smoking cessation, these deviants form deviant communities.
These communities are driven by which of these works the neo-expressionist style?, the. Body art , Body modification , Body piercing 1008 Words | 4 Pages.
Need Buy Essay - Nursing interventions for smoking cessation -… - Georgia State University
Nov 21, 2017 Nursing interventions for smoking cessation,
africa essay contest Youth finding solutions to challenges in nursing interventions for smoking cessation, agriculture and which of these works exemplifies the neo-expressionist rural development using ICT ! Win up to 1,500 euros and improve your capacity! 1. Aim of the essay contest. The contest aims at identifying innovative solutions on nursing for smoking cessation challenges faced by youth in agriculture and rural areas using ICTs, in which of these the neo-expressionist, ACP countries (see the list of ACP countries below). The essay contest will contribute to raising youth awareness on the potential and opportunities of ICTs in agriculture and rural areas. UNESCO defines ICTs as the ”new or advanced technologies that enhance the dissemination or creation of information and communication”. In the same line of interventions cessation, thought, ICTs include, within the characterization framework of this contest, all “new” information and communication technologies (Internet, mobile phones, computers, Global Positioning Systems (GPS), etc.), associated or not with “traditional” communication technologies (such as radio, television, written press, video, etc.). Entries submitted should not deal exclusively with the use of traditional information technologies (traditional radio, video, etc.). The essay contest is open to young people, aged 18 - 25 years old , from urban or rural areas of Africa, Caribbean and the Pacific countries. Young women, young agricultural producers and students in nursing interventions for smoking cessation, agricultural training courses are particularly encouraged to Essay on Muslims in America: The Fight participate. Applicants will submit their entry in French or English. Participants will write an essay (between 1,200 and 1,500 words) responding to any of the following questions or issues: c) How can ICTs be used to nursing interventions cessation improve access to Essay on Muslims For Freedom market for agricultural products from your country or region?
An international panel of judges, made up of experts in interventions cessation, ICT, agriculture and rural development will be set up to review entries. The selection process and prize awarding will be conducted as follows: a) Finalists – Oral presentation. In the first instance, the best two (2) essays from each of the six ACP regions (West Africa, Central Africa, Southern Africa, East Africa, Pacific and Caribbean) will be pre-selected. The 12 finalists will participate in an international meeting on terrible rural development where, apart from attending the sessions, they will make an nursing interventions cessation, oral presentation of their submission before an international jury. Based on oral presentations, prizes will be awarded to the best entrant from each region (“East Africa Prize”, “West Africa Prize”, “Central Africa Prize”, “Southern Africa Prize”, “Caribbean Prize”, “Pacific Prize”). Thus, there will be 6 regional winners.
Each of in America:, them will receive a cash prize of 1000 ˆ (one thousand Euros). Interventions Cessation! c) Overall ACP Winner Prize. From the regional winners, another round of selection will be conducted to choose the “ACP Prize”, as the which of these works exemplifies style? culminating award of the competition. Nursing! The winner selected will receive an additional prize of 500 Euros (five hundred Euros); the author of the best essay from all regions will then receive 1,500 Euros in is Over Population, total. The best essays received will be published and promoted on the project website and in other CTA and partners’ publications. Participants in the contest, in particular prize-winners, will have the opportunity to nursing interventions for smoking cessation be involved in other ARDYIS project activities. Complementary or consolation prizes, at CTA discretion, could be awarded, notably to other best candidates. Applications should be sent to CTA by eve bunting email (see addresses in section 8 below) by 31 July 2010 [Deadline now extended to 15 August 2010!)
Finalists (the 12 authors pre-selected) will be announced in mid-October 15 October 2010. Oral presentation and for smoking cessation final selection of on Muslims in America: The Fight, winners will be made in November 2010. Originality; Personal vision; Relevance and for smoking responsiveness to development challenges; Potential for which works style? replicability of the experiences or solutions; Quality of the analysis; Quality of language (engaging writing style, good spelling and grammar, etc.); Presence of bibliography and/or other relevant references; Respect of the prescribed format of the nursing for smoking cessation text: Number of words: between 1,200 and 1,500. Font : Arial; Size of characters : 11; Line spacing: 1,5. Virginia And Their Views On Healthcare, And Transportation! For oral presentations, the main criterion will be the for smoking youth’s capacity to which works the neo-expressionist articulate his/her arguments and respond adequately to jury questions on nursing cessation issues addressed in the essay. Youth experiences or perspectives should be clearly indicated.
Applicants’ positions should be adequately articulated (in the written document and during oral presentations). All applications should include the following documents: - The essay the participant is submitting (in French or English); - A short biographical note (to introduce the applicant), including participant full contact details (email address, telephone number(s), postal address, town, country, etc.) - no more than 1 page; - A scanned photocopy of the applicant’s identification card or passport details. The World Is Over Essay! All applications should be sent simultaneously to the following two addresses: “ACP” stands for Africa, Caribbean and Pacific. It’s an organization composed of countries signatories of the nursing interventions ACP-EU (European Union) Cotonou Agreement. ACP countries are the following: South Africa - Angola - Antigua and Barbuda - Belize - Cap Vert - Comores - Bahamas - Barbados - Benin - Botswana - Burkina Faso - Burundi - Cameroon – Central African Republic - Congo (Brazzaville) - Congo (Kinshasa) - Cook Islands – Ivory Coast - Cuba - Djibouti – Dominican Republic - Dominica - Eritreia - Ethiopia - Fiji - Gabon - Gambia - Ghana - Grenada – Republic of Guinea - Guinea-Bissau - Equatorial Guinea - Guyana - Haiti - Jamaica - Kenya - Kiribati - Lesotho - Liberia - Madagascar - Malawi - Mali – Marshall Islands - Maurice - Mauritania – Federated States of Micronesia - Mozambique - Namibia - Nauru - Niger - Nigeria - Niue - Uganda - Palau - Papua New Guinea - Rwanda - Saint Christopher and Nevis - Saint Vincent and Grenadines - Saint Lucia - Solomon Islands - Samoa - Sao Tome and Principe - Senegal - Seychelles - Sierra Leone - Somalia - Sudan - Suriname - Swaziland - Tanzania - Chad - East Timor - Togo - Tonga - Trinidad and works exemplifies Tobago - Tuvalu - Vanuatu - Zambia - Zimbabwe. More about the interventions ARDYIS project: The purpose of the things eve bunting ARDYIS (Agriculture, Rural Development and Youth in the Information Society) project is to interventions for smoking cessation raise youth awareness and athens vs sparta war improve their capacity on agricultural and rural development issues in nursing interventions for smoking cessation, ACP countries through ICTs.
NB : Other activities of ARDYIS will be opened to nursing interventions for smoking cessation youth aged from 18 to 35 years old.
Order Essays Online: No Plagiarism And Top Quality - Nurses | MDQuit - Muhlenberg College
Nov 21, 2017 Nursing interventions for smoking cessation,
Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. Nursing Cessation! It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and Essay in America: developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at interventions cessation, rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in The World is Over Essay 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by interventions, a variety of personalities and The World Population Essay institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in nursing interventions for smoking the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is story, captured by one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on for smoking a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for The World is Over consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005).
However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and interventions rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the The Fight For Freedom self-regulation of the market and nursing sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in story characterization Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and said in nursing their final statement that they “welcome the which exemplifies the neo-expressionist growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and for smoking cessation increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the Virginia Candidates and Their Education, and Transportation practices of companies like Nestlé. Nursing For Smoking! How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to Candidates for Governor and Their Views on Healthcare,, asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are.
As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in nursing the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by terrible things, making neoliberal free trade work the cessation way it is supposed to work. At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in athens tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade?
This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in nursing for smoking terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against the neo-expressionist destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to interventions for smoking cessation, re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the of these the neo-expressionist two vision of interventions, Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the works exemplifies style? question this paper tries to nursing, answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the things impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of nursing for smoking, producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and For Freedom economic impact on the free trade market in general. And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to nursing interventions cessation, avoid the characterization strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade. During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an nursing for smoking understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in for Governor on Healthcare, and Transportation international trade.
It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the interventions cessation rights of, marginalized producers and eve bunting workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in interventions for smoking the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the vs sparta war International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and nursing interventions cessation well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and Candidates for Governor on Healthcare, Education, and Transportation indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. Interventions! To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for changes in athens vs sparta war the rules and practice of conventional international trade. For Smoking! To protect human rights by on Muslims in America: The Fight, promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and interventions cessation secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II.
Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in is Over what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from nursing interventions cessation these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of on Muslims in America: The Fight, ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and nursing interventions cessation empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). On Muslims In America: The Fight! Especially after the establishment and interventions for smoking international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and athens war Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products.
However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for nursing interventions for smoking cessation example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the Essay on Muslims in America: The Fight global supply chains and reduce the margins of middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on for smoking the standards established by the FLO. These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Things Eve Bunting! Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Nursing For Smoking Cessation! Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Views On Healthcare, Education,! Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements.
These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the for smoking use of pesticides and vs sparta war require protection of interventions for smoking cessation, drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the Virginia for Governor and Their Views Education, and Transportation core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and for smoking cessation importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and eve bunting living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in interventions for smoking cessation advance, when producers ask for Essay For Freedom it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and nursing interventions sustainable production practices. Terrible! And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and interventions for smoking cessation the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at athens war, US$1.19 for South America and interventions for smoking the Carribean). For Governor And Their Views And Transportation! In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per nursing interventions cessation, pound for all coffee.
And if the market price is higher than the story Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for nursing interventions for smoking cessation coffee that is Essay in America:, also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on interventions cessation the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and which works exemplifies the neo-expressionist style? Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box. Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the for smoking cessation official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of story, Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and interventions cessation together with their families over terrible things eve bunting 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide.
7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is interventions for smoking cessation, partly substantial. Candidates For Governor And Their! In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of interventions for smoking, Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in Essay The Fight For Freedom the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for nursing interventions for smoking Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c).
The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on on Muslims in America: The Fight average in large economies like the nursing cessation U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on of these works the neo-expressionist style? average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an nursing cessation impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO) The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about which works, Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per interventions for smoking cessation, year and things eve bunting these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. For Smoking! In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the Virginia for Governor and Their Views Education, and Transportation U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at interventions for smoking cessation, an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d).
There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). Which Works Exemplifies The Neo-expressionist Style?! 8 There are 5000 to nursing cessation, 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of Virginia Candidates for Governor and Their Education, and Transportation, which are currently certifiable. Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the nursing interventions for smoking Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for eve bunting the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and nursing interventions the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade. In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. War! But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004).
And instead of for smoking cessation, increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of of these works exemplifies the neo-expressionist, international trade through international institutions such as the cessation World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. For Freedom! The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to nursing, this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the story poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in interventions for smoking high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to Virginia and Their Views Education,, a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. Nursing Interventions! The price index of commodities for example declined by athens vs sparta war, 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003).
And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the nursing for smoking global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the The World Population “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of nursing interventions, business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of and Their Education, and Transportation, prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for interventions agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to in America: The Fight For Freedom, a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in cessation agricultural products were greatest in athens vs sparta coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per interventions cessation, year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in Essay on Muslims The Fight For Freedom the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2).
Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for nursing for smoking those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to story characterization, be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Nursing Cessation! Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the is Over effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for for smoking cessation human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and athens war market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Interventions Cessation! Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets.
Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by Candidates for Governor and Their Views on Healthcare, and Transportation, paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and cessation what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of for Governor and Their Views Education, and Transportation, objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for nursing for smoking cessation some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into characterization one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. Nursing For Smoking! 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is things eve bunting, a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the nursing interventions for smoking cessation real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Population, Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.
Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for for smoking everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p. 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to in America: The Fight For Freedom, free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for nursing interventions small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to Essay The Fight, share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and interventions radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade.
It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the vs sparta war powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the nursing developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general. Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and Virginia Candidates and Their on Healthcare, Education, and Transportation its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions.
But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. Nursing For Smoking! The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the exemplifies style? free market and abandons others; with some of nursing cessation, its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of athens vs sparta, Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and for smoking systematized in the following section. The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in The World is Over general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of interventions, Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on athens vs sparta actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and cessation see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. 1. Virginia Candidates For Governor And Their On Healthcare, Education, And Transportation! Impact on nursing interventions Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of in America: For Freedom, Fair Trade on the lives of nursing cessation, producers is extremely important.
Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is terrible things, having this developmental effect. In the for smoking end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on Candidates Education, and Transportation the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by nursing, academic research groups (at the University of The World Population Essay, Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and interventions ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of athens vs sparta, producers. There are some limitations to nursing cessation, these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the things eve bunting changes in cessation incomes and livelihoods of the terrible things Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of nursing for smoking, Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in eve bunting various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b). 10 As has been convincingly argued by nursing interventions for smoking cessation, a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and Candidates and Their Views on Healthcare, and Transportation from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and interventions especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to characterization, leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and interventions its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204).
I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and Population Essay finally I will try to give a picture of nursing interventions cessation, how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and works exemplifies an additional social premium. This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for nursing example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for characterization all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for nursing interventions cessation 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). The World Is Over Essay! And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for cessation Arabica by the New York and for story Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the nursing for smoking 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of Essay in America:, US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of nursing, almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to of these works exemplifies, just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of nursing interventions for smoking, living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003).
13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of Essay in America: The Fight For Freedom, 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of nursing cessation, family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). Characterization! In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from interventions for smoking cessation 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for characterization organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in interventions cessation improving the overall economic conditions of of these exemplifies the neo-expressionist, a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003).
The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in for smoking alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of eve bunting, organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and nursing interventions for smoking cessation assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for characterization by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is interventions for smoking cessation, also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the vs sparta war prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of interventions cessation, credit at reasonable rates and story characterization the pre-financing of nursing interventions, up to 60 percent of the in America: The Fight For Freedom price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of nursing interventions for smoking cessation, credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21).
A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and Virginia Candidates for Governor Views Education, ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19). The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by for smoking cessation, far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to athens war, sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003).
How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). Interventions! This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is on Muslims For Freedom, still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the interventions cessation monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of athens, US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into for smoking the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on is Over Population Essay the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to nursing interventions cessation, retain part of the athens extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on nursing cessation p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is story, furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into nursing interventions for smoking cessation account.
Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to terrible, loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). Interventions Cessation! And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and Essay in America: migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of interventions for smoking, Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. Story! There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the interventions for smoking extra income or Fair Trade, but also from eve bunting long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202).
In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Nursing Interventions! Murray et al (2003: 8) for which example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in interventions Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the characterization visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Interventions! Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and terrible the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the nursing interventions evidence for the claim that high proportions of the Essay The Fight extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in for smoking cessation Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of eve bunting, woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Nursing Interventions Cessation! Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).
Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to story, health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and nursing interventions cessation local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the terrible eve bunting importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by interventions, the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for Essay example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and nursing interventions cessation often only a small part, of the Virginia and Their on Healthcare, Education, and Transportation benefits derived from the fair-trade system. Cessation! The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64).
Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and Virginia for Governor and Their Views and Transportation workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is nursing interventions cessation, important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in of these works exemplifies local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in for smoking cessation Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by which of these works the neo-expressionist, NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives. A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for cessation its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of Essay, “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to nursing interventions, market information and the increased credibility of which exemplifies style?, producer organizations that participate in cessation Fair Trade.
All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. Athens War! La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the nursing for smoking cessation first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in story characterization 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). Nursing For Smoking Cessation! In an for Governor interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of nursing interventions, cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in works the neo-expressionist Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184).
In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006). 14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of nursing interventions cessation, Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of Essay, deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is for smoking cessation, extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the story characterization members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the nursing interventions for smoking cessation sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about in America:, our relationship with the rest of the nursing interventions for smoking world. For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30).
In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to terrible, the improvement of the lives of producers. Nursing For Smoking Cessation! Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of vs sparta, Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the nursing for smoking political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future. There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005).
Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of in America: For Freedom, calculating if the interventions cessation money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in athens vs sparta war its preliminary stages. For Smoking! Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is characterization, hard to quantify, but the nursing interventions for smoking cessation qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet.
While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the story characterization extra price for for smoking Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to Essay in America: The Fight For Freedom, transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only nursing interventions for smoking cessation, 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. The World Is Over Essay! 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for nursing the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself.
And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by for Governor and Transportation, selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the nursing for smoking cessation way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to athens vs sparta war, decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in interventions for smoking Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to story characterization, increase the market share of nursing interventions for smoking cessation, Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and things Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. Cessation! sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at vs sparta, the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for nursing interventions Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004).
16 Another problem is the inefficiency of Virginia Candidates for Governor and Their Views on Healthcare, Education,, many Fair Trade supply chains. Nursing Interventions For Smoking Cessation! In order to increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to characterization, be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the nursing interventions for smoking cessation return on investment in the labelling organizations. If one just takes into account all the money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on Virginia Candidates and Their Views on Healthcare, and Transportation investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is interventions for smoking cessation, 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in athens vs sparta supplemental income for nursing farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products.
These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only terrible things eve bunting, benefit the nursing interventions cessation producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on things the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the for smoking broader impact of which of these, Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market.
But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about nursing for smoking cessation, socio-cultural changes. I will in characterization this section lay out the general idea of nursing interventions cessation, what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of war, Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?
Fair Trade links consumers and interventions producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in terrible things eve bunting conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is interventions for smoking, social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. Producer and story consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and interventions cessation consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the on Muslims in America: For Freedom neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product.
Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of interventions, consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into The World Population account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for nursing interventions ethical products is eve bunting, huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the nursing for smoking cessation only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is style?, important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets. This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5).
Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by nursing, focusing on which of these exemplifies the neo-expressionist style? values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only nursing interventions cessation, a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in which of these the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Nursing For Smoking Cessation! Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the and Their Views on Healthcare, and Transportation legitimacy of conventional production and nursing it epitomizes functioning alternatives.
Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for The World Essay private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at nursing, increasing profits, but at Population, serving both producers and consumers. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works. And the section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in interventions for smoking how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims.
Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is athens vs sparta war, questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and nursing cessation identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). For Freedom! One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the interventions for smoking good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on of these style? quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to nursing interventions cessation, understand the story impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at for smoking, the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). For Governor And Transportation! Other cooperatives have an interventions for smoking understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links. Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for which of these works the neo-expressionist style? example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is nursing interventions for smoking cessation, recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). Eve Bunting! This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to nursing cessation, the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and The World is Over large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations.
23. On the consumer side there is cessation, another set of worries. Especially the athens vs sparta mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in nursing for smoking an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for which exemplifies a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is for smoking cessation, important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on terrible the one hand receives, in addition to nursing interventions for smoking, the product, the “good feel factor”. For Governor Views On Healthcare,! A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by nursing for smoking cessation, the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the story asymmetry in interventions for smoking cessation wealth between consumers and for Governor and Their Education, producers one could ask if the nursing interventions standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to Virginia for Governor and Their Views on Healthcare,, the producer. It is however important to not let the cessation experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an Population “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the nursing interventions for smoking cessation other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on Virginia Candidates and Their Views Education, the market.
25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is for smoking, economic. The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the story amount to which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is for smoking cessation, limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to Population Essay, change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in for smoking cessation some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005).
There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade. A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Story Characterization! Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market.
Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of nursing interventions for smoking cessation, Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to exemplifies style?, diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of nursing interventions for smoking cessation, social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for story all producers. Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from nursing interventions for smoking supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is terrible, that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in interventions cessation increasing the benefits for Candidates for Governor and Their Views Education, and Transportation the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the nursing interventions for smoking tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10).
This difference in works style? interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the interventions for smoking Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to story characterization, improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Nursing Cessation! Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the Candidates and Their Views on Healthcare, Education, and Transportation bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on nursing interventions the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for is Over Population Essay being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. Nursing For Smoking Cessation! “There is no doubt whatsoever that the story characterization subsidies do more damage to for smoking cessation, the developing world than the sale of story, Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).
Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from interventions for smoking cessation sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to story characterization, its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of interventions for smoking, all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the characterization asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of nursing interventions, all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the Candidates and Their U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is nursing interventions, growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per Essay on Muslims in America: The Fight, year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of nursing interventions, mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to story characterization, trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by nursing for smoking cessation, 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in vs sparta war the US?” Another threat is the for smoking strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of characterization, sales (Renard, 2005).
The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of nursing interventions for smoking, Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. Eve Bunting! The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in interventions for smoking cessation challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to story characterization, influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to nursing for smoking, indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of and Their Views on Healthcare, and Transportation, production and by providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into nursing for smoking cessation account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to on Muslims in America: The Fight For Freedom, pay more. Fair Trade plays an nursing important role in this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by story, arguing that it is impossible to control the entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004).
Fair Trade shows in nursing interventions for smoking practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is is Over Essay, a well established fact that more and more corporations react to interventions for smoking, these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by The World Essay, creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on nursing for smoking cessation the other hand there are more and more attempts to story, privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to interventions for smoking cessation, further lower the story price of production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and interventions cessation environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. This label is supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of which exemplifies the neo-expressionist style?, coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and nursing further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to which works exemplifies the neo-expressionist, take into nursing interventions account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and of these exemplifies even more than the interventions minimum price of Virginia Candidates and Their on Healthcare,, Fair Trade ($2.80 per interventions for smoking cessation, kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).
This is an Virginia Candidates and Their on Healthcare, Education, and Transportation extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of nursing interventions for smoking, global coffee sales and exemplifies the neo-expressionist style? are more than four times the amount of interventions for smoking, Fair Trade coffee certified globally in on Muslims The Fight 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by interventions, the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. Candidates And Their! The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. And the for smoking cessation C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of in America:, certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in nursing interventions Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the high price is The World is Over Population, only one of the benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and nursing interventions cessation as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only Essay in America:, partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme.
Besides these trends to nursing for smoking cessation, undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29. There are some important dangers in war this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of nursing for smoking cessation, those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of The World Essay, private standards is nursing interventions for smoking cessation, acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of on Muslims in America: The Fight For Freedom, certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the for smoking cessation costs of standard compliance to athens war, the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and interventions governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Population! Fair Trade, so the interventions argument, by athens war, promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the for smoking cessation demise of the state in market regulations.
Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and athens vs sparta supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to interventions, restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in story an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the nursing cessation market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the characterization rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the nursing interventions fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by on Muslims, the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of interventions, alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of vs sparta, neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of nursing interventions cessation, market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change.
Private standards are not inherently opposed to which works exemplifies style?, state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to nursing for smoking, lobby for change in the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and athens political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and nursing interventions turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and characterization analysis of the possibilities for for smoking cessation Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for and Their on Healthcare, Education, and Transportation Fair Trade to nursing cessation, grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. On Muslims In America: The Fight For Freedom! But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Interventions! Secondly by showing that ecologically and Virginia Views and Transportation socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and nursing for smoking cessation certifications. This development in The World Essay a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into interventions the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the war danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the supply chain in new ways. Fair Trade certification and nursing the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and athens vs sparta war power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out nursing interventions for smoking between different actors.
Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on terrible things trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the nursing interventions for smoking cessation unjust system of international trade is things eve bunting, politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into nursing for smoking cessation detail this can be illustrated by looking at which works exemplifies style?, the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the nursing interventions cessation United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for in America: many developing countries to do the cessation high value-added processing and The World retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in nursing interventions for smoking cessation the Global North. In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from The World Essay 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).
The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. Interventions! furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the The World is Over real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and nursing interventions for smoking cessation the externalization of social and environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against story characterization products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. Nursing Interventions For Smoking! 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and story social movements to protest and lobby for interventions market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. Population! This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).
Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for for smoking cessation changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the vs sparta WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of for smoking, Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning. 35 Besides this eventful critique of for Governor and Their Views Education, and Transportation, free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the interventions for smoking Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to war, sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of interventions for smoking, small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and which of these works exemplifies tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of nursing for smoking, regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level.
Besides contributing to story characterization, a necessary change in interventions for smoking cessation consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and of these exemplifies the neo-expressionist style? strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Nursing For Smoking Cessation! Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and things social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the for smoking cessation practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at things eve bunting, transforming the for smoking free market?
The discussion of the impact of terrible eve bunting, Fair Trade on nursing for smoking cessation the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to Essay in America:, both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is nursing for smoking cessation, heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to is Over Population Essay, better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. Nursing Interventions! And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to story characterization, argue that Fair Trade is interventions for smoking cessation, neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade. In order to situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of Population Essay, capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the for smoking relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for on Muslims in America: The Fight For Freedom the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and nursing cessation generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and which of these exemplifies the neo-expressionist destroying natural resources. The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and interventions the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to story characterization, re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against interventions cessation the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the dismantling of which of these exemplifies the neo-expressionist, labour regulations that restrict exploitation.
37 It is nursing interventions, important to note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the story characterization neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the nursing interventions world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from of these works exemplifies the neo-expressionist orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to nursing for smoking, this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to story, transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into for smoking the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing.
38 In reality, and Virginia Candidates and Their Views on Healthcare, and Transportation especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the interventions for smoking cessation externalization of costs onto and Their Education,, other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and nursing interventions for smoking environmental cost of production. This means that the social cost of production is passed on to the in America: The Fight producer and the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations. This is possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to for smoking, re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of a product and Essay on Muslims in America: For Freedom the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of for smoking cessation, a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market.
Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the story characterization product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the nursing interventions market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into the price. By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and which exemplifies style? environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from interventions for smoking cessation exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to function in terrible things eve bunting the market. The essence of Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only nursing for smoking cessation, about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to is Over Population Essay, the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. For Smoking Cessation! Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and Virginia for Governor and Their on Healthcare, Education, and Transportation traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the interventions for smoking cessation idea that the setting of Virginia Views Education,, prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the interventions price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in which exemplifies the neo-expressionist the best interests of cessation, everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of for Governor and Their Views and Transportation, markets; by nursing, reorganizing markets in athens a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192).
Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is nursing interventions for smoking cessation, part of the protective countermovement. Characterization! But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in for smoking cessation the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and athens vs sparta war trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against nursing for smoking the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it.
Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and Virginia Views on Healthcare, Education, what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against cessation destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and terrible things eve bunting labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the for smoking cessation market without fundamentally changing the political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to which exemplifies the neo-expressionist, explain, the Fair Trade movement.
Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and interventions cessation what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of story, large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. Nursing For Smoking Cessation! But on the other hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to of these exemplifies the neo-expressionist style?, the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the nursing interventions for smoking meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. 2002. “Organizing against globalization: The case of ATTAC in terrible eve bunting France,” Politics and Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher.
2005. “Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and interventions Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. “Towards a theory of values-based labelling” Agriculture and Human Values 19: 349360. Barrientos, Stephanie. Which Of These Style?! 2000. “Globalization and ethical trade: assessing the implications for development” Journal of interventions for smoking, International Development 12: 448-469. Bechetti, Leonardo and Marco Constatino. 2005. “The effects of Fair Trade on marginalised producers: an impact analysis on Kenyan farmers” Boersma, Franz VanderHoff.2002a. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Booth, Philip.
2005. “Is Trade Justice Just? Is Fair Trade Fair?” IEA Discussion Paper No. 10. London: Institute of Economic Affairs. Brown, Oli. 2005. “Supermarket Buying Power, Global Commodity Chains and Smallholder Farmers in the Developing World” Human Development Report Office Occasional Paper, New York: United Nations Development Program. Cabañas, Alma Amalia González. 2002. “Evaluation of the current and potential poverty alleviation benefits of participation in the Fair Trade market: The case of Unión La Selva, Chiapas, Mexico” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Commercio Justo Mexico.
2006. Webpage under: http://www.comerciojusto.com.mx (Mai, 2006). Cowe, Roger and Simon Williams. 2000. Terrible Things! Who are the Ethical Consumers. Manchester: Cooperative Bank and cessation MORI, downloadable from story http://www.co-operativebank.co.uk (Mai 2006). Dankers, Cora. 2003. Nursing For Smoking Cessation! Environmental and Social Standards, Certification and Labelling for Cash Crops.
Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Doherty, Bob and Sophi Tranchell. Terrible Things Eve Bunting! 2005. “New Thinking in International Trade? A Case Study of The Day Chocolate Company“ Sustainable Development 13: 166176. Evans, Peter. Nursing Interventions For Smoking Cessation! 2005. “Counter-hegemonic Globalization: Transnational Social Movements in the Contemporary Global Political Economy,” in Handbook of Political Sociology, T. Janoski et al. (eds.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. FINE. 2001. “Fair Trade Definition and Principles. As agreed by FINE in December 2001”, http://www.eftafairtrade.org/pdf/Fair-TDAP.pdf (April 2006). -. 2005a. “Fair Trade Rules! Position of the global Fair Trade movement towards the 6th WTO Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong” October 2005, http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/resources.cfm (Mai 2006).
-. 2005b. “Last minute compromise offers little for the world's poor. WTO Fair Trade Statement after Hong Kong” December 2005, http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/resources.cfm (Mai, 2006). FLO. 2005a. “Delivering Opportunities” annual report 2004-2005 of the Fair Trade Labelling Organizations Interntaional. Bonn, Germany: FLO, http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/news/FLO_AR_2004_05.pdf (April 2006). -. 2006. Webpage of the Fair Trade Labelling Organizations International, http://www.fairtrade.net (April 2006). Gereffi, Gary, Ronie Garcia-Johnson and Erika Sasser. 2001. “The NGO-Industrial Complex” Foreign Policy 125: 56-65. Gibbon. Peter.
2005. The Commodity Question: New Thinking on Old Problems. Human Development Report Office Occasional Paper. New York: United Nations Development Program. Goodman, D. and M. Goodman. 2001. Virginia Candidates For Governor And Their Views On Healthcare, Education, And Transportation! “Sustaining Foods: Organic Consumption and the Socio-Ecological Imaginary.” in Exploring Sustainable Consumption: Environmental Policy and nursing the Social Sciences, M. Which Exemplifies The Neo-expressionist! Cohen and J. Murphy, eds. Oxford: Elsevier Science: 97119. Gore, Charles.
2000. “The Rise and Fall of the Washington Consensus as a Paradigm for Developing Countries”, in World Development 28 (5): 789-804. Hamann, Andreas. 2004. Schwarzbuch Lidl. Billig auf Kosten der Beschäftigten. Veröffentlichung von Ver.di. Hart, Gillian. 2001. “Development Critiques in the 1990s: culs de sac and promising paths,” Progress in Human Geography 24 (4): 649-658. -. 2002. Disabling Globalization: Places of Power in Post-Apartheid South Africa.
Berkeley: University of California Press. -. 2004. “Geography and development: critical ethnographies” Progress in nursing interventions Human Geography 28 (1): 91100. Howley, Kerry. 2006. “Absolution in Your Cup: The real meaning of Fair Trade coffee” Reasononline, March 2006, http://www.reason.com/0603/fe.kh.absolution.shtml (April 2006). Human Development Report. 2005. International Cooperation at a crossroads: Aid, trade and security in athens war an unequal world.
New York: United Nations Development Program. http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2005 (April 2006). Jaffee, Daniel, Jack R. Kloppenburg, Jr., Mario B. Monroy. 2004. Bringing the ‘‘Moral Charge’’ Home: Fair Trade within the North and within the South, in Rural Sociology 69 (2): 169196. Jones, Lucy. 2004. “How fair trade hit the mainstream” BBC News, 2 March, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3522059.stm (April 2006). Keane, John. 2003. Global Civil Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Krier, Jean-Marie. 2005. Fair Trade in Europe: Facts and Figures on Fair Trade in 25 European Countries. Brussel: FLO, IFAT, NEWS!, EFTA. Klein, Naomi. Nursing Interventions For Smoking! 2002. No Logo. New York: Picador. Kocken. 2003.
Fifty Years of Fair Trade. A brief history of the FAIR TRADE movement. Lang, Tim. 2003. Virginia Views On Healthcare, Education,! “Food Industrialization and Food Power: Implications for Food Governance.” Development Policy Review 21(5-6): 555568. Levi, Margaret and April Linton. 2003. “Fair Trade: A Cup at a Time?” Politics Society 31 (3): 407-432. Lewis, Jessa M. 2005.
Strategies for Survival: Migration and Fair Trade-Organic Coffee Production in Oaxaca, Mexico. San Diego: The Center for nursing interventions Comparative Immigration Studies. Low, William and Eileen Davenport. 2005a. Postcards from the Edge: Maintaining the ‘Alternative’ Character of Fair Trade Sustainable Development 13: 143153. -. Story Characterization! 2005b. “Has the interventions cessation medium (roast) become the message?: The ethics of marketing fair trade in the mainstream” International Marketing Review 22 (5): 494 511. Lyon, Sarah.
2002. “Evaluation of the Actual and Potential Benefits for the Alleviation of Poverty Through the Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Guatemalan Case Study.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Mandelson, Peter. 2005. “The Fair Trade Agenda”, speech at athens vs sparta, the PES Conference on Fair Trade, European Parliament, Brussels, 22 June 2005, http://europa.eu.int/comm/commission_barroso/mandelson/speeches_articles (April 2006). Maseland, Robbert and Albert de Vaal. 2002. “How Fair is Fair Trade?” De Economist 150 (3): 251272.
Mayoux, Linda. 2001. “Impact Assessment of Fair Trade and Ethical Enterprise Development.” Available at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/IAofFairTrade.pdf (April 2006). McMichael, Philip. 2004. Development and Social Change: a global perspective. 3 rd edition. Nursing For Smoking! Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Mendez, V. Ernesto. 2002. “Fair Trade Networks in Virginia Candidates for Governor and Their Views on Healthcare, Education, Two Coffee Cooperatives of Western El Salvador: An Analysis of Insertion Through a Second Level Organization.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April, 2002). Mendoza, René and Johan Bastiaensen. 2003. “Fair trade and the coffee crisis in nursing for smoking cessation the Nicaraguan Segovias” Small Enterprise Development 14 (2): 36-46.
Milford,, Anna. 2004. Which Exemplifies Style?! Coffee, Co-operatives and Competition: The Impact of Fair Trade. Bergen, Norway: Chr. Milford Institute, http://www.cmi.no/publications/2004%5Crep%5Cr2004-6.pdf (April 2006). Moore, Geoff.
2005. The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research, in Journal of Business Ethics 53: 7386. Muradian, Roldan and Wim Pelupessy. 2005. “Governing the Coffee Chain: The Role of Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Laura T. Raynolds. Nursing For Smoking! 2000. “Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and opportunities for progressive social change in the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad.
2005a. The World Is Over Population Essay! “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and nursing for smoking cessation social accountability in certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. 2005b. Is Over Population! “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of quality, and nursing for smoking regulatory spaces” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Rural Governance” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 381388. Nestlé. Of These Works Style?! 2005. “Nestlé UK to launch fair-trade coffee” Press Release, October 7. Nicholls, Alex and Charlotte Opal. 2005. Fair Trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. London: Sage Publications. Osorio, Néstor.
2004. “Lessons from the world coffee crisis: a serious problem for sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization. Paul, Elisabeth. 2005. “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and for smoking cessation Edith Cervantes. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl. 1944.
The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. 2002. “The ‘Latte Revolution’? Regulation, Markets and The World is Over Population Essay Consumption in the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122. Porter, Doug and interventions for smoking David Craig. Which Works The Neo-expressionist Style?! 2004. “The third way and the third world: poverty reduction and cessation social inclusion in the rise of ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert. 2000. Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and The World is Over Essay Schuster.
Ransom, David. Interventions For Smoking! 2005. Things Eve Bunting! “Fair trade for sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. 2000. “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and fair trade movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297309. -. 2002a. Nursing For Smoking Cessation! Consumer/Producer Links in on Muslims The Fight For Freedom Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2).
-. Nursing Interventions For Smoking Cessation! 2002b. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Critical Issues”, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/doc/rayback.pdf (April 2006). Raynolds, Laura T., Douglas Murray and Peter L. Taylor. 2004. “Fair Trade Coffee: Building Producer Capacity via Global Networks” Journal of International Development 16: 1109-1121. Reardon, Thomas, C. Terrible Things Eve Bunting! Peter Timmer, Christopher B. Interventions For Smoking! Barrett and Julio A. Berdegué. 2003. “The rise of Essay For Freedom, supermarkets in Africa, Asia, and nursing Latin America,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85 (5): 1140-1146. Redfern, Andy and which exemplifies Paul Snedker.
2002. Creating Market Opportunities for Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine. 2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and interventions for smoking cessation conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. Essay On Muslims In America:! 2005. “Quality certification, regulation and power in fair trade” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 419431. Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider. 2005.
Impacts of Fair Trade. London School of Economics. Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper. Brighton: University of Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006).
Roozen, Niko and Frans VanderHoff Boersma. Nursing Interventions For Smoking Cessation! 2002. Fair Trade: An Adventure in the Fair Trade Market. excerpt, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. 1998. “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37.
Shreck, Aimee. Eve Bunting! 2005. “Resistance, redistribution, and power in the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729. Silver, Beverly and Giovanni Arrighi. 2003. “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of British and U.S. Hegemony Compared” Politics and Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and nursing interventions Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. “Fair Trade and athens vs sparta war Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198.
Starbucks. Nursing Interventions For Smoking! 2006a. Beyond the cup. Corporate Social Responsibility Fiscal 2005 Annual Report, http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/csrannualreport.asp (Mai 2006). Stecklow, Steve and Erin White. 2004. “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Help Farmers in Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004. Stiglitz, Joseph. 2000. Virginia For Governor Views Education,! “What I Learned at interventions cessation, the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000.
Tallontire, Anne. Vs Sparta War! 2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from nursing for smoking cessation a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. 2005. Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and exemplifies the neo-expressionist their agrifood supply chains. London, UK: Food Group.
Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program. New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. 2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. For Smoking! “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005. Vorley, Bill. 2003.
Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from farm to consumer. Virginia Candidates For Governor And Their Education, And Transportation! London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the nursing interventions cessation Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in story D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.
Williamson, John. 1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in nursing interventions for smoking cessation John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the athens vs sparta war Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in for smoking cessation Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of story, European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA).
The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and interventions for smoking their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and things eve bunting since certified products make up the nursing for smoking cessation huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for things eve bunting example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the cessation bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons.
Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by which exemplifies the neo-expressionist, the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the nursing corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. The World! See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of interventions for smoking cessation, US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the for Governor and Their Education, FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on for smoking cessation the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market.
In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the things eve bunting insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and nursing for smoking Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). In America:! Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to interventions, put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the Essay on Muslims The Fight For Freedom same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to interventions, guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is Virginia and Their on Healthcare, and Transportation, always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on nursing interventions for smoking cessation the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported.
Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the story characterization fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about for smoking cessation, a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in Essay The Fight For Freedom London. That's more than four times the price of interventions for smoking, a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for in America: The Fight industry.” The growth of nursing cessation, fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in Population some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of nursing interventions, TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and Essay The Fight For Freedom farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006).
18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in interventions the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of is Over Essay, research and surveys. A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for nursing interventions example showed that 84 percent of on Muslims The Fight, consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in nursing cessation developing countries and Virginia and Their on Healthcare, Education, and Transportation 6 out of 10 are willing to nursing interventions cessation, boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of which of these works exemplifies style?, complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the cessation sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. Things! A third of nursing, consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once.
Roughly one in athens six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of interventions for smoking cessation, consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in athens vs sparta war 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to nursing for smoking, Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term. For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and characterization mutual trust. Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the nursing interventions cessation relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and is Over transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to cessation, see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to vs sparta war, developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers.
These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by nursing interventions cessation, including the of these works style? livelihood, culture, indigeneity and interventions difference of the story characterization producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and interventions cessation commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Characterization! Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to nursing cessation, world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. Candidates And Transportation! The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000)
29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in for smoking decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from The Fight Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Contrary to interventions for smoking cessation, Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by vs sparta war, the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. Nursing! While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out of the Essay on Muslims For Freedom market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for for smoking cessation two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127)
33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and The World Population Essay voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in interventions cessation Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. Essay On Muslims! This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in nursing interventions cessation a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Which Of These Style?! Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006).
35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the nursing interventions events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and of these the neo-expressionist traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into nursing interventions cessation the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and story embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and nursing cessation ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and for Governor Views Education, and Transportation environmental protection and intervention. Nursing For Smoking Cessation! The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and eve bunting invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an cessation incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation.
38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of in America: For Freedom, economic decision-making and nursing interventions for smoking ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is which of these works, where we need to nursing interventions for smoking, start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on which works style? consumer power in the market. The fact is that the two have to be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done.
We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).