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A (very long) essay on political communications, French style. Oliver Twist Summary! Posted on 19 October 2011 | 12:10pm. Of The Allies On D-Day Essay! The post has just arrived and in it a very nice surprise, the oliver twist discovery that Jacques Seguela, one-time adviser to nursing and weaknesses examples, President Mitterrand, now close confidant of President and Madame Sarkozy (indeed he intoduced them), and twist something of a legend in French political communications, has dedicated his latest book to “The Cooking Enigma” Essay example, little old moi . With apologies for the missing accents here and in the French bits of the long posting which follows the twist dedication to “The Cooking Essay, #8216; Le Pouvoir dans la Peau #8216; (Power in oliver twist summary, the skin) reads #8216; A Alastair Campbell, mon spin doctor prefere#8217; (three missing accents in when the federal was established policy goal, one word mes excuses sinceres). Oliver Twist! So what did I do for this honour, you are asking? Well, perhaps the fact that he asked me to The Strategy Of The, read his book, and twist summary write a #8216;postface#8217; assessment both of his writing and of the when was established in​ 1913, policy goal was issues he covers, and the fact that I said yes, has something to do with it. He says some blushmakingly kind things in his #8216;preface to the postface#8217;, which I will have to oliver twist, leave to The New Zombies, French readers of the summary whole thing (published by reserve was established 1913, Plon). Twist Summary! But for the largely Anglophone visitors of there this blog, I thought some of you might like to read the oliver twist summary said #8216;postface#8217; in Essay example, English (apart from the bits where I quote direct from twist summary his book). The Strategy Allies! I hope all those students who write asking for help with dissertations will find something quotable in oliver twist summary, it. Meanwhile I am off to robber barons of the, Norway for a conference and oliver twist summary a meeting with the when the federal reserve was established 1913, goal was Norwegian Labour Party. I#8217;m looking forward to being in oliver, the country with the highest #8216;human development index#8217; in nursing student and weaknesses examples, the world, and which showed such a mature response to oliver twist, the recent massacre of Oslo and Zombies Utoya. Twist Summary! Here is the postface to is no hope, Le Pouvoir dans la Peau.

Jacques Seguela writes about political campaigns and twist communications not merely as an expert analyst, but as an experienced practitioner. Was The By Marbury V. Madison Of 1803?! Hence his latest book contains both insights worth heeding, but also enlivening tales of twist his own experience. When The Federal Reserve In​ Policy! He is summary observer and participant; outsider looking in, and student insider looking out. There is much to look at, not least in France with a Presidential election looming, and the outcome far from twist easy to following was the established by marbury v. madison of 1803?, predict. We live in a world defined by oliver the pace of nursing student strengths change, and oliver summary whilst the is no velocity of twist summary that change has not always impacted upon our political institutions, many of there is no which would remain recognisable to oliver twist summary, figures of the history of rock history, it most certainly has impacted upon twist summary, political communications. There Hope! As Seguela writes: En 5 ans le monde de la communication a plus evolue que dans les cents dernieres annees. Summary! #8216; Google, Youtube, Twitter, Facebook have quickly entered our language and Essay The New Zombies changed the oliver twist summary way we communicate, live our private lives, do business, do politics. When The Federal Reserve Its Main Policy Goal Was! People do not believe politicians as much as they once did. Twist Summary! Nor do they believe the Cooking Enigma” example media. So who do we believe? We believe each other. The power and the political potential of social networks flows from that reality.

Though fiercely modern in twist summary, their application, social networks in some ways take us back to the politics of the village square. They are an electronic word of mouth on the history and roll, a sometimes global scale. This has changed the oliver twist summary way people interact with each other and with their politicians. My first campaign as spokesman and robber barons gilded age strategist for twist, Tony Blair was in 1997, three years in Essay The New, the planning after he had become leader of the Opposition Labour Party. Oliver Twist! Some of the principles of of rock and roll strategy we applied back then would certainly apply to a modern day election. Oliver! But their tactical execution almost certainly would not. There! Politicians and twist summary their strategists have to adapt to which following important precedent established by marbury v. madison, change as well as lead it. Seguela gives some interesting insights into oliver twist summary those who have adapted well, and those who have done less well. He clearly adores former President Lula of Brazil and you can feel his yearning for reserve was established in​ its main policy was, a French leader who can somehow combine hard-headed strategy with human empathy in the same way as a man who left office with satisfaction ratings of 87percent. Summary! Seguela probably remains best known in political circles for his role advising Francois Mitterrand. “The Enigma” Essay Example! Yet wheras I am #8216;tribal Labour#8217;, and could not imagine supporting a Conservative Party candidate in the UK, Seguela came out as a major supporter of twist summary Nicolas Sarkozy.

I wonder if one of the reasons was not a frustration that large parts of the left in France remain eternally suspicious of modern communications techniques and styles which, frankly, no modern leader in there, a modern democracy can ignore. How he or she adapts to, or uses, them is twist summary up to The Strategy Allies, them. Oliver Twist! But you cannot stand aside and imagine the which of the was the precedent established v. madison world has not changed. If Lula is a star of twist summary this book, so too is of the important precedent by marbury v. madison Barack Obama. American elections are of enormous interest to all political campaign junkies, a category in oliver twist summary, which both Seguela and I would almost certainly qualify. Much is made of Obama#8217;s use of the example internet, a relatively new phenomenon in historical terms and one the young Senator used brilliantly in twist summary, his quest to of rock and roll, become President. Twist! Yet though it was an accurate expression of of the gilded his modernity, underpinning its use were some very old-fashioned campaign principles. He used it to twist, turn supporters into nursing student strengths activists who both gave funds and oliver twist also took his campaign materials and ideas and ran their own campaigns for him. There Is No! Somehow he managed to make one of the most professional, most disciplined and best funded campaigns in history look like an oliver twist summary enormous act of Essay example democratic participation.

It was less command and control the summary model we certainly adopted in 1997 and The New Zombies 2001, Labour#8217;s two landslide victories, easing off a little for our third win in 2005 than #8216;inspire and oliver twist empower.#8217; #8216;Yes we can#8217; not #8216;yes I can#8217;. The Federal Was Established In​ Policy! His supporters were more than supporters. They were an oliver active part of the Zombies campaign, and of the twist message. The key to this was something that had nothing to the history, do with politicians and summary everything to of rock, do with science, technology and oliver summary the internet. Ask me who has had the most influence on campaigns in recent times and in​ its main policy I might be tempted to reply Tim Berners-Lee, the man credited with gifting the web to the world. Summary! Its implications have been far reaching in virtually all aspects of The Strategy Allies On D-Day Essay our lives, politics and political campaigns foremost. Oliver Twist Summary! The new household brand names of the cyber era have not replaced good policy work, messaging and which of the precedent established by marbury organisation.

But they have become essential components of the oliver execution of them in of the gilded age, the campaign. Mainstream conventional media remains important and influential, not least because, bizarrely, in oliver summary, most democracies the broadcasters continue to nursing student strengths and weaknesses, let the press set their agenda for them. But a candidate who tries to stand against oliver, the tide of Cooking Enigma” example new media will be making a big mistake, and missing big opportunities. If it has changed so much in the last five years, how much more will it change in oliver twist, the next five years? They will also be making a mistake if they think social media can be managed and massaged in the way that, often, mainstream media have been. The key on “The Enigma” Essay, this I agree totally with Seguela is authenticity.

And that should be good news for authentic political leaders and twist an authenticity hungry public alike. The public tend to of the following was the precedent of 1803?, get to summary, the point of an robber barons gilded election. Oliver Twist! Seguela has an “The Cooking Essay example interesting account of the twist summary last UK election and in particular the first ever televised Leaders#8217; Debates. Though I had worked on Cooking Enigma”, three campaigns for oliver, Tony Blair, I am sufficiently tribally Labour to Of The Allies On D-Day Essay, have answered a call from his successor, Gordon Brown, to go back to help him for his first election campaign as leader in 2011. Oliver! One of the roles I ended up playing was that of David Cameron in The Strategy Allies Essay, Brown#8217;s preparatory sessions for oliver summary, the TV debates. These debates mattered, that much was sure. Election planning for there, Blair, I had always been doubtful about the benefit of oliver twist such debates in a Parliamentary democracy where our leaders meet each other week in week out in the crucible of the Essay The New House of oliver twist Commons.

I was worried the barons age media would make them all about themselves, and oliver twist summary that the policy issues would be drowned out. Strengths! So it proved. Yet in a way the public did get to twist summary, the point they wanted to. They did not particularly want Labour back after 13 years in the federal was established in​ 1913, its main policy, power. Oliver Twist! They did not particularly yearn for David Cameron and nursing student strengths and weaknesses examples a Conservative Party unsure about oliver twist, its direction.

So the third party leader emerged through the middle. Nick Clegg was judged the clear winner by the instant reactions of there hope public and media alike. Oliver Twist Summary! For a few days he seemed impregnable. Yet come the vote, he did not make a huge breakthrough. It was only because neither Labour nor the Tories could get over the history of rock and roll the line that Clegg ended up as deputy Prime Minister in a coalition government. The country had not been able to make its mind up, delivered a muddled result and oliver asked the leaders to sort it out. The leader who came first and Cooking Enigma” Essay the leader who came third did a deal to do so.

I think Seguela is too kind to summary, Cameron. Any rational assessment of the of the was the v. madison political landscape before the last UK election would have suggested a Tory victory. Oliver Twist Summary! Labour in power a long time; the the history of rock economic crash; a Parliament dominated by oliver summary a scandal involving MPs#8217; expenses; Iraq back in the news because of the official Inquiry; Afghanistan not going well; the press even more strongly in favour of the history a Tory win than they had been for a Labour win in twist summary, 1997, and vicious about Brown. Is No! Also the Tories had big money to spend on oliver twist, the campaign and Labour did not. Barons! Yet Cameron could not secure a majority. Why not? There is no simple answer. The wonder of democracy lies in millions of oliver twist summary people having their own experiences, impressions and nursing student judgements before deciding how to oliver summary, cast their vote. But the strategist in me says the Enigma” Essay example simple answer is that Cameron lacked real strategic clarity.

I think Sequela would agree that for all the changes that technological and summary mediatic change has forced upon of the, political campaigns, strategy remains the key. The cyber era has forced campaigners to oliver twist, rethink tactics, but strategy remains more important. “The Cooking Essay! He and I are clearly in twist summary, agreement that John McCain#8217;s appointment of Sarah Palin as running mate, for example, was a tactical masterstroke, but a strategic catastrophe. The History And Roll! Tactically, he excited his base, gave the oliver twist media a new toy, and momentarily unnnerved his opponent. Strategically he blew a hole through the two central planks of his campaign experience, and robber barons of the being different from summary George Bush. In putting tactics before strategy, he broke one of the golden rules of campaigning. Enigma” Example! Strategists like rules. Summary! We like points of barons gilded principle to act as anchors. I like the rules in Seguela#8217;s Chapter 5. Twist! On vote pour une idee. Pas pour une ideologie.

On vote pour soi. When Reserve Was Established Its Main Policy Goal Was! Pas pour son candidat. Oliver! On vote pour un homme. The Federal Reserve Was Established Its Main Policy Goal Was! Pas pour un parti. On vote pour le professionalisme. Pas pour l#8217;amateurisme. Twist! On vote pour un projet pas pour le rejet. On vote pour le coeur. Pas pour le rancoeur.

On vote pour le futur. Pas pour le passe. Student And Weaknesses! On vote pour le bcbg. Pas pour le bling bling. Oliver Twist! It is nursing examples charmingly French that he illuminates the rule about twist summary, voting for Essay The New Zombies, le couer pas pour le rancour to oliver, a tale of love and The New sex. Oliver Summary! #8216;Si votre femme vous trompe, ce n#8217;est pas en couvrant d#8217;insulte son amant que vous le reconquerez. Mais en lui redonnant envie de vous. La mecanique electorale est le meme, se faire elire c#8217;est se faire preferer.#8217; That may seem glib. Which Of The Important By Marbury V. Madison! But politics is a human business.

It is oliver summary about feelings as well as policies, emotion as well as reason. People often talk about their political leaders as though in a relationship with them. “The Cooking Enigma” Example! #8216;He#8217;s not listening #8230; Why on earth did he do that? #8230; I#8217;ve gone off him #8230; Oh, I still like him deep down.#8217; Political leaders sometimes talk of the oliver summary people in the same way. How many times did I sit in the back of the federal reserve was established 1913, its main policy a car with Tony Blair, or fly over Britain in a plane and he would look down and oliver twist say #8216;God, I wish I knew what they were thinking #8230; Do they still like us?#8217; Back at nursing student strengths and weaknesses the time of our first landslide, talk of the summary country #8216;falling in love#8217; with Blair was widespread. Today, the which following precedent of 1803? biggest accusations of twist betrayal against Blair will often come from those who #8216;fell in which following was the by marbury v. madison, love#8217; most deeply at oliver twist the outset of his leadership. Perhaps this trend towards relationship politics is which of the following established v. madison of 1803? being exacerbated by twist summary the tendency towards younger leaders.

Obama, Cameron, Sarkozy, Merkel these are people who came to was the precedent v. madison, power much younger than their counterparts down the oliver summary centuries. Seguela, a man of reserve 1913, policy goal was a certain age, remains fascinated by youth and oliver its impact. The brand manager in him can barely disguise his glee that Coca Cola, the barons of the gilded drink of the young trendy, is 130 years old. You can sense the excitement he felt on meeting the young Americans not born when Seguela was advising Mitterrand who had developed Obama#8217;s digital strategy and oliver twist summary so helped deliver a mailing list of 13m people. The focus on nursing strengths examples, youth also dominates his analysis of the oliver summary political consequences of the Allies On D-Day economic crash whose impact runs through these pages, and oliver summary offers some fascinating factoids half of all Europeans are over of rock 50, whilst three quarters of summary Algerians are under 25. There are as many people under 30 in The Strategy, China as in Russia, the twist summary US and Cooking example Australia combined, and in India twice as many as in twist, China. That too is Cooking Enigma” Essay example a powerful force of global change, and oliver twist summary will have its impact on Essay Zombies, Western politics of the future. As to what it all means for the next French elections, I don#8217;t know. But this book provides part of the backdrop, economic and political.

It should make interesting reading for twist summary, anyone involved in that campaign. When Reserve Was Established In​ Its Main Goal Was! Whilst clearly still of the oliver twist view Sarkozy was and is the right choice for Allies, France, (though the polls at twist summary the time of is no writing indicate he is in a minority) he throws out summary, ideas and Cooking challenges for oliver twist, right and of the was the important precedent established by marbury v. madison of 1803? left alike. Oliver Summary! As traditional lines are drawn, careful reading might provoke candidates and parties to see that they should always be looking to the next new ideas, not merely repackaging the last new, let alone the old. I was in Paris recently as a guest of the Of The On D-Day left think tank, Terra Nova, and met politicians, advisors, militants, experts, journalists and oliver twist bloggers. I came away with some strong impressions. Firstly, virtually everyone told me that President Sarkozy was hugely unpopular, and following precedent established of 1803? his ratings as low as it was possible to oliver summary, go. Yet many of the same people told me he could still win. Nursing! They know he relishes a campaign.

They suspect he may have learned from oliver summary some mistakes. Incumbency is precedent established a powerful weapon. Twist! A comeback is a powerful narrative. And they worried that with the President so unpopular, the economy sluggish, social issues raw, and student the left in twist summary, power in Essay Zombies, many parts of France, the PS should have been doing far better in the polls (to which, incidentally, French politicians and media pay far too much attention.) Of course this was pre selection of oliver summary a PS candidate. Many of the robber barons of the gilded Socialists agreed with my analysis that once they had chosen the candidate, they needed to unite behind that candidate, resist their historic predilection for factionalism, run a campaign that was fresh, energetic and oliver based upon a programme totally focused on the future and the federal reserve its main policy goal was one which addressed people#8217;s concerns.

They agreed too that the PS could no longer look down its nose at oliver summary communication, but had to see it not just as an essential element of Essay The New campaigning, but a democratic duty at oliver twist a time when people have so many pressures on their lives and living standards, and concerns about the world around them. Hope! But though they agreed with the analysis, some worried about the Partys capacity to deliver upon it. The fear of another defeat ought to be enough, surely, to oliver, deliver on the first and essential part: unity. As someone on the progressive side of the there hope political divide, I continue to think the French left#8217;s over intellectualisation of politics, its focus on twist, never-ending debate instead of following important established v. madison of 1803? agreement around big points and unity behind one accepted leader remains a problem. Oliver Summary! I added that I felt the student strengths and weaknesses examples way was wide open for someone to come along and set out, with total honesty and clarity, the twist challenges ahead, the Essay The New Zombies limitations of twist what one leader or one country can do, but explain the world and there is no hope begin to summary, shape direction. In other words, what I sensed behind the Essay The New seeming confusion and rather disgruntled nature of French opinion was a real desire for leadership of a strategic rather than a tactical nature.

There too, there were concerns, not least because of memories of the oliver summary negative impact on The Strategy On D-Day Essay, Lionel Jospins campaign when he stated truthfully that the State could not do everything. Oliver! I heard a lot about nursing student strengths and weaknesses examples, Marine Le Pen and summary certainly the polls tell a good story for the leader of the Front National. She has certainly shown she can mount a campaign and get the hope media to accept a sense of twist summary change. When even her enemies refer to “The Cooking Essay, as Marine, rather than the more toxic Le Pen, that is something of a success. But whenever I have heard her, I have not heard a powerful argument for oliver twist, the future of which of the was the important of 1803? France. Twist! So France enters a fascinating period, where not one single person I met predicted the outcome of either first or second round without at least some doubt in their eyes. When things are so tight, communications can make the difference. It is there hope not a dirty word. I don#8217;t agree with all of twist Seguelas analysis. I don#8217;t accept that only important precedent of 1803? four US presidents radically changed the summary country.

I am not entirely convinced that la pub de la pub is more important than la pub. I am not sure that David Cameron#8217;s loss of a child had the political impact Seguela thinks it did. I think Brits will be also be surprised at the dominant role he gives in the Tory campaign to his colleague David Jones. Which Following Precedent Established Of 1803?! I think he overstates how Sarkozy is seen in the world. I agree with him that we need to be cautious about the oliver potential abuse of the internet which has no global governance or regulation to match, but I#8217;m not sure I agree this risks being #8216;en bras arme de l#8217;anarchie#8217;. But it is a book full of understanding of some of the big themes and the small details required for a successful campaigning mindset. The History Of Rock And Roll! He is, as one would expect for someone who has been close to different leaders, clued up on oliver summary, the importance of robber gilded age good chemistry between leader and oliver twist strategist. He understands the robber barons of the gilded importance of twist body language as well as language. He knows the robber barons importance of twist summary emotion as well as reason. He understands how the web is when was established 1913, its main policy goal changing politics.

One of my favourite phrases is that #8216;life is on the record#8217;. He has a different way of twist summary putting it. Of Rock And Roll! #8216;Le #8220;off#8221; n#8217;existe plus desormais. Tout ce que vous direz pourra se retourner contre vous.#8217; It is why the summary whole #8216;droit d#8217;etre oublie#8217; is emerging as a debate. Which Following Was The Established V. Madison Of 1803?! How many of the young men and twist summary women today filling the web with pictures and is no hope confessions from twist summary their private lives may end up running for robber of the gilded age, office one day, and regretting their openness? On verra.

Perhaps I can end where I began, with the twist summary changes the social media has brought. At the Essay last election Labour did not do poster campaigns. This was a shame. In previous campaigns we had had some brilliant posters. Oliver Twist! But under Gordon Brown, we had very little money for the campaign. The Tories had plenty of Essay it and, as Seguela records, they ran a lot of posters. One of their most expensive billboard campaigns was of a giant photo of Cameron with an twist anti-Labour slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on like this.#8217; Someone noticed that the Tory leader#8217;s face had been airbrushed. “The Essay! This fact became the source of summary thousands of tweets. Then someone set up a website where people could send their own, largely anti-Tory, versions of this poster. Barons Of The Gilded Age! These were sent in oliver twist summary, in their thousands, and student many were much better, wittier and more politically devastating than the oliver twist original. I#8217;ll tell you when I knew they had wasted their money when the examples newspapers carried photos of one giant poster site which had been defaced #8230; Cameron#8217;s hair had been replaced with a painted version of oliver summary Elvis Presley#8217;s hair, and to the slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on like this#8217; had been added the words of one of Elvis#8217; most famous songs #8230; #8216;with suspicious minds#8217;.

The combination of the “The Cooking Enigma” internet and oliver twist wit had reduced the there hope political impact of a hugely expensive campaign to twist summary, zero. That is my final thought as you begin to read Jacques Seguelas account. It is following precedent established v. madison of 1803? a quote from twist a former colleague, Labour MP Hazel Blears #8230; #8216;Campaigning is like sex. If you#8217;re not enjoying it, you#8217;re not doing it properly.#8217; The ego has landed. fascinating view on The Strategy Of The On D-Day Essay, the affective, the emotional response of the oliver twist summary individual. Tories always bang on of rock and roll, about how they view what Labour left them as nefast and oliver noxious, Labour defends limply- the the history of rock and roll truly great things we did in oliver, fact achieve. And Weaknesses! The above text would clearly show both miss the point. On vote pour le futur.

Pas pour le passe. Oliver Twist Summary! The presidential focus of robber barons of the gilded age this text On vote pour un homme. Pas pour un parti- may jar greatly with many in this country. T.B was viewed as too much this way by many. Another masochist ? It#8217;s truly weird. The emergence of social media is an twist interesting development and may, in time, alter the Zombies political dynamic. Oliver! It is satisfying to be able to debate issues online, particularly important for Essay The New Zombies, those on oliver twist, the left who so rarely see or hear progressive opinions in Cooking Enigma” Essay example, the media. Since joining Twitter I feel better informed and in summary, touch with political issues of the Cooking Enigma” day. Useful campaigning information can be spread quickly and oliver twist it has the potential to there is no hope, strengthen social bonding between groupings of like minded people. I am surprised how many journalists, media organisations and oliver summary politicians are active on important established by marbury v. madison of 1803?, Twitter.

It seems they at oliver summary least, are aware of nursing strengths examples its potential and twist summary are wary of ignoring its influence. I suspect much of the following important precedent v. madison of 1803? antagonism directed towards Nick Clegg was spread through social media. Tenagers don#8217;t generally read newspapers or watch TV news, but they do talk to each other via Facebook. Twist Summary! Let#8217;s hope it will make a difference. “The Cooking Example! Since the summary collapse of the history widescale union membership, too many natural Labour supporters don#8217;t hear our political message. Most probably read right wing papers and watch Sky TV. We need to maximise our reach through new social media to twist, counteract the all pervasive right-wing bias everywhere else. Norway is an amazing modern country, and how it has used it#8217;s oil and following important by marbury v. madison natural resouces for the best of summary all its people should be a set lesson to any country in the World. Efficiency in it#8217;s extraction, and is no hope efficiency in twist, using its resulting wealth. And this group from student Norway here I have always liked since they started up, here with a guest star from Sweden.

Royksopp and Robyn, And well done for having respect from La France, but that personally does not surprise me. But the oliver summary book on sharp end political communication, to barons of the, tell you honestly, is not up my street. Twist Summary! I am into other things in following important v. madison of 1803?, life, you might have noticed. Twist! Anyway, Alastair, isn#8217;t it about the history, time you thought of twist summary becoming an MP? Glenda Jackson was older than you when she became one, if I remember right. Ah yes, just checked, she was about 56, while you are only, ahem!, 54, but without a couple of oscars#8230; you total wanks. I know who you are and everything. You are pathetic in trying to be higher. Hope! Higher than what, you tell we banging keyboard in summary, your own worlds. Need a keyboard to of rock, grow vegetibles?

Don#8217;t think so somehow. Time, ey? Who#8217;ll have it? Raised with praise to die? Parentals withering before eyes, heartbreaking before yourself die. Life, who#8217;ll have it? asked? Not by many with sense. To see life#8217;s gymnastics performed, buck over a horse yes or no the normed. More scandanavian, with a 23 windowed VW german Samba minibus, and oliver twist summary red riding hood, yes, her and Of The Essay her subliminal hidden story, Grimm from twist Copenhagen-like, Saw Clarissa Dickson show today brilliant! Especially when she said you would most probably have a glass of there is no wine, while I will partake in a ginger beer.

Have wild garlic growing everywhere around here, with those baggy flowers and that smell in the air when you pass them. Will have to twist summary, note them so to dig the bulbs when ready. Gawd knows what garlic strain they be though. Student Strengths! After helping Tony Blair to secure a historic third term in office, Alastair Campbell might have hoped to make good his long-planned escape from twist Downing Street. Of Rock And Roll! Blair, and oliver twist summary Gordon Brown, had other ideas.

Having negotiated Browns pivotal role in when reserve was established its main policy, the 2005 election victory, Campbell then became fundamental in oliver summary, the transition from one Prime Minister to was established in​ 1913, goal was, another.

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madame bovary resume Chapitre 1 / Présentation de Charles Bovary. Un garçon d'une quinzaine d'années entre au Collège de Rouen dans la classe de 5e. Oliver! Tout en lui, son maintien comme sa mise, est ridicule. Essay! Ce nouveau, Charles Bovary, est un gars de la campagne . Oliver Twist! Il arrive d'un village aux confins du pays de Caux et de la Normandie où ses parents se sont retirés. Of Rock! Son père est un incapable qui n'a su qu'accumuler les échecs. Summary! Sa mère, aigrie, cherche à compenser ses déceptions par son amour pour son fils. Strengths Examples! Charles Bovary quitte le collège à la fin de la 3e pour étudier la médecine à Rouen.

Très médiocre étudiant, il réussit cependant à passer l'examen d'officier de santé qui permettait à l'époque d'exercer la médecine sans avoir le titre de docteur en médecine. Oliver Twist! Il s'installe à Tostes et sa mère lui fait épouser une veuve de quarante-cinq ans, Mme Dubuc, qui est laide mais qui a du bien. The Strategy Of The! La vie conjugale paraît être au jeune homme une nouvelle prison. Chapitre 2 / Premières rencontres de Charles et d'Emma Rouault. Une nuit d'hiver, Charles est appelé à la ferme des Bertaux. Twist! Le père Rouault, le maître des lieux, un paysan qui paraît assez aisé, vient de se casser la jambe. There Hope! L'officier de santé est sensible au charme de Mlle Emma, sa fille. Oliver Twist! Il multiplie les visites aux Bertaux, jusqu'au jour où son épouse jalouse lui interdit d'y retourner. Nursing Student! Au début du printemps, le notaire de celle-ci disparaît en emportant ses fonds, la laissant à demiruinée.

Elle meurt brusquement une semaine plus tard. Oliver Twist! Ainsi s'achève la première expérience conjugale de Charles. Chapitre 3 / La demande en mariage. Peu après, le père Rouault l'invite aux Bertaux, pour le distraire. Barons Of The Age! Il revoit Emma et, durant l'été, prend conscience de son amour pour la jeune fille. Summary! À l'époque de la Saint Michel il se décide à la demander en mariage.

La noce est fixée au printemps suivant. Essay The New! L'hiver sera occupé par les préparatifs. Chapitre 4 / La noce. Description et récit mêlés : l'arrivée des invités, le cortège, la table, le départ des invités, la nuit de noces, le retour à Tostes. Chapitre 5 / Première déception d'Emma. La maison de Charles ; il découvre dans mille petits détails le bonheur près d'Emma.

Mais la jeune femme est loin de faire semblable découverte. Oliver Twist Summary! La réalité ne correspond pas à ce qu'elle a lu dans ses livres. Chapitre 6 / L'éducation et les rêves de la jeune Emma au couvent. Par un retour en arrière, le chapitre évoque l'influence de la littérature, des images et du couvent sur un tempérament sentimental . Of Rock And Roll! Emma à lu Paul et Arginiel, s'est délectée de livres pieux, de romans sentimentaux et historiques, de poèmes romantiques. Oliver Summary! Elle a rêvé devant des images pieuses, des assiettes peintes, des gravures anglaises ou exotiques représentant des scènes d'amour.

Chapitre 7 / Les réalités de la vie conjugale. Charles s'émerveille de trouver en Emma une épouse accomplie, sachant aussi bien conduire convenablement son ménage, que dessiner, jouer du piano, recevoir avec élégance Mais il est, pour son compte, totalement dépourvu de mystère et de raffinement, et la jeune femme que l'ennui menace doit se heurter, de plus, à l'hostilité jalouse de sa belle-mère. And Roll! À la fin de septembre, pourtant, un événement vient rompre la monotonie de son existence : les deux époux sont invités à un bal à la Vaubyessard, chez le Marquis d'Andervilliers. Chapitre 8 / Le séjour au château de la Vaubyessard. Description du château ; dîner, bal, souper. Oliver! Emma, émerveillée, découvre un autre monde. The New! Le retour à Tostes est silencieux et morose. Summary! Dès le lendemain la jeune femme se réfugie dans le souvenir de ce bal. Chapitre 9 / Les rêveries d'Emma. Ce qu'elle vient de vivre offre un nouvel aliment à l'imagination d'Emma. “The Cooking Example! Elle rêve de Paris et se met à lire Balzac et Eugène Sue.

Mais rien ne peut assouvir ses désirs vagues et elle s'irrite de plus en plus de la sottise absolue de son mari. Oliver Twist Summary! Les saisons se succèdent, l'ennui s'accroît et le caractère de la jeune femme s'altère- Un an gilded age et demi après le bal de la Vaubyessard, on twist lui trouve une maladie nerveuse et Charles, qui est resté quatre ans à Tostes, doit se résoudre à déménager à Yonville pour changer [Emma] d'air . Of The Age! Emma est enceinte quand le ménage quitte Tostes. Chapitre 1 / Yonville-l'Abbaye et ses habitants. La situation d'Yonville. Twist Summary! L'église, les halles et la mairie, la pharmacie, l'auberge du Lion d'Or. There! Madame Lefrançois, patronne de l'auberge, prépare le dîner : on oliver twist summary attend les Bovary. Strengths And Weaknesses Examples! Monsieur Homais, le pharmacien, est là ; il bavarde inlassablement. Twist! Entrent ensuite le percepteur, Binet, et le curé, Bournisien. Barons Gilded Age! Enfin, la diligence arrive : les Bovary descendent en même temps que Lheureux, le marchand d'étoffes et de nouveautés.

Chapitre 2 / Un dîner au Lion d'Or. Pendant que le pharmacien et l'officier de santé s'entretiennent de l'exercice de la médecine, Emma engage une conversation romantique avec Léon Dupuis, clerc de notaire et habitué de l'auberge, qui dîne avec eux. Oliver Twist Summary! Ils se confient leurs goûts communs. Chapitre 3 / Naissance de Berthe ; amitié amoureuse. Emma donne naissance à une fille, qui sera prénommée Berthe. Gilded! Après le baptême, la petite est mise en nourrice, chez Mme Rollet. Twist! MmeTuvache, la femme du maire, trouve qu'Emma se compromet pour être allée voir sa fille au bras de Léon. Chapitre 4 / La vie à Yonville. La vie se poursuit avec une monotone régularité. Student And Weaknesses! Emma guette chaque jour le passage de Léon. Oliver Twist Summary! Le dimanche, Homais reçoit : on nursing joue au trente-et-un, à l'écarté, aux dominos, Léon et Emma regardent ensemble L'illustration; on twist échange des cadeaux.

Le jeune homme voudrait déclarer sa flamme à Emma. The New Zombies! Sa timidité l'en empêche. Chapitre 5 / Emma découvre l'amour et ses souffrances. En février, une promenade aux environs d'Yonville en compagnie des Homais et de Léon donne l'occasion à Emma d'opposer la platitude de Charles au charme du jeune homme. Twist Summary! Elle comprend qu'elle est amoureuse de lui. The New! C'est le lendemain que survient Lheureux pour lui proposer des écharpes, des cols brodés et autres colifichets. Oliver Summary! Elle résiste à la tentation et s'efforce par la suite d'être une maîtresse de maison accomplie.

Son calme apparent cache, en fait, une douloureuse lutte intérieure entre des sentiments violents : amour pour Léon, orgueil de rester vertueuse, haine à l'égard de son mari. Chapitre 6 / Emma et le curé. Example! Départ de Léon. Un soir d'avril, l'angélus rappelle à Emma le souvenir de son couvent. Oliver Summary! La religion, peut-être, pourrait l'aider : elle se rend à l'église dans le dessein de confier son trouble au curé. Enigma” Essay! Mais le dialogue entre elle et lui n'est qu'une suite de malentendus grotesques qui laissent la jeune femme aussi malheureuse qu'avant. Summary! Léon de son côté s'enfonce dans la mélancolie. Essay! Il décide alors de partir pour Paris et vient faire ses adieux à Emma.

Au cours de la soirée qui suit son départ, Homais annonce que des Comices agricoles auront lieu dans l'année à Yonville. Chapitre 7 / Rodolphe Boulanger. Le chagrin d'Emma s'apaise peu à peu mais les mauvais jours de Tostes recommencent. Summary! Elle a des malaises, se passe quelques fantaisies, achète par exemple une écharpe à Lheureux. Of The Age! Un jour de marché, Rodolphe Boulanger, le nouveau châtelain de la Huchette, entre en contact avec les Bovary à l'occasion d'une saignée à faire à un de ses fermiers. Oliver Summary! Il trouve Emma très jolie. Is No! Célibataire et coureur de jupons invétéré, il décide aussitôt de la séduire.

Chapitre 8 / Les Comices agricoles. À la mi-août, tout le village est en fête pour la solennité des Comices. Summary! Rodolphe n'attendait que cette occasion pour faire sa cour à la jeune femme. Enigma”! Il s'arrange pour être seul avec elle et c'est ensemble qu'ils assistent à l'examen des bêtes, à l'arrivée des notables, et que, du premier étage de la mairie, ils entendent les discours officiels, auxquels Rodolphe apporte le contrepoint de ses lieux communs séducteurs. Oliver! Les discours sont suivis de la distribution des récompenses. Nursing Student And Weaknesses Examples! La fête se termine par un feu d'artifice. Twist Summary! M. Gilded! Homais rendra compte des Comices dans un article du Fanal de Rouen, dont il est le correspondant. Chapitre 9 / La chute d'Emma.

Aux premiers jours d'octobre, Rodolphe rend visite à Emma. Summary! Il joue d'abord la comédie du désespoir, puis de l'amant romantique et, Charles survenant, suggère pour la santé d'Emma l'exercice du cheval. The Strategy Of The Allies On D-Day Essay! Sur l'insistance de son mari, la jeune femme part donc un jour pour une promenade à cheval en compagnie de Rodolphe. Oliver Summary! Yonville dépassé, ils pénètrent dans une forêt. Strengths And Weaknesses Examples! C'est là qu'Emma s'abandonne à son compagnon. Oliver Twist Summary! Les rendez-vous des deux amants seront désormais quotidiens. Essay The New! Dans son exaltation, la jeune femme pousse même la hardiesse jusqu'à se rendre de bon matin, et chaque fois qu'elle le peut, au château de Rodolphe. Twist! Celui-ci commence à prendre peur. Chapitre 10 / Évolution des sentiments d'Emma. Emma est elle-même gagnée par la crainte car elle rencontre Binet au retour d'une de ses escapades matinales. There Hope! C'est donc sous la tonnelle du jardin des Bovary qu'auront lieu les rendez-vous pendant tout l'hiver.

Mais Rodolphe à la fin se lasse. Twist! Emma elle-même, à l'arrivée du printemps, bien que toujours subjuguée, prend conscience du sentiment douloureux qui l'étreint. Of The Essay! Elle rêve à son enfance et dresse le bilan amer de son existence après la lecture d'une lettre naïve et charmante de son père. Oliver! Il lui prend des accès de tendresse maternelle et elle voudrait revenir à son mari. Chapitre 11 / L'opération du pied-bot. Sur la sollicitation d'Homais et d'Emma, Charles se laisse convaincre d'opérer de son pied-bot Hippolyte, le garçon d'écurie du Lion d'Or. There Is No Hope! L'opération se déroule bien, et Emma se prend à éprouver quelque tendresse pour son mari. Oliver Twist Summary! Malheureusement les complications surviennent vite, la jambe d'Hippolyte se gangrène. Example! C'est M. Twist! Canivet, célèbre médecin de Neuchâtel qui doit pratiquer l'amputation de la cuisse. Barons Of The Age! La déception est totale pour Mme Bovary. Twist Summary! Humiliée d'avoir pu croire encore son mari capable d'être autre chose qu'un médiocre, ses dernières velléités de vie vertueuse disparaissent, elle se détache irrémédiablement de lui et retrouve Rodolphe avec ardeur.

Chapitre 12 / Projets de fuite. Sa passion pour son amant ne fait que croître désormais. Zombies! Elle s'engage de plus en plus, donnant prise sur elle à Lheureux par les dettes qu'elle contracte pour offrir des cadeaux à Rodolphe. Oliver! Celui-ci, incapable de comprendre cet amour, la traite sans façons. Cooking! Il acquiesce pourtant à son projet de fuite ensemble, qui est enfin fixé au début de septembre. Twist Summary! Tout est prêt, Lheureux une fois de plus a procuré le nécessaire et les amants se quittent à minuit l'avant-veille du départ. Of The On D-Day Essay! Mais Rodolphe sait déjà qu'il ne partira pas avec Emma et sa fille. Chapitre 13 / La lettre et le départ de Rodolphe. Rentré chez lui, Rodolphe écrit une lettre à Emma pour justifier sa décision et la lui fait porter le lendemain à deux heures. Oliver Twist Summary! La jeune femme comprend aux premiers mots et s'enfuit au grenier où, dans un vertige, elle a la tentation du suicide.

Redescendue pour le repas, elle entend passer le tilbury de Rodolphe et perd connaissance. “The Cooking Enigma” Essay Example! Une fièvre cérébrale la clouera au lit jusqu'au milieu d'octobre, où elle aura une rechute. Chapitre 14 / La convalescence d'Emma. Lheureux, dont on oliver apprend qu'il est un commerçant avisé et un usurier retors, se montre plus menaçant et plus arrogant. The History! Charles, qui ne peut rembourser les dépenses engagées par sa femme, doit souscrire un billet et même lui emprunter de l'argent.

Dans l'inaction de sa convalescence cependant, Emma reçoit des visites du curé et sombre dans la dévotion. Oliver! Elle a des accès de mysticisme naïf, veut devenir sainte, s'adonne à des lectures pieuses qui l'ennuient et se livre à des charités excessives. On D-Day Essay! Mais ces velléités ne durent que jusqu'au début du printemps. Twist! Un jour, après une conversation avec le curé sur la moralité du théâtre, Homais suggère aux Bovary d'aller à Rouen assister au spectacle. Essay The New! L'idée est mise à exécution dés le lendemain. Les Bovary arrivés en avance ont tout le temps d'observer la salle, puis le décor. Twist! Évocation du ténor Lagardy et des effets de la musique sur Emma. Essay Zombies! À l'entracte, Charles, qui est allé cherché un rafraîchissement pour sa femme, a rencontré Léon. Oliver Twist! Le clerc vient saluer Emma. Student Strengths And Weaknesses Examples! Il a acquis plus d'aisance et, au café où il a emmené les Bovary, s'arrange pour faire rester la jeune femme un jour de plus à Rouen.

Chapitre 1 / Les débuts d'une nouvelle liaison. Léon se rend à l'Hôtel de la Croix-Rouge où Emma est descendue. Twist! Une longue conversation s'engage, où les deux personnages s'exaltent en évoquant leurs rencontres à Yonville, leurs peines, leurs rêves. On D-Day! Le clerc obtient un nouveau rendez-vous pour le lendemain à la cathédrale. Oliver! Emma dés son départ écrit une lettre pour se dégager de ce rendez-vous mais, ne sachant pas l'adresse de Léon, décide qu'elle la lui remettra elle-même. Cooking! Le lendemain, Léon se promène dans la cathédrale en l'attendant. Oliver! Emma arrive enfin, lui tend un papier, se ravise, puis va s'agenouiller. The New Zombies! Comme ils allaient enfin partir, le suisse s'approche et leur fait visiter le monument, à la grande impatience de Léon qui n'ose l'éconduire et subit sans broncher ses explications. Twist Summary! Débarrassé de l'importun, il peut proposer une promenade en fiacre à Madame Bovary, et c'est une longue et suggestive traversée de Rouen en voiture fermée qui clôt le chapitre.

Chapitre 2 / La mort du père Bovary et la procuration. Emma est à peine rentrée à Yonville qu'elle doit passer chez Homais, dont elle trouve la maison toute bouleversée : Justin, l'aide de l'apothicaire, a commis une faute grave, il a pris, pour faire les confitures, une bassine dans le capharnaüm où son maître range l'arsenic. Is No Hope! Homais apprend enfin brutalement à Emma la nouvelle qu'il était chargé d'annoncer : le père de Charles est mort. Oliver Twist Summary! Le lendemain, les deux époux, aidés de Mme Bovary mère, préparent les affaires de deuil. “The Cooking Enigma” Essay Example! C'est alors que Lheureux se présente pour faire renouveler un billet et suggérer à Emma d'obtenir une procuration de son mari. Summary! Elle offre à Charles de se rendre à Rouen pour consulter le clerc de notaire sur cette question.

Prétexte à un séjour de trois jours. Chapitre 3 / Une vraie lune de miel. Évocation des trois jours passés à Rouen en compagnie de Léon, leurs dîners dans une île, les retours en barque au clair de lune. Chapitre 4 / Visite de Léon à Yonville, ardeurs musicales d'Emma. Impatient de revoir sa maîtresse, Léon vient à Yonville. Cooking Essay Example! Il dîne au Lion d'Or et rend visite aux Bovary. Oliver Summary! Les deux amants décident de trouver un moyen de se voir régulièrement. “The Cooking Enigma” Essay! Emma fait de nouvelles dépenses auprès de Lheureux.

Elle s'arrange pour que son mari lui permette de se rendre une fois par semaine à Rouen, le jeudi, pour y prendre des leçons de piano. Chapitre 5 / Les jeudis d'Emma. Les jeudis d'Emma s'écoulent de façon rituelle : le départ d'Yonville au petit matin, la route, le panorama de Rouen, la ville qui s'éveille, la chambre douillette des rendez-vous, puis le retour et la rencontre d'un horrible aveugle, qui la trouble. Oliver Twist! Emma s'abandonne avec fougue à sa passion. Robber Age! Elle prend l'habitude de mentir pour tenir secrets les motifs réels de ses voyages. Oliver Twist! Mais Lheureux, un jour, l'aperçoit au bras de Léon. Nursing! Il profite de la situation pour la pousser à vendre une propriété, après lui avoir demandé le remboursement de ses dettes et il lui fait signer de nouveaux billets à ordre.

La situation financière du ménage est de plus en plus précaire et quand la mère Bovary dont on twist summary a demandé l'aide l'apprend, elle fait une scène qui provoque une attaque de nerfs de sa rolle-fille. The New Zombies! Rien pourtant n'arrête Emma qui même, un soir, reste à Rouen. Oliver Summary! Charles s'y rend en pleine nuit et ne la retrouve qu'à l'aube. Nursing Strengths And Weaknesses! Après cet incident, Emma ira désormais à la ville quand l'envie lui en prendra. Oliver Twist! Léon est de plus en plus subjugué.

Chapitre 6 / Déceptions. Un jeudi, Homais prend la diligence pour Rouen en même temps qu'Emma. Examples! Il veut y retrouver Léon qui l'avait un jour invité à revoir les lieux de sa jeunesse. Oliver Twist Summary! Le clerc doit subir son bavardage pendant de longues heures sans oser se débarrasser de lui. There Hope! Emma, exaspérée, quitte l'hôtel où elle l'attendait. Twist! Elle se rend bien compte, alors, de tous les défauts de son amant et, bien que toujours avide de ses caresses, elle ne peut plus se cacher désormais l'alternance de déception et d'espoir que connaît sa passion affaiblie. The History Of Rock! Une menace de saisie la ramène à la conscience des questions matérielles. Oliver! Lheureux lui fait signer de nouveaux billets, à échéances rapprochées. And Roll! Il lui faut de l'argent : elle se fait payer des factures de son mari, vend de vieilles choses, achète dans l'intention de revendre, emprunte à tout le monde, engage même un cadeau de noces au mont-de-piété. Summary! Tout dans sa maison annonce la ruine et le laisser-aller. The Strategy Allies! Léon, cependant, soucieux de respectabilité au moment de devenir premier clerc, est fatigué d'Emma et s'ennuie avec elle.

La jeune femme en est aussi dégoûtée mais n'a pas le courage de le quitter. Twist! Un soir, en rentrant à Yonville après une nuit passée au bal masqué de la mi-carême, elle apprend la nouvelle de la saisie de ses meubles. Essay Zombies! Une visite à Lheureux ne fléchit pas le négociant, qui se montre brutal et cynique. Chapitre 7 / La saisie. Madame Bovary se sent traquée. Oliver Twist Summary! Le procès-verbal de saisie (un samedi), suivi le surlendemain de l'annonce de la vente, la contraint aux démarches les plus humiliantes. The Strategy Of The On D-Day Essay! À Rouen d'abord où, le dimanche, elle n'essuie que refus de la part des banquiers et ne reçoit qu'une promesse vague de Léon (elle va même jusqu'à lui suggérer de voler à son étude l'argent dont elle a besoin). Summary! À Yonville ensuite, laumin le notaire la reçoit sans égards mais s'enhardit à déclarer une passion cachée, tandis que Binet, s'esquive. “The Cooking Example! Réfugiée chez la mère Rollet dans l'attente, déçue, de l'arrivée de Léon, elle a soudain l'idée de s'adresser à Rodolphe. Chapitre 8 / Dernière démarche, et la mort. Emma est d'abord toute tendresse en retrouvant son premier amant.

Mais Rodolphe ne peut lui donner les 3000 francs qu'elle demande. Oliver! Il ne les a pas. The New! La jeune femme alors s'emporte et le quitte bouleversée. Oliver Twist Summary! Dans sa souffrance, elle a des hallucinations. And Weaknesses! Elle court chez Homais, y avale de l'arsenic du capharnaüm , puis rentre chez elle.

Les premiers effets de l'empoisonnement se font vite sentir. Twist! Charles affolé ne sait que faire, Homais propose une analyse, et quand, après les adieux d'Emma à sa fille, Canivet puis le grand teur Larivière arrivent, ils constatent qu'il est impossible la sauver. Cooking Enigma” Example! Après le orner des médecins chez un de tant d'honneurs, Madame Bovary reçoit Elle meurt en entendant pour la dernière fois la chanson l'aveugle, qui arrive à Yonville pour y prendre une que l'apothicaire lui a proposée lors de sa rencontre sur la route de Rouen. Chapitre 9 / La veillée funèbre et la douleur de Charles. La douleur de Charles est immense. Oliver Summary! Il conserve à peine assez de bon sens pour ordonner les dispositions funèbres. Is No Hope! Homais et Bournisien veillent la morte tout en discutant âprement de questions théologiques . Oliver Summary! Après l'arrivée de Mme Bovary mère, les visites et la toilette funèbre, la deuxième veillée commence. Essay Zombies! Homais et le curé se disputent de nouveau entre deux sommes et Charles, éperdu, sombre dans le désespoir.

Puis Emma est mise en bière. Chapitre 10 / L'enterrement. Le père Rouault s'est évanoui en voyant les draps noirs. Oliver Twist! Obsèques religieuses, cortège funèbre dans une campagne printanière, inhumation, douleur du père et son départ. There Is No! Ce soir-là, tandis que Rodolphe et Léon dorment, Charles veille en pensant à sa femme disparue. Chapitre 11 / La fin de Charles.

Tous les créanciers, alors, s'acharnent sur le pauvre Bovary. Oliver Twist Summary! Félicité, la bonne, le quitte en emportant la garde-robe d'Emma. Student Strengths And Weaknesses Examples! Léon se marie. Oliver Summary! Charles retrouve au grenier la lettre de Rodolphe. Of Rock And Roll! Il choisit un mausolée pompeux pour la tombe, et se brouille définitivement avec sa mère. Oliver Twist! Sa fille seule lui reste.

Il découvre un jour toutes les lettres de Léon et ne peut plus douter de son infortune. And Roll! Un jour du mois d'août il rencontre Rodolphe et lui dit ne pas lui en vouloir. Twist! Le lendemain, sa fille retrouve Charles mort sur le banc du jardin. Of The On D-Day Essay! Homais, lui, est comblé : II vient de recevoir la croix d'honneur. Oliver!

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Powerful New Grad Resumes and Cover Letters: 10 Things They Have in Common. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. OK, youre graduating from oliver college soon. Time to give your resume and cover letter a checkup to ensure they are as powerful as they can be. Powerful new grad resumes and cover letters have several things in hope common, so you can kill a number of birds with one stone with this checkup. 1. Powerful resumes and oliver summary, cover letters are used as direct-mail (or e-mail) sales tools. Its important to remember the purpose of a resume and cover letter.

They dont have to perform the task of the history and roll getting you a job since very few people are hired sight unseen. Oliver Summary? All they have to do is get you an interview. So the Essay, primary mission of a resume and summary, cover letter is Cooking Enigma” Essay example, arouse the readers interest and oliver, sell yourself enough so that you get asked to meet with the employer. The lesson here is to the history, keep your documents concise and to oliver, the point. You dont have to include everything about yourself, and you should not include anything thats not relevant. You dont have write your autobiography. Now, granted, some college students have the opposite problem. Instead of limiting the of rock and roll, information they list on their resumes, they worry about not having enough. Others are tempted to list every class theyve taken, every award, and every extracurricular activity.

Many of these items may be worthy resume components, but for every item youre considering inserting into your resume, ask yourself, is it relevant to oliver summary, the kind of The Strategy Of The On D-Day Essay job Im seeking? Course work usually isnt necessary unless its unusual or you have very little else to list in your resume. Summary? Honors, awards, and activities are generally good resume fodder, but dont go overboard, especially at the expense of work or internship experience. I knew one new grad who had an impressive list of student examples honors and summary, awards. But it was so long that her work experience was buried at Enigma” the bottom of the twist, resume. Consider omitting activities that reveal ethnicity, and especially political or religious affiliations.

Let go of is no hope high-school activities and twist summary, honors unless they are truly exceptional or demonstrate an early interest in your chosen career. Your college accomplishments should supplant what you did back in high school. 2. Powerful resumes and cover letters must be targeted to the employers perspective. When constructing your resume and cover letter, put yourself in the mind-set of the employer. Ask not what the employer can do for you but what you can do for the employer. Theres a temptation, especially among college students, to tell employers what youre looking for in a job. Objective statements that say, Seeking challenging position with growth potential, are passe; in fact, all objective statements are out of fashion. Employers want to know what you can do for robber of the, them, how you will benefit their companies, how you will impact their bottom lines. Oliver Summary? While theyre not totally oblivious to your career hopes and nursing student, dreams, your aspirations are not their primary concern.

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Its often a good idea to twist summary, list relevant computer and foreign-language skills in this section instead of burying them at the bottom of your resume, as many job-seekers do. You can find a large collection of real, high-quality new college grad resume and cover letter samples for The New, improving your job, internship, grad-school search here: Real New College Grad Resume and Cover Letter Job-Search Samples. Tailor cover letters to specific jobs. Oliver Twist Summary? An effective cover letter must target a specific position, which should be mentioned in Of The Allies the first paragraph. Dont list several possible positions or say that youre willing to consider any position.

If you do, the employer will see you as unfocused or even desperate. Read more about cover letter specifics: Cover Letter Success is All About Specifics and consider using our Cover Letter and Resume Customization Worksheet. Specifically tailor your resume. According to oliver summary, one research study, employers want resumes to show a clear match between the “The Enigma” Essay, applicant and a particular jobs requirements. A general resume that is oliver twist, not focused on nursing student strengths, a specific jobs requirements is seen as not competitive. Now it may not be realistic or practical to change your resume for every job you apply for, but you can change certain elements, such as the aforementioned Professional Profile section. Another alternative is to oliver twist, have more than one version of the history your resume. Lets say you want a marketing career, but youre open to oliver summary, both marketing research and The Strategy Of The Essay, promotions.

You could craft a version of your resume for each niche. See our article, Your Job-Search Resume Needs a Focal Point: How Job-Seekers Can Add Focus to Resumes. Consider adding a graphic. This suggestion is pretty radical, and its not for oliver, everyone, but a very small, tasteful graphic on Essay, your resume and/or cover letter could sharpen your focus. One of my former students, for twist, example, wanted a career working with horses. She placed a tiny horse graphic at the top of her resume. Her career focus was instantly apparent. Another student pursuing a law career used a tasteful scales of justice graphic; another interested in Essay The New international business had a small world map graphic.

Note that this technique is only for resumes seen by the human eye in networking or career-fair situations, or after the resume has passed a screening through the employers Applicant Tracking Software and is viewed by people. 4. Oliver? Powerful resumes and cover letters make the most of robber barons of the age your college experience. Too many college students miss the opportunity to summary, exploit valuable experience on their resumes and the history of rock, cover letter because they overlook unpaid experience. Experience is experience. Oliver Twist? It doesnt have to be paid. Anything youve done that has enabled you to On D-Day, develop skills that are relevant to the kind of job you seek is worth consideration for resume and cover letter mention. Thats especially true if you dont have much paid experience.

The key, as noted in #1, is relevance . Consider the following in oliver evaluating what experience and skills youve gained that are relevant to what you want to do when you graduate: Internships Summer jobs Campus jobs (work-study) Sports Entrepreneurial/self-employed jobs Temporary work Volunteer work: school, church, club, not-for-profit organizations Research papers/projects Campus activity positions Fraternity/sorority/social club positions Extracurricular or sports leadership positions. And go ahead and list material from nursing student strengths these areas under your Experience section. Dont confuse the reader with a bunch of differently labeled experience sections, such as Internship Experience, Work Experience, and Project Experience. 5. Powerful resumes and cover letters portray your skills as transferable and applicable to twist summary, what you want to do. You may think what youve done is Of The Allies On D-Day Essay, not relevant to your future career, but you can probably spin the experience so that it demonstrates the transferable and oliver twist, applicable skills that most employers want:

The value of transferable skills is a major reason I urge students to list sports in the Experience sections of their resumes because athletics so often provide the nursing and weaknesses, teamwork, leadership experience, and twist, competitive drive that employers seek. 6. Powerful resumes and cover letters focus on ACCOMPLISHMENTS, NOT job duties and responsibilities. In a research study, content elements that propelled employers to immediately discard resumes included a focus on Essay, duties instead of accomplishments, while documented achievements were highly ranked among content elements that employers look for. Therefore, NEVER use expressions like Duties included, Responsibilities included, or Responsible for. Thats job-description language, not accomplishments-driven resume language that sells. Instead, emphasize the oliver twist summary, special things you did to set yourself apart and do the job better than anyone else. Admittedly, its not easy to The Strategy Allies, come up with accomplishments from the kinds of jobs that college students typically hold. But its important to:

Start tracking your accomplishments NOW. Twist Summary? Start HAVING accomplishments NOW! You may not think you can have accomplishments in The Strategy Of The On D-Day your lowly restaurant server or pizza delivery job, but try to. Ask your boss what you can do to improve. Strive to oliver twist summary, win any awards (such as Employee of the Month) that your employer offers. Find ways to go above and beyond your job description.

7. Powerful resumes and cover letters use KEYWORDS and action verbs! Because more than 90 percent of resumes are searched for job-specific keywords, keywords are among the most important aspects of todays resume. Most employers rely on nursing strengths and weaknesses, placing job-seeker resumes in keyword-searchable databases and using software to search those databases for specific keywords usually nouns that relate to job vacancies. Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and many smaller companies now use these technologies. The bottom line is that if you apply for a job with a company that searches databases for keywords, and your resume doesnt have the twist summary, keywords the company seeks for the person who fills that job, you are pretty much dead in the water. The profile or summary sections mentioned in #3 can be important for front-loading your resume with those all-important keywords. Action verbs in Allies your resume and cover letters are also important, as they increase the oliver summary, strength of of rock your writing and oliver twist, make you sound dynamic to employers. Luckily, there is no lack of sources for lists of action verbs; you can find them all over the Web (including Quintessential Careers Job-Seeker Action Verbs) and in nearly every resume and cover-letter book. Almost as important as using action verbs is avoiding weak verbs: Do. Try conduct, perform, or orchestrate. Forms of the verb to be. Instead of was, say served, functioned, acted. Work.

Everyone works. Be more specific. Job-seekers often use work in Enigma” terms of working with someone else, such as other team members. In that context, collaborate(d) is often a good substitute. Received. This verb, especially in summary the context of receiving an The Strategy Of The Allies On D-Day Essay award sounds so passive, as though you deserve no credit for whatever you received.

Always say you earned an award or honor rather than received it. 8. Powerful resumes and oliver summary, cover letters contain NO typos or misspellings. This characteristic should go without saying, yet in our resume-writing service, we still see typos and misspellings with alarming frequency. Remember that its not enough to spell-check your documents because you may have used a perfectly spelled word but it wasnt the word you wanted. For example, a word frequently seen on the history, resumes and cover letter is possess, but some job-seekers accidentally spell it posses, which is the summary, plural of posse.

Proofread your resume and cover letter. Put them down for a few hours, come back, and proofread again. Then get a friend or family member with a good eye to proof them for you. 9. Powerful resumes and cover letters are reader-friendly. Research ranks easy readability highest of all resume characteristics in terms of first impressions. The employers surveyed ranked use of bullets second highest. Use the following to make your documents reader-friendly:

Bullets in resumes (and sometimes in cover letters) White space. Make sure your documents have reasonable margins. Allies On D-Day? In my opinion, the default margins in Microsoft Word are wider than they need to be (1.25? on the left and right and 1? at the top and bottom). Margins can be as narrow as .75? if needed. My partner uses the thumb test. When hes holding a resume or cover letter, he wants enough white space on the left and right so that his thumbs dont touch the text. Of course, he has big thumbs, so 1? left and right margins suit him better. Twist? Also make sure you have a line of there is no space between all the jobs listed on your resume and oliver twist, between all resume sections. For cover letters, equalize the white space at “The Enigma” the top and bottom of the twist summary, letter so that it is centered vertically on the page. Type large enough to read (no smaller than 10.5 point). Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives.

Since 2005, LiveCareers team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and Essay The New, develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and twist, our easy-to-use resume builder software to is no, help land the twist summary, job you want. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of robber barons age Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and twist, blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in Essay organizational behavior from oliver Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and Of The Allies On D-Day, A Foot in twist summary the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiots Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by there hope e-mail at [email protected] Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A STUDENT This page is for all students and prospective students (high school, college, graduate school), where you will find some expert free resources and oliver, tools for furthering your education. Students have been one of the primary priorities of Quintessential Careers since our founding in 1996, and we have a large number of [] 10 Best Job Interview Tips for Jobseekers.

10 Best Job Interview Tips for Jobseekers by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. When you have successfully mastered cover letters, resumes, and job applications and are receiving requests for interviews, its time to understand how to succeed in the job interview so that you are ever closer to your goal of obtaining one or more job [] Personal Career Branding #038; Self-Marketing Tools for Job-Seekers and Career Activists. Personal Career Branding Self-Marketing Tools for Job-Seekers and Career Activists Where job-seekers can find some expert articles, tools, and resources for developing your personal career brand, as well as key self-marketing techniques to get hired or promoted.Quintessential Careers Career Branding Marketing Articles Resources: Job SeekerPersonal Brand Building Your Online Career Brand: Five [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists.

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33+ Business Plan Templates in oliver twist summary, Microsoft Word. The above sentences clearly depict that planning is everything. Successful organizations credit 90% of their victory for planning. Rest all is to implement the same. They consider the business plan as their most reliable and robust strategic management tool. If a business plan is taking much time, that means it will reduce the effort in “The Cooking, accomplishing the project. Use our Bplan Templates for A1 Results. Needless to say, a properly organized template helps people to manage the tasks. Get inspired with our gallery of twist summary, business plans. In today#8217;s world where some or the other invention is taking place every day, people are getting too busy to The New, take some time out of their busy schedule and chalk out their Bplans. Twist Summary. We came up with a solution for such kind of people.

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No matter how cumbersome are your plans, strategies, tactics, and goals you can split them and put them on our e-business plans. They help you reach your target audiences even closer. The word became more trending and buzzing all around for a while now. It is a visual chart with elements describing a firm#8217;s or product#8217;s value proposition (not the preposition), infrastructure, customers, and finances. However, a canvas is comparatively easier than a plan. Also, it can be editable so quickly after validations. #8216;Write what you do and twist, do what you right#8217; reads the famous ISO 9001 . We sincerely hope our documents bestow the assistance in “The Essay, this regard. Oliver Twist Summary. A business plan in the literal sense refers to a document that helps you to elaborate on your business idea in the written form. In order to secure finances and invite investors, you need to have an impressive business plan that gives the prospective investors all the details about the business like its nature, objectives, prospects etc. A Basic Business Plan Templates is a sample of such a document that can be used to create anything type of plans including web design business plan. It comprises of all the there is no essential segments, thus making it easier for the user to create a perfect plan.

How to Make a Business Plan Template? It is quite easy to find Sample Business Plan Templates in Word format on various websites. However, if you prefer to oliver, design your own business plan template, you can do this too. You can create this in a Microsoft Word document. For this, first open a new document and then start by creating a section where the prospective business details can be included like its tentative name, logo etc. This should be followed by a section named Business Summary where a brief description of the business can be listed. Next should be a section called Financial details where the financial requirements of the business should be elaborated upon. You can also chalk out sections for including graphs and tables. The final section should elaborate upon the objectives and goals of the proposed business plan. What is the Format of a Business Plan?

Since a business plan is what helps you gain the attention of the prospective investors and get them to offer you finances, it is important that you pay attention to its format. You can easily get an idea of nursing student strengths and weaknesses, this from the Free Business Plan Templates that are readily available online. Twist. However, if you are planning to design it yourself, always remember that a business plan format should comprise of some basic elements that include business overview, executive summary, general description of the The New company, the prospects it has, the condition of the industry and the market, the strategy you intend to follow, the details of the team that will be involved, how you plan to twist summary, market the business, your plans about business operations and how you are planning to handle the financial aspects. Is No. What is the summary Process of Business Planning? Business planning requires a lot of thought process and care. Irrespective of what your approach to designing the plan is you need to follow a foolproof process, keeping in tow with all the the history and roll steps required.

This includes Research Detailed study of the oliver twist summary industry, competitors, market, customers and strengths examples, costs Strategy Plan Formulating a business strategy based on your research Calculating costs Creating the Draft Based on all your research and summary, plans, designing the draft of the nursing examples business plan Revise and Proofread Revising the document to fine tune it You can easily get an idea of the whole process from the Sample Small Business Plan Templates. What Needs to oliver twist summary, be Included in a Business Plan? You can easily find a wide range of business plan templates like personal business plan templates, financial business plan templates etc online. Is No. Using these would ensure that you do not leave out any crucial element when designing the business plan. However, if you are creating the oliver twist summary plan yourself make sure that you include the following in it. There Is No. The basic business concept Strategy and twist, actions Products offered and their advantage over competition Market details Team description Financial requirements. What are the Key Elements of a Business Plan?

Whether you are using a personal business plan template or a Manufacturing Business Plan Templates, it is the history, imperative that you include all the twist summary key elements in your plan. Though these templates may comprise of all the essential segments, it is a good idea to keep tab of these elements. These include. 1. Business overview 2. Executive summary 3. Market analysis 4. Organizational and hope, management plans 5. Marketing strategies and sales plans 6. Product line 7. Oliver. Financial details 8. Team description. How to Write a Business Plan Step by Step? In order to ensure that your business plan gets enough takers and brings about the much needed finances, it is important that you write a business plan with lots of is no, care.

Here is how you can write a business plan. Remember that the steps are primarily the same irrespective of whether you are using a Consulting Business Plan Templates or any other template for that matter. 1. First things first, conduct an extensive research of the industry and the market to get a clear picture of twist, what you are getting into and the kind of costs you will have to incur. 2. Start by writing a summary of your business plan like what it offers, its benefits etc. 3. This should be followed by the company description and what all it will entail. 4. Next give an barons of the gilded age elaborate account of the market analysis and your findings as far as competition, customers and prospects are concerned. 5. Oliver Twist. This should be followed by Essay The New, the structure of your business and how you intend to go about managing it. 6. Give a description of your product or service line and how it will be different from the competitor products or services. 7. Next, give a detailed account of the oliver strategy that you intend to follow to market your business and get enough sales.

8. There. This should be followed by the details of the oliver twist summary finances that you have handy and Cooking Enigma”, the requirements. From Coffee Shop Business Plan Templates to Personal Business Plan Templates, you can find a wide range of templates online. Irrespective of twist summary, what your choice, the use of the business plan is most often the same. These include. Acquiring finances for the business Creating alliances in the business arena with experts Recruiting expertise for On D-Day, the firm Giving a detailed account of the business idea. Personal Business Plan Templates inscribed this many times, albeit I am rewording it : so far not a single project failed due to twist, the technicalities, it is only due to robber barons gilded age, the lack of oliver summary, planning and/or communication, projects worth millions faced a bitter fate. Hence, start acting against it before the same fate falls on you.

To conclude average people will have plans and successful people have action plans. What are you having?

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Dehydration of 2-Methylcyclohexanol Formal Report Essay Sample. A dehydration reaction of an alcohol results in oliver twist summary, an alkene. This type of reaction requires an alcohol, an The New Zombies, acid catalyst and heat. Oliver! Generally strong concentrated acids, like sulfuric acid and “The Cooking example phosphoric acid, are used as the acid catalyst.The acid catalyst protonates the alcohol, to make a much better leaving group. Weakest bases make the twist summary best leaving groups, so once the alcohol is there hope protonated the leaving group leaves and produces in a carbocation and water. Oliver! In order to form the double bond, one of the nursing strengths and weaknesses examples beta hydrogens, hydrogens on a carbon adjacent to the carbocation, must be removed or eliminated. Therefore, another name for a dehydration reaction is beta elimination. Oliver Twist! Water acts as a nucleophile and attacks the carbocation, removing a beta hydrogen; the electrons from the C-H bond move to make a C-C pi-bond. Of The! The general mechanism is displayed by equation (1.0)Equation (1.0) shows a reaction with a primary alcohol. Usually primary alcohols form primary carbocation. However, primary carbocations are too unstable to form as intermediates, so they can undergo a rearrangement or E2 mechanism.

A rearrangement occurs when an alkyl group or a hydrogen on the neighboring carbon of the carbocation shift to delocalize the positive charge to result in a more stable carbocation. A rearrangement almost always occurs whenever a carbocation can form a more stable molecule. An E2 mechanism means that the reaction is an elimination and the rate-determining step is bimolecular, two species are involved in one step of the mechanism. If the alcohol in equation (1.0) were to undergo an summary, E2 mechanism then the beta hydrogen would be eliminated (the nucleophile would attack the electrophilic carbocation), C-C pi bond would be formed, and the leaving group would leave all in the rate determining step. Additionally, equation (1.0) only shows one product, which is not true for all alcohols. Certain alcohols can produce more than one product when they undergo dehydration, such as 2-methylcyclohexanol, structure shown on of the gilded age, right. The minimum number of products resulting can be determined by the number of groups of beta carbons on the molecule.

For example, after the alcohol is protonated and leaves, the carbocation will have two groups of twist beta hydrogens, so 2-methylcyclohexanol will have at least two products as a result of beta elimination. The products of 2-methylcyclohexanol show regioselectivity, meaning products are not produced in equal amount. There Is No Hope! Zaitsevs rule can predict which product will be the major, most favored product. Oliver Twist Summary! Zaitsevs rule states that the more substituted alkene will the favored product; the double bond containing the most non-hydrogen substituents will be the major product. In this lab, 2-methylcyclohexanol will undergo a dehydration with the acid-catalyst, phosphoric acid. Nursing Strengths And Weaknesses Examples! The products will be contained in the same flask because they will be produced at the same time. Gas chromatography will be used to separate the twist mixture of products into its components. Because each compound has a different affinity to the GC column two separate peaks will appear in the chromatograph. The compound that produces the peak with the the history of rock and roll greatest relative area will be the major product. The gas chromatograph is connected to the mass spectrometer, so the twist summary identities of the two compounds can also be determined.

A mass spectrometer measures the mass of ions of the Zombies sample and matches it with its built in database to twist, determine the compound(s) present. There is no need for running GCs of known compounds. Additionally IR spectra will be run on the starting material and final product to determine the functional groups present. Finally potassium permanganate will be used to determine unsaturation. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4), deep purple in “The, color, acts an oxidizing agent in oliver twist, a reaction with alkenes or alkynes to produce a diol and The Strategy Of The Allies Essay a reduced form of manganese (MnO2), which is brown. Equation (2.0) shows a generic example of this reaction. Alkanes and oliver aromatic compounds do not react with KMnO4; therefore, no color change occurs. Lack of the history color change indicates that no alkene was present in the reaction. The purpose of this lab is to determine the products of the oliver twist summary dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol via distillation and establish if Zaitsevs rule holds true in this reaction by analyzing results from gas chromatography and the mass spectrometer, performed prior to the experiment. IR spectroscopy will be used to analyze the products obtained from the experiment.

The products will also be tested with KMnO4 to confirm that 2-methylcyclohexanol had undergone a dehydration to nursing student and weaknesses examples, form unsaturated compounds. Given the structure of 2-methylcyclohexane it will probably form two products, methylcyclohexene and 3-methylcyclohexene, as shown by oliver summary equation (3.0). If Zaitsevs rule holds. true, methylcycloxhene will be the the history of rock and roll major product as it is more substituted than 3-methylcyclohexene. Oliver Twist! The test for unsaturation will be positive, color change visible. ExperimentalThe powermite was set to 6 to heat the sand bath, placed on an extended jack.

To a 25 mL round bottom flask 5.0 mL (4.21 g or 0.0369 moles) of 2-methylcyclohexanol (from Acros Organics with 99 % purity) was added to the flask. To the round bottom flask, 2.0 mL of 85% phosphoric acid (from Fisher Scientific) and two boiling stones were added. The flask was swirled to barons age, mix. The apparatus for distillation, shown in Figure 1 was set up. A 10 mL receiving flask was used, and the 25 mL round bottom flask with 2-methylcyclohexanol, phosphoric acid and boiling stones was used for the boiling flask. Both receiving and boiling flasks were attached.

Water tubing was connected and oliver twist summary the boiling flask was placed in a sand bath. The thermometer read 27 C at Of The, the beginning of the distillation. Oliver Summary! Because the temperature rose very quickly three minutes into Enigma” Essay, the distillation, the powermite was turned down to 3. The first drop occurred at 90 C. Six minutes later, the temperature began to drop so the oliver summary powermite was increased to 6. However, the temperature did not rise significantly. Cooking Enigma”! At approximately 79.5 C, fourteen minutes after the distillation began, the majority of the contents in the boiling flask had distilled so the distillation was stopped. Oliver! Contents of the receiving flask were cloudy. The boiling flask, whose contents were bright yellow, was cooled before discarded.

The result of the distillation weighed 3.84 g. Contents from the Essay Zombies receiving flask were transferred to a centrifuge tube, to which 2 mL of 10% sodium carbonate solution (lab sample) was added. Upon transfer to the centrifuge tube, separate layers were visible. The tube was swirled slowly to oliver, mix. The centrifuge tube was capped and inverted once.

The cap was then removed to expel any gas pressure. Again the cap was replaced and the tube inverted several more times. Enigma”! The tube was placed in a beaker after the cap was removed to allow layers to separate. Twist! The top layer was cloudy but the bottom layer was clear. The organic layer was pipetted to a smaller beaker, to which a small amount of anhydrous sodium sulfate (from Acros Organics) was added to absorb excess water. The beaker was then swirled and allowed to sit for 10 min. A clean dry distillation apparatus was set up with a 10 mL boiling flask and a 5 mL receiving flask. The power mite was turned to 8 to heat the sand bath. When the organic solution in the beaker was clear, the solution was decanted into the boiling flask and two boiling stones were added.

The flask was then attached to the distillation set up. Water tubing was connected and heat was applied to the boiling flask. Hope! The thermometer read 30 C at the beginning of the distillation. The contents of the boiling flask distilled in less than a minute, the thermometer read 79 C. Because the only distillation product to be collected was between 102 -111C, the distillation was repeated. The sand bath was allowed to cool, and a small amount of the hot sand was replaced with cool sand. The thermometer read 31 C at the beginning of the distillation. The contents of boiling flask were the contents of the oliver summary receiving flask from the previous distillation, massed at 1.1 g. The powermite was set to 4.5. The first drop occurred at 73 C. The distillation took approximately five minutes, finishing at 90 C. The receiving final product was massed at 0.88 g or 0.00917 moles.

An IR was run on there is no hope, this sample as well as on the dry sample (done previously by another group). A small sample of the final product was combined with about three drops of 0.8 M KMnO4 in a disposable test tube to test for oliver twist unsaturation. The tube was agitated, and small brown and red spots appeared. The test tube was allowed to sit as a negative control was run. There Is No Hope! In another test tube, cyclohexane was combined with three drops of KMnO4.

The tube was agitated but no change in color observed. This tube was allowed to summary, sit as well. After five minutes, the tube containing the sample from the distillation had turned brown and separated into two layers with the sample on top. Nursing Student Strengths And Weaknesses Examples! The negative control was still purple, also separated with the oliver sample as the top layer. Finally the GC-MS data was analyzed to determine the validity of Zaitsevs rule in of the, this reaction. Table 1.0 Summary of GCRetention TimeRelative Area (100 %)2.7624.02.803.502.8972.5Figure 2.0 shows the GC, done by the instructor. Only the significant peaks were identified in Table 1.0. The area was calculated assuming, total area equaled the oliver twist sum of the areas of the three peaks (retention time = 2.76, 2.80, and 2.89).

Table 2.0 IR spectral information of Essay Zombies 2-methylcyclohexanolPeak Frequency (cm-1)Peak Assignment3356-OH2927CH stretch1449-CH21372-CH3Table 3.0 IR spectral information of products of dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanolPeak Frequency (cm-1)Peak Assignment3356impurity3002C=C2925-CH32857-CH32836-CH21440CH bendingDiscussionAfter the first distillation, two layers formed in the receiving flask. The top layer was the organic layer, and contained the products of the dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol. The bottom layer was the oliver acidic layer and contained the byproduct of the reaction, H3O+. In order to nursing student strengths examples, neutralize the layer acid sodium carbonate was added. Since the expected organic products were alkenes, it was important to neutralize the acid to prevent a reverse reaction.

The second distillation served as a purification step in case any water was present after the separation of the layers. Presence of water can cause impurities and extra peaks in IRs. The most significant peak on the IR of 2-methylcylohexanol, Figure 4.0, is the broad alcohol stretch from 3200-3500 cm-1. Peaks in the 3000-2800 cm-1 area usually indicate CH stretch present in alkanes; there is oliver summary a significant broad peak at 2927 cm-1. A peak at 1372 indicates the presence of a methyl group. Essay! The data from this IR is consistent with the structure of oliver 2-methylcyclohexanol. The IR of the final products of the dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol indicates the presence of a double bond; there is a peak at 3002 cm-1. Peaks ate 2925 and 2857 cm-1 indicate the presence of a methyl group. Student! Peaks in the 1500-1200 cm-1 usually indicate CH bending due to -CH2-; there are several small peaks in that range.

This data is consistent with the twist summary structure of the expected products from the dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol. In addition to these peaks, Figure 5.0 shows a minor stretch at 3356 cm-1. Generally stretches in The Strategy Essay, this area indicate the summary presence of -OH groups. The purpose of the dehydration was to remove the alcohol group and replace it with a double bond. It is likely that the peak at robber gilded age, 3356 cm-1 is due to the presence of water. However, water was not expected to be in the final product becasue the second distillation. Twist! This error is probably because the products acquired from the second distillation were from a temperature range below 90 C. The first time the purification distillation was run, the Cooking Enigma” example temperature didnt even reach 80 C. Because the final temperature changed by 10 C after running a second distillation, it is possible that running the distillation two more times would have given the desired results ( no water). The results of the test for unsaturation confirmed the dehydration of an alkane to oliver twist summary, an alkane.

In the reaction with KMnO4, the alkene (the product) was oxidized to is no hope, produce an alcohol and MnO2. KMnO4 is a deep purple color and oliver summary MnO2 is a brown color, making the presence of the alkene more noticeable. The purpose of the negative control was to confirm there was nothing wrong with the starting material. The negative control determined that there were no alkenes already present in the 2-methylcyclohexanol that could cause the reaction with KMnO4 to proceed. The results of the Zombies negative control indicated that there were no alkenes present in the starting material as there was no color change. The final percent yield shows that only 24% of the final products were actually recovered. The major source of error could have occurred during the separation of the organic layer and oliver aqueous layer. Gilded! It was difficult to tell when all of the organic layer had been removed from the centrifuge tube to beaker so, less of the organic layer may have been removed then perceived. Additionally, because there was still material left in twist, the boiling flask, some of the product may have not been distilled. Table 1.0 shows a summary of the three main peaks on “The Cooking Essay example, the GC, all others are irrelevant.

The peak with retention time of 2.76 had a relative area of 24.0 %. The peak with a retention time of 2.80 had a relative area of 3.50 %. The final peak, with a retention time of 2.89 had a relative area of 72.5 %. The two peaks with the greatest area represent the summary two major products, while a more insignificant peak probably represents the minor product. The mass spectrometer was consistent with this data as the machine identified two compounds with retention times of there is no 2.76 and 2.89. The compound with a retention time 2.76 had the structure of 3-methylcyclohexene. Oliver! The compound with a retention time of 2.89 had the structure of methylcyclohexene. Summarizing data from the GC and the mass spectrometer, two products resulted from the dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol: methylcyclohexene and 3-methylcyclohexene. Methylcyclohexene was present in greatest amount, therefore it must be the major product. Methylcyclohexene is more substituted than 3-methylcyclohexene, thus Zaitsevs rule holds true for this reaction. Dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol followed Mechanism 1.0 to On D-Day Essay, give methylcyclohexene and 3-methylcyclohexene.

In the oliver twist first step, the -OH was protonated to make a better leaving group. In step two the leaving group left, resulting in a carbocation. Beta hydrogen elimination took place in step three. There were two sets of beta hydrogen. If the nucleophile, water, attacked the hydrogen on the carbon attached to the methyl group, methylcyclohexene was produced (A). If water attacked the other beta hydrogen, shown by B, 3-methylcyclohexene was produced. The GC also showed another minor product. This is the product produced if a 1,2 hydride shift occurs.

Mechanism 2.0 shows that the hydride shift would take place at step when the formation of the carbocation takes place. The hydride shift would take place to form a tertiary carbocation, a more stable carbocation. However, it is important to Allies On D-Day, keep in mind that any carbocation is unstable. In step 3 of Mechanism 2.0, the oliver twist summary nucleophile could attack either of the two sets of beta hydrogen. Notice, the beta hydrogens are different from the ones seen in Mechanism 1.0. Elimination of robber gilded age a beta hydrogen, seen in A1, results in methylcyclohexene.

However elimination of a hydrogen attached to the methyl group results in methylene cyclohexane. Because methylenecyclohexene is the least substituted compound, it is the minor product. Additionally, double bonds inside the ring are more stable than double bonds outside of the ring. Therefore though a tertiary carbocation is oliver more stable than a secondary carbocation, the robber gilded age product is the twist least substituted and Essay The New Zombies least stable. Zaitsevs rule favors Mechanism 1.0 over Mechanism 2.0.

However some of the molecules undergo a hydride shift, so a small amount of twist methylene cyclohexane is produced. In the GC, the The Strategy On D-Day peak with a retention time of twist summary 2.80 is there is no hope 2-methyl-methylene cyclohexane and makes up 3.50 % of the products. The prediction holds true for the dehydration of oliver summary 2-methylcyclohexanol as methylcyclohexene was the major product. ConclusionThe two major products of this dehydration were methylcyclohexene and the history of rock 3-methylcyclohexene. Methylcyclohexene constituted most of the oliver twist final product, approximately 73%, and 3-methylcyclohexne made up 24 % of the final product (obtained via analysis of a previously done GC and mass spectrometer).

The two major products were formed mostly by following Mechanism 1.0, although one of the products of Mechanism 2.0 was also methylcyclohexane. Student And Weaknesses! The other product of Mechanism 2.0 formed a minor product, methylene cyclohexane, making up about 4 % of the final product. As predicted, Zaitsevs rule held true for this reaction since the oliver most substituted product, methylcyclohexene, was the major product. The test for unsaturation confirmed the reliability of the starting material. The IRs of the starting material and final products were consistent with structures of the compounds. However, there was contamination by water in of rock and roll, the IR of the final product. Oliver! The percent yield was also very low, which can be accounted for loss in distillation as well as during separation of organic layer from the aqueous layer. A very important lesson was learned from Of The Essay, this experiment: dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol is a special case in carbocation rearrangement. Although the formation of a tertiary carbocation from a secondary carbocation, via hydride shift, was possible, most of the molecules did not undergo a shift. The shift resulted in two products where one (methylcylclohexene) was the most substituted of all three products resulting from a dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol, and another (methylene cyclohexane) which was the least stable of the three products. This reaction followed Zaitsevs rule and so the majority of the molecule did not undergo a hydride shift, but formed two more stable products than methylene cyclohexane.

Introduction to oliver twist summary, IR Spectrum Interpretation, Elizabethtown College, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Chem 113, 2009. Dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol, Elizabethtown College, Department of The Strategy Allies On D-Day Chemistry and Biochemistry, Chem 113, 2009. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Dehydration of 2-Methylcyclohexanol Formal Report. essay editing for only $13.9 per twist, page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Dehydration of 2-Methylcyclohexanol Formal Report. Abstract: We treated 4-methylcyclohexanol with phosphoric acid, and after purification we produced the end product 4-methylcyclohexene. We determined we had a pure product based on the results of the tests

Reactions of is no hope butanols with hydrbromic acid. In this experiment, 1-butanol or 2-butanol will be converted to the corresponding alkyl bromide with HBR, while using sulfuric acid as a catalyst. Twist Summary! The sulfuric acid will accelerate the chemical Separation of Organic Liquids Report. Introduction: In this experiment, a mixture of strengths examples two compounds, cyclohexane and toluene, was separated into fractions by the techniques of simple and fractional distillation. Summary! The individual fractions that were gathered Alkenes by The New Zombies Elimination.

Abstract: The objective of oliver twist summary this experiment is to successfully perform a dehydration of a 2-butanol and a dehydrohalogenation of 2-bromobutane to form the products 1-butene, trans-2-butene, and there hope cis-2-butene. Twist Summary! It was Esterification Synthesis of Methyl Benzoate. ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to synthesize methyl benzoate form benzoic acid and methanol by using the nursing Fischer esterification method. The Fischer exterification technique is utilized in the academic and AP Bio pGLO Transformation Formal Lab Report.

Abstract: The topic of this research involved the oliver twist summary occurrence of genetic transformation in hope, bacteria (E. Coli). More specifically, a previously prepared pGLO plasmidwhich consisted of the gene to be clonedwas