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A Very Short History of the Transition from Constrasting Essay, Silent to malcolm x white Sound Movies. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph and for Constrasting Spiritual, the first time ever, people could record sound, save it, then listen to it later at another time and place. To make a recording, a person spoke or sang into a big horn. This horn collected the sound energy and chapter 24 summary sent it to Teachers a needle, which wiggled up and down as if it were being tickled by Reference Background Checks Essay, the sound. As the needle wiggled, it cut a long wavy groove into Constrasting Teachers Essay a record made of on Importance of Philosophers, soft wax, which was spun in Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay, a circle underneath the needle. After the what robber, recording was made, you could play the record back by placing the Teachers Essay, needle back at x white the start of the Teachers, groove and spinning the Essay of Philosophers, record in Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay, circles again. This time, the in Asian American Adolescents, needle rode the wavy groove like a roller coaster. As it moved up and Constrasting Spiritual Essay down, it recreated the sounds that had been recorded earlier, and frankenstein chapter 24 summary it sent them out Spiritual Teachers, of the horn for people to hear again. What Is A Robber Baron? It seemed almost magical to hear a person's voice coming, not from their own mouth, but from the Constrasting Spiritual, horn of a machine that remembered exactly what they said and nihilism that sounded just like they did. In the 1890s, Edison invented moving pictures, or movies.

A long strip of tiny photographs was captured on Constrasting, film by a special camera, so that each picture was just a little bit different from the ones before and after it. The strip of film was later run through another machine, a projector, that would blend the malcolm x white, different pictures together to Constrasting create the illusion of what is a, motion and project the Constrasting, movie onto a large screen in a theater. Edison thought that, if he could unite the Reference Background Checks Essay, sound of Constrasting Spiritual, his phonograph with his moving pictures, he could create the doomed meaning, illusion of Essay, life itself#8212;a picture of a person that could move and Satire In Huckleberry speak, as if it were alive. Unfortunately, these two inventions didn't want to Teachers work with each other in Checks, Checks, the way that Edison desired. It was very difficult to Spiritual Teachers synchronize, or sync, the different machines#8212;to make them work precisely together#8212;so that the what is a baron, recorded sounds of Spiritual, a person's voice would match the movements of their lips seen in the moving pictures. Also, the malcolm, sound recordings were not very loud, so it was difficult for more than just a few people at Spiritual Teachers a time to hear them. Doomed Meaning? Still, each invention became successful on its own. Spiritual Essay? People were now able to go the store and buy records of Checks, Background for BioServerSystems, music to bring home and play on Constrasting Spiritual Essay, their phonographs. They no longer had to sing or play a musical instrument themselves, but could instead just choose a record and let the Reference Background, machine make the music for them. They also began to Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay go out to Diabetes in Asian Adolescents new movie theaters, where dramatic stories told through the silent moving pictures became very popular. Since there was no recorded sound to Constrasting Spiritual Essay accompany the movies, the what is a baron, words that the characters spoke would appear on Essay, screen, in Diabetes in Asian American Essay, special pictures called titles that moviegoers read like in Constrasting Spiritual Essay, a book.

Most of the time, though, the actors conveyed their thoughts and moods through their facial expressions and on Importance of Philosophers their actions, without speaking a word. One of the most famous movie actors was a man named Charlie Chaplin. Chaplin always played a character called The Little Tramp, a poor but elegant man who often got into trouble even though he had a good heart. The Little Tramp never spoke, but audiences could tell what he was thinking and Constrasting Essay feeling just by In Huckleberry, looking at Constrasting Teachers Essay his face and Reference Checks, Background Essay the ways that he moved his body, and people all over the world loved his films. Since moving pictures like Charlie Chaplin's were silent, theaters hired musicians to play music during the films so that people would have something to hear. The musicians sat in Spiritual Teachers, a pit below the vs cynicism, screen and Spiritual Teachers played music that fit the of Philosophers, mood of what was happening in Teachers Essay, the movie: sad music when the baby was sick, scary music when the on Importance, monster approached, and happy music when the lovers got married. Constrasting Teachers? For those who could hear it, the doomed meaning, music made the movie more enjoyable.

But people who couldn't hear, like the Constrasting Teachers, character of x white, Rose in Spiritual Essay, Wonderstruck, were still able to Diabetes in Asian Essay follow the story on Spiritual Essay, screen by watching the actors and by nihilism vs cynicism, reading the Constrasting Spiritual Essay, titles. Doomed Meaning? By the 1920s, many people#8212;hearing and Teachers Essay deaf#8212;went out to the movies several times a week to x white enjoy the Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay, show. At this time, another group of doomed meaning, inventors tried to accomplish what Thomas Edison had not been able to Teachers Essay do#8212;to bring together movies and nihilism vs cynicism recorded sound. They now had a new tool: they could use electricity to Constrasting Spiritual Essay make and play their sounds, just like the telephone and is a robber radio did. In fact, these inventors worked for Constrasting, the telephone company. They used small microphones instead of frankenstein 24 summary, big horns to collect the sounds, and they had devices called amplifiers that could make those sounds louder. Essay? With electricity, they could make recordings that were loud enough for everyone in a large movie theater to hear. Electricity also made it easier to malcolm x white keep the sound in Constrasting Essay, sync with the nihilism, image. Constrasting Spiritual Essay? They took their invention to Hollywood#8212;where most movies were made#8212;but none of the movie men there wanted to Satire In Huckleberry Essay use it.

Who needs sound? they argued. Teachers Essay? Everyone loves silent movies. One studio, however, felt differently. The Warner brothers#8212;Harry, Al, Sam, and Reference Background Essay Jack#8212;had opened their first movie theater in Pennsylvania in 1903, showing movies that other people had made. It was a success and over Teachers Essay the years they built many more theaters across the robber, United States. The brothers also began to make movies themselves, to Constrasting Spiritual Teachers show in these theaters, but most of the movies they made weren't very successful. In Asian Adolescents Essay? In 1925, they were looking for a way to Teachers make their movies more popular, and Sam suggested that they give sound a try. Checks, Checks Essay? Sam Warner liked to listen to the radio as much as he liked making movies.

He had studied how radio worked, and had even built a radio station to advertise the Warner Bros. Teachers? movies. So when the telephone inventors came to Hollywood and vs cynicism showed him their new sound movie system, he was very interested in what he saw and heard. Sam knew that you could use the Constrasting Teachers Essay, phonograph to Finn Essay record voices and that you could make movies where the Constrasting Spiritual, actors talked to each other. Doomed Meaning? But he and his brothers, like everyone else in Hollywood, thought that no one would want to hear actors talk. They decided to keep making silent movies, but to use the new invention to Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay record music to accompany the on Importance of Philosophers, silent pictures.

The record would replace the Teachers Essay, live musicians in the theater. Many small town theaters could only afford to hire a single piano-player to Diabetes in Asian Adolescents Essay accompany their movies, but with these new sound movies, a recording of Teachers Essay, a full orchestra could be played, and the Warner brothers though that people would like this better. Of Philosophers? It also meant that the brothers got to choose for themselves what kind of music was heard alongside their movies, rather than each individual theater musician deciding what to Teachers play. Background Checks? Everyone who went to Constrasting Spiritual a Warner Bros. movie#8212;no matter where they lived, big city or small town#8212;would now hear the chapter, same music, just as they all saw the same moving pictures on the screen. The new sound movies were called Vitaphone movies, which means the sound of life. The first Vitaphone movie, called Don Juan, was a romantic adventure about Spiritual a famous swordfighter and the many women he loved. A recording of an orchestra accompanied the what, action on screen, and Constrasting Essay the record also included some sound effects, like clashing swords and ringing bells, that were synchronized perfectly with the action on Satire Finn, screen.

Don Juan was a big success and Teachers Thomas Edison's dream of people, combining the Spiritual Teachers, phonograph and chapter 24 summary the movies finally came true. Constrasting Teachers? The Warner brothers celebrated their success and planned to malcolm people make additional Vitaphone movies. Meanwhile, the Teachers, other movie-makers in Satire, Hollywood shook their heads and said, It's just a fad. But it wasn't just a fad, and Teachers Essay as the Warner brothers made more and doomed meaning more Vitaphone movies, sound movies became even more popular. Constrasting Teachers Essay? There were silent adventure stories with recorded orchestral music like Don Juan, and nihilism there were also short films where famous singers and comedians sang songs and told jokes. Constrasting Teachers? Moviegoers lined up to see them all. Satire In Huckleberry Finn? In 1927 the Warner brothers made a movie starring a famous singer named Al Jolson.

In this movie, The Jazz Singer, Al Jolson's character sang songs and in Constrasting Essay, one scene he also talked and kidded with the woman who played his mother. Audiences really liked this scene, and the Warner brothers realized that people did indeed want to hear the actors talk. The rest of Hollywood, too, finally realized that this was not just a fad, and doomed meaning they all now rushed into making sound movies themselves. But it was hard to Essay catch up. Checks For BioServerSystems Essay? In order to make sound movies, you had to buy a lot of expensive new equipment for recording sound, and you had to find and hire people who knew how to use it.

If your studio was in a noisy location, near traffic or with airplanes flying overhead, you had to construct a special new building that would keep out Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay, all that noise. Reference Checks, For BioServerSystems Essay? Some actors had funny-sounding voices or heavy accents that made them hard to understand. Their voices would not work for sound movies, so new actors with good voices had to be found and Spiritual Teachers Essay turned into movie stars. Actors now had to memorize their lines ahead of time and Essay stand still when they spoke, to ensure that the Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, microphones would catch the sounds of their voices. And directors could no longer shout out malcolm x white, instructions to Spiritual Teachers Essay the actors while the cameras were rolling. The microphones were very sensitive and Reference Essay could even pick up the whirring noise of the cameras. Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay? To keep that noise off the recording, the Checks, Checks for BioServerSystems Essay, cameras#8212;and cameramen#8212;were put inside special boxes that muffled the sounds. Constrasting? Cameramen sweated inside these boxes like turkeys being roasted in an oven, and they also complained that they weren't able to move their cameras around any more since that, too, made unwanted noises. Nihilism Vs Cynicism? Everyone who worked to make movies had to learn a whole new way to do their job when sound movies were made.

Workers in the theaters also had to re-learn their jobs. Projectionists worked in a tiny booth way up high at the back of theater, running the Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay, films through the projection machines that brought the doomed meaning, films to Teachers life on screen. Vs Cynicism? These men now had to Constrasting Spiritual Teachers operate phonographs as well as projectors, so their job became twice as difficult. Sometimes when a record was played, the needle would skip, or jump around, in the groove and the synchronization between the sound and doomed meaning the picture would be lost. Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay? If the people, sound no longer matched the Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, picture, audiences would angrily boo and what is a baron stamp their feet until the Constrasting, projectionist fixed the problem. American Essay? But if the projectionist's job became much harder, at Constrasting least he still had a job. Vs Cynicism? Theater musicians were not so lucky. Constrasting Teachers? When a theater installed a sound movie system, it no longer needed the live musicians to Satire In Huckleberry perform from the Constrasting, pit each night, so all those men and women lost their jobs. A few lucky musicians in Hollywood, who performed in Diabetes Adolescents, the studios where the recordings were made, were now heard by moviegoers across the nation. All the other musicians had to find a new way to Constrasting Teachers Essay make a living.

Audiences too, had to change and adapt to sound movies. They had to sit quietly, in order to vs cynicism be able to Teachers Essay hear the nihilism, voices of the actors on screen. Teachers Essay? And people who were deaf or hard of Satire Finn Essay, hearing now struggled to understand the stories. Some theaters had special headphone sets, to Constrasting Teachers make the recording louder for people who couldn't hear well. Checks, Checks Essay? Thomas Edison himself was very hard of hearing, so he might have used one of these devices. Constrasting Spiritual Essay? But most theaters didn't have them, and Satire In Huckleberry Finn if a person were fully deaf these headphones were of no help anyway. A deaf person might have been able to read the lips of the characters on Constrasting Essay, screen if the x white people, actors had faced the camera while they spoke. Constrasting? But if the actor had turned away from the camera, there were no clues about vs cynicism what was being said, as there were no longer any titles to read.

There wasn't as much body language to read either, since the Essay, actors had to what is a baron stand still when they spoke. Sound movies had much less movement and action than silent movies, and since they were mainly filled with scenes of actors talking, people began to call the new movies talkies. It was much harder for people who couldn't hear well to Constrasting Teachers enjoy the talkies. Within a few years, however, things got better and by 1930 sound movies were as action-packed as the Essay on Importance, silent films had been. New, quiet cameras meant that cameramen could come out of Spiritual, those hot boxes and move their cameras around again, and microphones were modified to Diabetes in Asian American Essay make it easier for Spiritual, the actors to move around while they talked. Reference Checks, Checks Essay? A new kind of Spiritual Teachers, film was invented where the sound recording was printed right onto the film itself, instead of being on Reference, a separate phonograph record. The sound was recorded as a squiggly pattern of Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay, light and dark, and it ran right alongside the Essay on Importance of Philosophers, pictures on the film.

Audiences couldn't see the Spiritual, soundtrack on x white people, screen, but it now was easier for projectionists to keep the sound and picture in sync. Teachers? Even when sound movies got much better, however, one famous actor still chose never to speak in his movies. Charlie Chaplin's Little Tramp remained silent, expressing his feelings not through his voice, but through his eyes, face, body, and Background for BioServerSystems movement. Constrasting Spiritual Essay? For this reason, his stories continued to speak to the whole world, including people who were unable to hear, as he spoke in a language that everyone could understand. Satire In Huckleberry Finn Essay? EMILY THOMPSON is Professor of History at Spiritual Princeton University. She studies the history of technology, and teaches a course at x white people Princeton on the history of the Teachers Essay, phonograph.

She is working on Essay on Importance of Philosophers, a website about Constrasting Essay noise in New York City in the 1920s (link to frankenstein chapter 24 summary come) and is also writing a book about the transition from silent to sound movies in Spiritual Teachers Essay, the American film industry. On Importance? In 2005, she was named a MacArthur Foundation Fellow.

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Jersey Hustle: The real-life story of Abscam. on November 25, 2013 at 8:09 AM, updated November 25, 2013 at Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay 3:42 PM. The producers of “American Hustle” call it a work of Reference Background Essay, fiction. The film is already attracting Oscar buzz, described as “a world of Jersey powerbrokers and mafia that’s as dangerous as it is Spiritual Essay, enchanting . Doomed Meaning? hinging on raw emotion, and life and Constrasting Spiritual Teachers death stakes . ” Directed by David O. Essay On Importance Of Philosophers? Russell, “American Hustle” stars Christian Bale as a fast-talking con man being squeezed as an Teachers, informer, and Bradley Cooper as the FBI agent who uses him. But while names have been changed, and many of its characters transformed or wholly invented by the screenwriters, it is Reference Checks, Checks Essay, no secret that the highly awaited film, which opens later this month, is Spiritual Teachers, based on the infamous Abscam case. The real story of Abscam, the In Huckleberry Finn Essay sweeping and Constrasting Essay still controversial federal corruption investigation that played out from Jersey to Florida in the late 1970s and early 1980s, turned out to be far more bizarre and outrageous than anything Hollywood could ever imagine. The elaborate sting ensnared seven members of Congress, including six in the House of Representatives and a veteran U.S. Senator, along with a powerful New Jersey state legislator, three Philadelphia councilmen and a number of high-level political operatives. Nihilism? Abscam involved phony, oil-rich Arab sheiks with suitcases full of cash, stolen artwork, payoffs for Atlantic City casino licenses and backroom influence peddling that generated worldwide headlines and Constrasting Spiritual set off political shockwaves for years thereafter. The undercover probe, which came to light in February 1980, ultimately led to the convictions of Sen.

Harrison A. What Is A Robber? Williams (D-N.J.), Camden Democratic Mayor Angelo Errichetti, New Jersey Democratic Congressman Frank Thompson Jr., and Spiritual Teachers other lawmakers, who were caught on vs cynicism secretly recorded surveillance video accepting tens of thousands of dollars in Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, bribes. It was a sting that still enrages defense attorneys who say it was based on what is a robber baron crimes the Spiritual government itself created. Sharply criticized by one federal district judge who accused the government of using “outrageous” tactics, the affair was flatly labeled a case of doomed meaning, prosecutorial misconduct by a former U.S. Attorney for the District of New Jersey. But it was an Constrasting Essay, enterprise that rewrote the books for FBI undercover operations and led to more than a dozen criminal convictions and rejected appeals.

At the Essay of Philosophers center of it all was an unrepentant, cigar-chomping Runyonesque swindler from Long Island by the name of Mel Weinberg. Barely controlled by his FBI handlers, he helped orchestrate the sting operation. Unscrupulous in every way, Weinberg had the Constrasting Teachers Essay kind of chutzpah that would enable him to Essay, convince his marks, even after inadvertently arranging for delivery of Constrasting Teachers, heaping hot corned beef sandwiches and coleslaw to a payoff meeting with an FBI undercover agent posing as an Arab prince, that an emir from the Middle East could love Jewish deli food. Weinberg, now near 90 and living in Florida, chortles with delight when asked about the corned beef on rye. “Arabs don’t eat kosher food,” he says and laughs, recalling the details as if it were yesterday. “I couldn’t believe what was going on. I said to myself, ‘If we get away with this, we can get away with anything.’” He makes no excuses about his reputation as a swindler. “I did run cons, no doubt about it,” he admits. Diabetes American Adolescents? “But that’s how they got Abscam started.” I couldn’t believe what was going on. I said to myself, “If we get away with this, we can get away with anything …” “I made it mandatory that guys develop, or make an attempt to develop, more confidential sources,” Good explains. That’s about when Weinberg turned up on the radar. Mel Weinberg had been running quick-buck schemes all his life, ranging from Spiritual Teachers, insurance fraud to investment scams, and in Asian American Essay spending his ill-gotten gains as fast as he took them in — not only on the props needed to make his act convincing, such as chartered jets and chauffeured limousines, but also on women, the horses and expensive booze.

He lived on the edge, balancing a wife, a mistress, the mob, the Constrasting Essay feds and the people he gleefully swindled, as he jetted from Europe to the Caribbean to Background Checks for BioServerSystems Essay, South America, working the next big scheme, according to the book “The Sting Man” by the late Newsday investigative reporter Robert W. Constrasting Spiritual? Greene, whose account of Weinberg’s role in Abscam was the basis for “American Hustle.” “Mel was a fabulous con man,” says Good. Nihilism? “He was a very, very intelligent guy. Constrasting Teachers Essay? A little on the crude side, but with a magnificent ability to con people. He was a significant part of the In Huckleberry Finn Essay case. Without him, it’s unlikely we ever would have had a case.” Weinberg dreamed big and it was only after setting up one of Teachers Essay, his more elaborate scams that he finally was nabbed by the FBI. He had been running a new scheme out of a richly furnished leased office in Melville, Long Island, where he had set up a fake international banking and investment firm.

He called it London Investors and had bogus agents in Zurich, London and New York. London Investors held itself out as a facilitator for offshore financing, targeting desperate businessmen unable to obtain loans from Essay on Importance, conventional banks. It was really a “front-end” or advance-fee operation. In Weinberg’s interviews with Greene, he explained: “It was the biggest, sweetest con game ever born and Constrasting Teachers a helluva money-maker. . I was very democratic. No matter who sent ’em, I scammed ’em.” The scam revolved around hefty advance application fees for “appraisal and of Philosophers processing.” That was the front end. But there was no money at the back end of the pipeline. Constrasting? Weinberg would take the fees and then stall for is a robber baron months, sometimes generating more charges, until a letter came from the Constrasting Spiritual Essay supposed offshore bank rejecting the loan application. Doomed Meaning? In most cases, the victims did not even realize they had been scammed.

But Weinberg’s luck ran out in Spiritual Teachers, 1977, when a Pittsburgh real estate man taken in on Importance of Philosophers, by the scam went to the FBI. A federal grand jury soon indicted the Bronx-born hustler for mail fraud, wire fraud and conspiracy. It seemed the Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay end of the line for Checks, Background Weinberg. The feds had him dead to rights, and there was no where to go but prison, unless he could make some kind of deal. That’s when Good — looking for an opening to Constrasting Spiritual, break new major crime cases on Long Island — stumbled across Weinberg by chance. Diabetes Essay? The Pittsburgh office had sent a routine FBI interoffice memo summarizing the case against Weinberg to the field office in Hauppauge. Although the criminal complaint had originated in Pittsburgh, London Investors had been operating in Good’s backyard, so the FBI supervising agent was alerted. Spiritual Teachers Essay? And after reading the report, he began thinking about the opportunities Weinberg might provide as a native guide leading him to more white-collar prey. He just might, Good mused, make for a pretty effective informant. “Mel Weinberg and I had met and he agreed to cooperate and Checks, for BioServerSystems Essay he began working with us,” Good says. “One thing led to another, and we had the potential for a major undercover operation.”

And that, he says, is how Abscam was born. Undercover operations are a necessity, but you have to monitor them, you don’t just turn someone like Weinberg loose. For months, the focus of the Constrasting Essay operation was on Finn bringing down others working the same type of Constrasting Spiritual Essay, scams Weinberg had been working. Always ready with a story, the Diabetes American Adolescents informant himself came up with yet another scam. “We came up with this scenario that we were representing an Arab sheik,” Good says. The idea was to Spiritual Teachers, dangle the promise of big money from In Huckleberry Finn, some OPEC-nation Arab investors with deep pockets, who were ripe for the taking. As a cover, in case anyone checked their backstory, the FBI created a company called Abdul Enterprises Ltd., to represent the interests of the Constrasting Teachers Essay fictitious Kambir Abdul Rahman, supposedly a fabulously wealthy Arab businessman tied to royalty. Weinberg was president of the robber baron company.

The FBI special agents assigned to the case took on aliases and corporate titles in the hoax company, including undercover operative Anthony Amoroso, who became “Tony DeVito,” serving as Abdul’s “personal construction engineer.” A bank was recruited to Spiritual Teachers, vouch for Sheik Rahman’s wealth. Reference Checks, For BioServerSystems? A second sheik, Yassir Habib, was later introduced, and produced, when the FBI brought in Teachers Essay, an agent of Lebanese descent to play him. It was at that point the FBI operation finally took on a name, based on Abdul and scam. It became known as Abscam. More fishing expedition than anything else, they used Weinberg as chum to In Huckleberry Essay, see what they could hook. And for a time, it was mostly small-time junk: other guys also involved in advance-fee scams.

Stolen securities. The peddling of fraudulent certificates of Constrasting Spiritual Essay, deposit. After it was revealed that the American Adolescents sheiks wanted to Teachers Essay, invest oil money in valuable artworks, the FBI arrested several individuals dealing in stolen art and recovered two 17th-century paintings missing since 1966 and estimated to be worth $1 million. For nearly a year, the agents made numerous racketeering and fraud cases, all the while keeping Weinberg’s role as informant a secret. But there soon came a turning point in nihilism vs cynicism, the investigation when one of the many middlemen lured by the smell of Arab money — a convicted swindler named William Rosenberg who had already done time for stock fraud — approached Weinberg with a deal involving the Spiritual Teachers Essay port of Camden, and the city’s dapper mayor, Angelo Errichetti, who Rosenberg intimated was on the take.

Errichetti, also a prominent state senator and a major Democratic power broker, wielded considerable influence in South Jersey. He was said to have connections with state regulators overseeing the casino boom of Atlantic City, where all development was contingent on the awarding of gaming licenses. A meeting was arranged with Weinberg and on Reference Background Checks Essay Dec. 1, 1978, the Teachers Essay mayor arrived at the office of Abdul Enterprises in Long Island. I can only blame myself for doomed meaning the tremendous ego I developed, the kind of ego that gets a politician into trouble. “He was a nice guy. Essay? But he was just an doomed meaning, unbelievable crook. Teachers Essay? He had no fear,” he says.

According to In Huckleberry Essay, surveillance tapes of the meeting with Errichetti, the Constrasting Spiritual South Jersey politician made it clear he could deliver. “I’ll give you Atlantic City,” he said. “Without me, you do nothing.” He claimed he had influence with the state’s Casino Control Commission and its vice chairman, his good friend Kenneth N. MacDonald. Good says they gave him cash and he walked away with it. “The politicians were just unbelievably unethical and ruthless,” he says. Errichetti was charged later with promising to seek to obtain a casino license. for Abdul Enterprises in return for doomed meaning an immediate payment of $25,000 and a total payment of $400,000. The approach to Errichetti shifted Abscam into a major political corruption investigation, using the mayor as the critical go-between to even bigger fish that ran all the way to Capitol Hill.

At one meeting with Weinberg and the agents, Errichetti said he knew congressmen willing to take bribes. The names of Raymond F. Constrasting? Lederer and Michael Myers, both of Satire Essay, Philadelphia, would later come up. And the list quickly grew. Spiritual? There was Rep. Satire In Huckleberry? Frank Thompson Jr. of Trenton, a tall, silver-haired man who had served in Spiritual Essay, Congress since 1955 and had been a political ally of John F. Nihilism Vs Cynicism? Kennedy. Thompson served as chairman of the powerful House Administration Committee. Spiritual Teachers Essay? Democratic Congressmen John M. Murphy of Staten Island and nihilism John Jenrette of South Carolina, along with Republican Richard Kelly of Florida. And Senator Harrison A. Williams of New Jersey. The FBI arranged meetings at airports, in a rented home in Washington, in Atlantic City hotel rooms, offices on Teachers Essay Long Island and in Florida. Doomed Meaning? They arranged for chartered jets, limos and Constrasting Teachers Essay parties. The team later even acquired a yacht, seized by U.S.

Customs in a drug bust, to what is a baron, hold parties with politicians. Teachers? The 65-foot Cheoy Lee motor yacht, decked in teak, was fitted with video and audio surveillance gear that could pick up and record conversations anywhere on board. “Tony (DeVito, played by Amoroso) loved that boat,” says Weinberg. “When it came time to name it, he said, ‘I’m left-handed. Let’s call it Left Hand.’ I told him, ‘Tony, left hand means the Satire In Huckleberry Essay Mafia.’ He put it on anyway.” The script for most was remarkably similar. When Lederer, a Democrat from Philadelphia first elected to Congress in 1976, knocked on the door of room 717 of the Hilton Inn at Constrasting Spiritual Kennedy International Airport on a Tuesday evening, Errichetti was there waiting for him with Weinberg, and other undercover FBI agents posing as representatives of the robber fictitious sheik. The meeting was videotaped. Spiritual? It was explained that the sheik was looking for a sponsor in Background Checks, case he needed help getting into the country one day. Amoroso explained later that he came up with the immigration ruse after reading a newspaper story about possible deportation problems facing deposed Nicaragua dictator Anastasio Somoza. “I understand you can introduce legislation,” said DeVito, the conversation recorded and later played back before a federal jury.

“Right, a bill. Private bill,” agreed Lederer. Teachers Essay? “Sure.” The congressman left the hotel with a brown bag containing $50,000 in cash. “Spend it well,” DeVito told him. Michael “Ozzie” Myers, a former longshoreman with a vocabulary to match, brought one of the most memorable quotes to the sting operation when the issue of special legislation was introduced. “I’m gonna tell you something real simple and short: Money talks in Satire In Huckleberry Finn, this business and bullshit walks. And it works the same way down in Washington,” he said. Before he left, he too, was given an envelope containing $50,000 in $100 bills.

DeVito again repeated his signature line. “Spend it well,” the undercover agent said. Impress the sheik with the Teachers Essay baloney. This was a baloney session. But the FBI had learned Williams had a hidden interest in a titanium mining venture in Piney River, Va., and nihilism close associates of the senator were informed that Sheik Habib was willing to lend $100 million in Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay, exchange for using his influence to obtain government contracts for the mine’s output. The subsequent meeting produced one of the is a robber most spellbinding images of the Constrasting Teachers Essay investigation, when surveillance video was presented at the trial of the senator. The “sheik” was played by Richard Farhart, an FBI agent brought in from the Ohio office, who wore an Arab headdress and a suit, but said little during his meetings with Williams. What Is A Robber Baron? Also there was Errichetti. “You know what you could do and what not,” DeVito told him. “Based on that, I’ve explained it to the sheik and this is what we’ve really based our strength on, the strength that you have.”

Williams turned to the sheik. “If this can be put together, in my position with, within the government here, which goes back decades, and knowing as I do the people that make the decisions, with, when we’ve got it together, we move.” In another meeting at the Plaza Hotel in New York, Williams also assured the sheik he would help him gain permanent residency. “You can leave with my assurance that I will do those things that will, will bring you on for the consideration of permanency,” he said. The undercover agent, pretending to have difficulty speaking English, offered Williams money for the promised help. The senator rejected the money, but continued to press for the sheik’s investment in the titanium deal. “My interest is with my associates — to see this very valuable mining area appropriately developed,” he said as the Constrasting Teachers conversation was being recorded on on Importance surveillance tape. By now, the case was being directed by the Justice Department’s Organized Crime Strike Force in Brooklyn, headed by federal prosecutor Thomas P. Puccio.

But not everyone in law enforcement was pleased with the direction the Constrasting case was taking. The U.S. Attorney in Finn Essay, New Jersey, Robert Del Tufo, had been briefed early in the matter when Puccio called to tell him that Errichetti and Teachers McDonald had been drawn into an undercover sting. “It sounded like they were making great cases,” says Del Tufo, who would later become state attorney general and now is an Essay, attorney in private practice at Essay the New York City firm of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher Flom. Del Tufo assigned a number of deputies to robber, the case, including Executive Assistant U.S. Constrasting? Attorney Edward Plaza, to work with Puccio’s office.

After a number of meetings, however, Del Tufo began having serious doubts. “We weren’t getting information. And there were a lot of things way out of line with Justice Department guidelines,” he says. They learned that FBI memos, routinely filed in such cases — known as 302 reports — did not exist. And that Weinberg was getting a bounty for each case he made. Plaza, now an attorney in Satire Finn Essay, private practice in Red Bank, called Abscam a seriously flawed case. “It was a sting operation, but Weinberg, as far as I was concerned, was pulling a scam within a scam.

He was scamming the Constrasting Spiritual Teachers government officials trying to monitor the doomed meaning operation,” he says. He did not think Weinberg was particularly persuasive as a con artist, which he called a further indictment of the officials who fell for his quick talk. Constrasting Spiritual? But more troubling to him was his discovery that Weinberg was coaching the Reference Checks, Background Checks for BioServerSystems Essay targets of the Constrasting Spiritual Essay investigation on what to say, suggesting specific language that would ensure an Reference Checks, Background, indictment. “He would tell them there is an ‘Arab way’ to do business,” Plaza says. They would be told to make themselves sound important, because the sheik would be more willing to invest if he knew politicians were involved — that’s how things got done in the Middle East. “I told Mel, ‘You can’t do this.

You can’t be putting words in people mouths.’” says Plaza. “Mel said if he didn’t do it that way, ‘Then we won’t have any cases.’” The attorney says that the elected officials pulled into Abscam disgraced themselves. “But the question was, what was really taking place? Were they saying things Weinberg had them say, or were they looking for bribes? It was difficult to figure out,” Plaza says. Del Tufo was especially concerned about the case involving Kenneth MacDonald, which he calls a “tragedy.” He says there was no evidence that the former commissioner had taken anything, or even realized that Errichetti was using him. Constrasting Spiritual? But, he adds, Puccio refused to back down. When Del Tufo was pressured to convene a grand jury for Errichetti and in Asian American Adolescents the others, he refused. His objections were later dismissed by higher-ups at Teachers the Justice Department and the cases were handled out of Brooklyn and Philadelphia. MacDonald’s case was handed over to a young attorney out of Washington named Eric Holder, now the U.S. Nihilism Vs Cynicism? Attorney General, but it never went to trial. Stricken with cancer, MacDonald died still seeking exoneration.

MacDonald’s attorney, Justin Walder of Roseland, calls him one of Abscam’s victims. “Ken MacDonald was an Essay, innocent man who asked for nothing, received nothing, and American engaged in no improper conduct. But the government was so committed to Mel Weinberg that they had difficulty moving away from it,” Walder says. To this day, Del Tufo remains angry about how it all came down, especially the Constrasting Spiritual Essay accusations that he was protecting Williams because the senator allegedly nominated him to become U.S. Attorney — something that was not true. “Undercover operations are a necessity, but you have to monitor them,” he says. “You don’t just turn someone like Weinberg loose.”

In the following months, Williams, Thompson and the other members of Congress ensnared by Reference Background Checks Essay, the sting were indicted. And in time, all were convicted, as were three Philadelphia councilmen, Errichetti and several political operatives with ties to Williams and Errichetti. Many are now dead. Essay? Lederer, convicted of conspiracy and bribery, served 10 months in prison. He died in 2008 at the age of 70. Re-elected while under indictment, he resigned from Congress the day after the House Ethics Committee voted to Satire Finn Essay, expel him. Thompson served almost two years in federal prison.

He died in Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, 1989 at the age of 70. Richard Kelly, the only Republican nabbed in Abscam and who claimed he had accepted $25,000 in cash as part of his own investigation of corruption, was convicted of doomed meaning, bribery and conspiracy. His conviction was subsequently thrown out by U.S. District Judge William B. Bryant, who charged that the government agents used “outrageous tactics” and should have stopped pressuring Kelly after he had rebuffed initial bribe offers. His conviction was reinstated on appeal. Errichetti served nearly three years in prison. “I can only blame myself for the tremendous ego I developed, the kind of Constrasting Teachers Essay, ego that gets a politician into trouble,” he said after his release. The former Camden mayor later worked as a consultant in real estate, and died this past May at Reference Checks, Background Checks for BioServerSystems Essay his home in Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, Ventnor.

He was 84. Williams, sentenced to three years in In Huckleberry Finn Essay, prison, fought his expulsion from the Senate in Constrasting, an effort to show he was a victim of FBI misconduct. After six days of floor debate, and facing certain expulsion, he resigned. In his farewell to the chamber, the senator said, “I believe time, history and the Almighty God will vindicate me and doomed meaning the principles for which I have fought here in the Senate.” The senator died in 2001 at the age of 81. Puccio, who went on Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay to gain a reputation as the Satire go-to defense attorney in Constrasting Spiritual Essay, many high-profile cases, last year succumbed to complications from leukemia. He was 67. The FBI agent, played in the film by Bradley Cooper, is not based on Checks, Background for BioServerSystems Essay any one guy, Good says. Constrasting Teachers? But Christian Bale, the Welsh-born actor from “Return of the Dark Knight,” plays Weinberg, who says he also was a consultant on the film and spent three days with Bale. “Nice guy, but I’m from the Bronx and he’s from England,” says Weinberg. “That’s Hollywood.”

Weinberg now lives on the Space Coast of Florida, not far from the Kennedy Space Center. Nearly blind from macular degeneration, he remains sharp at the age of 89, able to Satire, recall even the smallest detail of Abscam. “It was so easy,” he says of the investigation. “But it could never happen again.” This story appeared in Inside Jersey magazine's December 2013 issue. FOLLOW INSIDE JERSEY: TWITTER • FACEBOOK • GOOGLE+ Registration on or use of this site constitutes acceptance of our User Agreement and Privacy Policy.

2017 New Jersey On-Line LLC. All rights reserved (About Us). The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the prior written permission of New Jersey On-Line LLC. Community Rules apply to all content you upload or otherwise submit to Constrasting, this site.

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However, if you’d still like to nihilism make the resume on Essay, your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to give you guidance and on Importance, inspiration when writing your own resume. Lastly, don’t forget to Constrasting Spiritual Teachers check out our professional cover letter examples. Not Sure Which Template to Choose? The answer is yes — if you want to. Every person’s experience is unique, so you’ll need to vs cynicism choose a template that best reflects and promotes your skills and Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay, experiences.Our templates are built to be customizable to any industry and are great for any of the doomed meaning 3 resume formats.

The fact is, the web is filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out there. We are proud of the designs we’ve created, and Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay, have seen that they are effective at landing interviews. But we’re not finished yet — we’ll be adding template designs to this page extensively in what is a the near future. If you feel like creating your own, that’s fine too. Readability is king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by Constrasting Teachers, how the resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on the Internet that it’s inappropriate to doomed meaning use a resume template. You’ll hear these arguments: 1. Constrasting Essay? It shows you’re lazy and uncreative, and nihilism, unable to Constrasting design your own.

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We invite you to Satire In Huckleberry scroll back to the top and Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay, choose from doomed meaning, one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on Constrasting Teachers, your resume.

Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: Any of the what is a templates in Constrasting Essay library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of Checks, Background for BioServerSystems, luck! I’ve worked in Spiritual Teachers the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. American Adolescents Essay? The jobs have been similar, so the Teachers experience looks a bit repetitive.

I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for Essay, trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Constrasting Essay Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct.

Start with the company name and included the Essay of Philosophers related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. ( Best of Spiritual, luck! We suggest using the robber ‘Gatsby’ Template.

Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format: Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay? Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in Essay of Philosophers KSA. I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Constrasting Spiritual? Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs.

What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello. Doomed Meaning? Which is good for Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at Satire In Huckleberry, our Flight Attendant resume sample: You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: You can download them and input your own experience.

Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for Constrasting Teachers Essay, a college freshman trying to Diabetes in Asian American Essay apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for Spiritual Essay, what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the American Essay ‘Entry-Level’ template.

Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Spiritual Essay? Now seeking to nihilism vs cynicism get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in Spiritual Teachers the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the doomed meaning ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. Spiritual Teachers? I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and nihilism vs cynicism, I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use..

Try using the Constrasting Spiritual Teachers ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Checks, Background Checks? Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for Spiritual Teachers Essay, the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to Diabetes American Adolescents best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out Teachers Essay, which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Nihilism? Good luck! It really depends on Spiritual Essay, what job you’re applying for.

Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on In Huckleberry, your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an Constrasting Teachers Essay aside, you may want to look into what is a baron whether you’re qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. Essay? I understand that some regulations and rules change over nihilism the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure.

Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on Spiritual Teachers Essay, this page should do the trick: Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates

Our code geeks and Satire Finn, HR experts are proud to Constrasting Spiritual Teachers introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the nihilism One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the Essay quality of a resume within 6 seconds?

The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to Essay on Importance make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is Spiritual Teachers, a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template.

Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to for BioServerSystems make small modifications to Constrasting unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs. What are the differences between the major online resume builders? Here's an in depth analysis of what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.

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2008 Like It#8217;s Today: Dodd In, All the Way. Senator Chris Dodd has held the status of potential presidential candidate for years. So now that he#8217;s finally decided to go for it, he#8217;s going straight for it, skipping the exploratory committee to directly file as a candidate with the Federal Election Commission. He announced the Constrasting Spiritual Essay, move earlier today on “Imus in doomed meaning, the Morning,” and later today he’ll head to Teachers Iowa, and then to South Carolina on Sunday. The chinks in Mitt Romney’s social conservative armor are getting deeper. A video of a debate he had with Senator Edward M. Kennedy in 1994 when he tried to claim the in Asian Essay, Democrat#8217;s seat has surfaced on Constrasting Essay YouTube, and Mr. What Robber? Romney has had to Constrasting Essay now disavow his old views. The Boston Globe reports on the contents: The tape of a Senate debate between Romney and on Importance of Philosophers, Sen.

Edward M. Kennedy showed Romney defending a woman#8217;s right to abortion, saying he supported allowing gays in the Boy Scouts and distancing himself from former President Reagan by noting he was a registered independent during the period the conservative icon was leading the nation. All of the material has been previously published, but its presentation in video form #8212; and on the easily shared YouTube medium #8212; prompted an Constrasting Spiritual immediate response from Romney, who formed a presidential exploratory committee last week. In a call to a conservative radio show, Mr. Diabetes In Asian Adolescents Essay? Romney reflected on the debate video: Now, it also shows what 13 years will do. I#8217;m grayer. I#8217;m a little heavier. Constrasting Spiritual Essay? And I hope I#8217;ve grown a bit wiser as well. Of course, I was wrong on some issues back then.

I#8217;m not embarrassed to admit that. I think most of us learn with experience. I know I certainly have. The Speaker of the Illinois House wants to Essay on Importance of Philosophers move up the state’s primary date to Constrasting Teachers help Senator Barack Obama, Democrat of Illinois, if he decides to run in 2008. The Miami Herald reports that Florida may move up its primary date, too, from nihilism vs cynicism March to Spiritual Teachers Essay just after New Hampshire#8217;s. State legislators begin looking at is a it today. As John Edwards and Constrasting Teachers Essay, Mr. Obama grow increasingly popular among potential Democratic primary voters, Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton’s edge is vs cynicism slipping in key states. All the Democratic candidates will get to duke it out for the first time at a forum next month during the party#8217;s winter meeting.

Rudolph W. Giuliani might tap Jerry Kilgore, Virginia’s former attorney general and Constrasting Teachers Essay, G.O.P. gubernatorial candidate in 2005, to run his campaign in the commonwealth. Mr. Giuliani shrugged off the potential liabilities listed in a leaked memo during a television appearance this morning. In other staffing news, Senator Joseph Biden of Delaware has hired Luis Navarro, the head of the Florida Democratic Party, to run his potential presidential campaign., a liberal group, will spend $100,000 on ads scheduled to air next week in Iowa and New Hampshire criticizing Senator John McCain of Arizona for his call for more troops in Iraq. Here are some roundups of the potential candidates’ positions toward troop increases and withdrawals in Iraq from The Associated Press, The Des Moines Register and Essay, The Los Angeles Times.

Gov. Constrasting Spiritual Essay? Bill Richardson is Background Checks also making foreign affairs-related news for his involvement in the Darfur cease-fire agreement. Comments are no longer being accepted. the only good thing if he won would be he would not be a senator from CT. Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay? When Mark Warner bowed out of the what baron, race a two months ago, I was very disappointed, because I felt as though one of the more intelligent voices had been removed from what will be a very hard fought battle within the Democratic field. I can rest easy now. Christopher Dodd, for anyone paying attention, is the most qualified, well spoken, intelligent, and experienced man in either camp. No Republican can match his wit, and Spiritual Teachers, no Democrat has his experience or credentials. Joe Biden might come close, but Joe Biden is running for Joe Biden.

I encourage anyone who is seriously interested in this race to take a good look at Dodd, listen to what he has to say, and listen to the way he says it. This is the right man for the job. If we are speaking of official candidates then yes, Christopher Dodd is the most experienced and credentialed candidate in the bunch. If we take into consideration, however, likely candidates as well, then Gov. Bill Richardson easily takes that title. He was Energy Secretary under Clinton, Ambassador to is a robber the U.N. also under Clinton, a seven-term congressman, and now a two-term Governor.

But most importantly he has never been a Senator. As I#8217;m sure you all know, Senators have a notoriously difficult time being elected President. Not only because they have long voting records that can be attacked (Dodd is no exception here) but also because voters recognize that the job of an Teachers Essay executive and that of Satire In Huckleberry Essay, a legislator are very different. Richardson#8217;s experience also matches the Spiritual Teachers Essay, most pressing issues facing our country; energy and the environment, immigration, and foreign policy. Only in the latter can Dodd boast of much experience and nihilism vs cynicism, even then his expertise lies in Latin and South America (at least according to Constrasting Spiritual his website) while Richardson has negotiated with N. Korea over it#8217;s nuclear program. Dodd is a great candidate but when it comes to boasting a career that has prepared one for the multiple challenges and duties of the Presidency, Richardson clearly has the edge.

His only problem remains national name recognition but the earlier Nevada primary should give him a wonderful opportunity to showcase not only doomed meaning, his resume but also his considerable political talent. Forget about Richardson. The best ticket in 2008 will be Clinton-Dodd. Spiritual Teachers? The latest on President Obama, Congress and other political news from Washington -- and around the nation -- from the staff of The New York Times. The Caucus on nihilism Monday suspended its campaign. Follow First Draft, a fast-paced political briefing on Spiritual Essay all things Washington and elections.

Readmore#8230; Congress approved funding for equipping Syrian rebels against Islamic States and lawmakers will discuss their votes on several of the Sunday shows.Readmore#8230; President Obama vowed to Checks, Background Checks #8220;degrade and ultimately destroy#8221; ISIS in a speech he gave on Wednesday. Lawmakers and Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay, analysts will discuss his strategy on the Sunday shows. Vs Cynicism? Readmore#8230;

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cool hand luke essay background and analysis by Scott Miller. In these dangerous times, where it seems the world is Essay, ripping apart at the seams, we can all learn how to survive from those who stare death squarely in doomed meaning, the face every day and [we] should reach out to Spiritual, each other and in Asian Adolescents Essay, bond as a community, rather than hide from the terrors of life at the end of the millennium. Jonathan Larson wrote these words shortly before his death at age thirty-five, and they were discovered on his computer by his family after he died. Constrasting Essay! They serve as a fitting tribute to his only Broadway musical, the mega-hit Rent . Larson, a hard-working, long suffering, not yet recognized composer-lyricist-bookwriter had been working for on Importance of Philosophers, seven years on the cheerfully transgressive Rent , a 1990s rock/pop riff on Puccini’s beloved opera La Bohme, this time set in New York City’s East Village. Rent is Constrasting Spiritual Essay, so many things to so many people. It was the first musical in decades that younger audiences really identified with, that speaks in their voice, that voices their concerns, that tackles their issues. It breathed new commercial life into the Broadway musical, possibly signaling the in Asian, beginning of the end of the great divide between pop music and theatre music, which has existed since the advent of Spiritual Essay, rock and roll in the 1950s. Even the on Importance, title means different things to different people. Spiritual Teachers! It represents the Diabetes American Adolescents, financial burden young people feel as they graduate college full of knowledge but absent any marketable job skills, thrown into a real world where high ideals don’t pay the Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, rent. But the title also highlights the doomed meaning, temporary nature of these characters’ lives, the Constrasting Teachers, month-to-month living without permanence or promises. The characters Collins and Angel sing to each other in the song I’ll Cover You that though love can’t be bought, at least it can be rented.

In other words, their happiness won’t be forever – both of them have AIDS – but it’s theirs for a while. And the word rent also means torn, Larson’s favorite meaning of the title, and certainly the nihilism vs cynicism, characters in this show are torn between conflicting desires – between comfort and idealism, between love and dignity, between anger and pain, between the fear of intimacy and the fear of getting hurt. The word rent means shredded in grief or rage. It means split apart when it describes communities, families, or other relationships. Constrasting Teachers Essay! And it also means torn open by painful feelings, something nearly every character in the show feels at some point. And all the complexity of that simple, four-letter word parallels the construction of this fascinating musical. Larson’s lifelong goal was to combine the Diabetes in Asian Adolescents, Broadway tradition with contemporary pop music, a very difficult task at which many before him had failed. Constrasting Spiritual! After seven years of what is a robber baron, workshops and Spiritual, re-writes, the show was scheduled to open in previews off-Broadway at New York Theatre Workshop, on January 25, 1996. Background Essay! But Larson had been feeling ill.

He’d been to two hospitals; one diagnosed him with food poisoning, the other with the flu. Spiritual Teachers! The night before the first preview, after a great final dress rehearsal, Larson went home, put a pot of Reference Checks, Checks for BioServerSystems, water on Constrasting Spiritual Essay, the stove for tea, collapsed, and died of an aortic aneurysm. In June 1993, New York Theatre Workshop did a reading of Rent . Finn Essay! The show was a mess but showed real promise. Spiritual! Another reading was done in of Philosophers, 1994, this time with director Michael Greif on board. In October 1995 a reading was done in which the Spiritual, entire show was a flashback from Angel’s funeral.

In December 1995 Larson finished another revision that returned to the earlier structure and he wrote a one-sentence summary of the show: Rent is about a community celebrating life, in the face of death and Checks, Background Checks for BioServerSystems, AIDS, at the turn of the century. This statement of Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, purpose helped later on. After his death, as previews began, the artistic team found themselves trying to figure out Adolescents Essay, what Larson would have changed and what he would have kept working on. They went through his notes to Spiritual Teachers, see what he still had been unhappy with, and did their best to Essay, make decisions they thought he would have made. His one-sentence summary helped guide them through the difficult process of finishing a show without its author.

After two weeks of previews in early 1996, the show opened to rave reviews and standing ovations. Four months later it moved to Broadway and became the biggest thing to Constrasting Teachers Essay, hit the Great White Way since Phantom of the Opera . Nihilism Vs Cynicism! Larson received a posthumous Pulitzer Prize for his work. He had frequently told his friends that he knew he was the future of musical theatre. And he just might have been if he’d had a chance. The show moved to Broadway and opened at Constrasting Essay, the Nederlander Theatre on April 29, 1996, to both mixed and rave reviews. The New York Times called it an exhilarating, landmark rock opera, and Background for BioServerSystems Essay, said it shimmers with hope for the future of the American musical. Time magazine called it the Spiritual, most exuberant and original American musical to come along this decade. The Wall Street Journal called it the best new musical since the 1950s. On opening night, the performance began with Anthony Rapp, who played Mark, dedicating the show to of Philosophers, the memory of Jonathan Larson. Rent was nominated for Spiritual, a staggering ten Tony Awards and won four, including Best Musical, Best Score, and Best Book. It won six Drama Desk Awards, three Obie Awards, the New York Drama Critics Circle Award for Best Musical, an Outer Critics Circle Award, and a Drama League Award.

As had happened with Hair twenty-eight years before, Broadway borrowed from the alternative theatre community and discovered a gold mine. Is A Robber Baron! In 1992, Larson had written of his show, Rent also exalts Otherness, glorifying artists and counterculture as necessary to a healthy civilization. Larson and later, many commentators, called the show a Hair for the 90s and indeed it shares much with the 1968 landmark rock musical. Daphne Rubin-Vega, who originated the Teachers Essay, role of Mimi, said, We didn’t want to go to Broadway to become Broadway stars; we went to kick the motherfuckin’ doors of Broadway open, because it’s old-school and stodgy. We were invited there and that was cool.

The show became a cultural phenomenon. The cast soon found themselves in The New York Times, Newsweek, Vanity Fair, Rolling Stone, and Harper’s Bazaar. They appeared on The Late Show with David Letterman, The Charlie Rose Show, and The Tonight Show , and sang Seasons of Love at the 1996 Democratic National Convention. Both Hard Copy and Prime Time Live did stories on the show. Frank Rich, New York Times political columnist and former senior theatre critic, wrote in a Times op-ed piece, At so divisive a time in Essay, our country’s culture, Rent shows signs of revealing a large, untapped appetite for something better. Both the classical music reviewer and the pop music reviewer for the Times weighed in on Constrasting Teachers Essay, Rent , neither raving but both finding much to admire. Because the producers were as new to Broadway as the cast was, they did things very differently. They set aside the first two rows at each performance as $20 seats so that the people the show was about could afford to see it. Checks, Background For BioServerSystems Essay! These special tickets would go on sale at 6:00 p.m. each night and the line usually formed by noon on weekdays and often twenty-four hours in advance on weekends. Rent fans – sometimes called Rent Heads – would bring tents, food, and CD players to pass the time while they waited. Some had seen the show dozens of times.

But in Spiritual Teachers Essay, July 1997 the line was replaced with a lottery system. Still, the actors love having the $20 seats in front – they say the first two rows are always the most lively, the most passionate, and the most appreciative. But after the opening, great controversy circled around the mega-hit. Larson’s dramaturg from In Huckleberry Essay New York Theatre Workshop, Lynn Thompson, sued the family for Spiritual Essay, part of the show’s profits. Essay On Importance Of Philosophers! She lost. Constrasting Essay! Sarah Schulman, a playwright and Essay on Importance of Philosophers, novelist, sued the estate because she claimed Larson stole some of his plot and Constrasting Essay, characters from her novel People in Trouble . She also lost. Nihilism! In fact, there is nothing in Rent that even comes close to the plot and characters of Schulman’s book. Angel is the wise wizard in this collective hero myth story. She's almost other-worldly in her Zen-like understanding of the world around her, her wisdom, her compassion. Constrasting Spiritual! She's there to teach the others (and us) a valuable lesson, to see the Reference Checks, for BioServerSystems, world in Spiritual, terms of robber, what we can give instead of what we can get. As Collins says to Roger in Essay, Act II, Angel helped us believe in love.

I can't believe you disagree. On the other hand, several of the baron, central characters in Rent are dealing with much bigger issues than nineteen- or twenty-year-olds should face – AIDS, death, suicide, drug addiction, unsafe streets, big but dubious offers from TV execs. How many college-age kids ever grapple with anything like that? To call Roger, Collins, or Angel whiny misses the Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, entire point of the story. Perhaps the Reference Checks, Checks, people who hate Rent see their younger selves in these characters and they don't like that. Teachers! After all, most of us are whiny and selfish when you're young (and we artsies can be the worst); we still have growing up left to do.

Though to be honest, a lot of people in their forties still have growing up to Essay on Importance of Philosophers, do. Spiritual Essay! It’s not hard to see a parallel to American politics today. Of Philosophers! At the beginning of our story, these kids are the Republican Party: I want what I want, and Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, if the other guy also gets what he wants, that's fine, but don't ask me for any. They have to grow up and Essay, become more like the Democratic Party, believing that caring for the least of these makes us all better off. Angel teaches her friends – and us ? – to be more Christ-like. After all, Rent is about the least of these, the poor, the outcasts, the sick, the rejected, the kind of Constrasting Essay, people Jesus hung out with. For much of the twentieth century, Alphabet City has been where mainstream society's rejects form their own community, their own support system, to some extent even their own economy. It's the place where Mark can toast, To being an us for once, instead of a them. It's a place where Mark can ask, Is anyone in the mainstream? because he knows the answer is no. Not here . Maybe the most potent part of the vs cynicism, magic of Rent – and Teachers Essay, make no mistake, Rent is genuinely, inexplicably mystical in the same way that Hair is – is that its production requires the same kind of community the show depicts.

Any cast of on Importance, Rent has to Teachers, be, by nihilism vs cynicism, Larson's design, racially and sexually diverse. And that's why performing and watching Rent can be so powerful – the sense of community and the intense emotions aren't just realistic; they're real . The actors aren't just portraying all that; they're actually living it onstage. The Birth of Rent. Originally the idea for Rent was Billy Aronson’s, a young playwright who saw the similarities between La Bohme ’s artists at the turn of the last century in Paris, and the young artists at the turn of Spiritual Teachers, this century in America. Diabetes In Asian American! In 1989, he was looking for a composer to collaborate with and Playwrights Horizon suggested Larson.

When the two met, Aronson said to Larson, It’s time for a new Hair . Though they stuck to the basic plot of La Bohme , they exchanged tuberculosis for AIDS, and Paris for New York’s East Village. In 1991, after only minimal progress, Larson asked Aronson’s permission to go ahead on his own with Rent and Aronson bowed out. Constrasting Spiritual Essay! Larson decided to stray from Diabetes in Asian Essay Puccini’s opera, to consult the novel on which the opera was based, Scenes de la Vie de Bohme, and to go his own way. The opera’s poet Rodolfo became Roger the songwriter. Marcello the Essay, painter became Mark the filmmaker. Colline became Tom Collins (both philosophers) and Schaunard became Angel Dumott Schunard (both musicians). Musetta became Maureen the performance artist. Benoit the landlord became Benny the Background Checks Essay, roommate turned landlord.

And in Constrasting Teachers, Larson’s greatest departure, Mimi the embroideress became Mimi the SM dancer. When Rent opened, everybody made a big deal out of Diabetes in Asian Adolescents Essay, its connection to La Bohme . But Rent is not an updating of Teachers Essay, La Bohme or an adaptation; it’s a response to it. The characters are similar but that’s where the comparison ends. While La Bohme romanticizes death (which was very trendy in 1896 when it premiered), Rent celebrates life with all its might, as evidenced by all the references to life in the show (the Life Caf, the Angel’s group Life Support, and Checks, Background for BioServerSystems, others). Spiritual! While Bohme is vs cynicism, tragic, Rent is joyous. Constrasting Spiritual Teachers! While Bohme ’s bohemian world is romantic and Essay on Importance, poetic, the world of Rent is tough, gritty, angry, and real . While Bohme has Musetta’s Waltz, Rent has the cynical Tango Maureen.

While Bohme observes the bohemians from a distance, Rent is written by a bohemian, someone who had trouble paying the rent, whose friends were dying of AIDS; and Constrasting Teachers Essay, it fully inhabits that world. Larson kept the basic character profiles and the establishing situation from In Huckleberry Essay Puccini’s first act, but then he went off on his own. Like Rent , Bohme opens on Christmas Eve, while two artist roommates try to keep warm in Constrasting Essay, their apartment. Rodolfo burns his manuscript for heat. Colline and Schaunard show up with food and wine and Schaunard tells them the wild tale of how he made some unexpected money that day. In Bohme , he’s hired to play piano until he drives a parrot to death; in Rent , he’s hired to play drums until he drives a dog to suicide. Schaunard announces he’s taking them all out to Essay on Importance, eat. Benoit shows up asking for rent. All but Rodolfo leave for their favorite caf, and once they’re gone, Mimi appears, asking for a light for her candle, whereupon Rodolfo and Mimi fall in love. All that is also in Constrasting Spiritual Essay, Rent . There’s a very funny insider’s joke in on Importance of Philosophers, this scene in Rent , in the song Will You Light My Candle, a joke exclusively for fans of La Bohme . In Bohme , Mimi comes back the second time because she lost her key on Rodolfo’s floor when she fainted.

In Rent , Mimi comes back the second time also because she lost her key – a different kind of key – a kilo of cocaine. ( Key is drug users’ slang for kilo .) So Larson has both remained true to Bohme – Mimi came back for her key – and simultaneously updated it drastically. Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay! The other insider’s joke in the show is that Rent ’s Roger is trying to write his one great song and keeps coming up with something that sounds like Musetta’s waltz from American Adolescents La Bohme. Up to this point, the two stories are basically the same. But then Rent and La Bohme part company, as Larson’s characters pursue more 90s storylines. After the set-up, only Rent ’s flea market, the caf, and Mimi’s (near) death have counterparts in the opera. Constrasting Essay! Though Larson takes the operatic Mimi’s actual death and transfers it to Angel, while Rent ’s Mimi survives. Larson wrote detailed biographies of all his characters and this gave him the freedom to leave the details of Bohme behind and create his own world. On Importance Of Philosophers! In the biographies he wrote, as described in Spiritual Teachers, the Rent coffee table book, Mark and Benny were roommates at Brown University; Roger’s band was called the Well Hungarians; Mimi left home when she was fifteen; and in Asian American Adolescents, Maureen dreamed of being a famous performance artist like Patti Smith or Laurie Anderson. Rent is Larson’s more positive view of the Constrasting Teachers, world, with details and people from his own life mixed in to give the story resonance. Vs Cynicism! In real life, Larson himself actually had to throw his keys down to the street for people to get into his apartment, and he had to Teachers, run orange extension cords all over nihilism vs cynicism his apartment to Teachers Essay, make up for what robber baron, the lack of outlets.

He often went to support meetings with his best friend who was HIV-positive. He had once lost a girlfriend to another woman. All of this found its way into Rent , along with the names of three of his friends who had died of AIDS, in Spiritual Essay, the support group scene. Though Larson strayed greatly from the opera, he used many details from the novel upon which the opera is Essay on Importance of Philosophers, based, Scenes de la vie de Bohme by Henri Murger. The book is unlike the opera in many ways, particularly in its wonderful, raunchy sense of Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, humor. The book is funny, first and foremost, and Diabetes American, the four friends are much more like the four friends in Rent than they are like the Constrasting Spiritual, characters in the opera. The book is chock full of rampant casual sex and other delightful decadences, a remarkable thing for a book written in the 1840s. Also in the book, Mimi’s great tragic death of tuberculosis really belongs to Satire In Huckleberry Finn, a one-chapter character named Francine, who was in love with a man named Jacques, who died of grief a few days after Francine. Lots of Constrasting Spiritual, details in Rent come from the book: the importance of Collins’ coat, their regular restaurant where they often order nothing and don’t always pay the bill, the constant burning of manuscripts and letters for heat, Marcel/Mark’s decision to sell out Diabetes in Asian American Adolescents Essay, his art, and the structural significance of Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay, Christmas Eve.

The novel makes a strong (and constant) point of the fact that the four bohemians are fairly irresponsible, selfish, and immature (though utterly charming), a charge leveled by is a baron, critics against Constrasting Teachers Essay Larson’s characters. Robber! Also, in Teachers, the book Rudolf is able to write his one great poem only after Mimi has left him, paralleling Roger’s song Your Eyes. And just as the what is a robber baron, song revives Mimi in Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, the musical, Mimi in doomed meaning, the novel sees Rudolf’s poem in a magazine and it’s (indirectly) what brings them together again. Also, the novel is organized into dozens of short, seemingly randomly ordered and Constrasting Spiritual Essay, unconnected incidents. When critics complained about Rent ’s structure, they probably didn’t realize it mirrored the original novel. There are differences too. In the novel, Rudolf actually marries Mimi, but they separate after eight months because Mimi has champagne tastes and cheats on him repeatedly with rich men (mirroring Mimi and Benny in Reference Checks, for BioServerSystems, Rent) . Although the novel does end with Mimi showing up at Rudolf’s apartment half-dead, starving, and weak (though not on drugs), she doesn’t die there.

They call the doctor and put her in the hospital, from which a false report of her death is Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay, delivered to nihilism vs cynicism, Rudolf. But once he finds out it’s false and he finds Mimi again, she has actually died. (And people thought Rent could get confusing!) Why It Shouldn’t Have Worked. There are so many reasons why Rent should not have worked, why it should not have been a success off-Broadway, much less on Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay, Broadway, much less an Satire Essay, international phenomenon. First, rock and roll does not work in Spiritual Teachers, the theatre. Admittedly, that’s a pretty board statement but it’s almost always true. Satire Finn! Certainly Hair worked, but to this day no one really knows why. Constrasting! Several shows have succeeded that employed a watered-down, Broadway-pop vocabulary, Jesus Christ Superstar, Evita, Cats, Les Misrables, Miss Saigon, Jekyll Hyde, but those scores are not real rock. And Tommy doesn’t really count because it was a hugely successful rock album and Essay, movie decades before it ever hit Broadway; it’s impossible to Constrasting, know if it would have succeeded without its reputation. And it too was pretty watered down and Satire In Huckleberry Essay, sanitized on Broadway. Most pop musicals that have succeeded are far more pop than rock, and really soft pop at that.

With the Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay, obvious exceptions of of Philosophers, Hair and Tommy , when Broadway tries to speak in the voice of genuine rock and Constrasting Spiritual Essay, roll, the show is almost always a flop. The reason is Finn, that in Teachers, rock music the most important element is the beat. Nihilism! The melody, the chords, and the lyrics are often very repetitive and they all serve the beat. Generally, it’s the emotion and energy that matter, not the intellectual content. But in theatre music, the lyrics are the most important element. The lyrics not only have to be heard and Constrasting Teachers, understood (not always a priority in rock) but they also have to Essay, tell the Constrasting Essay, story, to advance plot and character. Reference Checks, Background Checks For BioServerSystems Essay! To do that, they have to convey clearly a lot of information in Constrasting Spiritual Essay, very few words; repetition is a luxury modern theatre composers and Essay, lyricists can’t afford.

So it follows that Rent shouldn’t have worked because its music is Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, genuine rock and roll (though more 70s than 90s). But theatre audiences loved it and doomed meaning, so did the pop music audience, though hard-core rockers denounced it as imitation. Perhaps to work on stage, it couldn’t have been pure, up-to-the-minute, on-the-radio rock, but it was real. Larson was as tuned in to rock as he was to traditional Broadway musicals, and he did the near impossible by successfully blending the two without emasculating either, creating a kind of Broadway fusion rock that satisfied both audiences. The CD quickly became the Constrasting Essay, best selling cast album of the doomed meaning, decade.

But the question remains: why did it work? Were Broadway audiences ready for Rent because the blander Broadway pop of Andrew Lloyd Webber had prepared them to accept a more legitimate rock sound? Did Tommy help pave the way? Or was the success of Rent an audience rebellion against the abundance of elevator pop on Broadway? And if not for Rent , would later pop musicals like Jekyll Hyde and The Scarlet Pimpernel have been so popular?

It’s impossible to know for sure. The second reason Rent shouldn’t have worked is Constrasting Spiritual Essay, that it was a big mess. Its first several incarnations were so full of ideas, so full of everything Jonathan Larson wanted to say, that no one could make heads or tails of it. There were so many themes he wanted to explore, so much of his wide-eyed optimism and naivet that he wanted to inject into his story, so many plot lines. And the specter of La Bohme was always getting in the way. It wasn’t until director Michael Greif entered the in Asian Essay, picture – and Constrasting, dramaturg Lynn Thompson and several others – that a coherent story began to emerge. And there were other issues.

Many of the people involved thought his early depiction of homeless people was nave and vs cynicism, borderline offensive. Many people thought too many of his characters were one-dimensional. And Larson could be very defensive, very closed to outside feedback. But luckily, as he began to Spiritual Essay, trust Greif and others, he opened up and listened to what they had to say. What Is A Robber! He began to trust their criticisms and makes changes. But he never finished his show. For many musicals, the Teachers, preview period is when the most important work gets done, and Larson died before previews began. Even now in its finished version, Rent has dramatic and structural problems. Is it better for its roughness and vs cynicism, imperfection, more accessible, more loveable for its flaws? Quite possibly. The third reason it shouldn’t have worked is Spiritual Teachers Essay, that Broadway audiences generally don’t want to see musicals about overtly sexual gays and Satire In Huckleberry, lesbians (although the de-sexualized varieties are okay), or SM dancers, drug addicts, drag queens, or performance artists.

And they certainly don’t want to see these people have simulated sex onstage. Like Hair did, Rent brought forbidden content to Broadway and ended up a commercial success. This is Spiritual Teachers Essay, even more surprising in an era when Disney is of Philosophers, becoming the Teachers Essay, king of doomed meaning, Broadway with its sanitized, family-friendly, substance-free musicals selling out and winning Tony Awards. Was Rent ’s success due to a backlash against a Broadway turning to Disney and the bloodless pop musicals epitomized by the work of Spiritual, Frank Wildhorn? Were Broadway audiences hungry for more adult fare? Did the In Huckleberry Essay, growing prevalence of gay and lesbian characters on Constrasting Spiritual Essay, TV and in movies make audiences more comfortable with this material? Did Larson’s innocence and on Importance of Philosophers, generosity of spirit come through these characters so warmly that audiences couldn’t help but care about them?

Again, it’s impossible to Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, know. Some critics complained that there was no irony in the material, no cynicism, none of Sondheim’s frosty intellectualism, as one critic put it, that everything in Rent was laid bare, right there on the surface. Perhaps that’s another reason why audiences embraced it. The last reason the show shouldn’t have worked is that it was the anti-spectacle. It had virtually no set – a couple tables, folding chairs, a platform for the band, and a junk sculpture on one side of the stage. It’s costumes came from the actors’ own closets and from thrift stores. The show looked sparser and more low-budget than anything in years. This low-rent show (pun intended) opened at a time when the other hits on Broadway were Sunset Boulevard, Show Boat, Beauty and the Beast, Les Misrables , Miss Saigon, Phantom of the Opera, Cats , and a tastelessly overproduced Grease, expensive spectacles one and all.

Why did audiences embrace Rent, a show that had neither chandelier nor helicopter? Then again, though Les Misrables had the turntable and doomed meaning, barricade, many of its scenes were played on a bare stage. Constrasting Spiritual! And opening at the same time as Rent was Savion Glover’s definition-defying dance musical Bring on da Noise, Bring on da Funk , which also used virtually no sets. Opening the In Huckleberry Essay, following season was the Teachers Essay, revival of Chicago which had less set than Rent did. Diabetes American Adolescents Essay! Maybe the time was just right. Teachers Essay! Maybe audiences were just ready. Maybe they were sick of empty calories. But aside from all these problems with the show as a whole, there are also some other problems that may or may not have been fixed had Larson not died. On Importance! Despite its much touted diversity – blacks, Latinos, gays and Spiritual Teachers, lesbians, cross-dressers, junkies – the two main characters (including the story’s narrator) are both straight white guys from suburbia, just like Larson was.

Did these two white guys make it easier for the audience to accept the others? Were the others just tokens? People argued both sides of the issue. And what about Mark and Roger’s refusal to pay Benny rent for their apartment? Why is that portrayed as such a gutsy gesture? Do they deserve to live rent-free and Finn Essay, job-free merely because they’re struggling artists? And let’s not forget that they’re struggling artists by choice . They could get jobs. Larson did; he waited tables for a living.

In a pinch, they could move back home with their parents or ask their parents for money. Their self-identification with the real homeless people seems artificial, and perhaps even a bit offensive. It’s safe to say that most of the homeless people living in the tent city on Benny’s lot are not there by Constrasting, choice, some probably suffering from mental illness, addiction, and who knows what else? Then again, this issue was raised over Hair – why were these kids panhandling on the streets when they came from middle class suburban homes, when most of them were college educated? Is it idealism, naivet, or just arrogance when Mark and on Importance of Philosophers, Roger declare they’re not going to pay rent this year or next even next year? Back to the Future. Rent didn’t really break that much genuinely new ground (one might argue that Grief’s staging did more than Larson’s material), but like Oklahoma! fifty years earlier, its triumph was in bringing together what had gone before it, combining many past innovations all in Constrasting, one new work, and doing it with great skill, and Reference Checks, for BioServerSystems, more important, great success. As mentioned before, innovations generally only get carried on if they show up in hit shows.

In fact, Larson’s great achievement and Constrasting Spiritual Essay, the reason for Rent ’s enormous appeal to so many different kinds of people lies precisely in the heady mix of musical theatre traditionalism and innovation. The show’s influences are many. Like the early musicals of Tim Rice and Diabetes in Asian American, Andrew Lloyd Webber ( Jesus Christ Superstar, Evita) and the musicals of Schnberg and Boublil ( Les Misrables, Miss Saigon ), Rent is through-sung, with almost no spoken dialogue. This is certainly nothing new. Broadway’s pop operas have been around since the early 1970s and Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, though their often over-blown spectacle has fallen out of vogue for the moment, the pop operas will no doubt continue. Doomed Meaning! (It’s interesting to note that Larson’s idol Stephen Sondheim has never written a through-sung musical. Teachers! Sondheim enjoys the back-and-forth between spoken dialogue and what is a, singing.) Like Lloyd Webber and Schnberg, Larson wrote self-contained songs as well as duets, group numbers (some with beautiful, carefully constructed counterpoint and harmonies), and operatic style recitative, using the structural vocabulary of classical opera with the harmonic and rhythmic language of Constrasting Teachers, rock. One could argue that Larson did all this better than those who went before him, but it wasn’t new. (A pause here for some parenthetical comments about one of my greatest pet peeves.

Too many people – experts even – habitually refer to pop and rock operas as through-composed . This is not correct. What they mean is through-sung , meaning that there is Essay, no dialogue, that everything is sung. Through-composed means something entirely different. It means that the Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, music never repeats itself, that no two verses have the same music, that there are no reprises in Act II, that the composer writes different music for every moment. I don’t know that I’ve ever seen a musical that is through-composed, although I’ve seen many that are through-sung. All musicals repeat music in some way and certainly Andrew Lloyd Webber, the king of the pop opera, does it a lot . Some people tell me I should lighten up, and they may be right, but either the American Essay, labels we use have meaning or they’re worthless.) Larson also wasn’t the first to adapt classical opera for Constrasting Spiritual, the musical theatre.

Oscar Hammerstein II did it with Carmen Jones in 1943, by updating Bizet’s opera Carmen, moving it to the American South, and writing all new lyrics. Jim Luigs and Scott Warrender did it in 1995 with Das Barbec , which recast Wagner’s operatic Ring cycle as a country western musical comedy, but this was more parody than adaptation. What Larson did, creating new music and In Huckleberry Finn, new text, and even freely adapting the plot, was arguably new. In a very real way, Larson borrowed from the musicals of the 20s and 30s and the work of the Gershwins, Cole Porter, Rodgers and Hart, and others, by writing in a genuine pop music style, a style that the Spiritual, audience hears in nihilism vs cynicism, their everyday lives, a style that instantly makes the language of the musical accessible to Constrasting Spiritual, the untrained ear. Doomed Meaning! Surely today, no one can escape rock/pop music. It’s in Teachers Essay, the movies, in commercials, even in dentists’ offices. And like the songwriters of the 20s and 30s did, Larson tells his story in the musical language of the on Importance of Philosophers, people, something Broadway has rarely done (or at least rarely done well) since the 1950s. Larson followed the lead of Rodgers and Hammerstein’s early musicals ( Oklahoma! , Carousel, South Pacific ) by telling a story that directly addresses important social issues and problems. Teachers Essay! And as in Oklahoma! , Larson’s story is on Importance of Philosophers, about a threat to the community; in Oklahoma! it’s Jud Fry, in Rent it’s AIDS. He used long-form musical scenes, which were first developed by Hammerstein, in Show Boat with Jerome Kern, and in Oklahoma! and Carousel with Richard Rodgers, a device perfected by Larson’s mentor Stephen Sondheim, most notably in Sweeney Todd . Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay! (And like Sondheim did in Sweeney , Larson even quoted the Diabetes in Asian Adolescents, dies irae, a musical motif from the mass for the dead, in the song La Vie Boheme.

He also mentioned Sondheim in that song.) Larson also learned from Hammerstein’s example that the truly great writers always write what they believe. Constrasting Essay! Sondheim writes about Diabetes in Asian American Adolescents, psychologically complex, neurotic New Yorkers because that’s what he knows and Spiritual Teachers, understands. Hammerstein wrote about cattle standing like statues because that’s what he understood and believed in. And like Hammerstein, Larson wrote with tremendous optimism, an almost embarrassing naivt, and a genuine love of life, because that’s who he was, despite living in is a baron, the midst of the AIDS pandemic and watching many of his closest friends die. But like Sondheim, Larson also focused more than anything else on Teachers Essay, the way people connect (and fail to connect), one of the most important themes in nihilism, Rent (as evidenced by Larson’s quote at the beginning of this chapter) and Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, a theme Sondheim returns to in almost every one of his shows. Larson followed in Essay on Importance, the footsteps of West Side Story in depicting the seamy, gritty side of life on the streets of New York, and in the footsteps of William Finn’s Falsettos trilogy in Essay, his matter-of-fact treatment of in Asian American Adolescents Essay, gay characters.

Like Grand Hotel and Sondheim’s Into the Teachers, Woods , Larson successfully manipulated numerous storylines, weaving them in and out of Diabetes in Asian, each other. He followed Cabaret and Company in their treatment of social issues and their use of commentary songs. He and Greif followed The Fantasticks and A Chorus Line by using virtually no set. All this is not to Constrasting Spiritual, say that Larson stole from any of Reference Checks, Checks for BioServerSystems Essay, these shows; he learned from them. He was a true Broadway baby, a serious, passionate student of the American musical theatre and he synthesized all that had gone before him to create a new creature, one that had clear ancestors but still stood on its own.

He did in Constrasting Spiritual, 1996 what Rodgers and Hammerstein did in 1943 with Oklahoma! – he knocked Broadway on its ass. We can only hope that, like Oklahoma! , Larson’s Rent will become a model for the new generation of Broadway musical artists. It’s Between God and doomed meaning, Me. What does Rent think about Constrasting Teachers, God and religion? The one time religion is really invoked in Rent , early in La Vie Bohme, it's held up for sustained mockery, including ironic quotes from the Latin mass and the Jewish prayer for the dead. Religion does not serve this community. The one time we see a representative of religion in Satire In Huckleberry Essay, the show, it's a nasty priest who's hassling Collins about paying for the funeral.

One other passing reference to God comes from the homeless: Can't you spare a dime or two? Here but for the grace of God go you. It's an interesting line, since most of the Constrasting Teachers Essay, characters don't seem to Background Checks for BioServerSystems, think much about God or religion. But with homeless people singing these lines, it might remind us of Teachers Essay, Bill Maher's contention that it's easier for middle-class and wealthy people to be atheists; it's a luxury of sorts. Those who are poor, the least of these, those who struggle to survive every day, don't always have that luxury. Then, midway through La Vie Bohme, we get this gem: It's between God and me. While some might see the suggestions of what robber, a belief in God here, it's such a confrontational, aggressive statement that we can't take it at Constrasting Essay, face value. What Robber! These kids are telling us they think the rules of Leviticus and Teachers Essay, the rest of the Bible are silly and anachronistic.

There's not even a hint of respect for those rules or their source here. But aside from these few references, God and baron, religion are mostly absent in this world. Take a look at the lyric of Another Day: There's only this. Or life is yours to miss. No day but today . Millions of people have sung these words since Larson wrote them, but how many of them have stopped to think about them? Many people hear that lyric as just a reminder to live for Spiritual Essay, the present, especially for these characters who have an uncertain future. But this lyric is saying a lot more than Live in the present. This lyric does two jobs, both giving the community some context, in the form of the support group, and what is a baron, also doing some important character work between Mimi and Roger. There's only this . Could that be the show's – or Larson's – rejection of organized religion and revealed word, rejection of a merciful God who brings AIDS down on his people, of various, conflicting codes of morality, of the moral cluelessness of a 2,000-year-old religion?

There is no God , this lyric is telling us; there's only us . Constrasting Spiritual Teachers! There is no heaven, no afterlife, no ultimate reward or punishment; there's only this life, here, now. Essay On Importance! Or as John Lennon put it: Imagine there's no heaven; It's easy if you try. No hell below us, Above us only sky. Imagine all the Spiritual, people. Living for today. Though some Rent fans may recoiling from this reading, the Satire, AIDS pandemic led a lot of people to question the existence of God.

As Larson watched so many of his friends killed by the disease, as he saw Christians reject and condemn the Constrasting Teachers Essay, gay community, as he heard the Background, Religious Right claim AIDS was God's just punishment on gays, what must that have done to Constrasting Teachers Essay, his ideas about God and Reference Checks, Checks Essay, religion? Or did he ever have any? Or life is yours to miss. Is that a call to reject notions of Constrasting Spiritual, sin and divine punishment? After all, by definition, the act of repentance for sins is backward-looking. Why beat yourself up, why do your penance, when you could be moving forward, this lyric seems to ask us. No day but today. Could this mean that the only way to truth, to happiness, to doomed meaning, enlightenment is to live fully in the reality of today, not in the mythologies of thousands of years ago, not in the spiritual bamboozles of new mythologies, but instead in Constrasting, the divinity of on Importance of Philosophers, plain old human connection, love, sex, generosity, forgiveness, kindness, joy, music?

If there is spirituality in Spiritual Teachers Essay, Rent , it's in the obviously named Angel. She brings out what is divine in Collins and the others. She shows us the road, this road that we're on, the one in Essay, front of us. If we embrace this road, this way, this day, we live more fully and we appreciate each other more deeply. The song goes on, and Mimi and Essay, the support group sing: I trust my soul. Mimi may be a heroin addict, but she's also something of a philosopher.

She has self-awareness, and In Huckleberry Essay, perhaps that's her great tragedy. They're not saying they trust God here, or fate, or Allah; they trust their souls. They trust their human nature, their humanity, the deepest part of themselves. They don't strive to be sinless or righteous or morally upright, but just to be, just to live life, to keep moving forward, to Spiritual Essay, play out their own individual hero myth stories, each on his own individual road. There's only now, There's only here. Or live in fear. There is robber baron, no eternity, the lyric seems to argue; there's only now.

There is no heaven, hell, or other plane of existence; there's only here. You can choose to Constrasting Spiritual Essay, live in love and doomed meaning, joy and sunlight, or you can choose to Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, live in fear and distrust and darkness. You can work to better the lives of your fellow humans, or you can live in on Importance, fear of them and what they'll take from Spiritual you. No day but today. It's pretty obvious why the support group is singing this as their affirmation. In Asian American Adolescents! They have to find peace in living with AIDS. They have to live fully now, because they don't know how much future they've got. Constrasting Spiritual Teachers! For Angel and Collins, that's freeing, and Checks, Background for BioServerSystems Essay, maybe it allows them to be themselves and accept themselves in a way they might not have otherwise.

Maybe they wouldn't have connected so quickly, so powerfully, if not for the disease they share. And maybe the same is true for Roger and Mimi. They're sickness is their bond. So why is Mimi singing this to Constrasting Teachers Essay, Roger? Because Roger is raging against the first genuine emotions he's felt since his girlfriend died. He hasn't been able to give into love thus far, so he has live[d] in fear. It's terrifying for him to feel again, because to feel again means to be hurt again. But Mimi has been hurt too. She really does understand what he feels.

She knows that she can live in that pain or she can give into love, and she knows the is a, same is true for Roger. Mimi the addict-philosopher urges Roger not to think about what might happen, who might get hurt, where it all might end, and instead just focusing on Constrasting Spiritual Essay, being with her here, now, for as long as they've got. They don't really have a choice, other than to retreat into themselves. There is no other path for them, no other way, and for many reasons, no day but today. More than anyone else, Rent is Roger's story.

It's true that there are essentially six leads in what is a baron, Rent , but most of them don't change significantly or learn anything significant. Roger and Mimi do, and Constrasting Essay, Mark and Maureen do also, to a lesser degree. What Is A! But Joanne and Collins have already gone through the growing-up process, and Angel is the story's wise wizard figure. Rent is Roger's hero myth. It's easy to get swept up in the joy and rowdiness of this show, the rich musical landscape, the quirky characters, and to miss the skillful, carefully wrought character arc that Larson constructed for Roger. Rent went through massive rewrites over Constrasting Spiritual Essay several years, and though roughness is to some extent Rent 's unique style, Larson did a lot of work on the show and Satire In Huckleberry Finn Essay, put a great deal of time and thought into its construction. Constrasting Spiritual Teachers! (In one early version, the show began with the funeral and then flashed back. ) Once you look closely at Roger's arc, you can see how the whole show is built on that structure. Roger is in enormous pain when we first meet him. He's been through a terrible tragedy – his girlfriend April gave him AIDS, then killed herself, just six months ago – and Essay of Philosophers, as many people do in horrific situations, he shuts down his feelings.

He becomes an Essay, emotional zombie. He looks like a person on the outside, but he's dead inside. He's learned to function, and how to fake a smile. But he has cut himself off from life. Reference Background Checks For BioServerSystems Essay! He hasn't seen anyone but Mark in a really long time.

And he's just six months clean from his own heroin addiction. Constrasting Teachers! You don't get cured of heroin addiction. It's like alcoholism; it's with you for life. You just learn to control it. Maybe . From the first moments of the show, we're introduced to Roger's magic amulet (like the ruby slippers and Luke's light saber), his Fender guitar. Robber Baron! It's the only part of him not dead. It's the artist part of him that's hanging on. As long as he has the guitar, as long as his one great song isn't finished, he has a reason to Constrasting Spiritual, get up tomorrow. Roger is unable to finish his song because he's emotionally crippled, but also because finishing his one great song would mean he could die. And deep down, that's not really what he wants.

He wants to live again. The action of Rent is how Roger makes his way back to the land of the living. It's about how Roger learns to be one of those people living with, living with, living with, living with, not dying from disease. Angel and Collins provide the call to adventure that begins every hero myth. Angel is Roger's wise wizard, his Glinda the Good Witch. Essay Of Philosophers! And his faithful companions on his journey are his community. More than any other modern piece of Constrasting Teachers, musical theatre, in on Importance of Philosophers, Rent , the community is a character – another way in which Larson followed the Constrasting Spiritual Essay, Rodgers Hammerstein model.

If Roger can just get out into the community, he will find again what was taken from him: real human connection. Our reluctant hero resists that call at first, but then he gets a second call to adventure, this time a call to doomed meaning, emotional ( okay, and sexual and chemical ) adventure, when Mimi barges into the loft. Roger resists again. He wants nothing to do with Mimi, because she's a junkie like April, and he will not go through that again. Constrasting Teachers Essay! He must protect himself, his heart, his broken soul. Just as he protects himself from his addiction. After Mimi leaves, Roger realizes he likes her. But what does that mean to an emotional zombie? Might it mean that he's not a zombie after all?

He finally answers Angel's call to adventure, inviting Mimi along. On Importance! And only Constrasting Essay then, when he risks, when he opens himself to Reference Checks, Checks Essay, the adventure, does something of value come back to him. Connection. And notice that our hero brings his magic amulet with him everywhere, to the flea market, to Maureen's performance, to Constrasting Teachers, the Life Cafe. Roger and Mimi's duet I Should Tell You is the show's obligatory moment, the doomed meaning, moments toward which everything before it has led, and from which everything after it results. Take out that moment and the whole story collapses. Roger finally pries open the door to Constrasting Spiritual Essay, his heart, finally takes that brave step. and finds out Mimi also has AIDS. Just like April. Just like him.

Part of is a robber, him is terrified that he's finally letting himself feel again, and that it's going to be exactly like the last time. Nothing but pain. Constrasting Spiritual Teachers! He knows it'll end the what robber baron, same way. He can't do that. He can't bear that kind of pain again. But another part of him thinks maybe at long last he's found someone who could understand what he feels, something even his best friend Mark can't provide. There's such weight, such deep despair, such understanding when Roger finds out Mimi has AIDS and all he can say is, Mimi. Spiritual! He can't believe it. Once again, he falls for someone who's a junkie and who has AIDS, and once again, he knows, she'll die, leaving him alone again. And he knows he won't survive that. And yet who could better understand what he's been going through?

The power of the scene is that Mimi knows exactly what he's thinking, and she can feel that weight, and nihilism, she knows the source of his pain. And she knows they could ease each other's pain. If only. And then he chooses. (Here goes. ) The end of Act I of Rent feels a little like the end of Spiritual, Act II of Next to Normal – guardedly semi-optimistic. Is A Robber Baron! A fully happy ending isn't really possible here, so we'll take what we can get. Yes, there will be pain. As Next to Normal tells us, It's the price we pay to feel. And as the act ends, Roger and Mimi join the others in Constrasting Teachers Essay, celebrating life at nihilism, the Life Cafe.

Unlike most stories, a big part of Roger's hero's journey is skipped, as we race through most of the year in Act II. We're left to fill in those blanks, assume a progression (and disintegration) of Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay, Roger and Mimi's relationship, but Larson does a great job of connecting all the dots for us. Roger's real moment of self-discovery comes in the double interior monologue he shares with Mark, What You Own in Act II, and in their fight leading up to Essay, it. In each hero myth, the hero has to Spiritual Teachers Essay, gain some new wisdom from the trials he's been through and he must return to his village to share his new wisdom. But first he has to hit rock bottom. Everything that Roger needed is being taken away.

In the song-scene Goodbye, Love, Roger and Mark have a real fight, and in pointing out what is a, each other's flaws and frauds, they each gain some self-awareness. It takes a fight for Spiritual Teachers, them to finally say all this, to finally open up. They sing: So I own not a notion. I escape and ape content. I don't own emotion – I rent.

What was it about that night? Connection – in an isolating age. For once the American Essay, shadows gave way to light, For once I didn't disengage. Dying in America. At the end of the millennium. We're dying in America.

To come into Constrasting Teachers our own. But when you're dying in America. At the end of the millennium, You're not alone. Or as Sondheim would put it, No one is alone. Mark and Roger are coming to realize that we all go through trials. We all suffer. We all grieve.

And we all know we're not alone. On Importance Of Philosophers! Notice the shift from living in Constrasting, America earlier in the song, to dying in America, and then to dying. to Essay of Philosophers, come into Constrasting Essay our own. It's the hero's progression from what is a robber mere existence, to challenge and danger, to finding your own place in the world. But Roger has not finished his journey. He has not yet become a man. If he doesn't own his emotion, how can he write a love song? When they bring Mimi up at the end of the show, Roger sees his past playing out in front him again.

It's all happening exactly as before. And then he makes a different choice . Teachers! Instead of giving in to the grief, as he did with April, here he fights it. He rises up to slay the dragon. Roger's song – or more accurately, the genuine love that his song expresses – is the kiss the Prince gives the Background Essay, Disney Princess that saves her life. He hasn't been able to write the song before now, because he wasn't yet capable of mature love. Now he is.

He's growing up. Now Roger is no longer passive. Teachers Essay! He has chosen to be active. He has chosen to act to save another. He has become heroic. in a small, urban, Alphabet-City, kind of way. Doomed Meaning! He has grown up, and Teachers, now he can love someone fully. But like Matt in is a, The Fantasticks , Roger first had to get beat up by the world.

Larson's decision to give Roger such a heavy backstory was one of his most important choices. The existence of April in the story changes it, and elevates it well beyond both the maudlin, emotional pornography of the opera and the subversive but shallow comedy of the novel on which the musical and the opera are based. April gives Roger weight. In the opera, Rodolfo seeks romance; in the novel, Rudolphe seeks sex. Roger seeks connection. At the beginning of the Constrasting Spiritual Essay, show, Roger's song had to be written before he dies. It's connected with ending. At the end of the show, his new song has to in Asian, be written to Essay, express real love. Now it's connected to beginning. All through the show, as a running joke, Roger keeps trying to write this song, but it always ends up sounding like Musetta's Waltz from La Bohme . (How meta!) Now that Roger has grown up emotionally – or at least, is growing up – now he can integrate his obstacle into doomed meaning his journey, and now a quote from Musetta's Waltz shows up as an integrated instrumental break in the middle of his love song, Your Eyes.

Instead of Teachers Essay, being stymied by it, he has conquered it. Instead of being trapped by the past, he now integrates the past into the present. Also notice that Roger's first big song, One Song Glory is all about Reference Checks, Background Checks, Roger. He even refers to himself in the song, in the third person. This is a shallow sentiment.

He wants glory. He thinks he's capable of truth like a blazing fire. Not yet he isn't. But by the end of the show, he's grown up and his last big song, Your Eyes, is Constrasting Spiritual Essay, all about Satire, Mimi. It's about connection.

Ultimately, Roger learns what Bobby learns in Company – Alone is alone, not alive. Teachers Essay! Like Bobby, Roger choose to make a commitment to someone, to put himself second. The finale of Company is called Being Alive because Bobby has chosen not to be alone. The goal isn't to find the perfect person. The goal isn't to is a robber, get married. The goal is to Spiritual, be alive. At the end of Rent , Roger choose to be alive. He takes all that he's learned on doomed meaning, his journey and he chooses connection.

It's not a Happily Ever After, because in real life there's always a next chapter. until there isn't. But it is a resolution. The (Second) Age of Aquarius. Jonathan Larson was born and died under the sign of Constrasting Spiritual Essay, Aquarius, fitting for the man who wanted to write the Essay on Importance, Hair for the 90s. In fact, as much as Rent was influenced by other musicals, no show shaped Rent more than Hair . Spiritual Teachers! The two shows are alike in vs cynicism, so many ways. Both originated off-Broadway and Constrasting Teachers, moved to Broadway. Both intentionally cast some actors who had no stage experience at nihilism vs cynicism, all. Both used costumes that came from thrift stores and actors’ closets to add a sense of realism. Neither show had much set. Both shows were a weird mix of concert and musical (like the subsequent off-Broadway sensation Hedwig and the Angry Inch ), with both scores relying to Constrasting Teachers, some degree on Diabetes Adolescents, list songs (even sharing some of the same references – sodomy, marijuana, Ginsberg, Antonioni, and others).

Both shows acknowledge themselves as theatre, directly addressing the audience. In Rent , Mark actually speaks many of the stage directions. In Hair , the actors interact with the audience. Both shows are about drugs (marijuana in Constrasting Essay, Hair , heroin in doomed meaning, Rent ), death (Vietnam in Hair , AIDS in Rent ), and Constrasting Essay, a strong sense of community as family. Both shows deal seriously with spirituality but reject traditional religious traditions. Both shows also rejected traditional Broadway staging techniques and both borrowed techniques from the experimental theatre movement, because both directors came from the is a robber baron, experimental theatre community. In fact, the static, presentational staging of Spiritual Essay, Seasons of Love in Rent was considered revolutionary by some but it’s taken directly from the vs cynicism, staging of Let the Sun Shine In in Hair . Both shows were perceived to have plot problems (no plot in Hair , a messy plot in Rent ), and in Constrasting Spiritual, fact, both shows were meant to In Huckleberry Finn, feel messy and unpolished. The success and Teachers Essay, legacy of Rent owes almost as much to its original direction and design as it does to its music and lyrics. What Baron! Director Michael Greif was criticized for his staging, which often looked random or even non-existent, but he was just picking up where Hair left off. Greif was creating a new kind of musical theatre staging, a theatrical equivalent to cinma vrit , the documentary style of filmmaking in Constrasting Teachers Essay, which no directorial control is evident, in which real life is doomed meaning, merely recorded without being manipulated.

Now, obviously, it’s tough for a musical to be completely natural because most people don’t break into Constrasting Spiritual song spontaneously, and even fewer have a band to back them up. But Greif got as close to cinma vrit as musical theatre can get, aiming for the impression that these actors are making it up as they go, that they’ve assembled on this nearly empty stage and are acting out their lives for us. There were no self-consciously clever staging moments, no technical surprises, no gimmicks (unless you call the lack of gimmicks a gimmick). Finn Essay! In all these ways, it picked up the central ideas of Hair . It was different, it was startling, and it was scary to Spiritual Essay, musical theatre traditionalists. Greif has said that he staged Seasons of Love first and the sparse, static staging of that number then determined the look of the rest of the show. Just as the Checks for BioServerSystems Essay, authors of Hair , Jim Rado and Gerry Ragni, used their lives and the lives of their friends as material, Larson did the same with Rent . As mentioned earlier, many small details of his life found their way into Spiritual Essay the show, as did the names of In Huckleberry Finn, friends lost to AIDS. And Roger and Mark are clearly two sides of Constrasting Teachers, Larson, both the artist-observer and the artist determined to leave behind something of value. Like Mark, Larson’s friends say he studied people intently, often asking couples why they were together, wanting to know friends’ life histories, asking sometimes very personal questions in vs cynicism, his quest to understand people. A friend says that on the last night of his short life, Larson told him that he had learned from an HIV-positive friend that it’s not how many years a person lives that counts; it’s how you fulfill the time you spend here, a philosophy Larson certainly shared with Roger. Constrasting Teachers Essay! Larson also injected his hopelessly sunny disposition and nihilism, impossible optimism into Angel, the heart of Rent . Though Larson died, he lives on in these characters. Like Hair, Rent is about the things its creator thought were important.

It’s a show about survival, just like Jason Robert Brown’s musical Songs for a New World . Perhaps the Constrasting Essay, message of this generation is that the real heroism is in living, in just making it from one day to the next, against greater odds than a more generous universe would allow. Though many musicals have dealt with death, though some have even killed off their hero, never before has a Broadway musical included four main characters living with AIDS. And still, the doomed meaning, show rarely focuses on death and rarely gets depressing. Spiritual! It’s uplifting even as it deals frankly with tragedy. Is A! In Angel’s death we still celebrate the joy he brought to Collins and the rest. Rent deals in spiritually even though it doesn’t mention God. The church of Spiritual Teachers, Rent is Life itself – the Life Caf, Angel’s group Life Supports, the nihilism, life teeming through the streets of New York City, the life force that rages through each character as they all struggle to survive. Mark’s song Halloween asks why this extended family of friends was brought together and Constrasting Spiritual Teachers, the answer is that they are each other’s church, each other’s reason for celebration and for thanks.

Mark asks this question, significantly, standing outside a church, not within it. Mainstream religion does not offer this generation what it seeks. Like the generation of Hair thirty years earlier, their answers aren’t in the Bible; their answers are in the sense of nihilism, family and community they all share. And like Hair , Rent is not just about a community of characters, it’s also about the Constrasting Spiritual, community of artists who created it. Just as each cast of Hair takes a tribal name and becomes a family in very real ways, so too does each cast of Satire In Huckleberry Finn Essay, Rent form deep, lasting bonds. It’s the nature of the Constrasting Spiritual Essay, material. The Legacy of Rent. Rent ’s legacy is tough to estimate just a few years after its opening. Certainly, it will ruin the voices of a generation of singers.

Because the Reference Essay, producers want actors who don’t feel like actors (as Larson wanted), many of them are untrained and don’t know how to Constrasting Spiritual, warm up their voices and bodies before a show, how to doomed meaning, rest their voices on days off, how to prepare their bodies for a kind of abuse few people ever experience. Constrasting Teachers Essay! Many actors who have performed in Rent have blown out their voices and developed serious vocal problems. This was less of a problem with Hair because no one actor had all that much music to doomed meaning, sing, but in Rent several characters sing a great deal of music each night. In August 1997, the New York Times did an Constrasting Essay, article on absenteeism in Rent and in Savion Glover’s Noise/Funk . At some performances of Rent , as many as nine out of Reference Checks, Background for BioServerSystems Essay, fifteen cast members would be missing. This had also been a problem with Hair , but due more to drugs than to sore throats. But the real question is: will Rent change Broadway the way Larson hoped it would? So far it hasn’t.

Would it have been different if Larson had lived? Maybe. Who knows what his next show would have been like? Then again, maybe Larson’s other shows wouldn’t have made it to Broadway. Maybe they wouldn’t have been the near masterpiece that Rent was. Constrasting! The other young composers making their marks on Broadway are following more in the tradition of Sondheim’s sophisticated, complex musicals than following Larson’s populist lead. Reference Checks! Adam Guettel’s brilliant Floyd Collins clearly came out of the Sondheim tradition. Jason Robert Brown’s Songs for Constrasting Spiritual, a New World was heavily pop and RB-influenced, but Brown’s Parade was closer to Sondheim.

Frank Wildhorn’s musicals, Jekyll Hyde, The Scarlet Pimpernel , and others, came directly out of the Top 40 sound, but they don’t succeed as theatre, really amounting to nothing more than Star Search with a slight story, so he won’t be the heir to Larson’s legacy. Maybe the only hope resides in a new voice we haven’t heard yet, that will appear on the scene as suddenly as Larson’s did, who will finish the work of putting musical theatre and pop music back together again, without sacrificing the integrity of either, the way Larson did so brilliantly and so lovingly.

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Background study of the case (abstract) The formulation of a winning modern strategy and Constrasting, its effective implementation can result in success for Reference Checks profit oriented businesses, non-profit organizations and even political parties alike. The clear proof is the success of British labour party in Spiritual, general elections of 1997 after long years being out of power due to “old way thinking”, non-innovative approach and conflicts of interests within the party itself. All of these were changed once the future youngest prime minister since 1812 Tony Blair became the leader of the party in 1994. Robber! With the appointment of the young party leader many things changed within the Constrasting Teachers Essay party. Reference Checks, Checks For BioServerSystems Essay! One of the first things Tony Blair did as the party leader was to formulate a clear strategy and to adapt a business-like approach to lead the Labour party. He appointed competent, open-minded people in key positions, recognized and addressed the interests of all stakeholders and identified Labour party’s customer segments tasking into account unique interests of each segment group. All of these strategic decisions provided success for the Labour party. Tony Blair British Prime Minister (1997-2007) The present work aims to Teachers Essay, analyse the successful strategy which was adopted and implemented by Labour party under the leadership of Tony Blair with assistance from Tom Sawyer and other members of the team.

Background of the case (abstract) provided at the beginning of the work to familiarize the reader with the topic of the case and to provide general background information in American Adolescents, brief which was followed by Essay introduction to the work. Analysis of the case is also undertaken in more detail to review key strategic decisions made by Labour party leaders, motives behind them, barriers for their implementations and outcomes after implementing those decision. This is followed by critical view and answer to questions based on the model.. Explanation is offered of nihilism vs cynicism how tony Blair was able resuscitate the labour party from long period of failure by the use of the “Enterprise Model” highlighting major points and analysing all components of the model in great detail. The model was created for Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay a business entity, therefore, the application of the model needed to be re-adjusted to on Importance, accommodate our case. Constrasting Spiritual Essay! For instance, the main objective of any business entity remains to be profit maximisation, and in Asian American, accordingly “Enterprise Model” identifies internal and external factors of strategy formulation and implementation taking into account that particular objective of a business entity. When we applied the “Enterprise Model” in the case of Labour Party, some of its components, external influencers to strategy formulation and implementation like shareholders and raw material providers needed to be alerted because they do not apply to a political party in a way that they apply to a business entity. Also, Tom Sawyer’s use of Spiritual Teachers “Five Phases” of strategy implementation is on Importance discussed in detail taking into account the specifications of the Labour party and great resistance displayed by some party members towards strategic innovations. In doing so, what obstacles Labour leadership encountered and overcame in each phase are described to together with viewpoints from Spiritual Teachers Essay, other authors regarding these phases. Conclusions include all the lessons which can be learned from Labour’s experience and author’s impression from the whole process of work is shared.

Tony Blair’s appointment on party leadership 1994 proved to be an ultimate success for the Labour party at least for the initial period of several years of robber his leadership. He was rightly aware that without radical changes within the party it was impossible for him to be elected as a Prime Minister. Tony Blair’s early efforts were directed towards making Labour party the most efficient, innovative, trustworthy, modern, motivated, disciplined, responsive and proactive electorate organization. One of the Spiritual Teachers Essay most successful appointees by Tony Blair was Tom Sawyer. He was appointed as Labour party’s general secretary within the first days of Tony Blair becoming party leader. What made Sawyer especially valuable was his background which was in trade unions.

Also, Sawyer was closely familiar with Labour party and his numerous links to party members, members of is a robber baron Parliament, unions, business elite and other parties might be very useful in future. Main object of Constrasting Teachers Tom Sawyers concentration was strategy. Vs Cynicism! Sawyer and other senior party members formulated and implemented Labour party’s new strategy in a way that it benefited the Spiritual Teachers Essay party in short and Reference Background Checks for BioServerSystems, long terms in it served as a basis behind the Essay idea of “New Labour”. Main obstacle on the way of Sawyer’s implementation of strategic decisions were lack of doomed meaning cooperation from some party members, even some senior respected party members who were comfortable with status quo. Reasons for the unwillingness to cooperate among some party leaders were fear of Teachers uncertainty, lack of motivation, lack of knowledge and qualifications in new environment, and, as a result possible threats to their current position. As a result some party members from that category had to be dismissed, but some did not change their stand and still remained in their positions for various reasons.

However, the persistence of the new party leadership on In Huckleberry Finn Essay, new strategic culture resulted in most of the members to accept and adjust to Constrasting Spiritual Essay, new way of doing things. For many years ahead of Blair’s leadership former party leaders new what their aims and objectives were. However, they failed to approach strategically which resulted in their unpopularity. The strategy in any business is aimed at identifying the customers, identifying their needs and for BioServerSystems, developing products and services to satisfy those needs. The same approach was adopted for party leadership when Tony Blair became head of Labour. Party leadership identified their customers, which were more diverse compared to a business entity, segmented them according their needs, goals and other common features and strived to serve each segment taking into account their unique needs.

Tony Blair started to unite party leaders and member towards party’s vision. Recognising the importance of communicating the vision party leaders established projects like Key Seats department which was targeting 100 marginal constituencies and communication vehicle called Rebuttal Unit, aimed to provide internet-based library information. All of the above mentioned strategic measures undertaken under the leadership of Tony Blair with Tom Sawyer and other party leaders provided victory for Labour party and is considered a good case study to recognise the importance of defining and Constrasting Spiritual, implementing effective strategies for any entity. Critical view and response to the questions based on Reference Checks, model. Question 1. By the use of the “Enterprise Model”, describe how Tony Blair was able resuscitate the Labour Party from a long buried landmine. Enterprise Modelling is described by Wikipedia as “abstract representation, description and Spiritual Teachers Essay, definition of the structure, processes, information and what is a baron, resources of an Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay, identifiable business, government body, or other large organization” (Wikipedia-online encyclopaedia, 2010). Essay! An alternative definition is Constrasting Spiritual Teachers Essay offered by Smith (1998) describes enterprise model as one or more models used for Reference Checks, Essay documentation of process and Teachers, data for an organization or enterprise and it serves as the centre of planning and integration for all information systems management. According to Fox Gruninger (1998, p.1) the role of an enterprise model is to achieve model-driven enterprise design, analysis, and operation. The “Enterprise Model” to be discussed is cited by Freedman Tregoe (2003, p.13), as taken by Alan Brache. Freedman Tregoe (2003, pp. 13-15) analyse Brache’s “Enterprise Model” and Essay of Philosophers, offer their classification and interpretation of the Constrasting Teachers Essay model.

The author of this work does not use Freedman Tregoe’s interpretation of is a robber Brache’s “Enterprise Model” to describe Tony Blair’s use of strategy, but offers his own analysis of Brache’s “Enterprise Model”. All of the factors effecting strategy implementation by a business entity according to Brache’s “Enterprise Model” are described and how it went in case of Tony Blair’s strategy implementation are explained below: Strategy is formulated by leadership and it affects business processes. In case of Spiritual Essay Tony Blair’s Labour it affects how the party is promoted and electorate is what robber baron attracted. Strategy and business processes both affect following aspects of business:

Goals and Constrasting Spiritual Essay, measurements . Strategy implemented by the company and its goals and measurements are inter-related. BecauseThe strategy defined by Tony Blair is going to define goals and measurements of Labour party. Human capabilities . Be it any business entity or political party strategy will effect employee capabilities within the organization by motivating or de-motivating them. In case of labour party, although Blair’s strategies initially met some resistance, at the end it was able to unite and motivate party leaders and members towards a common vision. Information/Knowledge management . Initiatives, like Rebuttal Unit were aimed to communicate information more efficiently which served its purpose. Organization structure and roles . “New Labour” introduced policies which led to more efficient organizational structure within labour party. Culture . A definition of culture is given by nihilism Adair (2007, p.98) as a way of Constrasting Essay living, thinking and Essay, feeling of a group of people who follow a common set of values. Strategy formulation is Teachers going to define or at least affect the culture within any organization. Tony Blair’s strategy was able to bring the culture of innovation and nihilism, open-mindedness within labour party.

All of the Spiritual Teachers Essay above components are based on issue resolution which in turn defines the degree and efficiency of strategy implementation. Also there are range of external factor effecting strategy formulation and implementation according to in Asian, Brache’s “Enterprise Model”: Government/Regulation, Policies. Spiritual! In a case of business entity government regulation and policies effect company in American, a way that the company has to operate within those regulations. Within Labour party, on Teachers, the other hand, Tony Blair’s strategy included pinpointing to current inefficiencies within government rules and regulations and promising change to doomed meaning, eliminate those inefficiencies. Economy/Economic conditions.

For a business entity economic conditions determine potential customer’s ability and willingness to buy company’s products and services. It is Essay different for a political party in a way that party leader can develop strategy that promotes party’s plans regarding improving economy. That was what Tony Blair did. Society and Community/Concerns. Society and communities, in what is a robber baron, Labour’s case UK’s population are concerned about the plans of the party and its ability to implements its policies which are being widely promoted. Constrasting Spiritual Teachers! Blair’s strategy was able to reassure society and community which guaranteed landslide victory for the party in general elections. Parent Corporation/Priorities. Labour party does not have a parent corporation; therefore, this particular factor did not affect strategy implementation and formulation for Tony Blair in any way. Another group is identified in Brache’s “Enterprise Model” which greatly effect strategy formulation and implementation for a company.

They are shareholders and customers. Shareholders invest capital in a business and expect equity and In Huckleberry Finn, dividends in return. Customers buy products and services of the company and expect their needs and expectations to be satisfied. Whether shareholders and Constrasting Teachers Essay, customers are the same for a political party is doomed meaning a question which is open for debate. However, the author risks to identify the Spiritual Essay shareholders and customers of the Labour party as the same people for a reason it is illegal for party donors to expect “equity and dividends” from the party, hence they become regular customers. Tony Blair was able to Checks, Background, formulate and implement a strategy that was customer oriented and satisfied their needs. Resource providers and suppliers are also identified as external influencers to strategy formulation and implementation by business according to the “Enterprise Model”. Also, competitors influence the strategy in a way that strategy has to Spiritual Teachers, be defined taking into account the position of competitors in marketplace and nihilism vs cynicism, offer better products and services than they do. Question 2. Critically analyse how the “Five Phases” implementation strategy was employed by the Labour Party’s Secretary, Tom Sawyer to Constrasting, help turn the party around . The Five Phases of formulating and implementing strategy is what is a taken from Freedman Tregoe (2003, p.22) and consists of following: 1. Strategic intelligence gathering and analysis. 2. Strategy formulation.

3. Strategic master project planning. 4. Strategy implementation. 5. Strategy monitoring, reviewing and updating. The implementation of “New Labour’s” new strategies were mainly supervised by party’s general-secretary Tom Sawyer and the following is Constrasting Spiritual Essay its analysis under “Five Phases2 implementation strategy: 1. Strategic intelligence gathering and analysis. Tom Sawyer conducted strategic intelligence gathering and analysis to doomed meaning, modernize the Labour party. Ten keys to a successful business intelligence strategy is proposed by Daniel (2007):

1. Choosing a C-level sponsor. 2. Creating common definitions. 3. Accessing current situation. 4. Creating a plan for data storage. 5. Understanding what users need. 6. Deciding whether to buy or build the analytical data model.

7. Considering all business intelligence components. 8. Choosing a system integrator. 9. Choosing key performance indicators. 10. Choosing high-value, simple components to start. Thenmozhi (2001, p.2) differentiates three levels of strategy formulation, each of them with different focus: a) Corporate Level Strategy. It involves large-scale decisions about the total organization’s scope and direction. Labour’s corporate level strategy corresponds with senior party leadership and involves strategic decisions which concern all stakeholders. “New Labour” was able to formulate an Constrasting Teachers, efficient corporate level strategy which contributed to the success of the party. b) Competitive Strategy (also called Business Level Strategy).

At this level the strategy involves deciding how the company will compete within each line of Satire In Huckleberry business or strategic business unit. For Tony Blair and Tom Sawyer it implies devising election campaigns and policies which are more attractive to electorate than election and campaigns of other political parties. c) Functional Strategy. Constrasting Spiritual! More localized and low-level strategies dealing with how each functional area and unit will conduct its functional activities to be more efficient. 3. Strategic master project planning. Fiby Worstell (2003) differentiate master planning from design in terms of scale, scope, and timeline and insist that institution development generally occurs through a three-tiered process, comprised of strategic planning, master planning, and project design. Labour’s strategic project planning was undertaken under the supervision of Tom Sawyer and helped to modernize the Satire Finn party vehicle in a more efficient one. According to Birnbaum (2009) successful strategy implementation includes six key supporting factors: 1. Action Planning. 2. Organization Structure.

3. Human Resources. 4. Essay! The Annual Business Plan. 5. Monitoring and Checks, Essay, Control. 5. Strategy monitoring, reviewing and updating. The frequency of strategy reviews, McNamara (online, 2010) informs depends on the nature of the organization and the environment in which it is operating. The last phase of strategy formulation and implementation was also successfully undertaken on a regular basis by Blair, Sawyer and other party leaders. The case of transformation of Labour party from inefficient and unpopular party to a party which is open, innovative and Constrasting, successful is a proof that strategic decisions, or in some cases indecisions can make or break any company or organization. However, formulation of doomed meaning a winning strategy is not enough.

Barriers to its successful implementation should be overcome. This can be achieved through careful analysis and planning and also through studying relevant case studies.