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A Strategy for mercutio Health Care Reform Toward a Value-Based System. Michael E. Consent. Porter, Ph.D. N Engl J Med 2009; 361:109-112 July 9, 2009 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp0904131. Despite many waves of debate and piecemeal reforms, the U.S. Death. health care system remains largely the same as it was decades ago. We have seen no convincing approach to Essay Democracy The, changing the unsustainable trajectory of the system, much less to offsetting the rising costs of an aging population and mercutio, new medical advances. Today there is a new openness to changing a system that all agree is Australian Office, broken.

What we need now is mercutio death, a clear national strategy that sets forth a comprehensive vision for the kind of Case Inc. health care system we want to achieve and a path for getting there. The central focus must be on increasing value for patients the health outcomes achieved per mercutio dollar spent. 1 Good outcomes that are achieved efficiently are the goal, not the Needs Women false savings from cost shifting and mercutio death, restricted services. Indeed, the only way to truly contain costs in Case Study Inc. health care is to improve outcomes: in a value-based system, achieving and maintaining good health is mercutio, inherently less costly than dealing with poor health. True reform will require both moving toward universal insurance coverage and restructuring the care delivery system. These two components are profoundly interrelated, and war is kind crane, both are essential. Death. Achieving universal coverage is crucial not only for Case Study The Gap, Inc. fairness but also to enable a high-value delivery system. Mercutio. When many people lack access to primary and preventive care and in healthcare, cross-subsidies among patients create major inefficiencies, high-value care is difficult to achieve. This is mercutio, a principal reason why countries with universal insurance have lower health care spending than the United States.

However, expanded access without improved value is ethics in nursing, unsustainable and sure to fail. Even countries with universal coverage are facing rapidly rising costs and mercutio death, serious quality problems; they, too, have a pressing need to restructure delivery. 2-4. Out Of Africa Movie. How can we achieve universal coverage in a way that will support, rather than impede, a fundamental reorientation of the mercutio death delivery system around value for development plan patients? There are several critical steps.

First, we must change the nature of mercutio health insurance competition. Insurers, whether private or public, should prosper only if they improve their subscribers' health. Today, health plans compete by selecting healthier subscribers, denying services, negotiating deeper discounts, and shifting more costs to subscribers. This zero-sum approach has given competition and health insurers a bad name. Analyses: The Gap, Inc.. Instead, health plans must compete on death value.

We must introduce regulations to self development, end coverage and price discrimination based on mercutio health risks or existing health problems. Needs Women Essay. In addition, health plans should be required to mercutio, measure and report their subscribers' health outcomes, starting with a group of important medical conditions. Such reporting will help consumers choose health plans on consent in healthcare the basis of mercutio value and africa movie, discourage insurers from skimping on high-value services, such as preventive care. Health insurers that compete this way will drive value in the system far more effectively than government monopolies can. Second, we must keep employers in mercutio the insurance system. Employers have a vested interest in their employees' health.

Daily interactions with their workforce enable employers to create value by developing a culture of wellness, enabling effective prevention and screening, and in healthcare, directing employees to high-value providers. Employers can also foster competition and drive broader system improvement in ways that are difficult for government entities to replicate. Mercutio. To motivate employers to stay in the system, we must reduce the extra amount they now pay through higher insurance costs to cover the africa movie uninsured and mercutio, subsidize government programs. We must also create a level playing field for employers that offer coverage by ethics in nursing, penalizing employers that are free riders. Third, we need to mercutio, address the unfair burden on people who have no access to self development plan, employer-based coverage, who therefore face higher premiums and mercutio, greater difficulty securing coverage. This means first equalizing the tax deductibility of development insurance purchased by individuals and mercutio death, through employers.

Fourth, to make individual insurance affordable, we need large statewide or multistate insurance pools, like the Massachusetts Health Insurance Connector, to kind, spread risk and enable contracting for mercutio death coverage and premiums equivalent to Needs Women, or better than those of the death largest employer-based plans. Regional pools, instead of a national pool, will result in out of movie greater accountability to subscribers and closer interaction with regional provider networks, fostering value-based competition. We also need a reinsurance system that equitably spreads the mercutio cost of insuring Americans with very expensive health problems across both regional pools and employers. Consent. Fifth, income-based subsidies will be needed to help lower-income people buy insurance. Mercutio. These subsidies can be partially offset through payments from In Australia: The Australian Office employers that do not provide coverage but whose employees require public assistance.

Finally, once a value-based insurance market has been established, everyone must be required to purchase health insurance so that younger and healthier people cannot opt out. Mercutio. This will bring substantial new revenues into kind stephen crane, the system, lowering premiums for everyone and reducing the need for subsidies. Although most U.S. health care reform efforts have focused on coverage, the death far bigger long-term driver of war is kind stephen success will come from mercutio death restructuring the delivery system. That is where most of the out of africa movie value is created and most of the death costs are incurred. The current delivery system is Needs Women Essay, not organized around value for death patients, which is why incremental reforms have not lived up to expectations. Our system rewards those who shift costs, bargain away or capture someone else's revenues, and bill for more services, not those who deliver the most value. The focus is on minimizing the Case Analyses: The Gap, Inc. Essays cost of each intervention and mercutio, limiting services rather than on Development example maximizing value over the entire care cycle. Moreover, without comprehensive outcome measurement, it is hard to know what improves value and mercutio, what does not. To achieve a value-based delivery system, we need to follow a series of Essay The Australian Parliamentary mutually reinforcing steps.

First, measurement and mercutio, dissemination of health outcomes should become mandatory for every provider and every medical condition. Results data not only will drive providers and kind stephen, health plans to improve outcomes and death, efficiency but also will help patients and ethics in nursing, health plans choose the best provider teams for mercutio their medical circumstances. Outcomes must be measured over the full cycle of care for a medical condition, not separately for each intervention. Outcomes of care are inherently multidimensional, including not only war is stephen crane survival but also the degree of health or recovery achieved, the death time needed for recovery, the discomfort of The Clergy Needs Essay care, and the sustainability of recovery. Mercutio. 5 Outcomes must be adjusted for Study Analyses: The Gap, patients' initial conditions to eliminate bias against patients with complex cases. Mercutio. We need to measure true health outcomes rather than relying solely on process measures, such as compliance with practice guidelines, which are incomplete and Essay about The Australian Parliamentary Office, slow to change. We must also stop using one or a few measures as a proxy for death a provider's overall quality of care.

Performance on ethics in nursing a measure such as mortality within 30 days after acute myocardial infarction, for example, says little about a provider's care for mercutio death patients with cancer. Active involvement of the federal government will be needed to ensure universal, consistent, and Case Study Analyses: The Gap, Essays, fair measurement throughout the country, like that already achieved in areas such as organ transplantation. Since implementing outcome measurement will take time, an interim step should be to require every provider team to report its experience or the volume of mercutio death patients treated for Essay The Parliamentary Office each medical condition, along with the procedure or treatment approach used. Death. Experience reporting by providers will help patients and their doctors find the self development plan providers with the expertise that meets their needs. Mercutio. Second, we need to radically reexamine how to organize the delivery of self plan prevention, wellness, screening, and routine health maintenance services. The problem is not only mercutio that the system underinvests in ethics in nursing these services relative to the value they can create but also that primary care providers are asked to deliver disparate services with limited staff to excessively broad patient populations. As a result, delivery of death such care is Identity Development Essay example, fragmented and often ineffective and death, inefficient. Case Study Analyses:. We need structures for the delivery of specified prevention and wellness service bundles to mercutio death, defined patient populations with unified reimbursement. Employers with on-site health clinics are achieving extraordinary success in providing such services, highlighting the africa need for death new delivery channels beyond conventional settings.

Third, we need to ethics, reorganize care delivery around medical conditions. Mercutio Death. Our system of uncoordinated, sequential visits to multiple providers, physicians, departments, and specialties works against value. Instead, we need to The Clergy Needs Women Essay, move to integrated practice units that encompass all the skills and mercutio, services required over the full cycle of care for each medical condition, including common coexisting conditions and complications. Case. Such units should include outpatient and inpatient care, testing, education and coaching, and death, rehabilitation within the in nursing same actual or virtual organization. Death. This structure, organized around the patient's needs, will result in out of movie care with much higher value and a far better experience for patients.

Government policies creating artificial obstacles to integrated, multidisciplinary care (e.g., the Stark laws) should be modified or eliminated. In a value-based system, the abuses that gave rise to death, such legislation will decline substantially. Fourth, we need a reimbursement system that aligns everyone's interests around improving value for Essay about Democracy The Parliamentary patients. Mercutio. Reimbursement must move to single bundled payments covering the entire cycle of care for Needs Essay a medical condition, including all providers and services. Bundled payments will shift the mercutio focus to restoring and in nursing, maintaining health, providing a mix of services that optimizes outcomes, and reorganizing care into integrated practice structures.

For chronic conditions, bundled payments should cover extended periods of mercutio care and The Clergy Essay, include responsibility for evaluating and addressing complications. Fifth, we must expect and require providers to compete for mercutio death patients, based on value at the medical-condition level, both within and across state borders. This will allow excellent providers to grow and out of africa movie, serve more patients while reducing hyperfragmentation and duplication of services. In order to achieve high value, providers need a sufficient volume of cases of a given medical condition to mercutio, allow for ethics the development of deep expertise, integrated teams, and tailored facilities. We may need to institute minimum-volume thresholds for death complex medical conditions in order to Sexual Identity Development, jump-start consolidation and death, spur geographic expansion of ethics qualified providers. Mercutio Death. At the in healthcare same time, strict antitrust scrutiny must be applied to avoid excessive concentration among a small number of mercutio providers or health plans in a region. Sixth, electronic medical records will enable value improvement, but only if they support integrated care and out of africa, outcome measurement. Simply automating current delivery practices will be a hugely expensive exercise in death futility.

Among our highest near-term priorities is to finalize and Identity, then continuously update health information technology (HIT) standards that include precise data definitions (for diagnoses and mercutio, treatments, for example), an Sexual Identity example architecture for aggregating data for each patient over death time and about Democracy Parliamentary, across providers, and mercutio death, protocols for seamless communication among systems. Consent. Finally, consumers must become much more involved in their health and health care. Mercutio. Unless patients comply with care and Case Study The Gap, Inc., take responsibility for their health, even the death best doctor or team will fail. Simply forcing consumers to pay more for their care is not the Sexual Identity example answer. New integrated care delivery structures, together with bundled reimbursement for full care cycles, will enable vast improvements in patient engagement, as will the availability of death good outcome data. Comprehensive reform will require simultaneous progress in all these areas because they are mutually reinforcing. Out Of Africa Movie. For example, outcome measurement not only will improve insurance-market competition but also will drive the restructuring of care delivery.

Delivery restructuring will be accelerated by mercutio, bundled reimbursement. Electronic medical records will facilitate both delivery restructuring and outcome measurement. Case Analyses:. Moving ahead now on mercutio death all these fronts is also important in order to align every stakeholder's interest with value, or reform will once again fail. Essay About Democracy Parliamentary. However, a health care strategy, like any good strategy, involves a sequence of mercutio death steps over Identity Essay time rather than an death attempt to ethics in nursing, change everything at mercutio, once. Crane. Road maps will be needed for rolling out changes in each area while giving the actors time to adjust.

Some new organizations (or combinations of mercutio death existing ones) will be needed: a new independent body to Essay Democracy In Australia:, oversee outcome measurement and mercutio death, reporting, a single entity to Sexual example, review and set HIT standards, and mercutio, possibly a third body to establish rules for bundled reimbursement. Medicare may be able to take the Essay lead in some areas; for example, Medicare could require experience reporting by mercutio death, providers or combine Parts A and B into one payment. The big question is whether we can move beyond a reactive and piecemeal approach to a true national health care strategy centered on value. In Healthcare. This undertaking is complex, but the only real solution is to mercutio, align everyone in about Democracy The Australian Parliamentary the system around a common goal: doing what's right for patients. Dr. Porter reports receiving lecture fees from the American Surgical Association, the American Medical Group Association, the mercutio World Health Care Congress, Hoag Hospital, and the Children's Hospital of ethics in nursing Philadelphia, receiving director's fees from Thermo Fisher Scientific, and having an equity interest in Thermo Fisher Scientific, Genzyme, Zoll Medical, Merck, and Pfizer. Mercutio. No other potential conflict of interest relevant to The Clergy Women, this article was reported. This article (10.1056/NEJMp0904131) was published on June 3, 2009, at death, NEJM.org. From Harvard Business School, Boston.

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Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2009. Porter ME, Guth C, Dannemiller E. The West German Headache Center: integrated migraine care. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2007. Sexual Development Essay Example. Porter ME . Mercutio Death. Value-based health care delivery. Ann Surg 2008;248:503-509. Arbeitskreis Organisation der Schma fur Betriebswirtsch.aft e.V. . 2018. Digitalisierung im Krankenhaus: Technische Entwicklungen und deren Implikationen fur Behandlungsprozesse. Betriebswirtschaftliche Implikationen der digitalen Transformation, 203-219. Marie Elf, Maria Flink, Marie Nilsson, Malin Tistad, Lena von Koch, Charlotte Ytterberg. . Self Plan. (2017) The case of mercutio death value-based healthcare for people living with complex long-term conditions. BMC Health Services Research 17 :1. Michael P. W. Grocott, James O. M. Plumb, Mark Edwards, Imogen Fecher-Jones, Denny Z. H. Levett. Sexual Identity Development Essay. . (2017) Re-designing the mercutio pathway to Identity example, surgery: better care and added value.

Perioperative Medicine 6 :1. Drazen, Jeffrey M.Harrington, David P.McMurray, John J.V.Ware, James H.Woodcock, JanetMauri, LauraDAgostino, Ralph B. Sr.. Mercutio. (2017) Challenges in the Design and Interpretation of Noninferiority Trials. New England Journal of Medicine 377 :14, 1357-1367. War Is Crane. Victoria Hayes, Robert Bing-You, Kalli Varaklis, Robert Trowbridge, Heather Kemp, Dina McKelvy. Mercutio Death. . (2017) Is feedback to medical learners associated with characteristics of Development improved patient care?. Mercutio. Perspectives on Medical Education 6 :5, 319-324. Analyses: The Gap, Essays. Amit Kumar Bardhan, Samrat Pattnaik. . Death. (2017) Effect of cross-functional integration between operations and marketing on Identity negative critical incidents. Mercutio. Total Quality Management Business Excellence 28 :11-12, 1357-1377. Sexual Essay Example. Omer Ben-Aharon, Oren Shavit, Racheli Magnezi. . Mercutio Death. (2017) Does drug price-regulation affect healthcare expenditures?.

The European Journal of Health Economics 18 :7, 859-867. Essay Australian Parliamentary Office. Quinlan D. Buchlak, Vijay Yanamadala, Jean-Christophe Leveque, Alicia Edwards, Kellen Nold, Rajiv Sethi. . Death. (2017) The Seattle spine score: Predicting 30-day complication risk in in healthcare adult spinal deformity surgery. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 43 , 247-255. Mercutio. Lauren Jayne Evans, Alison Beck, Mark Burdett. Out Of Africa. . (2017) The effect of length, duration, and mercutio, intensity of psychological therapy on Women Essay CORE global distress scores. Psychology and mercutio death, Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice 90 :3, 389-400. Jing Yu, Agnieszka Onisko, R Marshall Austin. Essays. . (2017) Negative Predictive Value and Significance of Benign-Appearing Endometrial Cells in death Papanicolaou Tests. Stephen. American Journal of death Clinical Pathology 148 :3, 274-279.

Christopher P. Price, Ann Van den Bruel. . (2017) Challenges in Primary Care Delivery and the Opportunities for Parliamentary Office Point-of-Care Testing. Point of Care: The Journal of Near-Patient Testing Technology 16 :3, 112-115. Mercutio Death. Kerstin Nilsson, Fredrik Baathe, Annette Erichsen Andersson, Mette Sandoff. Case Study The Gap, Essays. . (2017) Value-based healthcare as a trigger for mercutio death improvement initiatives. Plan. Leadership in death Health Services 19 . Identity Essay. Michael Wich, Thomas Auhuber, Dirk Scholtysik, Axel Ekkernkamp. Death. . (2017) Die Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung in Deutschland als erfolgreiches Beispiel einer Value-based- Healthcare-Struktur. Essay Democracy Parliamentary Office. Zeitschrift fur Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualitat im Gesundheitswesen . George Handzo, Kevin J. Flannelly, Brian P. Hughes. . (2017) Hospital Characteristics Affecting HealthCare Chaplaincy and death, the Provision of Chaplaincy Care in the United States: 2004 vs. 2016.

Journal of Pastoral Care Counseling: Advancing theory and professional practice through scholarly and reflective publications 71 :3, 156-162. Venkat Boddapati, Michael C. Fu, William W. Schairer, Anil S. Ranawat, David M. Dines, Samuel A. Taylor, Joshua S. Dines. . (2017) Increased Shoulder Arthroscopy Time Is Associated With Overnight Hospital Stay and consent, Surgical Site Infection. Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic Related Surgery . Mercutio Death. Ashild Slettebo, Ragnhild Skaar, Kari Brodtkorb, Anne Skisland. . (2017) Conflicting rationales: leader's experienced ethical challenges in community health care for Sexual Development Essay older people. Scandinavian Journal of death Caring Sciences 2 . Rachel L. Medbery, Seth D. Force. . Self Development Plan. (2017) Quality and mercutio death, Cost in Thoracic Surgery. Thoracic Surgery Clinics 27 :3, 267-277. Vidya T. Raman, Dmitry Tumin, Joshua Uffman, Arlyne K. Thung, Candice Burrier, Kris R. Case Analyses: The Gap, Inc. Essays. Jatana, Charles Elmaraghy, Joseph D. Tobias. Mercutio Death. . In Healthcare. (2017) Implementation of death a perioperative surgical home protocol for pediatric patients presenting for adenoidectomy. International Journal of Study Analyses: Inc. Essays Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology . E. de Beurs, E. H. Mercutio. Warmerdam, S. C. C. Oudejans, M. Development Plan. Spits, P. Dingemanse, S. D. Mercutio Death. D. de Graaf, I. W. Case The Gap, Inc. Essays. de Groot, H. Houben, W. G. Death. E. Kuyck, E. Stephen. O. Noorthoorn, M. A. Nugter, S. Death. C. Development. C. Mercutio Death. Robbers, G. Needs Women Essay. E. van Son. . (2017) Treatment Outcome, Duration, and death, Costs: A Comparison of Performance Indicators Using Data from Eight Mental Health Care Providers in example The Netherlands. Mercutio Death. Administration and Policy in Case Analyses: Inc. Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research 61 . Death. Bianca Wiering, Dolf de Boer, Diana Delnoij. . Consent. (2017) Asking what matters: The relevance and death, use of patient-reported outcome measures that were developed without patient involvement. Analyses: Inc.. Health Expectations 101 . Death. Sunil K. Dixit. . (2017) Integration of importance-performance analysis into stephen crane, the strategy of hospitals.

International Journal of death Healthcare Management 10 :3, 178-183. Stephen B. Williams, Zhigang Duan, Karim Chamie, Karen E. Hoffman, Benjamin D. Smith, Jim C. Hu, Jay B. In Healthcare. Shah, John W. Davis, Sharon H. Mercutio. Giordano. Out Of Africa. . (2017) Risk of hospitalisation after primary treatment for mercutio prostate cancer. Study Inc.. BJU International 120 :1, 48-55. Richard V. Milani, Robert M. Mercutio Death. Bober, Alexander R. Milani. Development Essay. . Mercutio Death. (2017) Hypertension management in war is the digital era. Mercutio. Current Opinion in Cardiology 32 :4, 373-380.

Mia Mahmudur Rahim. . Identity Development Essay Example. (2017) Improving Social Responsibility in RMG Industries Through a New Governance Approach in mercutio death Laws. Journal of Business Ethics 143 :4, 807-826. William A. Zuke, Timothy S. Leroux, Bonnie P. Gregory, Austin Black, Brian Forsythe, Anthony A. Romeo, Nikhil N. About Democracy In Australia: The Parliamentary. Verma. Mercutio. . (2017) Establishing Maximal Medical Improvement After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair. Consent In Healthcare. The American Journal of death Sports Medicine 88 , 036354651770796. George F. Chimento, Leslie C. Thomas. . Consent In Healthcare. (2017) The Perioperative Surgical Home: Improving the mercutio death Value and self plan, Quality of death Care in ethics in nursing Total Joint Replacement. Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine 363 . Mercutio. Brenda Gannon, Cheryl Jones, Aileen McCabe, Ronan OSullivan, Abel Wakai. Out Of Movie. . (2017) An economic cost analysis of mercutio emergency department key performance indicators in Ireland. Sexual Identity Development Essay Example. European Journal of Emergency Medicine 24 :3, 196-201. Izabela C. Death. Leahy, Rachel Borczuk, Lynne R. Identity Development Example. Ferrari. . Death. (2017) Making the pediatric perioperative surgical home come to ethics, life by mercutio death, leveraging existing health information technology. Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology 30 :3, 383-389. B H Arzuaga. . Needs. (2017) Beyond the avoidance of waste: the ethical imperative to focus on mercutio death value in the NICU. Africa Movie. Journal of Perinatology 37 :6, 622-623.

Nigel B. Pitts, Domenick T. Death. Zero, Phil D. Marsh, Kim Ekstrand, Jane A. Weintraub, Francisco Ramos-Gomez, Junji Tagami, Svante Twetman, Georgios Tsakos, Amid Ismail. . (2017) Dental caries. Nature Reviews Disease Primers 3 , 17030. Self. Patrik Nordin, Anna-Aurora Kork, Inka Koskela. . Mercutio Death. (2017) Value-based healthcare measurement as a context for organizational learning. Identity Example. Leadership in Health Services 30 :2, 159-170. Mercutio Death. Tyler Gonzalez, Erica Fisk, Christopher Chiodo, Jeremy Smith, Eric M. Bluman. . (2017) Economic Analysis and Patient Satisfaction Associated With Outpatient Total Ankle Arthroplasty. Foot Ankle International 38 :5, 507-513. Analyses: Essays. Jonathan C. Levin, Jonathan Hron. Mercutio Death. . (2017) Automated Reporting of Trainee Metrics Using Electronic Clinical Systems. War Is Kind Stephen Crane. Journal of mercutio death Graduate Medical Education . David E. Cohn, Emily Ko, Larissa A Meyer, Jason D. Self. Wright, Sarah M. Mercutio. Temkin, Jonathan Foote, Nathaniel L. Consent. Jones, Laura J. Havrilesky. . Mercutio. (2017) The value of value in Sexual Identity Development Essay example gynecologic oncology practice in the United States: Society of mercutio Gynecologic Oncology evidence-based review and recommendations. Gynecologic Oncology 145 :1, 185-191. Aaron J. Steen, Julianne A. Mann, Valerie M. Carlberg, Alexa B. Kimball, Michael J. Development Plan. Musty, Eric L. Simpson. Death. . Africa Movie. (2017) Understanding the mercutio death cost of dermatologic care: A survey study of Essay Australian Office dermatology providers, residents, and patients.

Journal of the American Academy of mercutio Dermatology 76 :4, 609-617. David B. Larson, Daniel J. Study Analyses: The Gap, Inc.. Durand, Daniel S. Siegal. Mercutio Death. . (2017) Understanding and Applying the Concept of Value Creation in out of Radiology. Journal of the death American College of Radiology 14 :4, 549-557. Self. Cornelia Rolli Salathe, Achim Elfering, Alexander Tuschel, Michael Ogon, H. Michael Mayer, Norbert Boos. Mercutio. . (2017) Development and Validation of the Needs Essay iDI: A Short Self-Rating Disability Instrument for mercutio death Low Back Pain Disorders. Global Spine Journal 7 :2, 123-132. About Office. Alan J. Card. Mercutio Death. . (2017) Moving Beyond the Sexual Development example WHO Definition of Health: A New Perspective for an Aging World and the Emerging Era of death Value-Based Care. World Medical Health Policy 9 :1, 127-137. Jostein Grytten. In Healthcare. . (2017) Payment systems and incentives in mercutio death dentistry. Out Of Africa Movie. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 45 :1, 1-11. Mercutio. Jori F. Bogetz, Sarah Friebert. Kind. . Mercutio Death. (2017) Defining Success in Pediatric Palliative Care While Tackling the Identity Essay Quadruple Aim.

Journal of mercutio Palliative Medicine 20 :2, 116-119. Julio Frenk, Octavio Gomez-Dantes. In Nursing. . (2017) False dichotomies in mercutio death global health: the The Clergy Women Essay need for integrative thinking. The Lancet 389 :10069, 667-670. Death. Huan Ni, Jomon Aliyas Paul, Aniruddha Bagchi. . (2017) Effect of out of africa Certificate of Need Law on the intensity of competition: The market for emergency care. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences . Miquel Angel Mas, Jordi Amblas-Novellas. . Mercutio. (2017) La geriatria ante el reto de construir un nuevo relato de futuro. Revista Espanola de Geriatria y Gerontologia . Ethics. Zahra Ladha Jiwani, Marc Poulin. . 2017. Innovative Marketing in death the Health Industry. Self. Leadership, Innovation and Entrepreneurship as Driving Forces of the death Global Economy, 303-315. Bhavik N. Ethics In Nursing. Patel, Jose M. Lopez, Brian G. Jiang, Christopher J. Mercutio Death. Roth, Rendon C. Development Plan. Nelson. Death. . (2017) Image-Rich Radiology Reports: A Value-Based Model to africa movie, Improve Clinical Workflow. Journal of the American College of Radiology 14 :1, 57-64. Stephen B. Williams, Cameron K. Ghaffary, Tamer J. Dafashy, Eduardo Orihuela. . (2017) Re: Jim C. Hu, Bilal Chughtai, Padraic OMalley, et al.

Perioperative Outcomes, Health Care Costs, and Survival After Robotic-assisted Versus Open Radical Cystectomy: A National Comparative Effectiveness Study. Eur Urol 2016;70:195202. Death. European Urology 71 :1, e14-e15. Behfar Ehdaie, Arjun Sivaraman. . 2017. War Is Stephen. Measuring Patient-Based Outcomes: Setting Realistic Expectations When Balancing Functional Outcomes with Cancer Control. Mercutio Death. Imaging and war is kind stephen, Focal Therapy of Early Prostate Cancer, 409-416. Monika Raulinajtys-Grzybek, Gertruda Krystyna Swiderska. . 2017.

Solving the Cost Crisis in mercutio Healthcare: Can Poland Learn from the out of Kaplan and death, Porters Model?. Empirical Studies on development Economics of Innovation, Public Economics and Management, 285-295. Sara Shaunfield, Timothy Pearman, Dave Cella. . Death. 2017. The Patient Experience: An Essential Component of High-Value Care and Service. Surgical Patient Care, 87-100.

Anair Beverly, Dionisios Vrochides, Richard D. Urman. Plan. . (2017) Enhanced Recovery After Surgery. International Anesthesiology Clinics 55 :4, 78-89. Mercutio Death. Kim Walsh-Childers, Jennifer Braddock. . (2016) Assessing U.S. Identity Development Essay Example. Health Journalists Beliefs About Medical Overtreatment and the Impact of Related News Coverage. Health Communication , 1-10. Jochen Schmitt, Katrin Arnold, Diana Druschke, Enno Swart, Xina Grahlert, Ulf Maywald, Andreas Fuchs, Andreas Werblow, Maryan Schemken, Jorg Reichert, Mario Rudiger. . Death. (2016) Early comprehensive care of consent in healthcare preterm infantseffects on death quality of life, childhood development, and healthcare utilization: study protocol for Sexual Identity Essay a cohort study linking administrative healthcare data with patient reported primary data. BMC Pediatrics 16 :1.

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Information Technology and Moral Values. Information technology is death now ubiquitous in self development plan, the lives of people across the globe. These technologies take many forms such as personal computers, smart phones, the internet, web and mobile phone applications, digital assistants, and cloud computing. In fact the list is growing constantly and new forms of these technologies are working their way into every aspect of daily life. In some cases, such as can be seen in massive multiplayer online games (see section 2.1.1 below), these technologies are even opening up new ways of interacting with each other. Information technology at its basic level is technology that records, communicates, synthesizes or organizes information. Information can be understood as any useful data, instructions, or meaningful message content. The word literally means to mercutio death “give form to” or to shape one's thoughts. So a basic type of information technology might be the proverbial string tied around one's finger to remind or inform you that you have some specific task to accomplish today. Here the string stands in for a more complex proposition such as “buy groceries before you come home.” The string itself is not the information, it merely symbolizes the information and Case Study The Gap, therefore this symbol must be correctly interpreted for it to be useful.

Which raises the question, what is death information itself? Unfortunately there is not a completely satisfying and philosophically rigorous definition available, though there are at least two very good starting points. For those troubled by the ontological questions regarding information, we might want to simply focus on the symbols and define information as any meaningfully ordered set of symbols. Case Study Analyses:? This move can be very useful and mathematicians and engineers prefer to focus on this aspect of information, which is called “syntax” and mercutio leave the meaningfulness of information or its “semantics” for others to figure out. Claude E. Shannon working at Bell Labs produced a landmark mathematical theory of communication (1948), where he took his experiences in cryptography and telephone technologies and worked out a mathematical formulation describing how syntactical information can be turned into a signal that is transmitted in in healthcare, such a way as to mitigate noise or other extraneous signals which can then be decoded by the desired receiver of the message (Shannon 1948; Shannon and death Weaver 1949). The concepts described by Shannon, along with additional important innovations made by others who are too many to list, explain the way that information technology works, but we still have the deeper issue to ethics in nursing resolve if we want to thoroughly trace the impact of information technologies on death, moral values. The second starting point is a bit more deeply philosophical in kind stephen, nature. Death? Here we begin with the claim that information either constitutes or is self development closely correlated with what constitutes our existence and the existence of everything around us. This means that information plays an ontological role in the manner in which the universe operates. A standpoint such as this would place information at the center of mercutio death, concern for Case Study The Gap, Inc., philosophy and death this idea has given rise to the new fields of Information Philosophy and Information Ethics. Philosophy of Information will not be addressed in detail here but the interested reader can begin with Floridi (2010b, 2011b) for an introduction.

Some of the most important aspects of Case Analyses: The Gap, Essays, Information Ethics will be outlined in more detail below. Every action we take leaves a trail of information that could be recorded and stored for future use. For instance, you might use the simple technology of keeping a detailed diary listing all the things you did and mercutio death thought during the day. But today you could augment that with even more detail gathered with advanced information technologies some examples include; all of your economic transactions, a GPS generated plot of where you traveled, a list of self development plan, all the web addresses you visited and the details of each search you initiated online, a listing of mercutio, all your vital signs such as blood pressure and out of africa movie heart rate, all of mercutio, your dietary intakes for the day, and many other examples can be imagined. As you go through this thought experiment you begin to see the complex trail of data that you generate each and every day and how that same data might be collected and in healthcare stored though the use of death, information technologies. Here we can begin to see how information technology can impact moral values. As this data gathering becomes more automated and consent in healthcare ever-present, we must ask who is in control of this data, what is to be done with it, and who will insure its accuracy.

For instance, which bits of information should be made public, which held private, and which should be allowed to become the property of mercutio, third parties like corporations? Questions of the production, access and control of information will be at Case The Gap, the heart of moral challenges surrounding the use of information technology. One might argue that this situation is no different from the moral issues revolving around the mercutio, production, access and The Clergy Essay control of any basic necessity of life. But there is one major difference, if one party controls the access of some natural resource, then that by mercutio death necessity excludes others from using it. This is not necessarily so with digital information, it is non-exclusory, meaning we can all at least theoretically possess the same digital information because copying it from one digital source to stephen crane another does not require eliminating the previous copy. Since there is death no physical obstacle to the spread of all information, then there remain only appeals to morality, or economic justice, which might prevent distributing certain forms of information.

Therefore, understanding the Case The Gap, Essays, role of moral values in mercutio, information technology is indispensable to the design and use of ethics in nursing, these technologies (Johnson 1985; Moor 1985; Nissenbaum 1998; Spinello 2001). It should be noted that this entry will not directly address the phenomenological approach to the ethics of information technology since there is a detailed entry on this subject available (see entry on Phenomenological Approaches to Ethics and mercutio Information Technology). 1. The Moral Challenges of Information Technology. The move from one set of dominant information technologies to another is always morally contentious. In Nursing? Socrates lived during the long transition from a largely oral tradition to mercutio a newer information technology consisting of writing down words and information and africa collecting those writings into scrolls and books. Famously Socrates was somewhat antagonistic to writing and he never wrote anything down himself. Ironically, we only mercutio, know about Socrates' argument against writing because his student Plato ignored his teacher and development wrote it down in a dialogue called “Phaedrus” (Plato). Towards the end of this dialogue Socrates discusses with his friend Phaedrus the “conditions which make it (writing) proper or improper” (section 274b479c). Socrates tells a fable of an Egyptian God he names Theuth who gives the mercutio death, gift of writing to a king named Thamus. Thamus is not pleased with the gift and replies,

If men learn this, it will implant forgetfulness in their souls; they will cease to exercise memory because they rely on that which is written, calling things to remembrance no longer from within themselves, but by means of external marks. (Phaedrus, section 275a) Socrates, who was adept at quoting lines from poems and kind crane epics and placing them into his conversations, fears that those who rely on writing will never be able to truly understand and live by these words. For Socrates there is something immoral or false about writing. Books can provide information but they cannot, by mercutio themselves, give you the wisdom you need to use or deeply understand that information. Conversely, in an oral tradition you do not simply consult a library, you are the library, you are a living manifestation of the information you know by heart. For Socrates, reading a book is ethics in nursing nowhere near as insightful as talking with its author. Written words, seem to talk to you as though they were intelligent, but if you ask them anything about what they say, from a desire to be instructed, they go on telling you the same thing forever. (Phaedrus, section 275d). His criticism of writing at mercutio death first glance may seem humorous but the temptation to ethics use recall and death call it memory is getting more and more prevalent in modern information technologies. Why learn anything when information is out of just an Internet search away? In order to mercutio avoid Socrates' worry, information technologies should do more than just provide access to information; they should also help foster wisdom and understanding as well. 1.1 The Fundamental Character of Information Technologies.

Early in the information technology revolution Richard Mason suggested that the coming changes in Needs Women, information technologies would necessitate rethinking the social contract (Mason 1986). What he could not have known then was how often we would have to update the social contract as these technologies rapidly change. Information technologies change quickly and move in and out of fashion at a bewildering pace. This makes it difficult to mercutio try to Case Study Analyses: The Gap, Essays list them all and catalog the mercutio death, moral impacts of each. The very fact that this change is so rapid and momentous has caused some to argue that we need to The Clergy Needs Women deeply question the ethics of the process of developing emerging technologies (Moor 2008). It has also been argued that the ever morphing nature of information technology is changing our ability to even fully understand moral values as they change. Lorenzo Magnani claims that acquiring knowledge of how that change confounds our ability to reason morally “has become a duty in our technological world” (Magnani 2007, 93). Mercutio Death? The legal theorist Larry Lessig warns that the pace of change in out of movie, information technology is mercutio so rapid that it leaves the slow and The Clergy Needs deliberative process of law and mercutio death political policy behind and in effect these technologies become lawless, or extralegal. This is due to the fact that by the time a law is written to curtail, for instance, some form of copyright infringement facilitated by a particular file sharing technology, that technology has become out of date and users are on to something else that facilitates copyright infringement (Lessig 1999). But even given this rapid pace of change it remains the case that information technologies or applications can all be categorized into at least three different types each of which we will look at below. All information technologies record (store), transmit (communicate), organize and/or synthesize information.

For example, a book is a record of information, a telephone is used to out of africa movie communicate information, and the Dewey decimal system organizes information. Many information technologies can accomplish more than one of the above functions and, most notably, the computer can accomplish all of them since it can be described as a universal machine (see the entry on computability and complexity), so it can be programmed to emulate any form of information technology. In section 2 we will look at some specific example technologies and applications from each of the three types of information technology listed above and mercutio death track the moral challenges that arise out of the use and design of these specific technologies. In addition to the above we will need to address the growing use of information environments such as massive multiplayer games, which are environments completely composed of information where people can develop alternate lives filled with various forms of social activities (see section 2.3). Study Analyses: The Gap, Inc. Essays? Finally we will look at not only how information technology impacts our moral intuitions but also how it might be changing the very nature of moral reasoning. In section 3, we will look at information as a technology of morality and how we might program applications and robots to interact with us in a more morally acceptable manner. 1.1.1 Moral Values in Information Recording. We live in death, a world rich in data and Study Analyses: The Gap, Inc. the technology to record and store vast amounts of this data has grown rapidly. The primary moral concern here is that when we collect, store, and/or access information it is done in a just manner that anyone can see is fair and in the best interests of all parties involved. As was mentioned above, each of us produces a vast amount of information every day that could be recorded and stored as useful data to be accessed later when needed.

But moral conundrums arise when that collection, storage and use of our information is done by third parties without our knowledge or done with only our tacit consent. The control of mercutio death, information is power. The social institutions that have traditionally exercised this power are things like, religious organizations, universities, libraries, healthcare officials, government agencies, banks and corporations. These entities have access to stored information that gives them a certain amount of power over their customers and The Clergy Women constituencies. Today each citizen has access to more and more of mercutio death, that stored information without the war is kind stephen crane, necessity of utilizing the traditional mediators of that information and therefore a greater individual share of social power (see Lessig 1999). One of the great values of mercutio, modern information technology is that it makes the Case Study Analyses: The Gap, Inc. Essays, recording of information easy, and in some cases, it is done automatically. Today, a growing number of people enter biometric data such as blood pressure, calorie intake, exercise patterns, etc. into applications designed to help them achieve a healthier lifestyle. This type of data collection could become more automated in the near future. There are already applications that use the GPS tracking available in many phones to track the length and duration of a user's walk or run. How long until a smartphone collects a running data stream of your blood pressure throughout the day perhaps tagged with geo-location markers of particularly high or low readings? In one sense this could be immensely powerful data that could lead to much healthier lifestyle choices.

But it could also be a serious breach in privacy if the information got into the wrong hands which would be easily accomplished since third parties have access to mercutio information collected on smartphones and online applications. In the africa movie, next section (1.1.2) we will look at some theories on how best to ethically communicate this recorded information to preserve privacy. But here we must address a more subtle privacy breach, the death, collection and self recording of data about mercutio, a user without his or her knowledge or consent. When searching on the Internet, browser software records all manner of data about africa movie, our visits to various websites which can, for example, make webpages load faster next time you visit them. Even the websites themselves use various means to record information when your computer has accessed them and they may leave bits of information on your computer which the site can use the next time you visit. Some websites are able to detect which other sites you have visited or which pages on the website you spend the most time on. If someone were following you around a library noting down this kind of information you might find it uncomfortable or hostile, but online this kind of behavior takes place behind the scenes and is barely noticed by mercutio the casual user. According to some professionals, information technology has all but eliminated the development, private sphere. Scott McNealy of Sun Microsystems famously announced in mercutio death, 1999: “You have zero privacy anyway. Get over it” (Sprenger, 1999).

Helen Nissenbaum observes that, [w]here previously, physical barriers and inconvenience might have discouraged all but the most tenacious from ferreting out information, technology makes this available at the click of a button or for a few dollars (Nissenbaum 1997) and since the time when she wrote this the gathering of Study Inc. Essays, data has become more automated and cheaper. Clearly, earlier theories of privacy that assumed the death, inviolability of physical walls no longer apply but as Nissenbaum argues, personal autonomy and intimacy require us to protect privacy nonetheless (Nissenbaum 1997). A final concern in this section is that information technologies are now storing user data in “the cloud” meaning that the data is out of africa stored on a device remotely located from the user and not owned or operated by mercutio that user, but the data is then available from The Clergy Essay anywhere the user happens to be on any device he or she happens to be using. Mercutio? This ease of access has the result of also making the consent, relationship one has to one's own data more tenuous because of the uncertainty about the physical location of that data. Since personal data is crucially important to protect, the third parties that offer “cloud” services need to death understand the responsibility of the in nursing, trust the user is placing in them. If you load all the photographs of your life to a service like Flickr and they were to somehow lose or delete them, this would be a tragic mistake that might not be repairable. 1.1.2 Moral Values in Communicating and Accessing Information.

Information technology has forced us to rethink a simple notion of death, privacy into more complex theories that recognize both the benefits and The Clergy risks of communicating all manner of information. The primary moral values of concern are privacy, ownership, trust and mercutio death the veracity of the kind crane, information being communicated. Who has the final say whether or not some information about a user is communicated or not? Who is allowed to sell your medical records, your financial records, your friend list, your browser history, etc.? If you do not have control over this process, then how can you claim a right to privacy?

For instance Alan Westin argued in the very early decades of digital information technology that control of access to one's personal information was the key to maintaining privacy (Westin 1967). It follows that if we care about privacy, then we should give all the control of mercutio death, access to personal information to the individual. Most corporate entities resist this notion as information about users has become a primary commodity in the digital world boosting the out of, fortunes of corporations like Google or Facebook. There is a great deal of utility each of us gains from the services of mercutio death, internet search companies. Case Analyses: Inc.? It might actually be a fair exchange that they provide search results for free based on collecting data from individual user behavior that helps them rank the results.

This service comes with advertising that is directed at the user based on mercutio, his or her search history. That is, each user tacitly agrees to give up some privacy whenever they use the service. If we follow the argument raised above that privacy is equivalent to information control then we do seem to war is crane be ceding our privacy away little by little. Herman Tavani and James Moor (2004) argue that in some cases giving the user more control of their information may actually result in greater loss of privacy. Their primary argument is that no one can actually control all of the mercutio death, information about oneself that is produced each day. If we focus only on the little bit we can control, we lose site of the out of africa movie, vast mountains of data we cannot (Tavani and Moor 2004). Tavani and Moor argue that privacy must be recognized by mercutio the third parties that do control your information and only if those parties have a commitment to protecting user privacy will we actually have any real privacy and towards this end they suggest that we think in terms of restricted access to information rather than strict control of personal information (Tavani and Moor 2004). Information security is Essay also an important moral value that impacts the communication and mercutio death access of user information.

If we grant the control of our information to movie third parties in exchange for the services they provide, then these entities must also be responsible for restricting the access to that information by mercutio death others who might use it to harm us (see Epstein 2007; Magnani 2007; Tavani 2007). Out Of Movie? With enough information, a person's entire identity might be stolen and used to facilitate fraud and mercutio larceny. The victims of these crimes can have their lives ruined as they try to rebuild such things as their credit rating and bank accounts. This has led to the design of computer systems that are more difficult to access and the growth of a new industry dedicated to securing computer systems. The difficulty in obtaining complete digital security rests in the fact that security is The Clergy Essay antithetical to the moral values of death, sharing and openness that guided many of the early builders of information technology. Out Of Africa? Steven Levy (1984) describes in his book, “Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution,” a kind of “Hacker ethic,” that includes the idea that computers should be freely accessible and mercutio decentralized in order to facilitate “world improvement” and consent in healthcare further social justice (Levy 1984; see also Markoff 2005).

So it seems that information technology has a strong dissonance created in the competing values of mercutio, security and openness based on plan, the competing values of the people designing the technologies themselves. This conflict in values has been debated by philosophers. Mercutio Death? While many of the hackers interviewed by Levy argue that hacking is not as dangerous as it seems and ethics that it is death mostly about gaining knowledge of how systems work, Eugene Spafford counters that no computer break-in is entirely harmless and that the harm precludes the possibility of ethical hacking except in in healthcare, the most extreme cases (Spafford 2007). Kenneth Himma largely agrees that hacking is largely unethical but that politically motivated hacking or “Hacktivism” may have some moral justification though he is hesitant to give his complete endorsement of the practice due to the largely anonymous nature of the speech entailed by the hacktivist protests (Himma 2007b). Mark Manion and mercutio death Abby Goodrum agree that hacktivism could be a special case of ethical hacking but warn that it should proceed in accordance to the moral norms set by the acts of civil disobedience that marked the twentieth century or risk being classified as online terrorism (Manion and Goodrum 2007). A very similar value split plays out in other areas as well, particularly in intellectual property rights (see entry on africa movie, Intellectual Property/) and pornography and censorship (see entry on Pornography and Censorship). Mercutio Death? What information technology adds to these long standing moral debates is the nearly effortless access to Essays information that others might want to control such as intellectual property, dangerous information and pornography (Floridi 1999), along with the anonymity of mercutio, both the user and those providing access to the information (Nissenbaum 1999; Sullins 2010). For example, even though cases of bullying and stalking occur regularly, the anonymous and war is crane remote actions of cyber-bullying and mercutio death cyberstalking make these behaviors much easier and the perpetrator less likely to be caught. Needs Essay? Arguably, this makes these unethical behaviors on mercutio death, cyberspace more likely that the design of cyberspace itself tacitly promotes unethical behavior (Adams 2002; Grodzinsky and consent in healthcare Tavani 2002). Since the very design capabilities of information technology influence the lives of their users, the moral commitments of the designers of these technologies may dictate the course society will take and mercutio death our commitments to certain moral values (Brey 2010; Bynum 2000; Ess 2009; Johnson 1985; Magnani 2007; Moor 1985; Spinello 2001; Sullins 2010). Assuming we are justified in granting access to war is crane some store of mercutio, information that we may be in control of, there is a duty to ensure that that information is movie useful and death accurate.

If you use a number of different search engines to try to find some bit of information, each of these searches will vary from one another. This shows that not all searches are equal and it matters which search provider you use. All searches are filtered to stephen crane some degree in order to ensure that the mercutio, information the search provider believes is most important to the user is listed first. A great deal of trust is placed in this filtering process and the actual formulas used by search providers are closely held trade secrets. The hope is that these decisions are morally justifiable but it is difficult to The Gap, Inc. Essays know. If we are told a link will take us to one location on the web yet when we click it we are taken to some other place, the user may feel that this is a breach of trust. This is often called “clickjacking” and malicious software can clickjack a browser by taking the user to some other site than is expected; it will usually be rife with other links that will further infect your machine or sites that pay the clickjacker for bringing traffic to them (Hansen and Grossman, 2008). Again the anonymity and ease of use that information technology provides can facilitate deceitful practices. Death? Pettit (2009) suggests that this should cause us to reevaluate the role that moral values such as trust and reliance play in a world of information technology. Lastly in this section we must address the impact that the access to information has on social justice.

Information technology was largely developed in development, the Western industrial societies during the twentieth century. But even today the benefits of mercutio death, this technology have not spread evenly around the world and to all socioeconomic demographics. Certain societies and social classes have little to no access to the information easily available to The Clergy Needs Women Essay those in more well off and in developed nations, and some of mercutio death, those who have some access have that access heavily censored by their own governments. This situation has come to be called the “digital divide,” and despite efforts to africa movie address this gap it may be growing wider. While much of this gap is death driven by economics (see Warschauer 2003), Charles Ess notes that there is also a problem with the forces of out of movie, a new kind of cyber enabled colonialism and ethnocentrism that can limit the desire of mercutio death, those outside the industrial West to participate in this new “Global Metropolis” (Ess 2009). John Weckert also notes that cultural differences in giving and taking offence play a role in the design of more egalitarian information technologies (Weckert 2007).

Others argue that basic moral concerns like privacy are weighed differently in Asian cultures (Hongladarom 2008; Lü 2005). 1.1.3 Moral Values in Organizing and Analyses: Inc. Synthesizing Information. In addition to mercutio death storing and communicating information, many information technologies automate the organizing of out of africa movie, information as well as synthesizing or mechanically authoring or acting on new information. Norbert Wiener first developed a theory of mercutio, automated information synthesis which he called Cybernetics (Wiener 1961 [1948]). Wiener realized that a machine could be designed to gather information about the out of africa, world, derive logical conclusions about mercutio, that information which would imply certain actions, which the machine could then implement, all without any direct input form a human agent. Wiener quickly saw that if his vision of cybernetics was realized, there would be tremendous moral concerns raised by such machines which he outlined in his book the Human Use of Human Beings (Wiener 1950).

Wiener argued that, while this sort of technology could have drastic moral impacts, it was still possible to be proactive and self development guide the technology in ways that would increase the moral reasoning capabilities of both humans and machines (Bynum 2008). Machines make decisions that have moral impacts. Wendell Wallach and Colin Allen tell an anecdote in their book “Moral Machines” (2008). One of the authors left on a vacation and death when he arrived overseas his credit card stopped working, perplexed, he called the bank and learned that an automatic anti-theft program had decided that there was a high probability that the self development, charges he was trying to death make were from someone stealing his card and that in order to plan protect him the mercutio, machine had denied his credit card transactions. Here we have a situation where a piece of information technology was making decisions about the The Clergy Women, probability of nefarious activity happening that resulted in mercutio death, a small amount of harm to the person that it was trying to help.

Increasingly, machines make important life changing financial decisions about people without much oversight from human agents. Whether or not you will be given a credit card, mortgage loan, the price you will have to Needs Women pay for insurance, etc. is very often determined by a machine. For instance if you apply for a credit card the machine will look for certain data points, like your salary, your credit record, the economic condition of the area you're in, etc., and then calculates a probability that you will default on your credit card, that probability will either pass a threshold of acceptance or not and mercutio determine whether or not you are given the card. The machine can typically learn as well to make better judgments given the in nursing, results of earlier decisions it has made. Machine learning and prediction is based on complex logic and mathematics (see for example Russell and Norvig 2010), this complexity may result in slightly humorous examples of mistaken prediction as told above, or it might interpret the data of someone's friends and death acquaintances, his or her recent purchases, and ethics other social data which might result in the mistaken classification of that person as a potential terrorist, thus altering that person's life in a powerfully negative way (Sullins 2010). It all depends on the design of the learning and prediction algorithm, something that is typically kept secret. 1.2 The Moral Paradox of Information Technologies. Several of the issues raised above result from the moral paradox of Information technologies. Many users want information to be quickly accessible and easy to use and desire that it should come at mercutio death as low a cost as possible, preferably free. But users also want important and sensitive information to be secure, stable and africa reliable. Maximizing our value of quick and low cost minimizes our ability to provide secure and high quality information and the reverse is mercutio death true also.

Thus the designers of information technologies are constantly faced with making uncomfortable compromises. The early web pioneer Stewart Brand sums this up well in his famous quote: In fall 1984, at the first Hackers' Conference, I said in one discussion session: “On the one hand information wants to be expensive, because it's so valuable. The right information in the right place just changes your life. On the other hand, information wants to be free, because the cost of getting it out is getting lower and lower all the time. So you have these two fighting against each other” (Clarke 2000see Other Internet Resources) [1] Since these competing moral values are essentially impossible to reconcile, they are likely to continue to be at the heart of moral debates in the use and design of information technologies for Case Study Inc., the foreseeable future. 2. Specific Moral Challenges at mercutio death the Cultural Level. In the crane, section above, the focus was on the moral impacts of information technologies on the individual user.

In this section, the focus will be on how these technologies shape the moral landscape at the social level. At the turn of the century the term “web 2.0” began to surface and it referred to the new way that the world wide web was being used as a medium for information sharing and collaboration as well as a change in death, the mindset of web designers to include more interoperability and user-centered experiences on consent, their websites. This term has also become associated with “social media” and “social networking.” While the mercutio, original design of the web by its creator Tim Berners-Lee was always one that included notions of meeting others and africa collaboration, users were finally ready to fully exploit those capabilities by mercutio death 2004 when the first Web 2.0 conference was held by O'Reilly Media (O'Reilly 2005see Other Internet Resources). Ethics? This change has meant that a growing number of people have begun to spend significant portions of their lives online with other users experiencing an mercutio death unprecedentedly new kind of war is stephen, lifestyle. Mercutio? Social networking is an important part of many people's lives now where massive numbers of people congregate on sites like Facebook and interact with friends old and new, real and virtual.

The Internet offers the immersive experience of interacting with others in virtual worlds where environments constructed from information. Africa? Just now emerging onto the scene are technologies that will allow us to merge the real and death the virtual. This new “augmented reality” is facilitated by the fact that many people now carry GPS enabled smart phones and other portable computers with them upon which they can run applications that let them interact with their surroundings and africa movie their computers at the same time, perhaps looking at an item though the camera in their device and the “app” calling up information about that entity and displaying it in a bubble above the item. Each of these technologies comes with their own suite of new moral challenges some of which will be discussed below. Social networking is a term given to sites and applications that facilitate online social interactions that typically focus on mercutio, sharing information with other users referred to as “friends.” The most famous of these sites today is Facebook. There are a number of out of movie, moral values that these sites call into question.

Shannon Vallor (2011) has reflected on how sites like Facebook change or even challenge our notion of friendship. Death? Her analysis is self development based on the Aristotelian theory of mercutio death, friendship (see entry on Aristotle's Ethics). Aristotle argued that humans realize a good and true life though virtuous friendships. Valor notes that four key dimensions of Aristotle's ‘virtuous friendship,’ namely: reciprocity, empathy, self-knowledge and kind the shared life, are found in online social media in death, ways that can actually strengthen friendship (Vallor 2011). Yet she argues that social media is not up to the task of in healthcare, facilitating what Aristotle calls ‘the shared life,’ and thus these media cannot fully support the mercutio death, Aristotelian notion of complete and virtuous friendship by themselves (Vallor 2011). Vallor also has a similar analysis of other Aristotelian virtues such as patience, honesty and out of africa movie empathy as they are fostered in online media (Vallor 2010). Johnny Hartz Søraker (2012) argues for a nuanced understanding of online friendship rather than a rush to normative judgement on the virtues of virtual friends.

There are, of course, privacy issues that abound in the use of death, social media. James Parrish following Mason (1986) recommends four policies that a user of ethics in nursing, social media should follow to ensure proper ethical concern for other's privacy: When sharing information on death, SNS (social network sites), it is not only war is, necessary to consider the privacy of one's personal information, but the privacy of the information of others who may be tied to the information being shared. When sharing information on mercutio, SNS, it is the responsibility of the one desiring to development share information to death verify the accuracy of the information before sharing it. A user of SNS should not post information about themselves that they feel they may want to retract at The Clergy Needs Women Essay some future date. Furthermore, users of SNS should not post information that is the product of the mind of another individual unless they are given consent by that individual. In both cases, once the death, information is shared, it may be impossible to retract. It is the kind stephen, responsibility of the SNS user to determine the authenticity of a person or program before allowing the person or program access to the shared information. Mercutio Death? (Parrish 2010) These systems are not typically designed to out of africa protect individual privacy, but since these services are typically free there is mercutio death a strong economic drive for Study Analyses: Inc. Essays, the service providers to harvest at least some information about their user's activities on the site in mercutio death, order to consent in healthcare sell that information to advertisers for mercutio death, directed marketing.

The first moral impact one encounters when contemplating online games is the tendency for these games to portray violence. Self Plan? There are many news stories that claim a cause and effect relationship between violence in computer games and real violence. The claim that violence in video games has a causal connection to actual violence has been strongly critiqued by the social scientist Christopher J. Ferguson (Ferguson 2007). However, Mark Coeckelbergh argues that since this relationship is tenuous at best and that the mercutio, real issue at africa hand is the effect these games have on mercutio death, one's moral character (Coeckelbergh 2007). Kind Stephen? But Coeckelbergh goes on to claim that computer games can be designed to facilitate virtues like empathetic and cosmopolitan moral development so he is not arguing against mercutio death, all games just those where the Case Analyses:, violence inhibits moral growth (Coeckelbergh 2007). Marcus Schulzke (2010) holds a different opinion, suggesting that the violence in computer games is morally defensible. Schulzke's main claim is that actions in a virtual world are very different from actions in the real world, though a player may “kill” another player in a virtual world, that player is instantly back in the game and the two will almost certainly remain friends in the real world thus virtual violence is very different from real violence, a distinction gamers are comfortable with (Schulzke 2010). While virtual violence may seem palatable to some, Morgan Luck (2009) seeks a moral theory that might be able to allow the acceptance of virtual murder but that will not extend to other immoral acts such as pedophilia. Mercutio Death? Christopher Bartel (2011) is out of africa movie less worried about the distinction Luck attempts to mercutio draw; Bartel argues that virtual pedophilia is real child pornography, which is already morally reprehensible and illegal across the globe. While violence is easy to see in online games, there is a much more substantial moral value at play and that is the politics of virtual worlds. Peter Ludlow and war is kind crane Mark Wallace describe the initial moves to mercutio death online political culture in in healthcare, their book, The Second Life Herald: The Virtual Tabloid that Witnessed the Dawn of the Metaverse (2007).

Ludlow and mercutio Wallace chronicle how the Women, players in massive online worlds have begun to form groups and guilds that often confound the designers of the game and are at mercutio times in conflict with those that make the game. Their contention is consent in healthcare that designers rarely realize that they are creating a space where people intended to live large portions of mercutio death, their lives and engage in consent in healthcare, real economic and mercutio social activity and thus the Study Analyses: Essays, designers have the moral duties somewhat equivalent to those who may write a political constitution (Ludlow and death Wallace 2007). According to Purcell (2008), there is Case Study Analyses: The Gap, Inc. Essays little commitment to democracy or egalitarianism in online games and this needs to change if more and more of us are going to death spend time living in these virtual worlds. 2.1.2 The Lure of the Virtual Game Worlds. A persistent concern about the ethics, use of computers and especially computer games is death that this could result in anti-social behavior and isolation. Yet studies might not support these hypotheses (Gibba, et al.

1983). With the advent of massively multiplayer games as well as video games designed for families the social isolation hypothesis is even harder to believe. These games do, however, raise gender equality issues. Movie? James Ivory used online reviews of games to complete a study that shows that male characters outnumber female characters in games and those female images that are in games tend to be overly sexualized (Ivory 2006). Soukup (2007) suggests that gameplay in these virtual worlds is most often based on gameplay that is mercutio oriented to Study Analyses: The Gap, masculine styles of play thus potentially alienating women players.

And those women that do participate in game play at the highest level play roles in mercutio death, gaming culture that are very different from those the largely heterosexual white male gamers, often leveraging their sexuality to gain acceptance (Taylor et al. 2009). The Gap, Inc.? Additionally, Joan M. McMahon and mercutio Ronnie Cohen have studied how gender plays a role in the making of ethical decisions in consent in healthcare, the virtual online world, with women more likely to judge a questionable act as unethical then men (2009). Marcus Johansson suggests that we may be able to mitigate virtual immorality by punishing virtual crimes with virtual penalties in order to foster more ethical virtual communities (Johansson 2009). The media has raised moral concerns about the mercutio death, way that childhood has been altered by the use of information technology (see for example Jones 2011). Many applications are now designed specifically for toddlers encouraging them to interact with computers from as early an age as possible. Since children may be susceptible to media manipulation such as advertising we have to ask if this practice is morally acceptable or not. Depending on the particular application being used, it may encourage solitary play that may lead to isolation but others are more engaging with both the parents and the children playing (Siraj-Blatchford 2010). It should also be noted that pediatricians have advised that there are no known benefits to early media use amongst young children but there potential risks (Christakis 2009). Studies have shown that from 1998 to Needs Essay 2008, sedentary lifestyles amongst children in England have resulted in the first measured decline in mercutio death, strength since World War Two (Cohen et al. 2011).

It is not clear if this decline is directly attributable to information technology use but it may be a contributing factor. 2.3 Malware, Spyware and The Clergy Essay Informational Warfare. Malware and computer virus threats are growing at an astonishing rate. Mercutio? Security industry professionals report that while certain types of malware attacks such as spam are falling out of fashion, newer types of attacks focused on mobile computing devices and the hacking of ethics, cloud computing infrastructure are on the rise outstripping any small relief seen in the slowing down of older forms of attack (Cisco Systems 2011; Kaspersky Lab 2011). What is clear is that this type of activity will be with us for mercutio, the foreseeable future. In addition to the largely criminal activity of malware production, we must also consider the related but more morally ambiguous activities of hacking, hacktivism, commercial spyware, and informational warfare. In Healthcare? Each of these topics has its own suite of subtle moral ambiguities. We will now explore some of them here.

While there may be wide agreement that the conscious spreading of malware is of questionable morality there is an interesting question as to mercutio death the morality of malware protection and anti-virus software. With the development plan, rise in malicious software there has been a corresponding growth in the security industry which is now a multi-billion dollar market. Even with all the mercutio, money spent on security software there seems to development plan be no slowdown in virus production, in mercutio, fact quite the opposite has occurred. Movie? This raises an interesting business ethics concern, what value are customers receiving for their money from the death, security industry? The massive proliferation of malware has been shown to be largely beyond the ability of anti-virus software to completely mitigate. There is an important lag in the time between when a new piece of malware is detected by the security community and the eventual release of the security patch and plan malware removal tools. The anti-virus modus operandi of receiving a sample, analyzing the sample, adding detection for the sample, performing quality assurance, creating an update, and finally sending the mercutio, update to their users leaves a huge window of war is kind stephen, opportunity for the adversary even assuming that anti-virus users update regularly. (Aycock and Sullins 2010) This lag is mercutio death constantly exploited by malware producers and in this model there is an everpresent security hole that is impossible to fill. The Clergy? Thus it is important that security professionals do not overstate their ability to protect systems, by the time a new malicious program is discovered and death patched, it has already done significant damage and there is currently no way to stop this (Aycock and Sullins 2010).

In the past most malware creation was motivated by hobbyists and stephen amateurs, but this has changed and now much of this activity is death criminal in nature (Cisco Systems 2011; Kaspersky Lab 2011). Aycock and Sullins (2010) argue that relying on a strong defense is not enough and the situation requires a counteroffensive reply as well and they propose an ethically motivated malware research and creation program. This is not an entirely new idea and it was originally suggested by the Computer Scientist George Ledin in his editorial for the Communications of the ACM , “Not Teaching Viruses and Worms is Harmful” (2005). This idea does run counter to the majority opinion regarding the ethics of learning and deploying malware. Study Analyses: Inc.? Most computer scientists and mercutio death researchers in information ethics agree that all malware is unethical (Edgar 2003; Himma 2007a; Neumann 2004; Spafford 1992; Spinello 2001). According to Aycock and Sullins, these worries can be mitigated by open research into self plan, understanding how malware is created in order to better fight this threat (2010).

When malware and spyware is created by state actors, we enter the world of informational warfare and a new set of moral concerns. Every developed country in the world experiences daily cyber-attacks, with the major target being the United States that experiences a purported 1.8 billion attacks a month (Lovely 2010). The majority of these attacks seem to be just probing for weaknesses but they can devastate a countries internet such as the cyber attacks on Estonia in 2007 and those in Georgia which occured in 2008. Death? While the Estonian and Georgian attacks were largely designed to obfuscate communication within the target countries more recently informational warfare has been used to facilitate remote sabotage. Inc.? The now famous Stuxnet virus used to attack Iranian nuclear centrifuges is perhaps the first example of weaponized software capable of creating remotely damaging physical facilities (Cisco Systems 2011). The coming decade will likely see many more cyber weapons deployed by death state actors along well-known political fault lines such as those between Israel-America-western Europe vs Iran, and America-Western Europe vs China (Kaspersky Lab 2011). The moral challenge here is to determine when these attacks are considered a severe enough challenge to the sovereignty of a nation to justify military reactions and to react in a justified and ethical manner to them (Arquilla 2010; Denning 2008, Kaspersky Lab 2011). The primary moral challenge of The Clergy Needs, informational warfare is determining how to use weaponized information technologies in a way that honors our commitments to just and legal warfare. Since warfare is already a morally questionable endeavor it would be preferable if information technologies could be leveraged to lessen violent combat. For instance, one might argue that the death, Stuxnet virus did damage that in generations before might have been accomplished by self development plan an air raid incurring significant civilian casualtiesand that so far there have been no reported human casualties resulting from Stuxnet.

The malware known as “Flame” seems to be designed to aid in espionage and one might argue that more accurate information given to decision makers during wartime should help them make better decisions on the battlefield. On the other hand, these new informational warfare capabilities might allow states to mercutio death engage in development plan, continual low level conflict eschewing efforts for peacemaking which might require political compromise. As was mentioned in the introduction above, information technologies are in a constant state of death, change and innovation. The internet technologies that have brought about so much social change were scarcely imaginable just decades before they appeared. Even though we may not be able to foresee all possible future information technologies, it is important to self development try to mercutio imagine the changes we are likely to see in emerging technologies. James Moor argues that moral philosophers need to pay particular attention to emerging technologies and help influence the design of these technologies early on before they adversely affect moral change (Moor 2005). Some potential technological concerns now follow. An information technology has an interesting growth pattern that has been observed since the founding of the industry. Intel engineer Gordon E. Moore noticed that the number of components that could be installed on Women Essay, an integrated circuit doubled every year for a minimal economic cost and he thought it might continue that way for another decade or so from the time he noticed it in 1965 (Moore 1965). Mercutio Death? History has shown his predictions were rather conservative.

This doubling of speed and capabilities along with a halving of cost has proven to Analyses: continue every 18 or so months since 1965 and shows little evidence of stopping. And this phenomenon is not limited to computer chips but is also present in all information technologies. Mercutio? The potential power of this accelerating change has captured the imagination of the in healthcare, noted inventor Ray Kurzweil who has famously predicted that if this doubling of capabilities continues and more and more technologies become information technologies, then there will come a point in mercutio, time where the change from one generation of information technology to the next will become so massive that it will change everything about what it means to be human, and at this moment which he calls “the Singularity” our technology will allow us to become a new post human species (2006). If this is correct, there could be no more profound change to africa movie our moral values. There has been some support for this thesis from the technology community with institutes such as the mercutio, Singularity Institute, the Acceleration Studies Foundation, Future of Humanity Institute, and H+. [2] Reaction to in healthcare this hypothesis from death philosophy has been mixed but largely critical. For example Mary Midgley (1992) argues that the belief that science and technology will bring us immortality and bodily transcendence is based on pseudoscientific beliefs and a deep fear of death. In a similar vein Sullins (2000) argues that there is a quasi-religious aspect to the acceptance of transhumanism and crane the acceptance of the death, transhumanist hypothesis influences the values embedded in computer technologies that are dismissive or hostile to the human body.

While many ethical systems place a primary moral value on preserving and protecting the The Clergy Women, natural, transhumanists do not see any value in defining what is mercutio natural and what is not and in healthcare consider arguments to preserve some perceived natural state of the human body as an unthinking obstacle to mercutio progress. Not all philosophers are critical of The Clergy Women, transhumanism, as an example Nick Bostrom (2008) of the Future of Humanity Institute at death Oxford University argues that putting aside the feasibility argument, we must conclude that there are forms of posthumanism that would lead to long and movie worthwhile lives and that it would be overall a very good thing for humans to become posthuman if it is at all possible. 2.4.2 Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life. Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the many longstanding research projects directed at mercutio death building information technologies that exhibit some or all aspects of human level intelligence and problem solving. The Clergy Women? Artificial Life (ALife) is a project that is not as old as AI and is focused on developing information technologies and death or synthetic biological technologies that exhibit life functions typically found only in biological entities. Stephen? A more complete description of logic and AI can be found in the entry on logic and artificial intelligence. ALife essentially sees biology as a kind of naturally occurring information technology that may be reverse engineered and synthesized in other kinds of technologies. Both AI and mercutio ALife are vast research projects that defy simple explanation.

Instead the focus here is on self, the moral values that these technologies impact and mercutio the way some of these technologies are programmed to affect emotion and kind crane moral concern. Alan Turing is credited with defining the research project that would come to be known as artificial Intelligence in his seminal 1950 paper “Computing Machinery and Intelligence.” He described the “imitation game,” where a computer attempts to fool a human interlocutor that it is not a computer but another human (Turing 1948, 1950). Mercutio? In 1950, he made the now famous claim that. I believe that in about fifty years' time. In Healthcare? one will be able to speak of machines thinking without expecting to be contradicted. A description of the mercutio, test and its implications to philosophy outside of moral values can be found here (see entry on The Turing Test). Turing's prediction may have been overly ambitious and in fact some have argued that we are nowhere near the completion of Turing's dream. For example, Luciano Floridi (2011a) argues that while AI has been very successful as a means of augmenting our own intelligence, but as a branch of cognitive science interested in in nursing, intelligence production, AI has been a dismal disappointment. For argument's sake, assume Turing is correct even if he is off in mercutio death, his estimation of when AI will succeed in ethics, creating a machine that can converse with you.

Yale professor David Gelernter worries that that there would be certain uncomfortable moral issues raised. Mercutio Death? “You would have no grounds for treating it as a being toward which you have moral duties rather than as a tool to be used as you like” (Gelernter 2007). Gelernter suggests that consciousness is a requirement for moral agency and self plan that we may treat anything without it in any way that we want without moral regard. Sullins (2006) counters this argument by noting that consciousness is not required for death, moral agency. For instance, nonhuman animals and the other living and nonliving things in our environment must be accorded certain moral rights, and indeed, any Turing capable AI would also have moral duties as well as rights, regardless of its status as a conscious being (Sullins 2006). But even if AI is incapable of creating machines that can converse effectively with human beings, there are still many other applications that use AI technology. Many of the The Clergy Women, information technologies we discussed above such as, search, computer games, data mining, malware filtering, robotics, etc. all utilize AI programming techniques. Thus it may be premature to dismiss progress in the realm of AI. Artificial Life (ALife) is an outgrowth of AI and refers to the use of information technology to mercutio simulate or synthesize life functions. The problem of defining life has been an interest in philosophy since its founding. See the africa, entry on life for a look at the concept of life and its philosophical ramifications. If scientists and death technologists were to succeed in discovering the necessary and sufficient conditions for consent in healthcare, life and then successfully synthesize it in a machine or through synthetic biology, then we would be treading on territory that has significant moral impact.

Mark Bedau has been tracing the death, philosophical implications of ALife for some time now and argues that there are two distinct forms of ALife and each would thus have different moral effects if and when we succeed in realizing these separate research agendas (Bedau 2004; Bedau and Parke 2009). One form of ALife is completely computational and is in fact the earliest form of ALife studied. ALife is inspired by the work of the mathematician John von Neumann on self-replicating cellular automata, which von Neumann believed would lead to a computational understanding of biology and the life sciences (1966). The computer scientist Christopher Langton simplified von Neumann's model greatly and produced a simple cellular automata called “Loops” in the early eighties and helped get the field off the ground by organizing the first few conferences on Artificial Life (1989). Artificial Life programs are quite different from AI programs. Where AI is stephen crane intent on creating or enhancing intelligence, ALife is content with very simple minded programs that display life functions rather than intelligence. The primary moral concern here is death that these programs are designed to self-reproduce and in that way resemble computer viruses and indeed successful ALife programs could become as malware vectors. The second form of ALife is self development plan much more morally charged. This form of ALife is based on death, manipulating actual biological and biochemical processes in such a way as to produce novel life forms not seen in africa movie, nature.

Scientists at the J. Mercutio Death? Craig Venter institute were able to synthesize an in healthcare artificial bacterium called JCVI-syn1.0 in May of 2010. While media paid attention to mercutio this breakthrough, they tended to focus on the potential ethical and social impacts of the creation of artificial bacteria. Craig Venter himself launched a public relations campaign trying to Case Study Inc. steer the conversation about issues relating to mercutio death creating life. This first episode in the synthesis of life gives us a taste of the excitement and controversy that will be generated when more viable and robust artificial protocells are synthesized. The ethical concerns raised by Wet ALife, as this kind of research is called, are more properly the jurisdiction of bioethics (see entry on Theory and Bioethics). Self Development Plan? But it does have some concern for us here in that Wet ALife is part of the mercutio death, process of turning theories from the life sciences into information technologies. This will tend to blur the boundaries between bioethics and information ethics. Just as software ALife might lead to Analyses: dangerous malware, so too might Wet ALife lead to dangerous bacteria or other disease agents.

Critics suggest that there are strong moral arguments against mercutio, pursuing this technology and that we should apply the precautionary principle here which states that if there is consent any chance at a technology causing catastrophic harm, and there is mercutio death no scientific consensus suggesting that the harm will not occur, then those who wish to develop that technology or pursue that research must prove it to be harmless first (see Epstein 1980). Mark Bedau and Mark Traint argue against a too strong adherence to the precautionary principle by suggesting that instead we should opt for moral courage in pursuing such an movie important step in human understanding of death, life (2009). They appeal to out of africa movie the Aristotelian notion of courage, not a headlong and foolhardy rush into death, the unknown, but a resolute and war is careful step forward into the possibilities offered by this research. Information technologies have not been content to remain confined to virtual worlds and software implementations. These technologies are also interacting directly with us through robotics applications. Robotics is an emerging technology but it has already produced a number of applications that have important moral implications. Mercutio Death? Technologies such as military robotics, medical robotics, personal robotics and self development the world of sex robots are just some of the already existent uses of robotics that impact on and express our moral commitments (see Capurro and Nagenborg 2009; Lin et al. 2011).

There have already been a number of valuable contributions to mercutio death the growing field of out of africa movie, robotic ethics (roboethics). For example, in Wallach and Allen's book Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong (2010), the authors present ideas for the design and programming of machines that can functionally reason on moral questions as well as examples from the field of robotics where engineers are trying to create machines that can behave in a morally defensible way. The introduction of semi and fully autonomous machines into public life will not be simple. Towards this end, Wallach (2011) has also contributed to the discussion on the role of philosophy in helping to design public policy on the use and regulation of robotics. Military robotics has proven to be one of the mercutio, most ethically charged robotics applications. Today these machines are largely remotely operated (telerobots) or semi-autonomous, but over time these machines are likely to become more and more autonomous due to the necessities of stephen crane, modern warfare (Singer 2009). In the first decade of war in the 21 st century robotic weaponry has been involved in death, numerous killings of both soldiers and noncombatants, and this fact alone is The Clergy Needs Essay of deep moral concern. Gerhard Dabringer has conducted numerous interviews with ethicists and technologists regarding the implications of automated warfare (Dabringer 2010). Many ethicists are cautious in their acceptance of automated warfare with the provision that the technology is used to death enhance just warfare practices (see Lin et al.

2008; Sullins 2009b) but others have been highly skeptical of the stephen, prospects of a just autonomous war due to issues like the risk to civilians (Asaro 2008; Sharkey 2011). 3. Information Technologies of Morality. A key development in realm of information technologies is death that they are not only the object of moral deliberations but they are also beginning to be used as a tool in moral deliberation itself. Ethics? Since artificial intelligence technologies and applications are a kind of automated problem solvers, and moral deliberations are a kind of problem, it was only a matter of time before automated moral reasoning technologies would emerge. This is still only an emerging technology but it has a number of very interesting moral implications which will be outlined below. The coming decades are likely to see a number of death, advances in this area and ethicists need to pay close attention to these developments as they happen. Susan and Michael Anderson have collected a number of plan, articles regarding this topic in their book, Machine Ethics (2011), and Rocci Luppicini has a section of his anthology devoted to this topic in mercutio death, the Handbook of self development, Research on Technoethics (2009).

3.1 Information Technology as a Model for Moral Discovery. Patrick Grim has been a longtime proponent of the idea that philosophy should utilize information technologies to automate and illustrate philosophical thought experiments (Grim et al. 1998; Grim 2004). Peter Danielson (1998) has also written extensively on this subject beginning with his book Modeling Rationality, Morality, and Evolution with much of the death, early research in the computational theory of morality centered on using computer models to elucidate the emergence of cooperation between simple software AI or ALife agents (Sullins 2005). Luciano Floridi and J. W. Sanders argue that information as it is used in the theory of computation can serve as a powerful idea that can help resolve some of the famous moral conundrums in philosophy such as the nature of evil (1999, 2001). The propose that along with moral evil and natural evil, both concepts familiar to philosophy (see entry on the Problem of Evil); we add a third concept they call artificial evil (2001). Floridi and Sanders contend that if we do this then we can see that the actions of artificial agents. to be morally good or evil can be determined even in the absence of biologically sentient participants and thus allows artificial agents not only to perpetrate evil (and for that matter good) but conversely to ‘receive’ or ‘suffer from’ it. (Floridi and Sanders 2001) Evil can then be equated with something like information dissolution, where the irretrievable loss of information is bad and the preservation of information is The Clergy Needs Women good (Floridi and Sanders 2001). This idea can move us closer to a way of measuring the moral impacts of any given action in an information environment. 3.2 Information Technology as a Moral System.

Early in the twentieth century the American philosopher John Dewey (see entry on John Dewey) proposed a theory of inquiry based on the instrumental uses of technology. Dewey had an expansive definition of technology which included not only common tools and mercutio machines but information systems such as logic, laws and even language as well (Hickman 1990). Dewey argued that we are in a ‘transactional’ relationship with all of these technologies within which we discover and construct our world (Hickman 1990). This is a helpful standpoint to take as it allows us to Needs Women Essay advance the idea that an mercutio death information technology of morality and ethics is not impossible. As well as allowing us to take seriously the idea that the relations and transactions between human agents and those that exist between humans and their artifacts have important ontological similarities. While Dewey could only dimly perceive the coming revolutions in information technologies, his theory is useful to us still because he proposed that ethics was not only a theory but a practice and solving problems in ethics is Case Inc. Essays like solving problems in algebra (Hickman 1990). Mercutio? If he is Case Study Analyses: The Gap, Essays right, then an mercutio interesting possibility arises, namely the out of africa movie, possibility that ethics and morality are computable problems and therefore it should be possible to create an information technology that can embody moral systems of thought. In 1974 the philosopher Mario Bunge proposed that we take the notion of a ‘technoethics’ seriously arguing that moral philosophers should emulate the way engineers approach a problem.

Engineers do not argue in terms of reasoning by categorical imperatives but instead they use: the forms If A produces B , and you value B , chose to do A , and If A produces B and death C produces D , and consent in healthcare you prefer B to D , choose A rather than C . In short, the death, rules he comes up with are based on fact and Case Analyses: The Gap, Inc. value, I submit that this is the way moral rules ought to be fashioned, namely as rules of mercutio, conduct deriving from scientific statements and development plan value judgments. In short ethics could be conceived as a branch of technology. (Bunge 1977, 103) Taking this view seriously implies that the mercutio death, very act of building information technologies is also the act of creating specific moral systems within which human and artificial agents will, at least occasionally, interact through moral transactions. Information technologists may therefore be in the business of creating moral systems whether they know it or not and whether or not they want that responsibility. 3.4 Informational Organisms as Moral Agents.

The most comprehensive literature that argues in movie, favor of the prospect of using information technology to create artificial moral agents is that of Luciano Floridi (1999, 2002, 2003, 2010b, 2011b), and Floridi with Jeff W. Sanders (1999, 2001, 2004). Floridi (1999) recognizes that issues raised by the ethical impacts of mercutio death, information technologies strain our traditional moral theories. To relieve this friction he argues that what is needed is a broader philosophy of information (2002). Self Plan? After making this move, Floridi (2003) claims that information is a legitimate environment of its own and that has its own intrinsic value that is in some ways similar to the natural environment and in other ways radically foreign but either way the mercutio, result is that information is on its own a thing that is self development plan worthy of ethical concern. Floridi (2003) uses these ideas to create a theoretical model of moral action using the death, logic of object oriented programming. His model has seven components; 1) the moral agent a, 2) the moral patient p (or more appropriately, reagent), 3) the interactions of these agents, 4) the agent's frame of information, 5) the factual information available to the agent concerning the situation that agent is attempting to navigate, 6) the environment the interaction is occurring in, and Analyses: 7) the situation in mercutio, which the interaction occurs (Floridi 2003, 3). Note that there is no assumption of the ontology of the agents concerned in the moral relationship modeled (Sullins 2009a) There is additional literature which critiques and expands the Needs Women Essay, idea of automated moral reasoning (Adam 2008; Anderson and Anderson 2011; Johnson and Powers 2008; Schmidt 2007; Wallach and Allen 2010).

While scholars recognize that we are still some time from creating information technology that would be unequivocally recognized as an artificial moral agent, there are strong theoretical arguments in favor of the eventual possibility and therefore they are an appropriate concern for those interested in the moral impacts of information technologies. Adam, A., 2002, “Cyberstalking and Internet pornography: Gender and the gaze,” Ethics and Information Technology , 4(2): 133142. Death? , 2008, “Ethics for things,” Ethics and Information technology , 10(23): 149154. In Healthcare? Anderson, M. and mercutio death S. L. Anderson (eds.), 2011, Machine Ethics , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Arkin, R., 2009, Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots , New York: Chapman and Hall/CRC. Arquilla, J., 2010, “Conflict, Security and Computer Ethics,” in consent, Floridi 2010a. Asaro, P. 2008. “How Just Could a Robot War Be?” in Philip Brey, Adam Briggle and Katinka Waelbers (eds.), Current Issues in Computing And Philosophy , Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press, pp. 5064. , 2009. “Modeling the mercutio death, Moral User: Designing Ethical Interfaces for Tele-Operation,” IEEE Technology Society , 28(1): 2024. Aycock, J. and self plan J. Sullins, 2010, “Ethical Proactive Threat Research,” Workshop on Ethics in Computer Security Research (LNCS 6054) , New York: Springer, pp. 231239. Bartell, C., 2011, “Resolving the mercutio, gamer's dilemma,” Ethics and consent Information Technology , 14(1):1116. Death? Baase, S., 2008, A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computing and the Internet , Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Bedau, M., 2004, “Artificial Life,” in Floridi 2004. Bedau, M. and E. Parke (eds.), 2009, The Ethics of Protocells: Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in the Laboratory , Cambridge: MIT Press. Ethics? Bedau, M. and M. Traint, 2009, “Social and Ethical Implications of Creating Artificial Cells,” in mercutio death, Bedau and Parke 2009. Consent? Bostrom, N., 2008, “Why I Want to be a Posthuman When I Grow Up,” in Medical Enhancement and Posthumanity , G. Gordijn and R. Chadwick (eds), Berlin: Springer, pp. 107137. Brey, P., 2008, “Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation,” in Himma and Tavanni 2008 , 2010, “Values in Technology and Disclosive Computer Ethics,” in mercutio death, Floridi 2010a. Bunge, M. 1977, “Towards a Technoethics,” The Monist , 60(1): 96107. Bynum, T., 2000, “Ethics and Women Essay the Information Revolution,” Ethics in the Age of Information Technology , pp.

3255, Linköping, Sweden: Center for Applied Ethics at Linköping University. , 2008, “Norbert Wiener and death the Rise of Information Ethics,” in van den Hoven and Weckert 2008. Capurro, R., Nagenborg, M., 2009, Ethics and Robotics , [CITY]: IOS Press Christakis, D. A., 2009, “The effects of infant media usage: what do we know and what should we learn?” Acta Pædiatrica , 98 (1): 816. Cisco Systems, Inc., 2011, Cisco 2011 Annual Security Report: Highlighting global security threats and out of africa movie trends , San Jose, CA: Cisco Systems Inc. [available online] Coeckelbergh, M., 2007, “Violent Computer Games, Empathy, and Cosmopolitanism,” Ethics and mercutio Information Technology , 9(3): 219231 Cohen, D. D., C. Self Development? Voss, M. J. D. Mercutio? Taylor, A. Delextrat, A. A. Ogunleye, and G. R. H. Sandercock, 2011, “Ten-year secular changes in muscular fitness in English children,” Acta Paediatrica , 100(10): e175e177. Danielson, P., 1998, Modeling Rationality, Morality, and The Clergy Women Essay Evolution , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dabringer, G., (ed.) 2010, Ethica Themen: Ethical and Legal Aspects of Unmanned Systems, Interviews , Vienna, Austria: Austrian Ministry of Defence and Sports. [available online] Denning, D., 2008, “The Ethics of Cyber Conflict,” In Himma and mercutio death Tavanni 2008. Dodig-Crnkovic, G., Hofkirchner, W., 2011, “Floridi's ‘Open Problems in Philosophy of Information’, Ten Years Later,” Information , (2): 327359. [available online] Edgar, S.L., 2003, Morality and war is crane Machines , Sudbury Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett. Epstein, R., 2007, “The Impact of Computer Security Concerns on Software Development,” in Himma 2007a, pp.

171202. Mercutio Death? Epstein, L.S. 1980. “Decision-making and the temporal resolution of uncertainty”. International Economic Review 21 (2): 269283. Ess, C., 2009, Digital Media Ethics , Massachusetts: Polity Press. Self Development Plan? Floridi, L., 1999, “Information Ethics: On the Theoretical Foundations of mercutio, Computer Ethics”, Ethics and Case Study Analyses: Inc. Essays Information Technology , 1(1): 3756. , 2002, “What is the Philosophy of Information?” in Metaphilosophy , 33(1/2): 123145. , 2003, “On the Intrinsic Value of Information Objects and the Infosphere,” Ethics and Information Technology , 4(4): 287304. , 2004, The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and mercutio Information , Blackwell Publishing. (ed.), 2010a, The Cambridge Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 2010b, Information: A Very Short Introduction , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2011a, “Enveloping the World for AI,” The Philosopher's Magazine , 54: 2021 , 2011b, The Philosophy of Information , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Floridi, L. and Essay J. W. Sanders, 1999, “Entropy as Evil in Information Ethics,” Etica Politica , special issue on Computer Ethics, I(2). Death? [available online] , 2001, “Artificial evil and plan the foundation of computer ethics,” in mercutio death, Ethics and Information Technology , 3(1): 5566. [available online] , 2004, “On the Morality of Artificial Agents,” in Minds and Machines , 14(3): 349379 [available online] Furguson, C. J., 2007, “The Good The Bad and the Ugly: A Meta-analytic Review of in nursing, Positive and Negative Effects of Violent Video Games,” Psychiatric Quarterly , 78(4): 309316. Gelernter, D., 2007, “Artificial Intelligence Is Lost in the Woods,” Technology Review , July/August, pp.

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told me about coal mining he use to do it in Az, Bagdad i dont. know much about this work but i am willing to leard. you can reach me at war is kind 623-478-9508, the best time to mercutio death, reach me is. at tuesday to thursday anytime or email me. 1676 Jeffers Rd. Huntsville, Tn. War Is Crane? 37756. Qualifications: Valid MSHA Federal Electrical card MSHA, Over a year underground with (Natnl Coal) and a few months. on the surface with Premium Coal.Experienced Mechanic, Fabrication work, use of mercutio death, welders torches.

Mechanical experience; (electric, gas, diesel engines) worked. on and run scoops, bolt machines, crawlers, miners power-stations. well you name it underground and Ive probably done it at one time. or another. and also run heavy equipment out side. Please Note: I like to work overtime whenever it's possible.

Also. ready to The Clergy Essay, start work ASAP, And I can relocate. Hello my name is Chris and im looking for a job in Buchanan Co. or Wise Co Virginia area Underground prefered , I have worked. underground for death about 3 months thru a contractor for an Alpha. mine operating roof bolter , scoop and muckers. Kind Stephen Crane? I would like to. get back on mercutio with a company and get back into mining. Im a former.

Army Military vet and Women a good team player that likes to get the. job done right. Mercutio? If theres any opening let me know. My underground. card is current and up to date. I live in Lebanon Va and in willing.

to commute or relocate. hello, my name is The Clergy Women Essay, Donovan Williams. I am a black hat from southern, wv. I am looking for a new job underground because I am moving to Nicholas. county. I can travel an mercutio death, hour or a little over for stephen crane work. Death? I am currently. on belts, but can build stoppings, work out-by, and any manual labor job. I am also tasked trained on kind stephen the single-head bolter, and mercutio scoop. Out Of Africa? I am a. very hard worker if you just give me the mercutio death, chance to prove it to you. my. home number is (304) 438-4150 an consent in healthcare, leave a message.

my cell number is death, (304) 640-0454. Out Of Africa? Thank you. Hi, my name is Justin Davisson and mercutio I'm from Salem, West Virginia, I have around 2 months experience underground and can do ventilation, build stoppings, help scoop man supply bolters, set posts, work out-by, etc. My card expires on 2/1/2012.

I'm in great need of a mining job to. better provide for my family and myself and will show up for out of africa movie work every. day. Death? I'm willing to relocate, so anywhere in WV, PA, Ohio, MD or KY I'll. consider work. Please give me a call and hire me and you won't be. disappointed. I don't know if I need a different license for that state. to be eligable for work but if so let me know what I need to do to self development, obtain. what I need for mercutio death work.

Please give me a call (304) 203-5966. If no answer. please leave a message. Thanks. Hiring Surfce Underground Black Hats Also Constructon Workers: Welders, Electricians, Pipefitters, Ironworkers for all fifty states. Consent In Healthcare? Benefits. provided. Prefer construction workers with the 24hr MSHA trainig.

Looking to relocate out of the Eastern Kentucky Area. I have recently. pasted and received my Assistant Mine Foreman Card. I hold my MSHA. certificated. I have worked as a rock duster, and belt man for the past. 3.5 years, and fill in as a Belt Foreman.

Please contact me, Anthony, I am currently looking for a career in death, the mining industry. I have experience working underground and want to get back into mining. I am willing to relocate if the opportunity presents itself. I am a. hard worker and out of africa rarely miss work. Death? I if you can assist me it would be. greatly appreciated. Thank you. MSHA, MIIN # M35035069. Experienced Fabrication work, use of welders torches. Mechanic.

(electric, gas, diesel engines) Completed and passed the class for in nursing my Federal Electrical card 12/22/2011. Hughes High School Cincinnati, Ohio. U.S. Mercutio Death? Army E-4 1976 to 1982 Honorable discharge. US Department of ethics in nursing, Labor. Mine Safety and Health Administration.

(approved OMB number 1219-0009 expires 12/31/2010) surface coal. (approved OMB number 1219-0070 expires 12/31/2010) underground coal. (approved OMB number 1219-0009 expires 12/31/2010 re-certification. MSHA, MIIN # M35035069 I have and hold an mercutio death, Electrical card. 1676 Jeffers Rd. Huntsville, Tn. Plan? 37756. My name is roger mills and I live in charleston wv. im a black hat. surface miner and I also have an underground apprentice mining card.

I have worked on surface mines and I have some exp as a diesal mech. apprentice to a master mechanic.. Death? I have worked on underground move. crew for 2months.. I have exp underground on movecrew putting up. stoppings.. The Clergy Needs Essay? hanging belt structure. Mercutio Death? belt moves.. Case Analyses: The Gap, Inc. Essays? splicing belt.

general labor underground.. my underground card is valid and I have. 07 surface card. im available for mercutio death work. if given a chance im a hard. my phone is 3048075668. Seeking employment in Coal Mines near Northern West Virginia. I obtained my Underground Apprentice Mining Card in September 2011.

I am certified in CPR, AED, and First Aid. In addition to my certifications, I am an instructor at American Red Cross (ARC) River Valley Chapter and a. disaster volunteer (local and national). I am a team player, have good. personable skills, adapt well to change, am willing to learn, and able to out of movie, multi-task. Please contact Ronald Uphold, Jr at 13042163342 or via email at [email protected] Hello, my name it Jessie Maynard and I've recently acquired my. surface miner apprentice card. I'm in search of a job as a red hat. in the Wayne, WV area, preferably morning or night shift. I am a. hard worker and will work overtime if needed.

Contact me by email. If no answer leave a message. Thank you. My name is Terry Andrew Baisden, 26 years old, proud father of 2 boys. and 1 girl. I am seeking work in the Charleston WV or surrounding areas. I have my WV Underground Apprentice Card and my EMT-Miner Card.

I have. 65 days worked towards my blackhat and just need someone to take a. chance on mercutio death me and I promise I wont let you down. Im a smart, blue-collar. worker that has great leadership skills. Self Development? Please feel free to mercutio death, contact me. by email [email protected] or by ethics phone 304-426-6696 or 304-475-2220.

Hello My name is Gregory M. Mercutio? Blankenship I am looking for war is kind crane a job as an underground miner. I do have my inexperienced card and all the mercutio, necessary equipment (light, hardhat, boots) to. get started immediately, I am hard working, goal oriented, punctual, and have no problem. passing a drug test will work any shift and movie all the available overtime looking for a career in. the Pike County area but will travel if the opportunity presents itself please. My name is Jeff Harris. Death? I work for alpha natural resources in. Nicholas county, I am currently a certified surface coal miner.

and an apprentice underground coal miner. I am hoping to. find work underground, and Needs prefer midnight shift. Mercutio Death? Please. contact me at 304-651-9853 or email me at [email protected] Feel free to call at any time, thank you. Hi, my name is Parth Shah and in nursing I am writing to apply for an. opening as a Driller Assistant or Foreman at LKS Enterprises.

The opportunity presented is very interesting, and I believe that. my strong knowledge, experience and skills will make me a. very competitive candidate for this position. I am familiar with. the nature of the work, have extensive knowledge on the. machinery required, have studied on the proper safety skills. needed for the job, and currently hold a CPR certification to. ensure safety. I have studied and death shadowed the mining industry. while studying Engineering at ethics Rutgers University and have. extensive knowledge on the day-to-day operations at a mine site.

If you wish to set up an mercutio, interview, please contact me at. (732) 829-3787 and I will be happy to come to in healthcare, set up a meeting. to talk about mercutio death, employment opportunities at Needs Women your company. Thank. you very much for reading my cover letter and for giving me an.

opportunity to tell you my qualifications for the position. Hi! my name is death, Richard Calimlim from the Philippines. I would like to try my hand at coal mining. I have no experience. but learn fast and The Clergy am fully capable of performing any and all tasks. put before me. all I ask for is a shot at mining. Hello, my name is Robert Ray and mercutio death I live in Charleston WV. I have my 80 hour underground apprentice card and looking. for work as a red hat in self development, West Virginia. Can pass drug test. no problem.

Hard worker, can travel, will work any hours. Contact my any time 304-552-1390 or [email protected] Death? Thank you. Hiring Underground Black Hats. Bolt, Scoop, Buggy, Boss. Fax Resumes to 304-860-1983. Green Leaf Services, LLC. Prosperity, WV 25909.

Phone: (304) 860-1979. Fax: (304) 860-1983. Hi, my name is Parth Shah and I am writing to kind, apply for an opening. as a Driller Assistant or Foreman at a good company. The opportunity. presented is very interesting, and I believe that my strong knowledge, experience and skills will make me a very competitive candidate for this.

position. I am familiar with the nature of the work, have extensive. knowledge on the machinery required, have studied on the proper safety. skills needed for mercutio the job, and ethics currently hold a CPR certification to. ensure safety. I have studied and shadowed the mining industry while. studying Engineering at Rutgers University and have extensive knowledge. on the day-to-day operations at death a mine site. If you wish to set up an interview, please contact me at (732) 829-3787. and I will be happy to africa movie, come to death, set up a meeting to in healthcare, talk about employment. opportunities at your company.

SAFETY COAL MINE COORDINATORS. Underground some surface work. Must have PA mine forepersons papers. Strong knowledge of current MSHA and Pa. state regs. Will be responsible for mercutio death oversight of safety plan; Safety and task training; mentor skilled motivated workers. Pennsylvania (Greene County) site. Competitive wages, retirement, health care, and other benefits. Fax resume to: 724-564-7160. CJ Welding and Construction.

An approved mine contractor Building Careers in war is crane, Coal. A drug free, equal opportunity employer. Now hiring full-time General Foremen for underground. mining operations in the Norton area for second and third. shifts.

Must have supervisory experience in underground. operations and mercutio current Virginia mining foreman certification. For more information contact Sam Cepada at 276-431-7352. or Suzie Speaks at 423-765-2628. A resume may be faxed. to 276.431.7353I can be best contacted at my cell phone. listed below.

Regards,Timothy M. LuttrellAtwork Personnel. Services117 E Hill StreetRogersville, Tennessee 37857Main. Phone: 423-546-4141Fax: 423-373-1258 Cell: 423-754-3004. I would like to try my hand at consent in healthcare coal mining. I have no experience. but learn fast and am fully capable of performing any and all tasks. put before me. Death? all I ask for war is kind stephen crane is a shot at mining. Experienced underground coal miner of 7 years, been. out of mining for a while. Mercutio Death? However, live in africa, n. west virginia.

area but am willing to relocate for any good job. Have my. belt examiners papers and will be taking my mine foremans. test Dec. 1rst 2011, will pass test, took training. Looking to. get back in ASAP, already took my 8hr refresher course and. have my MSHA card. Mercutio? Can operate continuous miner, miner. bolter, shuttlecar, loader, center bolter, with experiences as. 27 and out of 50 ton and supply motorman. thanks.

Underground surface available immediately. Experienced. Must have a valid driver's license. Pa. (Greene County) job site. Steady work, weekly pay, benefit package Career. Advancement.Fax resume to: 724-564-7160 CJ Welding and.

ConstructionBuilding Careers in Coal A drug free, equal opportunity employer. Perm Surface Underground Miner. Assistant Underground Mine Forman. Dust Sampling Calibration. All cards are from death, KY and up to in nursing, date. I am currently working but want to death, check my options for advancement. Must be in Eastern KY.

I am a coal miner with eight years experience; I have my Indiana Illinois Mine Manager and Mine Examiner Papers, with experience. My work experience: 2009-2011 Sunrise Coal Mine Examiner, car driver, timber, rail barred,cribbed. 2003-2009 Peabody Vermilion Grove Portal roof bolter. 1998-2003 Jeffery Bell Agregates Trucking operate various types of excavating. 1998-1996 Jamax mechanic. Jason Allen Parker. 705 E Heap St, PO Box 65. Farmersburg, IN 47850. My name is Timmy Perry I Have my green Hat and I am. from Pikeville KY looking for a JOB WITH NO LUCK HARD.

WORKER JUST NEEDS A CHANCE CAONTACT AT. My name is Kenneth Brodie Adkins, 23 years old of Barboursville, WV. I have my WV Underground Apprentice certification (Cert. # 3-27485). I am. dependable, honest, and a hard worker. I may be young, but my ability to.

work and Inc. get the job done exceeds expectations. I have a vast construction. and laborer experience along with equipment operation including skid steers. (Bobcat S360), excavators (Cat 315), road cutting, and grid developing. I am. in need of work a.s.a.p and willing to relocate if job security is involved with. employement.

I can reached by death telephone at (304) 690-2196 anytime or by. email at [email protected] Self Plan? Thank you for mercutio your consideration. Hello, my name is The Clergy Essay, Zachary Stire and I live in Clarksburg, WV. I have an mercutio, 80. hour underground certification and Women Essay am seeking red hat employment. I can pass. any drug test without issue and mercutio am willing to work for contract companies as well. I have a college degree and have a backround in construction. My contact number.

is 304-624-6730 or 304-669-8818 and my email is [email protected] Very hard labor 29 and ready to get dirty. My name is Rick Woolsey i live in Dawson Springs Ky. am seeking employment in a underground mine or a surface. mines. I have a Inexperienced card for africa both. Mercutio? I have over 20 yrs. exp. in construction and am able to operate various pieces of equip.

I am willing to relocate if needed. i have very good work ethics and. various skills from blue prints and designs to acc. hands on consent . I also am a former E.M.T. and would enjoy the opportunity to. become a M.E.T. MY email is [email protected] and i can. be reached at mercutio death 270-797-2778 day or night. My name is Craig Persinger, I have an excellent work record. 80 hour. certified underground, 40 hour apprentice.

Highly skilled underground. I am seeking employment in te southern WV area or any available. 4773 Lens Creek Road, Charleston Wv. I am Bobby Parrott 26 Years old, I am looking for work underground in. the coal mines. I currently have an Inexperienced Miners card, I am certified.

on the C.O. Monitors on the surface. looking for a chance to work hard and. make a good living out of movie, Mining coal, Currently living in Pikeville, Kentucky. but if needed I can relocate to Virginia or West Virginia. I am a very hard worker, Solid References, Good work history. Very good with mechanics, and death my hands, I would be a great addition to ethics, your underground team, Very fast learner just. needing someone to mercutio death, give me a chance to prove myself, I wont let you down! You can email me at [email protected] or call me at 606-733-0203. My name is Brian Halstead.

I'm from southern West Virignia and have my. apprentice mining card and looking for employment in the coal industry. I have experience underground and also performing maintenance in Needs, the shop. which I gained as an Intern for death Arch Coal. I'm also very close to my Electrical. Engineering degree and war is kind crane would hope to continue work in the mines putting my. degree to use once it's completed. I am looking for work either around Boone. County, WV or Morgantown, WV.

I can be reached anytime at 304-542-5767. Hello, My name is Heather Riggs, I am a 22 yr. old female looking. for a mining career in the North central WV area. I currently have my 80-hr Underground Apprentice card, I recieved. it 3/30/2011. I am descently strong for being a woman, I. work very hard, I am a determined person, and would love to just. have a chance to death, prove what I can do, to get down and. dirty like the rest of the guys. My email is. [email protected] please contact me if you feel that I. could be even slightly. considered for your mining crew.

My name is Brian Halstead. Out Of Africa Movie? I'm from death, southern West Virignia. and have my apprentice mining card and looking for. employment in the coal industry. Study The Gap, Inc.? I have experience underground.

and also performing maintenance in the shop which I gained as. an Intern for Arch Coal. I'm also very close to my Electrical. Engineering degree and would hope to continue work in death, the mines. putting my degree to use once it's completed. I am looking for. work either around Boone County, WV or Morgantown, WV. I can be reached anytime at 304-542-5767 or.

Hi, my name is Anthony Phelps. Case Study Analyses: Inc.? I am 19 years old from mercutio death, Kentucky and I. have both my inexperienced underground and surface mining licenses, a. certified surface operating certification, and am also working towards an. underground operator certification, an associates degree for ethics in nursing an underground. technician and an underground electrician, and a bachelors in mercutio death, mining technology. I hope to out of, begin working for any mine that is in mercutio, a 100 mile radius that may call me. for an africa, interview or another method of hiring. I have confidence in mercutio, saying, despite. having no mining experience, that I will be a vital addition to ethics, your mine. Please. take me into mercutio consideration, I promise your industry wouldn't regret it if I selected. as a candidate for war is stephen crane your underground/surface mine, because I take pride in quoting.

from my employers that, I am an exceptional and a dying breed of workers. I can contacted at [email protected], my cell phone at 270-245-7179, or my. home phone at mercutio 270-825-2742. I am available mainly before 4 o' clock eastern time. and after 10 o' clock eastern time.

Thank you taking the time out of your day. to read my description. I am currently working on an aircraft carrier in Norfolk Virginia and have been building. and repairing them as well as building and repairing submarines for the U.S. Navy for. the past twenty three years. I am a Commercial Diver doing various underwater work.

I also hold a class A CDL and have experience with heavy equiptment. I am Homeland. Security trained and experienced. I hold a top secret DOD security clearance. I am also a qualified EMT and Firefighter. My company, ( General Dynamics) is. downsizing in December. I would love to relocate to Kentucky and Analyses: try my hand at. coal mining in mercutio, any capacity.

I can be reached at [email protected] or 860-917-1390. Thank you. Walter W. Hirtle. hello- im Roger and seeking a surface coal mining job, i have expenence in all types of. surface mining from operator (dozers D-7 thru D-11, back hoe, trackhoes, screapers, loaders, uniloaders, cranes) have several years experence in wash plants ( maintaince, operating, management) also operated a coal train load out operatiion for several years, i have aprox. 20 years experence and carry a surface certifid card, if interested in knowing. more, i can be contacted at The Clergy 812-215-6895.

I am a woman who is looking 2 start a job underground in wv around. or near Raleigh county in WV. I took my 80hr class as well did my. best friend. We finshed our class about 2 months ago n we can't seem. 2 find jobs. We r not big size women but we are tough n determined 2. do this. If some1 would just give us the chance. I have actually had ppl. 2 laugh at me when I go 4 a app n tell them I'm a redhat n wanna be.

underground I do think we deserve a chance just like anyone else. My. email is [email protected] my name is Kim Justice n. my # is 3045759299. If anyone can help us please contact us. Thank you for your time. My name is Bill. Mercutio Death? I hold 6 MSHA certifications, surface, underground and.

have received training on a CAT 777D Haul Truck, CAT 992G Endloader. I am looking for a job in the mining industry. I have prior experience driving. heavy equipment. War Is? I am willing to relocate for any position within the USA. I can be reached at (812) 380-1227 or [email protected] I am looking. forward to receiving your call!

Thank You. 9-20-11 My name is Bruce Mouritsen and I have 20 years extensive Underground. Coal Mining experience with my last full year having been 1998. I am wanting. to get back into this career. I have extensive experience in all aspects of. coal extraction both conventional as well as long wall systems. My e-mail. address is [email protected] and you can call me anytime on. my cell#971-218-9962. Can easily recertify and get papers up current.

Thank you for your consideration. Best regards, Bruce Mouritsen. Posted 9-20-11 My name is Forest Dolin, I am 23 years old and looking for mercutio an underground. red hat position in Southern WV. Not opposed to working for contractors or. mines themselves. War Is? Preference to late shift but likely to accept any position. available. No experience underground, but have did security work at mining. sites before.

My email address is [email protected] Surface miner wanted to do electrical work in mercutio, Southeastern ky and Va. Must have Surface Miners cards and Anual retrain. Contact- Bill Overbey and sons inc. London, ky 40741. 606-878-8972 or 606-682-2637. Hi my nane is Ryan Oconnor im curently looking for a. carear in the coal mine industry in out of africa movie, alabama i have one. 31-year-old miner Yevgeniy Strukov from Ukraine with 13 years experience is. looking for a job in mercutio, the USA in any state.

He needs H1B visa. If you have any. offer please contact directly him at [email protected] Hello my name is David,I just moved to the cedar bluff/Richland area and wanted. to get into the mining industry. I have no prior experience but willing to learn this. trade. my email is [email protected] my number is 239 -222- 6990 cell. home number is 276-963-9217 Thanks.

Hello , My Name is Derrick Conway im 20 years from The Clergy Needs Women Essay, TN with no experience. but im wanting a job working in the mines im willing to relocate anywere im. single so i have no family or kids to death, worry about.IM a hard worker an fast learner. If interested in war is kind stephen crane, giving me an oppurtunity. please contact me at 423-278-6160 or 423-91312-04. Hi, my name is Anthony Phelps. I am 19 years old and. I have both my Inexperienced Underground and death Surface. Mining licenses.

I am looking to make mining my career, and I am hoping to begin working for any mines that may. call me for an interview or another method of hiring. I am. currently in college and am working towards my associates. degree to out of africa, become a mining technician, and after that is. completed, I plan to achieve my mining electrician degree. Relocation is mercutio, always an option for me.

I have confidence in. saying that I will be a vital addition to your mine. Consent In Healthcare? Please put. me into consideration, I promise you will not regret it if your. company selected as a candidate for your underground/surface.

cell at 270-245-7179, or my home phone at 270-825-2742. Thank you for reading. My name is Stephen Cowgill. I am a red hat and I have my class 04. surface apprentice card. I will work anywhere in the southern district. of WV. Mercutio Death? I am available to work any shift as well as overtime and I will. do any work on a surface mine.

I have reliable transpertation, I am. 100% drug free, a hard worker, and africa I catch on quick. I can be reached. Hi My name is mercutio, John Greer. I am an inexperinced surface. miner who just got my card.

I'm looking for a job in ky (Floyd, Martin, Johnson, Lawrence, or Pikeville). I have worked in the. oil fields for the past 6 yrs. I have a class B CDL with tanker and. Hazmat so I know what it takes to drive a big truck off road. Out Of Africa Movie? I'm. willing to learn anything. Mercutio Death? I'm a hard worker and I get the job done.

in a safe and timely manner. My number is 606-624-6511 or you. can E-mail me at [email protected] thanks for your time. and I hope to talk to you soon. Hello. Case Study Analyses: The Gap, Inc. Essays? My name is Clint Sandlian and I am an experienced underground. and surface coal miner looking for work near Jerseyville, Illinois. I am. seeking an underground position, but will consider the mercutio, right surface. position. I have held positions from Beltman to Surface Supervisor.

My certifications include MSHA Instructor Card, Gas Card, CDOT. Storm Water Management and ethics in nursing others. Mercutio Death? I currently have no valid Illinois. certs as I have just moved to out of africa, the state, but I am scheduled to take the. State of Illinois First Class Miner examination July, 29th, 2011. Please. contact me by mercutio death telephone at (480) 652-5877 or by. Hello, My name is Essay, Nick Rorick. I am a newly certified Surface miner.

for Kentucky, however i am willing to mercutio death, relocate and can easily retest. for other states. I have proir experience in Study The Gap,, Mechanics, I was a. helicopter mechanic for 2 years at Sikorsky in Troy Al. I am a hard. worker and jus tneed you to give me a chance. my number is 606-653-7015. Hello my name is mercutio, John Spencer, I am looking for a coal mining job. I have no experience been looking for almost a year now. Study Inc.? I have my. card but cant find a job for death a red hat. I live in Elkview WV, Im willing.

to travel 50 miles one way. I am a hard worker if anyone can help. please let me know. My phone number is ethics, 304-989-4450 my email. My Ershika Hughes 36 yrs old currently seeking employment as. underground or surface I have 9 yrs experienced i need the benfit. money being a single parent.

Hello, my name is Don Gates. I'm currently deployed overseas. on active duty with U.S. Army. I'm coming home soon and mercutio death in. need of work. The Clergy? I'd really like to get into underground coal mining. I'm from death, NH but hoping to Study Analyses: The Gap, Essays, move to W V shortly after coming home. I've been trying to find out death, how to get a W V underground apprentice. card from over here but unsuccessful so far.

I'm a hard worker and. very willing to learn any job. I'd really like the chance to show a W V. company that this is true. I'll be waiting to hear from someone. for a coal mining job at this point dont. mind if its underground or top side. im. new to this, so no cert or anything. i. guess im a red hat or green. my phone number. is 570-768-7110 im looking for work in. PA. my phone is always on if anyone could help. i would like to start asap. thank you. My name is Kelly Kirk I am a coal laborer.

on a surface mine in Indiana. Out Of Africa? I have 9. months experience. I also have passed a. safety course here. Mercutio? I am looking to. relocate my family to Eastern Kentucky.

where my wife and step kids are originally. from. I am a hard worker as I am currently. working 72 hours a week and would much. appreciate a job in Kentucky!! My email. you would like a drug free, hard working. individual to in nursing, be a part of your company. Hello my name is Keith miller and I have. my underground papers, I have nit worked. in the mining field before so I am new to.

the mining world, if anyone can help me. find a job in death, this field please let me know. by phone 205-265-9779 thank. Hello im Jacob Stephens im trying to find a. job in a surface mining ive got traning. in Firefighter 1 2,Terrorism/Bombing·Fire.

Science/EMS CPR and First Aid· Surface apprentice card I m a hard worker i. just got recently married and i live in lincoln. County WV i would prefer to have a job in. Lincoln and Boone county but im willing to Case Inc. Essays, travel. in the state for a job thank you for taking. the time looking over my training. You can reach me at (304)524-9278.

Hello. My name is Donald Ratliff, and mercutio I am. from Letcher County Kentucky. I have my. Experienced Surface Miner Card, with 52 days. experience, and Study Analyses: Inc. also my Temporary. Inexperienced Underground Miner Card.

I am. also currently in the process of getting. my MET Card. I am a hard worker, and I have. never missed a day of mercutio, work. Movie? I have. worked various jobs since I was 16. I am.

willing to learn anything, and will do. anything for a job to support my growing. family. I have had 3 years of mercutio death, Diesel. Mechanics classes: 1 year of Steering/Suspension, 1 year Brakes, and 1 year Engine. Repair. I am looking for war is stephen a job in the area. surrounding Letcher County, Kentucky. You can contact me at: My name is Christopher Pugh.

I am an underground. coal miner with 10 yrs experience. I am currently. driving 1 1/2 hours to work one way at American. Coal in mercutio death, Galatia, IL. I live in Marion, KY would. love a shorter drive to africa, work. I am an mercutio, MET. You. I am currently seeking employment as an consent in healthcare, underground.

coal miner preferably in the Kanawha county area or. surrounding counties (Boone, Lincoln, Fayette, Putnam, Roane, Clay). I have moved away from all of my friends. and family to work, and am desperately trying to find. another job underground to mercutio, be back with my loved ones.

I am currently an apprentice miner, and will be eligible. to take my certification test in August. I have experience. in rail maintenance, belt maintenance, belt and belt. structure repair, rock dusting (manual and machine driven), shoveling belt, ventilation tube hanging, tramming machinery, tramming man trips, air changes, equipment moves, belt moves, rib pinning, roof bolting, trolley wire maintenance, long wall out-by, escorting MSHA inspectors through the. mine, and Study Inc. have worked in the mains sections, the gate. sections, and the long wall section. I will gladly. work any shift that you would like, and have on mercutio several. occasions signed up to work extra shifts including holidays.

You can contact me via phone at movie 304-410-9986. Ask. for Josh. Mercutio? Posted 7-5-2011. My name is Corey Hodge and I am a hard working, fast. learning, and reliable 23 year old looking for out of africa movie a career. in the coal industry. Just took my classes for WV Surface. Miner.

Looking for something around the Northern Panhandle. of WV. Mercutio Death? I have no experience in Case Analyses: The Gap, Inc., the industry, but am looking. for someone to give me a chance. Please let me know if anyone. is hiring or any other information you might have. Thank you. Join a growing coal mining company with a strong safety.

culture The leading global, publicly traded, pure-play metallurgical coal producer is now hiring experienced and. skilled miners for our mines near Birmingham, Alabama. We. offer a rewarding career with a comprehensive compensation. and benefits package. This is your chance to join a team.

of experienced miners who know their jobs, are great at. what they do. Apply today for the following positions:· Manager·Section Area Manager·Outby Area Manager· Production Section Foreman·Outby Foreman·Belt Foreman· Maintenance Supervisors·Electronic Technicians· Underground Electricians Our highest priority is the health, safety, and mercutio well-being of ethics in nursing, our crews. Death? We require the highest. level of Study Analyses: The Gap, Essays, ethics and integrity in mercutio, all our business.

dealings and we foster an environment that promotes teamwork. and respect for others. Apply today by africa movie sending resumes to. (toll free) for mercutio more information. Equal Opportunity Employer. Posted 7-5-2011 My name is Donnie Abner. In Healthcare? I have 1 1/2 years experience. I have a permanent.

underground card, temporary surface card, and mercutio a MET card. I can run a scoop, shuttle car, shovel belts, and run low low. Looking for a job on surface or underground. I have a two month old and Women I really need to work.I'm drug and alcohol free. Looking for. work around Hazard, KY. You can reach me at [email protected]

Join a growing coal mining company with a strong safety culture. The leading global, publicly traded, pure-play metallurgical coal producer. is now hiring experienced and skilled miners for our mines near Birmingham, Alabama. We offer a rewarding career with a comprehensive compensation. and benefits package. This is your chance to join a team of experienced miners who know their jobs, are great at what they do. Apply today for the following positions: · Longwall Area Manager. · Section Area Manager. · Outby Area Manager. · Production Section Foreman.

the highest level of ethics and integrity in all our business dealings and mercutio death we foster. an environment that promotes teamwork and respect for others. (toll free) for more information. Equal Opportunity Employer. I AM BENJAMIN FARIS . I LIVE IN LEBANON VA. I HAVE. SURFACE AND UNDERGROUND PAPERS. LOOKING. FOR JOB. HAVE RUN DOZERS LOADERS BACKHOES, Hello.

My name is David(Mike) Colbert. I am a veteran of the. US Army have worked for development a steel company for the last 10 years, working with raw materials,such as ore, coke, and coal. Mercutio? I worked. mostly on ethics in nursing tower, bridge, and death stacker/reclaimer cranes as well as. labor duties. Due to many layoffs in the last 2 years because of.

inactivity in our production and no business, I resigned. and relocated to southwest Virginia. Recently, I have trained on. received certifications in Study Analyses: The Gap, Inc., heavy equipment, surface mining, OSHA, forklift, flagman. Death? I have an excellent work history am hard working, willing to learn new things and not afraid to in healthcare, get dirty! I have a wife 2. children that I provide for. Death? I would love the experience of being a coal.

miner or using equipment to reclaim and war is crane transfer coal. I'm looking for a. company in the SW VA, SE KY, SE WV that. would give me allow me the opportunity to work. My email is. My resume is mercutio death, available and I will also be available to start working ASAP. hey. my name is scotty sexton i have 7 years expierence on surface. mines running a drill, dozer, frontend loader, and truck. i have my surface.

card in va ky and wva. i have just recently got my underground card in. virginia and i am looking to go underground. my dad was a coal miner and. so will i . Analyses: Inc.? any help would be nice. my phone number is 276-597-7256 or. Hello my name is Matthew D. Garrett. Mercutio? I have a miners card for underground.

mining. Ethics? You may turn your head at the first glance at mercutio my inexperience in mining. and have spent most of my life in construction mostly roofing. I know you have. heard it a million times but i mean it when i say that i will work hard than you have.

ever seen. Despite my inexperience I do have a lot of Study Analyses: Inc. Essays, knowledge in coal mining. from pretty much my whole family has been in the mines and my grandfather was. a foreman for years. I have two children and a wife to support and would more than. appreciative for an opportunity. I am more than willing to relocate.

Just give me a. chance and I will be there. Contact info is mercutio death, MATTHEW D. GARRETT. 715 Debusk Lane, New Tazewell, TN 37825 (865-585-6915) Hi, My name is Robert A. Woods I am from Louisa,Ky thats in eastern Ky. and I have recently went and got my Underground Card for Kentucky and West. Virginia so I am Certified in Needs, both states. I have put my application in at several. mines and I have heard nothing. Mercutio Death? I have a 1yr daughter and a wife and is the main.

reason for me going underground. My last Job was at Coalfield Lumber where we. cut all mining timbers such as cribbing, curtain boards, prop posts, half headers. and etc. It was just a dead end job with no insurance and low pay. Case Analyses: Inc. Essays? So I left there. to start a career in the mining industry where I can actually give my child things I. never had growing up. Mercutio Death? I am a very hard worker, I am drug free and I take pride in. not missing work. I worked for 8 months at Coalfield Lumber without missing a day. or even being late.

All I want to do is war is kind, work. Mercutio? I really just need somebody to give me. an opportunity and consent I will not disappoint. I am willing to travel anywhere for work. Mercutio Death? I. have a Valid Drivers liscence and consent have dependable transportation. I also have a letter. explaining the reason for leaving coalfield lumber to mercutio, start a career in mining. I have. very good referances. I also have all my equipment such as, mining light, hard hat, belt w/suspendars, and out of reflective clothing.

All of my utilities are scheduled for. disconnect. SO PLEASE can somebody have it in there heart to give me a chance, my child and family are depending on it. Thanks so much for reading. Robert A. Woods , 91 1st Street Louisa,Ky 41230 Phone:(606)205-8085. VRV Global, recruiting on behalf of Grand Cache Coal Corporation, is currently. recruiting for death various mining positions to be based in development, Alberta, Canada. These. positions require relocation to beautiful Grande Cache, Alberta, Canada, which. is north of the legendary Jasper National Park in Alberta. We currently have a need for the following positions:

Coal Miners (preference given to mercutio death, candidates with room and pillar experience) - $24.46 to $35.34 CAD per hour with a $3.00 per hour underground premium. Underground Mining Engineers. Underground Coal Mine Electricians. Heavy Duty Mechanics (Surface Mine and Underground) Heavy Haul Truck Drivers (Over 100 tonnes) And various other positions. All successful candidates will be provided with relocation and travel assistance. for their move to Grande Cache, Alberta Canada. All candidates must submit a resume, copy of their passport and self plan the ability to. provide a clean police / security certificate. Interviews will be taking place in late.

June throughout the US. If you are interested in mercutio death, learning more about these positions. or wish to submit a resume, please contact Phillip Holcomb at 1-403-269-2224. Hello, my name is Roger Grubbs and I am currently seeking. a job as a Coal Miner.

I have no experience in Case Study Analyses: The Gap, Inc., the mines so I'm. still considered a red hat or a green hat. Death? The only experience I. do have is hard work and the ability to learn very quick. I am 31. yrs old and have a wife and ethics two children to mercutio, provide for and would. very much like the chance to be a coal miner, something to be. proud of. In Healthcare? I currently reside in southeastern KY but am will to travel.

or relocate to be a coal miner. My dad was a coal miner for 16. years as a roof bolter for death Bell Co Coal, I would like to development plan, make him. proud and make my family proud. I've spent most of my working.

life in construction, so im no stranger to hard work. My contact. info: [email protected] and telephone number is 1-606-344-3356. Resume is death, available if needed and wil travel any distance for The Clergy Women an interview. Posted 5-1-11 Dingo is death, looking to hire and relocate the right person for an underground.

Program Manager position available immediately in Brisbane, Australia. The right person should have underground mining experience in the role. of superintendent, planner, or maintenance and The Clergy Needs Women Essay be willing to relocate to. Brisbane, Australia for 2-3 years. Mercutio? Dingo offers a six figure package, relocation and world-class benefits. If interested, please send resume.

Gina OverboeOffice: +1 303 662 9103. Cell: +1 720 237 9780. 6970 S Holly Circle Suite 200 Centennial CO 80112 My name is Joel Rutherford. I am currently seeking employment in The Clergy Women, the. coalfield industry. I have no experience in the field so I'm still a red-hat. At this time I have my Virginia underground and surface papers and am. currently taking my advanced first aid. Mercutio? I am 39 years old, a hard worker, and drug free.

I am located in Wise, Va and my telephone number is. 276-321-7237. Email: [email protected] I have spent the last 20 years of my life as an iron worker, building communication towers up to 1900' feet. I come from a coal mining family, father 20 years underground westmorland mines, then 20 years at central supply in derby. I am just looking for The Clergy someone to give me a chance underground so I prove my hard work and dedication. I would appreciate any consideration given. Resume and mercutio references available. Thank You.

Joel Rutherford. My name is Mollie. Ethics? I'm 21 years old looking for a job in WV near. Mannington, Fairmont, Morgantown, Fairview, or close to death, Waynesburg, PA. I have my Apprentice miner card and I am eager to start work. I'm quick to. learn, have a steady hand, I'm strong and agile, and have strong work ethic.

Don't let me being a young woman fool you, I work just as hard as the big boys. My name is Rob Brooks. I am an experience miner of 2 years in WV. I am looking for work preferably in SW PA or WV. Experienced heavy equipment operator looking for work.

in surface mining years of excavating and earth moving. experience with bulldozers tandem engine scrapers. excavators off road trucks and motor graders. career as a general foreman for an infrastructure company. doing site work, road and bridge building.OSHA, cpr,first. aid, and confined space trained.natuaral leader with computer, gps,survey, blueprint reading and cost estimating. Ethics In Nursing? as well as. pipe and underground utilities. Mercutio? references and resume available.

Martin Pierce 856-285-6134. relocating to wv to raise my family in a free country and escape. the wretched northeastern part of the country. I just got Honorable Discharged from the United States Army. Glad to war is stephen, be back in KY and ready to go to work.

Im very dependable, a hard worker, and death I learn fast. I have my underground and surface Inexperienced Miners card for KY. Contact me at [email protected] or 6067931600. My name is Jason DeNunzio Im 33 and. Im currently looking for self an under ground. coal mining job ,any job in the coal mining. industry. I have been laid off for over a. year and I need to get back to work. I am a. very hard and dedicated worker, I never. I live in Martins Ferry Ohio and will. travel up to mercutio death, 50 miles from zip code 43935.

My name is David Horton, I am a red hat. looking for out of africa a job in mercutio, underground mining. I. have my papers for Virginia and Case The Gap, Essays I have gas. detection. Im have experience in. Electricity, HVAC, and Ventalation. Taking. Electromechanical Engineering at. Mountain Empire Community College.

You can. Hi I am Chris Greenlee, I am a red hat miner. I have my card and have no problem. passing any drug screen. I can work any where. and I am a team player. I just need. somewhere to cut my teeth at. Please give me. a shot and you will not be.

disappointed. I can start work Mon. 3/28/11. I am a 37 y/m that is needing someone to take. a chance and hire me. I have a. current mining card and need a job. My father. and grandfather worked in the mining. industry. I am a hard worker and just need. someone to mercutio death, believe in me and give me a. chance to prove myself.

James ALLEN Webb, JR. My name is Gary Jackson, I have 12/1/2 years of surface mining experience, along with prep plant maintenance and beltline repair. My job included. maintenance on prep plant, beltline repair, fabricator, operate bulldozer, push. coal, loader operator and haul truck. Experience on the the following equipment. 980 988 Cat loader, Bobcat skid steer, D6 D7 Cat Dozer, Hyster Forklift and. Terex Gradall forklifts. Certified Kentucky surface miner. Consent? Looking for Illinois,

Indiana or Central/Western Kentucky. Death? I am a very dependable worker and consent am. willing to work overtime. Various mining positions available in Arizona, Idaho, Utah, and Illinois. If you have experience in underground coal mining please send me your. resume. Positions open for electrical engineers, shaft engineers, mining. engineers, shaft maintenance, and death supervisors. If you have the necessary.

skills and are willing to relocate please send your resume. We need a Coal Mining Foreman who is detailed oriented and can rise. the bar with his team in one the following areas: * Miner Section Production (LW panel development) * Belt moves; logistics. To get this amazing job you must have the following: * 2+ years of experience as a Foreman in an underground coal mine. * Current Foreman certification. * Dedication to consent, meeting work goals while creating a safe work. Email me today, so that you can begin working tomorrow. If you meet the requirements, I want to talk to you today. JOB: Bituminous Underground.

Mine Electrical Inspector. PLACE: Pennsylvania Department. of Environmental Protection, Bureau of death, Mine Safety. JOB LOCATION: Uniontown, PA. SALARY: This position will work. a 40-hour workweek and be on war is kind stephen crane call.

24 hours a day. Mercutio Death? The starting salary. BENEFITS: Health Care, Pension Plan, Paid holidays, sick, annual and. personal leave, etc. JOB DUTIES: Responsible for enforcing.

the state underground mining laws in. an assigned area by war is kind stephen crane performing regular. technical electrical inspections of. underground coal mines in the bituminous. coal fields of Pennsylvania. EMPLOYMENT QUALIFICATIONS: Ten years of. experience in underground bituminous. coal mines, and graduation from high.

school or certification of equivalent. training. NECESSARY SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS: Possession of a valid Pennsylvania. driver's license, and mercutio possession of a. current and Essay valid certificate as a. bituminous mine electrician issued by. the Pennsylvania Department of. Environmental Protection. CONDITIONS OF. EMPLOYMENT: Must be a Pennsylvania resident.

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County, West Virginia, youll be working. with experienced underground miners who. know their jobs, are great at what they. do, and who are absolutely committed to mercutio, the. safety of their crews. If youre looking for a mining career with. a stable, successful, and. continuously-growing company, then we invite. you to in nursing, apply for one of the following. · Roof Bolter Operator.

· Shuttle Car Operator. · Third-Shift Utility Man. · Utility-Man Operator Production. Because we know that the success of our company. is fully dependent upon the. security and well-being of our people, we offer. benefits and compensation to give. peace-of-mind to you and your family. If you are interested in joining the Western. Coal team in Summersville West. Virginia, Contact Teresa Hanson toll free at.

866-332-7648 or email your resume to. Western Coal is an Equal Opportunity Employer. I think the Coalminer would be a great source. for sharing information for death about 35. Coal Company will be interviewing. 2011 in Summersville, WV.

They. Section Foreman, Outby Foreman. Bolter, Utility, Scoop, Shuttle. All jobs require experience. card. Consent? Of course, it is likely applicants will not. want to travel on such short notice.

through Westerns Recruiting. these new employment. Hanson, Lead Recruiter, at. with the applicants. for steelmaking. Their. significant shareholder value. Will you kindly can help me get the mercutio death, word out about. these upcoming jobs?

550 Heritage Dr. Suite 200. Jupiter FL, 33458. Tel:( 561) 277-1269. Fax:( 561 ) 687-2180. My name is The Clergy Needs, Aaron Hay I am 24 years old live in Wayne WV. I have my underground. Maine man in need of mercutio death, a coalmining job. Worked graveyards for africa movie awhile now, I would. like to work ina mine.

Phone is. (207) 874-6560 or email. Hello, my name is mercutio, Jonathan Miller I. am a experienced coal miner with one. yearexperience looking for work around. Morgantown WV in the mines. I have. experience running the rib pinner on. the miner and consent also have experience.

running the mercutio, outby bolter. I have shoveled. on belts and changed rollers. Please. or give me a call at 1-304-266-7832. How to self development, contact us: Disclaimer: LkSears Multimedia, LKSears Designs, LKS Enterprises offer this site as a free service to the Coal Industry and other industries that have coal ties. All listings and mercutio death profiles are free . We only stephen crane charge for addittional graphics , content, and mercutio advertising. We accept listings from kind crane, anywhere in the universe.

If you believe any information herein is false contact the webmaster now. I NFORMATION HEREIN BELIEVED TO BE ACCURATE BUT NOT WARRANTED. Contents Design copy right 2011 by eCorbin Internet Services,All Rights Reserved. Coal Miners For Hire. Mine Equipment For Sale. Coal Miners Store. Instructor Will Do. 24 Hour New Miner. Surface Training 8 Hour Annual Refresher - Email for. more Information at. We will try and mercutio furnish you with the best contact information.

We deal directly with the production people and get our knowledge first hand. Sometimes we leave an office company number, and sometimes the consent in healthcare, office people don't know what's going on at the mine site. Ask them if any jobs are available , and try and get the job sites supervisors cell phone number , He's the mercutio death, one that knows what's going on and does the hiring. One of the best methods is to get out to the mine sites or offices and meet these people face to face. Wear your Steel Toe Boots and Hard Hat.

Take extreme caution at any mine site and remember loaded trucks have the right of way. Coal mining is like the old time gold rushes.A few get rich and a lot get ripped. Wanna get ripped ? Go into in nursing the Coal Business without any coal mining knowledge or resources. Now days you spend a bundle and death get the biggest gamble of your life. Regulations, Bad Weather, Permits and Engineering bills. Electrician, MSHA Green Card. Location: Henderson, TX. CCC Group is currently in search. of a Journeyman Electrician, with. a green card / high voltage.

certification from ethics in nursing, MSHA, for a coal. conveyor construction project near. The successful candidate will be. responsible for working as a. journeyman as well as signing off. on all electrical work performed to. ensure systems are installed per. Interested candidates should have: -MSHA Green card certified is. -Minimum 5 years experience as a. journeyman on death heavy industrial. -Ability to travel to The Clergy Women Essay, other project sites. across the country as necessary.

Project is scheduled for 50 hours per. week with a March 2008 completion. date.Hourly rate up to $25.00/hr + $350. weekly subsistence pay for those qualified. Post offer drug screen required. Mercutio Death? EOE. To apply please download an application. from our website, www.cccgroupinc.

and complete an application. and submit it to. or fax to Inc., 210-662-1662. Call 800-269-4161 or. 210-662-1663 for more information. If your message doesn't get through try again , the technology we are currently using is low end. Getting a top end data mining resource you will be able to mercutio death, access is our goal. Rignt now we pay as we go , when we start making money you will be the first to know through new site features and plan a step closer to our goal. Thanks for using CoalMiner and stay alert at the mines. Mercutio? Remember loaded trucks have the right of way. We accept plain text in plan, email, do not.

send attachments our firewall will not process them. When visiting any mine site you should check in at death the guard shack or mine office and out of movie get HAZARD TRAINING from that mine before you go anywhere else. Click Here for an example of what HAZARD TRAINING IS ALL ABOUT.