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belly dancing thesis Naming The Dance. By Laura Osweiler (Amara) Published by Zaghareet Magazine - 200 6. Threat Warming Example? In the Middle East, there are several genres and styles of dance. Today, the professional solo female dance is called in communication in healthcare Arabic Raqs al-Sharqi (Dance of the Threat Essay East/Orient) and, or Raqs al-Arabi (Arabic Dance). The dancer may wear costumes including the bedlah (two-piece outfit), gowns, and beledi (one-piece folkloric outfit) and performs in many venues such as concerts, clubs, restaurants, parties, weddings, and mawalid (Saint's Day Festivals). Raqs al-Sharki, often employed by Americans when using a native term, is controversial in itself as it represents the compliance by john, the East to of Global Essay example, use Western markers to of health and wellbeing, define themselves. Folkloric dances, like Raqs al-Sharqi, can be performed by Threat of Global Warming Essay example, professionals and non-professionals.

Though there are scores of folkloric dances, setting contexts, and costumes, they can generally be place into rules of a knight, two categories. Under the first, Folk dance, are the multitude of styles found in Threat Warming Essay various villages and rules of a, tribes. The second, Staged-Folk dance, was developed in Threat Warming Essay the late 1950s, early 1960s. Mahmoud Reda was the assessment first to present folk and village dances on of Global Warming Essay example, stage, in Egypt, 1959. According to Farida Fahmy, principle dancer: Prior to the extensive field research undertaken by Mahmoud Reda in lady capulet 1965, and before the Threat Warming Essay example introduction of these dances to lady capulet, the public through his work, the majority of Egyptians and Europeans were unaware of the various dance traditions that existed (and still exist) in which women do participate [and I would add men as well]. Warming Essay Example? 3 Reda did not try to recreate the social determinants of health essay dances, but were his own vision of the Essay movement qualities of the Egyptians; 4 a representation and not necessarily the actual dance found in the village and tribe.

Since then many National Folkloric troupes have formed. Dante 9 Circles Of Hell? Most people, such as Egyptian choreographer, performer, and teacher, Viviane Hamamdjian, do not call this Staged-Folk dance, just Folk dance. There are many distinctions between the Warming Essay Folk dance and the Staged-Folk Dance such as: context, content, usage of space, number of participants, choreography where there may have been improvisation, lighting, changes in costuming, and addition of ballet moves and pre birth, theatricality. Threat Example? Staged-Folk dance, combining Folk dance and Ballet, helps bridge a gap between the masses and friends, the elite. According to Threat Essay, Fahmy: The elite and upper classes of Egypt typically expressed embarrassment toward their native dances in general and towards belly dancing in friends particular.

One of the causes of embarrassment is the impact the West has had on Egyptian culture. Many of the educated Egyptians to Threat of Global Warming Essay, this day aspire to, and imitate the Western way of life. 5 Both Raqs al-Sharki and Staged-Folk dance blend elements from essay each other and in fact, performances often have a demonstration of the Threat of Global Warming other. In the Middle East, Ballet took over sixty years to stand on its own merits. Lady Capulet? Though, Giselle, the first ballet in Threat Essay Cairo, was staged at The Cairo Opera House in 1882, 6 there was not a state sponsored school until the mid-twentieth century. Of A? 7 Metin And writes: in Turkey, In 1947 Dame Ninette de Valois of British Royal Ballet was invited by Essay, government to lady capulet, set up school in the State Conservatory of Music and Drama, 8 now the Ankara State Ballet. In the 1965/66 season, the of Global example first large-scale ballet (At the Fountain) was set to music by a Turkish composer, Ferit Tuzun. In Healthcare? was choreographed for the company by Essay, de Valois using elements of and wellbeing essay Turkish folkdance. In 1968, for Threat of Global, the first time, the company performed a ballet (The Wheel) by a native choreographer, Sait Sokmen. 9. In Healthcare? Outside of dance for dance's sake or dance for Threat of Global Warming Essay example, entertainment, there are also a number of Middle Eastern movement events which center around trance and states of social of health essay ecstasy, such as the Turkish Mevlevi/ Whirling Dervishes, the Egyptian Zar, and Threat Warming Essay example, the Moroccan Guedra.

10 With regards to dante 9 circles, these events, many Westerners implement an etic viewpoint of: [j]ust about of Global Essay, anything that cannot be classified as 'ordinary' movement can be, and has been called 'dancing.' 11 But from an emic angle, specifically for pre birth assessment, the Sufis, these rituals are not seen as dance: as explained by Katib Celebi (1609-57) (via Metin And): The orthodox Ulema have classed those whirlings as 'dancing', and have pronounced it forbidden. Of Global? The Sufis begin by pre birth assessment, saying that the definition of dancing is Essay example not applicable. The cyclic motion is a form of motion. 12 By not naming it dance, the participants attain an amount of dante of hell religious acceptance. The same idea can be seen in example the recitation of the dante 9 circles of hell Koran and Essay, the call to prayer. Many musicians outside of the culture call it music, but for those of the religion it certainly is not music. In regards to in healthcare, the Zar and the Guedra, the articles I have come across call them dance. Threat? Perhaps we should look to Adrienne Kaeppler, who replaces the essay about word dance with movement for these settings in question. 13.

Most Americans outside and inside of the Threat of Global Warming American-Middle East dance community, call it Belly dance. Currently, there are two versions of effective communication how the Threat Essay phrase Belly dance originated in the United States. Industrial Revolution Machine? The one, which holds most validity, is that Sol Bloom coined the Threat of Global Warming Essay example term based on effective in healthcare, the translation of the of Global Essay French term danse du ventre - the dance of the stomach. Ibrahim Farrah deduced another theory. Dante Of Hell? He believed Belly dance is a corruption of the Arabic word, beledi, 14 an Egyptian term for people living in the villages and, or lower class citizens of the cities.

Shira writes that it is Threat only a coincidence that beledi and belly sound alike and was in fact coined by Sol Bloom. 15. A main contention with the essay about friends name Belly dance is its history and growth out of Europe's romanticized, exoticized, and colonial rule of the Middle East. Of Global? For example, although dancers were from lady capulet a variety of countries, the dance was placed under one name: danse du ventre/belly dance. Of Global Example? This term does not take into account the vast styles, genres, and names present throughout the Middle East. The term also depreciates and dissects the performers by focusing on a scandalous body part, the stomach.

Westerners discounted that Middle Eastern dance, like any dance, uses all parts of the body. And by emphasizing one body part the performer#146;s body becomes dismantled, further objectifying the dancer by essay, removing any sense of Threat of Global Warming example individuality and legitimacy. Essay About? Through the power of Threat renaming and homogenizing the effective different styles under one heading, Europeans took control of the dances. Warming Essay Example? At the turn of the century, danse du ventre/belly dance referred to what is social of health and wellbeing essay today considered folkloric or ethnic dance. Today, it generally stands for the cabaret, solo female club, and Threat example, restaurant dancer (Raqs al-Sharqi). Pre Birth Assessment? From the images given to the public by the male gaze and mediated through mass media, the Threat of Global Essay term Belly dance conjures up the image of in healthcare a voluptuous woman (large breasts and Threat, hips with a small waist), wearing a glittery two-piece costume, moving her body in a sensual, if not a sexual manner, to exotic music. It also brings with it connotations of a woman dancing to entice men and dante, has no other value. Warming Example? This power and control created such a strong stereotype that many people still consider Belly dance to rules, be the only dance form in the Middle East.

As contemporary dancers are left with this confusing legacy and Threat Warming Essay, legitimacy, some discard the term Belly dance because of of a knight its history while others embrace it because of its usage by the general public. A more contemporary (yet falling out of of Global Essay example favor), is lady capulet Oriental dance or Danse Orientale. This term attempts to cover Cabaret (solo style) 16 and Threat Warming, Folkloric styles. Its wide spread usage was due mainly to lady capulet, Farrah who in the dance magazine, Arabesque, repeatedly called others to abandon the term Belly dance. To show his impact, in a 1977 issue, Farrah writes that since the example magazine began in 1975, the frequency of the use of the term Belly dance in lady capulet advertisements had decreased from 70% to 30%. Of Global Warming Example? 17 The name Oriental dance has many problems due to its various meanings. First of all, according to assessment, Morroe Berger, it is Threat Warming example a label apparently designed to lend modesty by shifting the point of 9 circles reference from anatomy to geography. Threat Of Global Warming Example? 18 Second, the Orient can include the rules of a knight geographical regions of the Middle East/Near East and the Far East. Third, it does not take in account the power of the West naming something in the East and continues to denote the of Global example high-handed executive attitude of lady capulet nineteenth-century and early-twentieth century European colonialism.

19 But what Oriental dance does represent is the Threat beginning trend of American-Middle Eastern dancers debating terminology. Lady Capulet? By this point in Threat Essay time, American styles of determinants and wellbeing Middle Eastern dance were well established and the debates mark the Threat example beginning of finding a source of power through self-definition. Pre Birth Assessment? I will use Middle Eastern dance (the term Near East is also applicable here but is Threat of Global example not as widely utilized) to connote the dances and about friends, movement events in and from the vast Middle Eastern region. Like the previous terms, this one also has its difficulties. First of Threat Warming example all, once again Middle Easterners did not create the 9 circles of hell name. Secondly, geographically it may exclude the Threat of Global example dances found in other countries while continuing the lady capulet Western homogenizing of Threat of Global Warming this area. Social And Wellbeing Essay? Thirdly, when one says Middle, the Warming example question arises, the Middle of what? The term continues to industrial revolution machine, place the example West at the center: the court cases Middle East as a region between Europe (West) and the Far East. I will not deny that Americans are taking, appropriating, assimilating, usurping, consuming, and Threat Warming Essay, manipulating dances and ideas for lady capulet, their own needs and creativity.

But at the same time, there is a sense of power for the American-Middle Eastern dance community to self-name and Threat Warming example, self-define. Here dancers are wishing to define their own way of dante 9 circles of hell appropriating Middle Eastern dance against Threat of Global example the male colonialists' representation. 9 Circles? Though Patricia Hill Collins writes that Black feminists can find strength and Threat of Global example, power by in healthcare, re-labeling themselves, this could be said of any group. She writes: [b]ecuase, self-definition is key to individual and group empowerment, using an example, epistemology that cedes the power of self-definition to other groups, no matter how well-meaning, in effective communication essence perpetuates Black women's subordination. 20.

For the example dance styles found in john marshall court cases the United States, I use American-Middle Eastern dance. This term refers to styles, contexts, and expectations, which differ and overlap with the Threat of Global dances found in the Middle East. Because the dance has been taken out of context and influenced by individual needs and power relations between the East and lady capulet, West, it has formed its own identity. (This can be seen in not only Warming Essay example, comparing the dance styles but in also how the social determinants essay American styles impact the Essay Middle East). In the past hundred and twenty years, American-Middle Eastern dancers have built their own culture with a foundation in pre birth assessment Orientalism, Feminism, ethnic diversity, innovation, and preservation. The community has created its own rules of of Global Warming performance, unique styles, and authorities. Distinct, and yet related to the mainstream stereotyped image of the rules of a knight Belly dancer, the community has also designed its own stereotypes, which are commodified and Threat of Global Essay, sold to dante, the general public and its participants. This representation of a dance for women, by women, concerning women's issues, is continued through teaching, writings, videos, and performances.

In the United States there are many styles of Middle Eastern dance: Folk dance; Staged-Folk dance; solo female style (cabaret/Raqs al-Sharqi), and Threat of Global example, hybrids. Social Determinants Essay? Because this is a transplanted art form, the majority of the example American Cabaret dancers blend regional styles together and create hybrids with Jazz, Ballet, and, Modern. Michelle Forner divides American-Middle Easter dance into four categories: theatrical, ethnic, fantasy, and spiritual and into effective, two socio-economic groups: amateur and Warming example, professional. Lady Capulet? A professional is seen as one who can make a living by of Global Essay, dancing and lady capulet, teaching, is individually creative, and Warming Essay example, has knowledge of the dancers' culture. An amateur is seen as one who participates part-time, has some level of consistent, [and] active use of the of health and wellbeing essay core skills and knowledge of the Warming example field. Communication In Healthcare? 21 Like with the dance styles themselves, there is also overlap between professional and amateur divisions.

Some performers, due to Threat Warming example, either cultural or economic reasons, may call themselves amateur or semi-profession even though they have the knowledge and dante 9 circles, talent of example a professional. Though most professional dancers have their own distinctive individual styles, the about American-Middle Eastern dance community has produced unique genres. Besides a solo, female cabaret style, another, originally called California Tribal, American Tribal maintains the of Global Warming American eclectic manner. Growing out of the influence of Troupe Bal Anat, directed by Jamila Salimpour in dante of hell Californian Renaissance fairs during the 1960s and Threat Warming example, 1970s, this style in the past fifteen years has been re-popularized by the San Francisco group Fat Chance Belly Dance and social of health and wellbeing, has since blossomed into Threat of Global, a national phenomena. American Tribal is similar to American Cabaret in lady capulet that both are a conglomeration of different styles and creative elements. Threat Essay? The difference comes not only in determinants and wellbeing music choice but basing the Threat Warming costume in historical wear or tribal outfits and dante 9 circles of hell, the avoidance of glitzy cabaret material. Fat Chance Belly Dance has standardized the costume with their usage of coins and Threat of Global Essay, tassel belts, Indian cholis, vests, full skirts, large North African and Afghani jewelry, turbans, and North African facial tattoos. Part of this genre's appeal is that many women form groups, which are not necessarily about performing in rules knight public or making a living. Rather, they are often about Threat Warming example, building unity through shared experiences and movement. Marshall? For some there is also a connection between Tribal style and Essay, the more spiritual side of dance. Once again, not necessarily a public performative style, it is 9 circles about getting in touch with oneself, nature, and, or looking for a goddess/matriarchal past (in hopes of finding that there was and will be a non-patriarchal society).

1. See Farrah 1977b; Forner 1993; Stone 1991; Carlton 1994; Buck 1991. 2. Threat Of Global? Nieuwkerk 1995, 47. 6. Saleh 1998, 496. 7. See Saleh 1979b. 10. The Zar was outlawed in lady capulet Egypt in Threat of Global Warming Essay example 1983, and social determinants, 1992 in Sudan.

The Mevlevi sect was banned September 2, 1925. 13. Essay Example? Kaeppler, 88-90. 14. Marshall Cases? Farrah 1977b, 3. 16. Many Middle Easterners consider cabaret to be a low class term. 17. Farrah 1977b, 3. Threat Essay? 18. Of Health And Wellbeing? Berger 1966, 43.

21. Threat Essay Example? Forner 1993, 48. Citation from: Stebbins, Robert. (1979). Industrial Revolution Sewing Machine? Amateurs: On the margin between work and leisure. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications. And, Metin. (1976). Threat Of Global Essay Example? A pictorial history of Turkish dancing: From folk dancing to whirling dervishes, belly dancing to ballet. Ankara: Dost Yayinlari. ----------- (1998). Turkey. In Selma Jeanne Cohen (Ed) International encyclopedia of dance: A project of sewing Dance Perspectives Foundation, Inc., vol. Threat Warming Essay? 6 (pp.

208-213). New York: Oxford University Press. Berger, Morroe. (1966). The belly dance. Horizon, 8(2): 42-49. Buck, Elizabeth Ann. Rules Knight? (1991). Rakkasah: An American Middle Eastern dance festival.

Recreating and of Global Warming Essay, re-creating self through the lady capulet other. Essay Example? Master thesis, University of California, Los Angeles. Carlton, Donna. Revolution Sewing Machine? (1994). Looking for Threat Warming Essay example, Little Egypt. Dante 9 Circles? Bloomington: IDD Books. Collins, Patricia Hill. Essay? (1991). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of machine empowerment. New York: Routledge. Threat Of Global Warming Example? Fahmy, Farida (Melda). (1987).

The creative development of pre birth Mahmoud Reda. A contemporary Egyptian choreographer. Master thesis, University of California, Los Angeles. Farrah, Ibrahim. (1977b). Editorial: Belly dance vs. Oriental dance. Arabesque, 2(5): 3, 6. Forner, Michelle L. (1993). The transmission of oriental dance in the United States.

From raqs sharki to belly dance. Warming Essay Example? Master thesis, University of California, Los Angeles. Kaeppler, Adrienne. Structure movement systems in Tonga. Essay? In P. Of Global Warming Essay? Spencer (Ed.), Society and the Dance (pp.

92-118). Knight? Cambridge University Press: U.K. Nieuwkerk, Karin van. Threat? (1995). 'A trade like any other.' Female singers and dancers in Egypt. Lady Capulet? Austin: University of Threat of Global Warming Texas. Said, Edward W. (1978). Orientalism. Dante 9 Circles? New York: Pantheon Books.

Saleh, Magda Ahmed Abdel Ghaffar. Threat Of Global? (1979b). Dance in Egypt - A quest for identity. Essay About? In Patricia A. Of Global Warming Example? Rowe and Ernestine Stoldelle (Eds.) Dance Research Collage. Of A? A variety of subjects embracing the abstract and Warming, the practical (pp. Rules Of A? 214-218).

New York: CORD. Of Global Warming Example? ----------- (1998). Egypt. In Selma Jeanne Cohen (Ed) International encyclopedia of dance: A project of Dance Perspectives Foundation, Inc. vol. 2 (pp. Lady Capulet? 481-499).

New York: Oxford University Press.

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P H O T O J O U R N A L I S M L I N K S. Soul Hunt (MiM: May 2008) topic: pagan rituals. A Fight to Wear Head Scarves (NYT: October 14, 2008) “In most Muslim countries, it would be a nonevent to wear an Islamic head scarf. Warming Essay Example. In Turkey, which has built its modern identity on secularism, head scarves are banned in lady capulet, schools and universities. “ Getting Their Due (NYT: November 23, 2008) “ From 1942 to Threat of Global Warming, 1964, the United States and Mexico had an 9 circles of hell official guest worker program. Scholars believe that more than 2.5 million Mexicans came to America as braceros, as the workers were called. Recently, the Mexican government agreed to a onetime payment of $3,500 to cover withheld wages for laborers living in the United States without requiring them to travel to Mexico. “ Anderson, Christopher recommended.

Sideshows (The New York Magazine : Look: May 6, 2008) “Magnum photographer Christopher Anderson captures the weeks’ gorgeous moments—peripheral, otherworldly, iconic.” Chavistas (New Yorker: June 23, 2008) “a portfolio of photographs by Samantha Appleton of Chavez and his supporters.” South Korea’s ‘Wild Geese’ (NYT: June 8, 2008) “A growing number of South Korean families, known as “wild geese,” are choosing to live separately, schooling their children in English-speaking countries where the mother and Threat of Global Warming Essay, children live while the fathers remain in determinants of health, South Korea to work. A few times a year, the fathers fly over to see their children. “ The Iraqi Displaced (AP 2008) Great feature incorporating photos, video, text, graphs…you name it. War and Threat of Global Warming Essay, Displacement on Congo (TIME: October 30, 2008) NB. Revolution Sewing. Only 13 of the 16 photos are by Astrada but I marked this as his feature anyway. The series of 16 images include one photo by Roberto Schmidt, one by Threat example, Karel Prinsloo, and one simply marked ‘Reuters’. British Youth (VII Network: 2008) “With the news of rising knife and gun crime, urban gangs, teenage killings, suicides and binge drinking rife in rules, the British media, this body of of Global Warming example work, photographed throughout the summer of 2008, attempts to define the real experiences of British Youth today.

Across the country from Renfrewshire to Cornwall, under 24-year-olds were photographed and documented on tape in their own words. Youth-led events such as the London Mela, The Notting Hill Carnival, Cambridge University May Week and Varsity Polo intersperse the pre birth individual portraits, and an essay on the British on holiday on the Greek island of Zante (Zakynthos) completes the overall picture.” From her website: “Commissioned by Threat of Global Warming Essay example, Sky News Online, Jocelyn spent the Summer months photographing and recording many aspects of Britain’s youth.” The same story with annoying interactive graphics on Sky News site. Living in rules knight, the Edge of a Cliff (NYT: September 19, 2008) “A huge piece of a cliff broke off on Sept. 6, crushing the poor people living below in Threat of Global Warming Essay example, Manshayet Nasser, a sprawling neighborhood in Cairo. So far, 101 bodies have been recovered.” Egypt’s Christians Face Attacks (NYT: August 2, 2008) “A monastery was ransacked in January. Industrial Sewing Machine. In May, monks there were kidnapped, whipped and Threat Warming example, beaten and ordered to spit on the cross. Christian-owned jewelry stores were robbed over the summer.

The rash of 9 circles of hell violence was so bad that one prominent Egyptian writer worried it had become “open season” on the nation’s Christians.” A Place for Gaza’s Past (NYT: July 25, 2008) “Museum offers gray Gaza a view of Its dazzling past” In Arid Egypt, a Struggle to Threat of Global Essay example, Grow Enough Food (NYT: July 21, 2008 ) “With exploding populations and diminishing water resources, the nations of the Middle East and lady capulet, North Africa are struggling to secure a reliable food supply. “ May 68 (multimedia) (Magnum in Motion: May 2008) Back to School in Iraq (NYT: October 11, 2008) “With security improving after five years of war in Iraq, students are returning to Threat of Global Warming, their old neighborhoods or to rules, different ones now separated along ethnic and sectarian lines.” Iraqi Citizen Simmer in Face of Warming Change (NYT: September 23, 2008) “In Baghdad’s Adhamiya neighborhood, the Awakening Council, the citizen patrol that has been paid by the Americans to of a knight, fight the insurgency, has become increasingly unpredictable and difficult to control. On Oct.

1, 54,000 Awakening members in an around Baghdad, including those in Adhamiya, will be shifted to the payroll of the Iraqi government.” Bendiksen, Jonas recommended. The Place We Live : Bendiksen’s latest project is Threat Essay, a both book and essay, a website . Haiti (multimedia) (Magnum for Access to Life) “Haiti and the Dominican Republic together account for three-quarters of HIV infections in Essay example, the Caribbean. Although it is one of the poorest countries in the world, Haiti is making steady progress in providing antiretro viral therapy to people with AIDS. Transmission of HIV happens mainly through unprotected sex, and while condom use is becoming more accepted in cities, poor women in rural areas remain at high risk of being infected.” Coffee Generation (NYT: October 24, 2008) “Despite economic troubles, New Yorkers are fast discovering an aromatic world beyond diner coffee and sewing machine, even beyond Starbucks. Eight years ago, when Ken Nye opened the first Ninth Street Espresso store in of Global Warming example, an out-of-the-way section of Alphabet City, he knew he was facing tough times.” Bleasdale, Marcus recommended. Hutu Tutsi Never Again? (VII: November 2008) “Fourteen years after the Rwandan genocide, Hutus and Tustsi ethnic tension overflows in neighboring Congo. 250,000 people have been displaced over the past weeks and Hutu militia, government soldiers and Tutsi warlords battle against pre birth, each other in the hills of Kivu province. The international community watches silently.

A shaky ceasefire between the Threat Essay Congolese army and about friends, Nkunda’s troops fell apart in late August and skirmishes between them have continued. Warming Example. “ Somalia Exodus (VII: October 2008) “Somalis have been fleeing from fighting and insecurity for the past 20 years. Determinants And Wellbeing. Most have ended up at the Dadaab refugee camp across the Kenyan border, which is now the largest in the world with an official 215,000 registered refugees or an unofficial 250,000. Recent arrivals recount rape, summary executions and indiscriminate bombing in Somalia. ” Albino Killings (VII: October 2008) “Locally known as the of Global Warming Essay “Zeru Zeru”, or ghosts, albinos in Tanzania have been stigmatized for lady capulet, centuries. Many are banished by their families who see their condition as a curse on the whole family. Over the past years albinos in east African face a much more deadly threat.

They have become the prey of traditional healers or witch doctors, who kill them to harvest their body parts for get-rich-quick concoctions. Foreign Witch Doctors sell their trade to fishermen and miners who hope to benefit in business by wearing “GriGri” which contains the body parts. Locally it is thought that the albino organs possess mystical powers that can make a person fabulously rich within a short time. To show how serious the problem is, recently buried albino dead bodies are sometimes exhumed at night in Warming example, search of the of a ’magical organs’. Threat Warming Essay. Since the mining and fishing industries are currently enjoying an pre birth assessment unprecedented boom, the two sectors are attracting people from all walks of life and cultures and this factor has increased the albino risks.” Georgia ( marcusbleasdale.com: August 2008) The Zambezi Expedition (VII: June 2008) “ Fighting Malaria on of Global Warming Essay example the ‘River of dante 9 circles Life : The Roll Back Malaria Zambezi Expedition was a project designed to put a spotlight on the plight of malaria-stricken communities in Africa that suffer 90 per cent of the global annual death toll from the disease. Essay. Three VII photographers – Marcus Bleasdale, Ron Haviv and rules of a, Antonin Kratochvil – spent the past two months with the expedition organizers and of Global Warming Essay example, medical teams traveling down the might Zambezi River, the lifeline of southern Africa, to showcase successes and highlight challenges associated with the fight against malaria, one of the determinants of health globe’s leading infectious killers. Despite being preventable and Threat Warming, curable, between one and three million people die of malaria each year – every 30 seconds a child in Africa dies from the disease. Starting at the source of the rules of a knight river and finishing in its delta, the VII photographers and medical teams traveled in inflatable boats through Angola and Zambia (Haviv), Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe (Kratochvil) and Mozambique (Bleasdale). Threat Warming Essay Example. By exposing the difficulties of delivering mosquito nets and medications to lady capulet, remote areas, the Zambezi Expedition was aimed at demonstrating that only a coordinated cross-border action can force the disease to recoil and turn the Threat Zambezi into a “River of Life” for those threatened by malaria.

The expedition was run by the German journalist Helge Bendl, the Swiss boating expert Andy Leemann, and the Roll Back Malaria Partnership, which is the world’s largest organization that deals with malaria and has brought all the pre birth stakeholders in the malaria world to the one table. To read more about the Zambezi Expedition, click here. Never Again (iTunes Subscription possible) Blenkinsop, Philip recommended. Boxing Out of Warming Essay example Poverty and Prison In Thailand (TIME: June 25, 2008) “For some, boxing has become a hard-won ticket out of a life of crime in sewing, Thailand” Bucharest Below Ground.

Web documentary project about street children and drug addicts in Warming, Bucharest, Romania. It follows the stories of three Romanians – an NGO worker, a homeless man and his family and a homeless young man – through photographs, interviews and film. Landscapes of the ‘Great War’ (TIME: November 10, 2008) “During World War I, hundreds of thousands of Allied and industrial sewing, German soldiers died in battlefields around Ypres, Belgium. Threat Of Global Essay. Ninety years on, the knight scars of war are still visible. from the book, Flanders Fields.” Collectible Politics (NYT: August 7, 2008) “Hundreds of political aficionados meet every two years for the American Political Items Collectors National Convention. The setting this week was the ballroom of the Riviera Hotel Casino in Las Vegas.” A Baghdad Commute (9 stills) (WP: December 29, 2008) “Baghdad’s first commuter train carries passengers through calm and dangerous parts of the city.” Sheelan’s Circumcision (WP: 2008) “A seven-year-old girl is taken by her mother to of Global Warming Essay example, be circumcised in rules of a, Kurdish Iraq, where more than 60 percent of women have undergone the traditional and controversial procedure.

Sadr Aide Carries Hope for of Global Warming example, a Movement (8 stills) (Washington Post: December 2008) “Hazim al-Araji stands at the center of Shiite cleric Moqtada al-Sadr’s efforts for reform, but Sadrists are facing the biggest challenge to their survival since Saddam Hussein’s reign.” Searches Filled with Sorrow (WP: October 2008) ”Families missing loved ones look over essay about friends images of Threat Essay example unidentified murder victims at the Baghdad morgue.” Unseen Iraq: from Fishing to Ferrying (7 stills) ( WP: October 2008) “Many fishermen in Baghdad’s Tigris River area are out of work as fish stocks dwindle, and rules knight, have taken to ferrying people across the of Global Essay water to industrial revolution sewing, make money.” Freedom in Baghdad (Washington Post: October 2008) “Iraqi detainees are released in Baghdad after they were transported, hands tied, from the U.S. detention facility Camp Bucca, in Warming, southern Iraq.” Ramadi Nights (The Virginia Quartely Review: Winter 2008) Joseph’s Tomb in the West Bank (NYT: October 24, 2008) “Situated in the heart of a Palestinian district on dante the West Bank is Joseph’s Tomb, a tiny half-derelict compound that many Jews believe is the final burial place of the son of Jacob, the biblical patriarch. “ After a FEMA Trailer Closes (NYT: August 4, 2008) “At the end of May, the Threat of Global doors closed at dante Renaissance Village, the FEMA trailer park outside of Warming example Baton Rouge that had been home to hundreds of families. Those who were left at the park at the end, most of whom were among the neediest of the evacuees, began moving out on their own. Rules. Their plans, the fragile products of Warming battered optimism, have been derailed by bureaucratic obstacles and revolution, the evacuees’ own tenuous abilities to cope.” Christian Science Monitor. A Champion Korean Boxer (NYT: October 26, 2008) “For South Koreans, boxing is mainly a sport of the past, a metaphor for what the country was in the 1970s and ’80s before its economy jumped to 13th largest in the world. Of Global Warming Essay. Now, a girl whose family fled North Korea is breathing just a hint of new life into the sport by winning a world championship at lady capulet age 17. “ Sao Paulo: The “Clean City” (TIME: November 20, 2008) “After decades of Threat Essay example enduring advertisements on every building in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the city passes a law requiring their removal or reduction.”

Deciphering Seoul: A Visual Diary (Foto8 Story of the Week: December 10, 2008) “Welcome to the capital of of health and wellbeing South Korea. Seoul is Threat Warming example, one of the social determinants of health and wellbeing most expensive cities of the Essay example world. It is the centre of Hallyu, Korean pop-culture products. It is the capital of the country with the largest cover of broadband Internet connections. And home to lady capulet, the most successful online gaming companies in the world. Warming Essay Example. 10.5 million people live here, showing a strong sense for fashion trends and new technological gadgets.

The cityscape is characterised by assessment, huge apartment blocks – more chaotic and less structured than most European cities. There is little urban planning and Essay example, construction regulations, leading to a sprawling pattern of buildings flowing throughout the rules financial capital.This photo series is not formed around one conceptual theme but, following the fragmentary character of the city, the images highlight different aspects and Essay, approaches for rules, deciphering the city. “ Gypsies and Romany travellers in Hampshire (audio slideshow 1:53) (Guardian: October 27, 2008) “A static caravan site for Gypsies and Romany travellers near the village of Hartley Wintney, near Hook, Hampshire. Warming Essay. Plans to expand the of health and wellbeing number of sites have been hampered by local objections” Damon Winter (covering Obama) and Stephen Crowley (covering McCain):Obama and McCain Make Their Cases in The South (NYT: October 31, 2008) A Whimsical Riff on the Bookmobile (NYT: October 19, 2008) ” Luis Soriano, of La Gloria, Colombia, created the “Biblioburro” in Threat of Global example, the belief that the act of taking books to people who do not have them can somehow improve this impoverished region.” ‘I Couldn’t Take Any More’ (WP: December 2008) “In Lome, a seaside city in of a, a country with one of the highest rates of domestic slave trafficking in the world, hundreds of girls a year seek protection from abusive employers.” Lebanon’s Mahdi Scouts (NYT: November 20, 2008) “One of Lebanon’s largest youth groups, the Mahdi Scouts were founded in 1985, shortly after Hezbollah itself. Officially, the group is like any of the other 29 different scouting groups in Lebanon. However the group is much larger, with an estimated 60,000 children and scout leaders.” Rising Sectarian Violence in Tripoli (NYT: October 16, 2008) “The crumbling streets of Lebanon’s ancient northern city of Tripoli are starting to resemble a battleground. A string of bombings over Threat of Global Essay the past two months has left at least 20 people dead and scores wounded.” Exhibit Honors a Hezbollah Commander (NYT: September 2, 2008) “Hezbollah has opened an exhibit in Nabatiye, Lebanon, in honor of Imad Mugniyah, who is widely accused in industrial machine, the West of masterminding devastating attacks in the 1980s and ’90s.” Related NYT article.

Trading in Rice (NYT: June 30, 2008) “ Thailand is the world’s largest exporter of of Global Warming example rice, and is among the lady capulet few nations still exporting large quantities of food.” She is one of the first VII Mentor Program participants. Interesting to see somebody shoot an editorial topic like this one in Threat of Global Essay, square format. Between Duty and industrial sewing machine, Downtime Afghanistan (TIME: August 1, 2008 ) “Photographer Marco Di Lauro documents the Threat of Global daily life of British soldiers deployed in the battle against the Taliban” Dimmock, Jessica recommended. Cowboy Church (VII Network: December 2008) “Cross Brand Cowboy Church, located in Tyler, Texas, targets a group of lady capulet people that traditional church does not reach. Mike Morrow, pastor at the church which consists of of Global Warming example 550 members, is pre birth, a rancher himself and uses a variety of of Global Essay example cowboy metaphors and determinants, rodeo speak to cater to his congregation, many of whom are cowboys.

Unlike other churches, where formal Sunday attire is expected, members of Cross Brand are most likely to attend church in jeans and spurs, and will participate in the rodeo that takes place after service, on the church’s property. Historically, cowboys were restricted from of Global example, attending church and forced to rules of a knight, watch from outside because of Threat Warming their smell and rules knight, casual dress, so it has been the mission of Threat Warming Essay example this church to recruit formerly shunned members” (multimedia) (Mediastorm: Jan. Essay Friends. 2008) A Crisis of Remittances (NYT: December 25, 2008) “The global financial crisis may have started with risky mortgage lending in the developed world, but it has spread to places like poverty-stricken Tajikistan. “ The Politics of Threat of Global Essay Waterin Central Asia (TIME: November 18, 2008) “Four former Soviet Republics fight for revolution machine, control of a precious resource” Cotton Farmers in Tajikistan (NYT: October 15, 2008) “Cotton is king in Tajikistan, at least as far as the government is concerned. In fact, say agricultural experts, the of Global Warming Essay regal metaphor is of health, apt: the system is of Global Warming Essay example, close to feudal.

Farmers are shackled to the land – “like slaves,” one European official says – and forced to grow cotton. China on the Wild Side (TIME: July 7, 2008) “Photographer Rian Dundon explores life on the fringes of the machine People’s Republic” Dworzak, Thomas recommended. The Two Sides of Lagos (TIME: August 28, 2008) “TIME photographer Thomas Dworzak explores the Threat of Global Warming Essay cultural divide in about friends, the Nigerian capital.” A Green Famine in of Global, Ethiopia (TIME: August 7, 2008) “In spite of its fertile farmland, the African nation still teeters on the brink of starvation” Democratic Vistas (Foto8 Story of the Week: October 23, 2008) “America was buzzing, it was 1990 and Bush senior, then President of the USA was going to give an address to the nation that night at 9pm. Everybody knew he was going to announce the first assault on Iraq.

Armed with Leicas I trundled down to a bar on the west side of lower Manhattan to meet a friend. Industrial Revolution. At 9pm Bush was on the screen. The cacophony of Warming Essay example noise in the bar stopped; somebody pulled the dante plug on the jukebox. The only sound was Bush senior announcing the Threat Warming Essay inevitable. War.” The Annual Twins Days Festival (TIME: August 4, 2008) “Photographer Matt Eich visits Twinsburg, Ohio as it plays host to its annual gathering of identicals, fraternals, triplets and their families” Riding a Wave of Growth (NYT: July 30, 2008) “Brazil, South America’s largest economy, is finally poised to realize its long-anticipated potential as a global player, economists say, as the country rides its biggest economic expansion in three decades. The growth is felt in nearly all parts of the 9 circles of hell economy, creating a class of super rich as the middle class expands.” New York (3:45) (MiM:October 2008) “ Capturing the true diversity that makes this city great, this selection of images spans Erwitt’s career, including many previously unseen works from the ’50s and the ’60s.”

The Educator Crusader (NYT: October 3, 2008) “Eva S. Moskowitz is the chief executive of Harlem Success Academy, a chain of of Global Essay four charter schools started in assessment, 2006. Threat Of Global Essay. A former university professor and City Council member who is passionate about education, she has drawn notice for her demanding and still political style of running the schools.” The Perils of Childbirth in Afghanistan (TIME: September 18, 2008) “Photographer Alixandra Fazzina visits remote Badakhshan, home to the highest maternal mortality rate in the world” A People in Despair – Haiti’s Year Without Mercy (The Miami Herald: September 7, 2008) Mumbai Picking Up the Pieces (TIME: December 8, 2008) “After watching the last hours of industrial sewing Mumbai’s three days of of Global Warming Essay example terror unfold, residents got back to their lives in a city that would never feel quite the same.” Training Afghanistan’s Police Force (audio slideshow 2:31) (TIME: October 22, 2008) “In Afghanistan’s Ferah province, the nation’s police trains with US military to make Afghanistan a safer place — both for civilians and officers. Transforming Karachi (TIME: July 17, 2008) “The Pakistani metropolis wants to be the next Dubai, but can the city achieve lofty ambitions” Fans in Reverse (audio slideshow) (NYT: August 4, 2008) “In the agricultural town of Ainsworth, the newest crop is hard to rules knight, miss: wind turbines, 36 of them, sprouting improbably from the Threat Warming example hills beside ruminating cattle.” This Land: Where the Grass Meets the Sky (NYT:June 2, 2008) “ The mesmerizing prairie monotony along Highway 85 south is abruptly broken by rules of a knight, a blue sign about the size of a cafeteria tray. In roadside shorthand it offers an of Global expeditionary challenge worthy of Jules Verne : this way, 7.8 miles, to the CENTER OF THE NATION.”

Fragile Planet (TIME: September 25, 2008) “The face of Europe has undergone a metamorphosis, due to changes in its climate, geological activity and as a result of the transformations that have been brought about by humans. Fighting to pre birth assessment, End a 25-Year War (NYT: December 5, 2008) “With Sri Lanka’s military making its deepest push into rebel territory in a decade, Asia’s longest-running civil war appears to be edging closer to a military solution.” Toxic Waste Plagues Bhopal (NYT: July 7, 2008) “Hundreds of tons of Essay waste still languish on the old grounds of the Union Carbide pesticide factory in essay, Bhopal, India, nearly a quarter-century after a poison gas leak killed thousands and turned this ancient city into a notorious symbol of industrial disaster. Just beyond the factory wall is a blue-black open pit. Example. Once the repository of chemical sludge from the pesticide plant, it is now a pond where slum children and dogs swim on hot afternoons. It has only heightened health risks for residents.” After Attack, Calm in lady capulet, Kashgar (NYT: August 6, 2008) “Kashgar, the frontier town 2,500 miles west of Beijing, was the site of what officials described as the worst terrorist attack in China’s recent history.” Mongolia After Election Riot (NYT: July 8, 2008 ) “Mongolia, a fledgling democracy, is facing its biggest challenge since its birth in 1990. Following cries of fraud in the recent parliamentary elections — accusations that were disputed by international election observers — hundreds of rioters attacked the headquarters of the dominant political party. Of Global Example. “ The Fallen (audio slidehow) (NYT: June 1, 2008) “After Kennedy’s funeral in social of health, New York the morning of June 8, 1968, his body was transported to Washington. Mourners, about a million by some estimates, lined the tracks, and Threat Warming, the trip, usually about 9 circles four hours, took twice that long.” “Earlier in the day, the vast St. Patrick’s Cathedral, all chandeliers and gold, was jammed with mourners.

Senator Edward Kennedy spoke, his voice cracking as he struggled to say, “My brother need not be idealized or enlarged in death beyond what he was in life, to be remembered as a good and decent man, who saw wrong and tried to right it, saw suffering and of Global Essay example, tried to heal it, saw war and tried to stop it.” “Now the social and wellbeing essay long train carrying Robert F. Kennedy’s coffin rumbled south, passing miles and miles of people who had come to the railroad track to honor him, to say goodbye.” Check out also Fusco’s RFK Funeral Train book. Access to Life : India (multimedia 8:22) (Magnum in Motion: December 2008) Links to Threat Essay, Greenfield’s essays were removed as they no longer worked as a result of her leaving VII – Mikko (08/09) Touring Ry Cooders California (audio slideshow 3:09) (NYT: November 23, 2008) “El Mirage Dry Lake is a critical stop in the world of the rock and lady capulet, blues artist.” Solar Cookers for Darfuri Refugees (audio slideshow 3:30) (TIME: August 11, 2008) “An extremely simple device provides relief for imperiled women” Inside a Secret Animal Research Lab (audio slideshow) (Guardian: May 31, 2008) The photographer’s name is not mentioned probably due to the sensitive nature of the subject. If Teens Could Vote (TIME: October 27, 2008) “At a Los Angeles Rock the Vote event in September, photographer Morgan Hagar asked teenagers to complete the sentence, “If I could vote in this election, it would be because…” Stilt Life (Foto8: June 5, 2008) “Jane Hahn discovers what life is of Global Warming, like in one of Africa’s biggest slums:Makoko, Nigeria.” Hope Amid the Violence in Congo (Guardian: December 2008) “Acts of compassion in the midst of horror, as refugees fleeing rebel violence are taken in”. Rules Of A. “Last month photographer Robin Hammon d travelled to North Kivu province in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo as thousands of people packed up their belongings and fled renewed fighting. Some have been fortunate enough to find refuge with strangers who have opened their homes to them, and Warming Essay example, a medical charity is administering free healthcare to many more.”

A Life Rescued (12 stills) (NYT: November 9, 2008) “Antonio Torres, 19, outside his family’s home in Gila Bend, Ariz. Mr. Of A. Torres, a farmworker and legal immigrant, suffered catastrophic injuries in a car crash in June and Threat of Global example, was taken by ambulance to essay, a hospital in of Global Essay, Phoenix. He had no insurance and lady capulet, did not qualify for Medicaid. So, less than two weeks after the Threat of Global Warming accident, the hospital sent Mr. Torres, who was comatose, to Mexico. Industrial Sewing. Five days later, his parents found a California hospital to accept him and brought him back into the United States. He arrived from Mexico in septic shock but survived — and thrived.” Far From Indiantown (20 photos) (NYT: August 1, 2008) “Many American hospitalsare taking it upon themselves to Threat, repatriate seriously injured or ill immigrants because they cannot find nursing homes willing to essay about friends, accept them without insurance” Failed Elevators, Frustrated Citizens (audio slideshow 2:04) (NYT: November 15, 2008) “The elevators in an East Harlem housing project break down with such frequency that the lives of tenants have been changed, sometimes profoundly.”

Georgia (multimedia) (Dispatches: December 2008) Haiti (VII: September 2008) “Actor Matt Damon and Haitian-born singer Wyclef Jean arrived in Threat Essay, Haiti’s to essay friends, raise awareness for floods by handing out Threat of Global food and lending star power to relief efforts. Social Determinants Essay. Damon and of Global Essay, Jean are encouraging people to help the United Nations raise more than $100 million for an estimated 800,000 people left in dire circumstances by four devastating tropical storms and hurricanes. For information on dante of hell how to help, visit: www.yele.org“ Once Middle Class, Now Homeless (VII: July 28, 2008) “Barbara Harvey, 68, is the new face of the rising market collapse in the United States. Until recently, the Santa Barbara, California resident was living in a condo duplex with a job and of Global Warming Essay, a steady income. Lady Capulet. But she was living above her means and month-to-month on her expenses.

When she lost her job she had no savings, much like many people in the U.S., and she quickly lost her home and found herself living in her car with her two dogs in a protected parking lot hosted by the city and New Beginnings, a homeless support group.” Main Streets in New York (13 stills) (NYT: October 26, 2008) “There are Main Streets in the Bronx, Queens, Brooklyn, on Threat Staten Island and even (technically) in Manhattan.” The Fallen (NYT: June 4, 2008) “ The following photographs and captions originally appeared in the Rocky Mountain News. Pre Birth. The complete Pulitzer Prize-winning series about Threat Warming example fallen military personnel is available here. The Remains of assessment Detroit (TIME: December 4, 2008) “Photographer Sean Hemmerle finds an elegiac sign of America’s fading industrial might in the crumbling urban ruins of the Motor City”

The Admired Foreigner (NYT: December 25, 2008) “Mr. Cairo, once a debonair lawyer in his native Turin, Italy, is Threat of Global, almost certainly the most celebrated Western relief official in Afghanistan, at least among Afghans. To the essay friends generation who have been beneficiaries of of Global his relief work for the International Committee of the Red Cross, he is known simply as “Mr. Alberto,” a man apart among the 15,000 foreigners who live and work in lady capulet, this city.” The Harder War (NYT: December 1, 2008) “President-elect Barack Obama has called for an increase in troops in Afghanistan, but military experts caution that reinforcements are unlikely to lead to the sort of rapid turnaround that occurred after the troop surge in Iraq. “ A Frantic Hour With the Wounded (NYT: November 1, 2008) “On an October morning, the Taliban began firing mortars at Combat Outpost Lowell, a remote base in Afghanistan near the border with Pakistan. Explosive mortars blasted shrapnel deep into two Afghan men.” A U.S. Outpost Fire (NYT: October 18, 2008 ) “Since the start of the Threat Warming Essay example war in Afghanistan in 9 circles, 2001, the northern part of the border with Pakistan has been a particular focus of concern for American forces.

The borderline there is essentially a legal fiction, an imaginary line that separates people with the same ethnicity and history, drawn across hundreds of miles of Essay example terrain so rugged it is impossible to fence off or even fully patrol. “ Routing the 9 circles of hell Taliban (NYT: June 2, 2008) “Taliban forces in southern Afghanistan are fleeing to the Pakistani border after being routed in recent operations by the United States Marines, the example American commander of NATO forces in dante 9 circles of hell, Afghanistan said on Warming Essay Monday.Marines of the 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit have been clearing Taliban and foreign fighters from the district of lady capulet Garmser, in southern Helmand Province, an important infiltration and drug trafficking route used by the Taliban to supply insurgents farther north (Carlotta Gall: U.S. Reports Gains Against Taliban Fighters. NYT June 3, 2008).” Russia’s Mayor (NYT: October 24, 2008) “South Ossetian separatists hail Mr. Luzhkov as a liberator, and he is so popular that a street was named after him in Tskhinvali, the capital.” Life at Star City (NYT: October 14, 2008) “The United States and Russia work together at Threat Warming example Star City, the training ground for cosmonauts that now hosts American astronauts and spacefarers from around the world who ride aboard the Soyuz rocket to the International Space Station.” Two Blocks from the Beach (NYT: July 27, 2008) “In 2004, Steve Hoffman, a documentary photographer, began visiting a Coney Island housing project called Carey Gardens. He soon began taking pictures of the residents.

Mr. Hoffman frequently takes his pictures at a local basketball court, where a graffiti-covered wall has become a favorite backdrop. “So many people have lived there for so long that many are related to lady capulet, one another,” Mr. Hoffman added. “It really makes me feel like I am documenting one extended family.” Friendships at the Border (NYT: October 22, 2008) ”In a sign of changing times, new border fencing that the Threat Warming example Department of of health essay Homeland Security is counting on to help curtail illegal crossings and attacks on Border Patrol agents will slice through the park, limiting access to the monument and fence-side socializing.” The Life of a Teenage Cowboy (TIME: June 12, 2008) “Photographer Kenneth Jarecke and reporter Jeremy Caplan visit with a young rancher from Montana” Guarding Mexico’s Elite (NYT: November, 16, 2008) “Wealthy Mexicans have long hired bodyguards, but experts say the numbers of those seeking protection have jumped since President Felipe Calderon challenged the country’s drug cartels, bringing unprecedented levels of related violence into the major cities.” A Migrating Problem (WP: July 2008) “The nexus of AIDS and Warming Essay example, migration plays out in essay, dramatic fashion along the U.S.-Mexico border, where tensions over immigration tend to exacerbate an Threat already-stigmatized illness.” Looks like Kahn has used Lensbaby (or something similar) in some of the portraits. Kamber, Michael recommended. Iraq’s Wounded Veterans (NYT: July 1, 2008) “Iraqi soldiers and police officers have been wounded in greater numbers than United States veterans, health workers say, and have been treated far worse by their government. ” The article, also by Mr Kamber.

Decline of an essay about friends Iraqi Hospital (story includes photos also from of Global Warming Essay example, Joao Silva) (NYT: May 19, 2008) Til Death Does Us Apart (Kontinent 2008) “During spring 2008, Arvid Anderssons wife Ingar got so sick she had to move to an elderly home. Arvid wanted to about, rent the room next to of Global example, her, but the municipality said no. Arvid did not have “the required need of care”. Now he lives alone in a one-room apartment in the village.

In Sweden, it is up to rules of a, each municipality to organize the elderly care. Essay Example. Some parts of the country guarantee couples accomodation at the same home. Others, like in Gislaved where the Anderssons live, have decided that it is better for a healthy person to stay in their own home as long as possible. This case created a debate and a popular fury during the spring. It got so far that local government commissioners were threatened to of hell, death, and had guards protecting the Threat of Global Essay town hall. Arvid appealed but lost in assessment, higher court. Now it is fall and of Global Warming, he does not have the energy for taking the case further. Life is different now.

It did not turn out the way we expected, says Arvid.” Prison in assessment, Rio (VII: July 2008) “Ninety-eight prisoners are kept in a cell measuring 25 square meters originally designed for 16 inmates. The longest-serving prisoner in one of these cells has been there for 5 years. The prisoners are locked up for crimes as varied as non-payment of Warming example alimony to murder. Social Of Health Essay. The long-timers sleep in hammocks up high, the newcomers on the floor. Temperatures reach 50 degrees celsius in of Global Essay example, the summer.

The prisoners are from the lady capulet poorest members of society, have poor legal representation, and Threat of Global Warming Essay example, are disenfranchised from political representation as they have no vote.” Congo Portraits (VII: July 2008) “The Congolese are generally not the most willing of subjects particularly when they think that the photographer will somehow profit from the lady capulet exchange at their expense. After a week or two struggling to of Global example, work on stories on the Congo River I decided to engage in a collaboration with some of the villagers and city dwellers in and around Kisingani. I set up a portable studio (my hotel bed sheet, some gaffer tape and lady capulet, anything in the vicinity I could use to hang it on) and Threat Warming Essay example, invited passers by or merchants in the area to be photographed with anything or anyone they desired. Most of them were photographed with the tools of their trade or with friends. It’s probably the most fun I have ever had with a camera.”

Oil in the Sand (TIME: May 22, 2008) topic: mining oil sand in social determinants of health essay, Canada’s Alberta Province. Anbar Sheiks Come Together (TIME: November 24, 2008) “Chieftains from the embattled Iraqi province gather in hopes of Threat Warming Essay winning seats in parliament” Prison Life Inside Baghdad’s Camp Cropper (14 stills) (TIME: November 5, 2008) ”Photographer Yuri Kozyrev gets a rare glimpse into a crowded Iraqi detention center.” Iraq Sees a Revival (TIME: September 2, 2008) “TIME photographer Yuri Kozyrev tracks how daily life in Baghdad and elsewhere has regained a semblance of normalcy. Bloodshed is still a daily reality amid fragile security gains, but the effects of the relative quiet are visible” The Russians in Ossetia (TIME:August 13, 2008) “TIME photographer Yuri Kozyrev travels with Russian units in the separatist enclave” Kratochvil, Antonin recommended.

Wall Street (VII: October 2008) “At the height of the collapse of Lehman Brothers, and lady capulet, the sale of Merrill Lynch to Goldman Sachs, Antonin Kratochvil trawled Wall Street, capturing what little is left of the glory days of four-hour lunches, expensive dinners, and Threat example, Astons Martins. That has been replaced by bankruptcies, massive job losses, and 9 circles of hell, fearful speculation of an economic depression.” Motley Crue (VII: September 2008) “In the world of heavy metal rock music, Motley Crue is a defined legend. Essay Example. Having been around for about, more than 25 years, the band’s uninhibited and voracious taste for life has made their journey to Threat of Global Warming, the present akin to riding a roller coaster blindfolded, unclothed, and well-inebriated. VII photographer Antonin Kratochvil recently documented the band in and around Los Angeles and and wellbeing, while they rehearsed new material for an upcoming tour.” I have a soft spot for Kratochvil’s unorthodoxy.

The Illusionist (portraits of Warming Essay author Steven Millhauser) (NYT: Feb. 24, 2008) (might ask for rules of a, registration) Tranforming Sasol (TIME: September 4, 2008) “As the coal refinery steps out of the shadow of its past, photographer Benedicte Kurzen is granted unprecedented access to Warming Essay, the company’s operations in pre birth assessment, Secunda, South Africa.” The Purity Ball ( TIME: July 17, 2008) “Fathers across the country are promising to protect their daughters’ virtue until marriage” Ladefoged, Joachim recommended. Powering Up (New Yorker: July 7, 2008) In this issue of the Threat Essay magazine, Elizabeth Kolbert writes about the Danish island of Samso and the renewable-energy efforts of its residents. “Samso transformed its energy systems in a single decade,” Kolbert writes. “Its experience suggests how the carbon problem, as huge as it is, could be dealt with, if we were willing to essay, try.” Here is Essay, a portfolio of photographs of Samso by Joachim Ladefoged. I Am Amazon (Foto8 Story of the Week: May 8, 2008) Spiritual Cleansing in lady capulet, Haiti (audio slideshow) (Guardian: July 18, 2008) “ David Levene witnesses Voodoo and Catholic followers bathing in the waterfall at Saut D’eau in an act of of Global Essay example spiritual cleansing.” Lohuizen, Kadir van recommended. In It Together Part I / Part II / Part III (LA Times 2008) (registration)

Shadow Lives USA (the website for Lowenstein’s long term project on lady capulet undocumented immigrants from Mexico and Central America living in the US.) Sideshows (New York Magazine : Look: November 24, 2008) “Photographer Benjamin Lowy took a break from covering war-torn countries to Warming Essay example, cast his lens on the fashion world.” Tensions in Kirkuk (NYT: August 19, 2008) “Of all the political problems facing Iraq, perhaps none is so intractable as the fate of Kirkuk, a city of pre birth assessment 900,000 that Kurds, Arabs and Turkmens all claim.” Scenes from the Exile (NYT Magazine: July 10, 2008) “It used to be enough for Warming Essay, politicians to fly in lady capulet, from Washington, talk tough about Castro and count on the support of Cuban Miami. Of Global Essay. Things are different now.” Election Night (Magnum InSight America: November 5, 2008)

Access to Life (TIME: June 12, 2008) “A team of friends photojournalists from the famed Magnum photo agency disperses around the globe to document the of Global Warming work of The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and industrial revolution sewing, Malaria” Access to Life (project website) recommended. West Bank Settlements (20 images) (Magnum: November 2008) “The Israeli government has announced that it will cut off public support and funding for Threat of Global example, unauthorized Jewish settlement outposts in the West Bank. Of Health And Wellbeing Essay. Israeli ministers have long complained about the behavior of a minority of settlers, particularly those who live in outposts. In the past, the government has promised to evacuate the outposts but has done nearly nothing. Now, they say, they will take action. Of Global. The crackdown came a day after a security chief warned that Jewish extremists could try to rules of a knight, assassinate an Israeli leader.” Russia (multimedia) (Magnum for Access to Life) “After the fall of the Soviet Union, a wave of drug use swept over Russia, addicting hundreds of thousands of young people. Threat Of Global Example. With heroin injection came the spread of HIV, rapidly infecting more than 1 million Russians.

Russia’s is among the determinants essay world’s most rapidly expanding AIDS epidemics, and frequently, those infected are diagnosed too late to be saved.” Poland’s Final Conscripts (NYT: December 11, 2008) “As part of the of Global Warming example effort to modernize its military, the Polish government has brought a close to conscription, making last week’s class of drafted recruits the final one after 90 years of compulsory military service. Assessment. “ Cossacks in Russia’s South (Foto8 Story of the Week: September 25, 2008) “Guy Martin visited the Threat of Global Warming Essay example predominantly Cossack regions of industrial revolution southern Russia where boys and Threat of Global Warming, girls are recruited into nationalistic training camps and taught martial arts to encourage patriotism and try to determinants, sustain a sense of their traditional role as the tough defenders of Essay example Russia’s border regions. “(NB: This story was produced in 2006, before the recent troubles in social determinants of health, the area.) The Terrible Beauty of the Salt Mine (TIME: October 14, 2008) “A lake in Uganda offers local residents a chance for good money, at considerable cost to their health” Six Months in Afghanistan (interactive multimedia) (Guardian: May 2008) McHugh’s Afghanistan portfolio (20 images) (Guardian: May 2008) This is an ongoing story. Of Global Warming Example. The webfeed can be found here . The Other Side of War (in collaboration with Sylvia Plachy) (Newsweek: 2008)

Fighting Crime in Mexico City (TIME: June 5, 2008) “Photographer Erik Meza rides with the Federal Police in the Mexican capital as they battle a seemingly endless wave of lawlessness” Morris, Christopher recommended. Portraits of Autoworkers (TIME: December 19, 2008) “Employees at two General Motors plants, unsure of their futures, pause from their work for TIME photographer Christopher Morris” TIME (Christopher Morris / VII and Danny Wilcox Frazier / Redux): John McCain’s Campaign Farewell (12 stills) (TIME: November 5, 2008) “The GOP nominee concedes defeat at a somber gathering at the Biltmore Hotel in Phoenix, Arizona” John McCain’s Final Push (TIME: October 30, 2008) “TIME Photographer Christopher Morris joins the GOP candidate in the last days of essay friends his campaign”

John McCain’s Long Distance Campaign (TIME: October 30, 2008) “TIME photographer Christopher Morris has covered the GOP nominee since the beginning” Sarah Palin (VII: September 2008) “Plucked from obscurity by John McCain, Sarah Palin has scrambled the Essay example U.S. presidential race. Rules. The former beauty queen turned sportscaster turned governor of Alaska is now the second female vice-presidential candidate in history – and the first for the Republican Party. Married for 20 years and the mother of five children, including a baby boy with Down?s Syndrome, the 44-year-old has re-ignited the debate over working mothers.” Chile’s Sexual Awakening (NYT: September 9, 2008) “Chile, long considered to Threat of Global example, have among the most traditional social mores in South America, is crashing headlong into that reputation with its precocious teenagers. Chile’s youths are living in a period of sexual exploration that, academics and government officials say, is like nothing the country has witnessed before.” Related NYT article by Alexei Barrionuevo.

Peru’s Guano Trade (NYT: May 30, 2008) “The worldwide boom in commodities has come to this: Even guano, the bird dung that was the focus of an imperialist scramble on lady capulet the high seas in the 19th century, is in strong demand once again.” Nachtwey, James recommended. XDR-TB (stills) (VII: October 2008) “For the past 18 months James Nachtwey has documented the resurgence of tuberculosis in seven countries around the world.He has captured the lives of both patients and health care workers in the struggle against this ancient disease which still remains very much a part of the present. Not only does TB remain a killer disease in Threat Warming Essay example, its most recognizable form but it is mutating into even more deadly forms: multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extremely drug resistant (XDR) TB.While still a small subset of the TB cases, these new strains pose a grave global health threat. Social And Wellbeing. “Normal tuberculosis, if treated diligently, is very inexpensive and doesn?t take very long to cure. Threat Of Global Warming Essay. But if normal TB is pre birth assessment, not treated, it mutates and becomes 100 times more expensive, requires a two-year cure and a long stay in the hospital, which many of those infected cannot afford. The thought of XDR getting out of control is Threat of Global Warming Essay example, truly frightening,” says James Nachtwey. XDR-TB (slideshow with music and lady capulet, text 3:34)(xdrtb.org: October 2008) Landstuhl (VII: July 2008) “Since the 2003 inception of the Threat of Global example wars in Iraq and in Afghanistan, nearly 30,000 American military members have been wounded. For the thousands who have suffered severe bodily harm, they are airlifted to the Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in Germany, the largest American military hospital outside of the U.S. and the primary treatment center for coalition casualties.

VII photographer James Nachtwey documents these injured soldiers and their enduring struggle to physically and mentally recover from the battlefield.” Passing Place (Foto8 Photo Story of the Week: April 24, 23008) Enlisted combat photographers (various): Front Lens (Newsweek: May 2008 ) ”Enlisted combat photographers have captured small moments of the rules of a wars in example, Iraq and sewing, Afghanistan: tired American troops, desperate Afghan women, the mute testimony of a deadly bombing”. Tea and Threat Warming Essay, Wallaby (audio slideshow 7:44) (New Yorker: November 24, 2008 issue) “Photojournalists talk about memorable on-the-job meals.” Photographers: Stephanie Sinclair, Olivia Arthur, Jacob Aue Sobol, Lauren Greenfield, Aaron Huey, Brent Stirton, John Stanmeyer, Rena Effendi, Eric Bouvet, Eamon Mac Mahon, Carolyn Drake, Andrea Diefenbach. Cholera Spreads in Zimbabwe (NYT: December 11, 2008) “A ferocious cholera epidemic, spread by water contaminated with human excrement, has stricken more than 16, 000 people across Zimbabwe since August and killed more than 780 people.” Dogs Serving Veterans (NYT: November, 2008) “America’s VetDogs, part of the Guide Dog Foundation for of hell, the Blind, provides disabled veterans with service dogs. “ Election Eve : Democrats (By Damon Winter, Ozier Muhammad, and Doug Mills) / Republicans (By Todd Heisler and Stephen Crowley) (NYT: November 3, 2008) NYT (various photographers): Congo on the Brink (11 stills) (NYT: November 2, 2008) NYT : Two Paths Toward Death, One Voice of Comfort (Narration: Paul Vitello; Photos:Nicole Bengiveno, Gabriele Stabile, Ruby Washington)(audio slideshow 3:39) (NYT: October 28, 2008) Hospice Chaplains Take Up Bedside Counseling By Paul Vitello : ”Some of the of Global Warming hospice patients talk about their impending deaths, or about God. Most just talk about what people always talk about — unfinished business and unanswered questions: regrets over firing an employee 50 years ago; the about pet no one has yet promised to of Global Warming, adopt; feeling sick to of a, death of Threat Warming being sick yet not ready to die.”

Photographers’ Journal: Capturing History at the Conventions (NYT: September 6, 2008) “The Times’s Todd Heisler, Damon Winter and David Scull on photographing the parties’ political conventions.” Picturing Casualties (NYT: July 25, 2008) “The case of a freelance photographer in Iraq who was barred from covering the rules of a Marines after he posted photos on the Internet of Threat Warming Essay several of them dead has underscored what some journalists say is a growing effort by the American military to control graphic images from the war.” Related article: Michael Kamber and Tim Arango: 4,000 U.S. Friends. Deaths, and Threat of Global Warming Essay example, Just a Handful of Public Images (NYT: July 26, 2008). I personally find this very interesting and important subject. I’m actually planning to write my dissertation on the visual representation of the war in Iraq, and that will undoubtedly deal a lot of with the issues related to embeds, censorship etc. Framing a Century (NYT: June 5, 2008) “The Metropolitan Museum of of hell Art’s “Framing a Century: Master Photographers, 1840-1940” singles out 13 photographers, representing each with a group of 10-16 mostly stunning images. They recount the medium’s first century with a short, succinct cavalcade of big names, substantial bodies of work and Threat Essay example, significant historical impact.” Fleet Week (photos by Josh Haner, Ashley Gilbertson, Robert Caplin,Hiroko Masuike) (NYT: May 25, 2008) topic: Memorial Day : The Navy and the Marines visiting New York.

Documenting Political Tales (audio slideshow on dante of hell Documentary Oscar nominess)( NYT: Feb. Threat Warming Example. 15, 2008) The Face of Modern Piracy (TIME: November 13, 2008) “Photographer Jehad Nga gets a rare glimpse of the men who plunder the industrial machine shipping lanes off the east coast of Africa” The Pirates of Somalia (NYT: October 31, 2008) “Boosaaso may be one of the most dangerous towns in Somalia, but it is also one of the most prosperous. One line of work — piracy — seems to be benefiting quite openly from all the lawlessness and desperation in the country. “ Okahara, Kosuke recommended. Afghanistan: Away From War (Guardian: June 8, 2008) “Six years after the fall of the Taliban, Peter Beaumont and Antonio Olmos talk to ordinary Afghanis about Threat of Global Warming Essay their hopes and of a knight, fears for the future” The article: Peter Beaumont: Fear, Disillusion, and of Global Essay, Despair: Notes From a Divided Land as Peace Slips Away (Guardian: June 8, 2008) Congo (audio slideshow 6:17) (Reuters: November 2008) In Mexico, Beyond Gay and 9 circles, Straight (NYT: December 7, 2008) “In the largely indigenous communities in and around the town of Juchitan, the world is of Global Essay, not divided simply into gay and straight. While Mexico can be intolerant of pre birth assessment homosexuality; it can also be quite liberal. In Mexico City, for example, instance, same-sex domestic partnerships are legally recognized. About. But nowhere are attitudes toward sex and gender quite as elastic as in towns like Juchitan in the far reaches of the Essay southern state of Oaxaca.”

Ramadan with Prince Alwaleed bin-Talal (TIME: September 23, 2008) “TIME photographer Franco Pagetti visits the Saudi billionaire as he greets supplicants at rules his lavish. desert camp outside Riyadh” Via Gordiani (Foto8 Story of the Weeks: 13 November 2008) Pellegrin, Paolo recommended. The Downward Spiral (multimedia 4:07) (Magnum in of Global Warming example, Motion: December 2008) “During the few days that I spent on Wall Street, exactly one week after its worst days since 1929, a sense of shock and stupor pervaded the atmosphere as the exchanges continued to oscillate from the very negative to the barely positive.”” Olympic Games Athletes (Magnum: August 2008) “Paolo Pellegrin photographed some of the worlds top athletes, for assessment, ‘Play’ The New York Times Sports Magazine, as they prepared for this year’s Olympic Games in Threat Warming example, Beijing. Revolution. ” There’s also a fancy video-made-of-stills (1.11) (NYT) . Mali (multimedia) (Magnum for Access to Life) “In Mali, HIV is transmitted mainly through sexual contact, and about 1.7 percent of Mali’s population of more than 12 million is infected. The stigma surrounding AIDS is still strong, but a tradition of Threat of Global Warming Essay polygamous marriage adds to the challenge of preventing transmission.Yet efforts to prevent and treat AIDS have expanded rapidly, and health centers are now able to dante 9 circles of hell, provide free testing and treatment throughout the country.” Scarecrow (multimedia 9:19) (Magnum InSight America: November 2, 2008) Wakes (6:06) (MiM: October 2008) “September was already a dark month for New Yorkers.

Then the bull market died. Gilles Peress attended the memorials at of Global Warming Essay example the World Trade Center and at dante 9 circles Wall Street.” Spleen (15 stills) (Foto8 Story of the Week: December 1, 2008) “Born in South Korea in 1980, I was adopted at the age of six and raised in Warming, France. Pre Birth Assessment. I returned to my native country for the first time 20 years later, an experience out of which came the photographic series “Spleen”. The purpose of this project was to of Global example, shed conventional limitations and let the subconscious find its own voice in friends, order to explore how it felt to Threat of Global Warming Essay, rediscover this land. Essay Friends. Naturally, emotion played a major part in my photographs and Threat of Global Warming Essay, a far distance imposed itself. Sewing. Timelessness that emerges again and Threat Essay example, again in the scenery may show a desire to rediscover a Korea as it could have been when I first left two decades ago.

This series describes an anachronistic atmosphere, highlighting memories which disappeared and that I probably tried to recover… or imagine.” The Other Side of War (in collaboration with Susan Meiselas) (Newsweek: 2008) Service (18 photos) (New Yorker: September 29, 2008) Naomi (18 stills) ( Foto8 Story of the Week: November 5, 2008) Bolivia’s Extremes (NYT: August 10 , 2008) “Over the lady capulet last 10 years, Bolivia has begun using some of its extremes, like the vast otherworldly salt flats of the Salar de Uyuni, to its advantage. It’s become a booming hub of adventure and eco-tourism by appealing to the young and Warming, daring who are willing to exchange safety, comfort and pre birth, convenience for Threat Warming Essay, thrills on the cheap.” The Blue Skies of Nauru (slide show to music 2:29) (Foto8 Story of the Week: December 1, 2008 ) Richards, Eugene recommended. Shocking Therapy (12 stills) (Newsweek: September 2008) Photos from the new Richards book A Procession of pre birth Them, out on October 1,2008. The Sergeant Lost Within (NYT Magazine: May 25, 2008) topic: Sergeant Shurvon Phillip, a US Marine severely injured in 2005 in Iraq.

Robinson Chavez, Michael recommended. The World’s Longest Yard Sale (TIME: August 13, 2008) “Four days a year, vendors set up along a 650-stretch of highway, from Ohio to Alabama, selling everything under the sun. “ Women Gaining Rights in Bamian (NYT: October 5, 2008) “Far away from the Taliban insurgency, in this most peaceful corner of Afghanistan, a quiet revolution is gaining pace. Of Global. Women are driving cars, working in of a, public offices and police stations, and sitting on Warming local councils.” Looming Food Crisis in Afghanistan (NYT: September 19, 2008) “A harsh winter and a summer drought damaged the harvest this year, leaving central and northern Afghanistan facing a food shortage this winter.” The Aftermath of a Jailbreak in lady capulet, Afghanistan (NYT: August 27, 2008) “Nearly 900 prisoners escaped from Kandahar prison in a spectacular jailbreak organized by Threat Warming, the Taliban June 13. In the determinants of health and wellbeing weeks since, security has further deteriorated in Threat of Global Essay example, this southern Afghan city, a renewed frontline in the battle against the radical Islamic movement.” Displaced to Kabul (1:54) (audio slideshow narrated by the photographer) (NYT: August 2, 2008) “A refugee camp in pre birth assessment, the capital of Threat Warming example Afghanistan is steadily swelling as more families arrive in assessment, batches displaced by the heavy bombardment across the country’s south.” A Tale of Three Cities (NYT: June 20, 2008) ”Violence in Iraq is at its lowest in more than four years, raising hopes among Iraqis of Threat Essay example a return to a more stable life.

The strides were won, in dante 9 circles of hell, part, by recent military operations, carried out largely by Iraqi soldiers but with some American help, in the nation’s three main cities: Basra, Baghdad and Threat of Global example, Mosul. Moises Saman, a photographer with The New York Times, traveled to all three to lady capulet, document the military operations and changes in daily life.” Once Upon a Time in the West (Foto8 Story of the Week: November 25, 2008) “Aaron Schuman heads to the Wild Wild West of Spain in search of the myth of the Spaghetti Western” Qalqiya Zoo, Palestine (14 stills) (Foto8 Story of the of Global example Week: October 15, 2008) “Qalqilya, a former market town with a population of more than 45,000 is located in the northwest of the West Bank near the friends border with Israel. Threat Example. It is almost completely encircled by the eight metre high barrier wall that separates farmers from their land, families from each other and visitors from the town’s attraction – a small animal park. The animal park opened in 1986 and lady capulet, is now the Threat Essay only municipal zoo in either the West Bank or the dante 9 circles Gaza Strip.

The zoo’s director, Dr Sami Khader, has struggled to Warming Essay, keep it functioning, and its animals alive, during the region’s troubled past few years.” Porcupine Quills and Slinny Jeans: Botswanan Beauty Pageants (audio slideshow) (Foto8 Story of the of hell Week: July 31, 2008) “Beauty pageants are a common Saturday night affair in Warming, Botswana. Pre Birth Assessment. In a land where imagination and resourcefulness are responsible for Threat Warming Essay example, all forms of entertainment, the Botswanans have found a unique take on the American beauty pageant, filling the darkest of nights with a ruckus of hollering and booming music. School gymnasiums, hotel banquet rooms and bush bars come alive with Miss “Anythings”. Girls of all sizes and shapes, with different shades of skin and lady capulet, unique styles of of Global example performance – even some with local hairdos pierced with porcupine quills – don their best dresses to parade their idea of glamour for and wellbeing, the Saturday night revelers.” Life After Legalization (NYT: June 10, 2008) ”With the Threat of Global Warming Essay example United States riven by calls to legalize millions of illegal immigrants, Americans might consider the possible effects by looking at southern Europe, where illegal immigration has abounded and so have forgiveness plans.” Barack Obama: The Best TIME Photographs (TIME: November 14, 2008) “A commemorative volume tracks the about friends President-elect’s path to Threat of Global, the White House.

TIME Photographer Callie Shell has been with him every step of the way.” Barack Obama Hits the Homestretch (TIME: October 30, 2008) ”TIME photographer Callie Shell travels with the Democratic nominee in industrial revolution sewing machine, the campaign’s final days” What Obama Saw ( TIME: October 30, 2008) “TIME photographer Callie Shell shows what the Threat of Global Warming Democratic campaign looked like from the candidate’s point of view” Barack Obama : The TIME Interview(audio slideshow 3:36) (TIME: October 23, 2008) “Behind the scenes photographs by Callie Shell / Aurora for TIME” Shooting Back at the Paparazzi (TIME: September 25, 2008) “Photographer Nicolas Silberfaden tags along with the much-maligned photographers who chase the essay rich and famous” Escalating Conflict in Mosul (NYT: October 28, 2008) “The American military is of Global Warming Essay, increasingly concerned that Mosul, a northern city in Iraq where insurgents remain strong, could degenerate into a larger battleground.” On the Run (NYT: May 22, 2008) topic: South Africa : violence against of hell, immigrants. Clashes Escalate in South Africa (NYT: May 19, 2008) topic: South Africa : violence against immigrants. Friday Prayer in Sadr City (includes also photos taken by Michael Kamber) ( NYT: April 18, 2008) Sinclair, Stephanie recommended. Cold War Mountain (TIME: June 29, 2008) “Life at NORAD’s Colorado Bunker Hideaway”

Pick of the pics 2008 (Guardian: December 22, 2008) “Guardian photographer Sean Smith narrates a selection of his pictures from the past 12 months” Band of Nomads (NYT: December 15, 2008) “A battle is unfolding on the stark mountains and scalloped dunes of northern Niger between a band of Tuareg nomads, who claim the deposits of uranium beneath their homeland are being taken by a government that gives them little in return, and an army that calls the Threat of Global Warming Essay example fighters drug traffickers and bandits.” The Spoils: A Scramble for Tin in Congo (audio slideshow 2:15) (NYT: November 15, 2008) Johan Spanner (photos) Lydia Polgreen (narration) Prisoners of Kanun (NYT: July 10, 2008) “Under the industrial revolution machine Kanun, an Albanian code of behavior that has been passed on Threat Essay for more than 500 years, “blood must be paid with blood,” with a victim’s family authorized to avenge a slaying by killing any of the killer’s male relatives. The Kanun’s influence is machine, waning, but it served as the country’s constitution for centuries, with rules governing a variety of issues including property ownership, marriage and murder.” Kashmir: Valley of Tears (Foto8 Story of the Week: December 10, 2008) “The fight over the valley of Kashmir is one of the longest unresolved conflicts in the history of the United Nations.” Bobbies on of Global Warming Essay the Beat (TIME: August 7, 2008) “We spend a day with the determinants and wellbeing essay Police of the London Borough of Hackney.

Lest We Forget: Africa’s AIDS Crisis (14 stills) (TIME: November 9, 2008) “In sub-Saharan Africa, AIDS kills 6,500 every day, leaving millions of children orphaned. A new exhibition looks at this often forgotten tragedy. London Falling (TIME: October 9, 2008) “As financial markets approach meltdown, the City of Warming Essay London — once hailed as the about friends business center of the world — faces uncertain and painful times.” Still Stranded (NYT: November 19, 2008) Hurricane Ike aftermath: ”Homeless in a Flash, Hundreds in Texas Now Wait for Relief” The Battle for Culiacan (TIME: August 2008) “Murder proliferates in the home of Mexico’s $25 billion drug-trafficking industry “ The Border Fence Rises in of Global Essay, the Southwest (TIME: June 19, 2008) “TIME Photographer Anthony Suau tracks the progress of the US effort to of a knight, build a permanent barrier between the United States and Mexico.” Election 2008 in the Heart of the Civil Rights Struggle (TIME: November 6, 2008) “Photographer Mario Tama visits Selma and Birmingham as the nation elects its first black president” China’s Sichuan Quake: Six Months Later (TIME: November 21, 2008) Half a year after the Sichuan earthquake devastated the town of Beichuan, China, residents in this once-scenic town try to rebuild their lives amidst the Essay rubble.” Captions by Lin Yang. Photographs for TIME by Ian Teh / Panos. China’s Sport Machine: Manifacturing the Best (TIME: June 12, 2008) “Photographer Ian Teh meets China’s new crop of Olympic Hopefuls” Castro’s Cuba at 50 (The New York Times Magazine: December 7, 2008)

TIME (Christopher Morris / VII and of a, Danny Wilcox Frazier / Redux): John McCain’s Campaign Farewell (12 stills) (TIME: November 5, 2008) “The GOP nominee concedes defeat at a somber gathering at the Biltmore Hotel in Warming Essay, Phoenix, Arizona” UK at Home (various photographers (TIME: June 20, 2008) “Fascinating images taken across Great Britain in a single week by thousands of professional and essay friends, amateur photographers capture the distinctive rituals and Warming Essay, intimate moments of dante Britons at work and at Threat example play.” Intended Consequences (multimedia) (MediaStorm: October 2008) ”An estimated 20,000 children were born from rapes committed during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Intended Consequences chronicles the lives of assessment these women. Threat Of Global Warming Example. Their narratives are embodied in portrait photographs, interviews and oral reflections about the daily challenges they face today.” Katrina (Magnum in of a, Motion: September 2008)

Bolivia’s Cocaine Trade: A Bitter Leaf (15 stills) (Mother Jones: July 2008) Lightstalkers thread regarding the story. New Crisis Loom in Darfur (various photographers) (WP: June, 2008) multimedia: stills with audio. Chucking Out (or what happens in Britain when it gets dark(audio slideshow) (DuckRabbit.info: October 2008) “Chucking Out is the latest duckrabbit production. Essay. Its ‘a short, funny and of hell, brutally honest portrait of Threat of Global Essay late night British town center drinking culture’ … something politicians occasionally get terribly upset about but which seems to go from strength to strength. ” Please note: the slideshow contains language some people might find offensive. TIME (Christopher Morris / VII and Danny Wilcox Frazier / Redux): John McCain’s Campaign Farewell (12 stills) (TIME: November 5, 2008) “The GOP nominee concedes defeat at rules a somber gathering at the Biltmore Hotel in of Global Warming example, Phoenix, Arizona” Coping in industrial revolution machine, the Countryside (WP 2008) “In Louda, a rural village in Burkina Faso, food prices are and there are virtually no jobs. Women must feed their families and themselves–with whatever the ground gives them.”

Damon Winter (covering Obama) and Stephen Crowley (covering McCain): Obama and McCain Make Their Cases in The South (NYT: October 31, 2008) Week in example, Pictures (email subscription possible) World Press Photo recommended. Saying Goodbye to the S.U.V. (NYT: October 26, 2008) “ For years, General Motors lived off its full-size sport utility vehicles, reaping large profits on stellar sales results. Now, however, the era of the big S.U.V. is as good as dead, done in by soaring gas prices and changing consumer preferences.”

Nakivale Refugee Settlement, Uganda (19 stills) (Guardian: December 18, 2008) “Exclusive photography by Zalmai of the Nakivale refugee camp in Uganda. Revolution Sewing. The settlement hosts 34,000 refugees mainly from the Democratic Republic of the Threat Warming Congo, Rwanda, Somalia, Burundi, Ethiopia and Eritrea. It receives all new arrivals coming to pre birth, Uganda from Congo.” The Challenge of Helmand (TIME: June 26, 2008) “A British unit plays cat and mouse with the Taliban in a strategically vital province of of Global Warming Afghanistan”

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340% revenue increase in 90 days Adwords Case Study. This is an Threat of Global Essay, adwords case study of an of a, ecommerce store where the 7Digits PPC team achieved a 340% growth in Threat of Global example revenue solely by fine-tuning AdWords campaigns. In August 2016 a fairly large Hungarian wristwatch ecommerce store signed with 7Digits the objective was to pre birth, polish AdWords revenue as much as we could. We sat down to identify key KPIs, business model and main products which was a challenge, since the store offers over Threat of Global Warming Essay six thousand different models. We were enthusiastic to see whether we could improve their adwords performance by a few percents. The account structure was pretty well thought out, the knight, ad groups were sufficiently segmented checkmark All the example, campaigns had test ads and looking at friends, the history it was obvious they were doing a pretty good job finding the best USPs for their customers, resulting in Threat example a whopping 15-25% CTR little room for improvement here#8230; Ad extensions were up and running, all settings properly adjusted damn, the of health essay, previous guy knew the drill#8230; Quality score up in the clouds barely found any keyword under 8 pretty good job there too. Sigh, I have seen easier jobs than an almost perfectly polished account.

They didn’t use broad match modifiers They only had campaigns for a few selected watch brands Their remarketing seemed to be overly broad. They were really, really close to Warming Essay example, get out the most of Adwords. It didn’t seem like the day of the industrial, big impact for our small agency. Threat Warming Essay! We started with setting up a dynamic search ad for all the watches in stock by pre birth assessment, finding unique phrases on the product pages which were available without needing to of Global Warming example, wait for delivery. I’ve picked this strategy because it would’ve been a gruntload of time to gather the statistically significant number of conversions before we can pick a set of keywords and create it’s own campaign based on data.

Now here comes the detailed part: Please feel free to skip this section if you#8217;re not here for the technical details. This is how to achieve this kind of growth. In this section of this Adwords case study, I#8217;ll explain how to set up a Dynamic Search Ad campaign. Dynamic Search Ads Campaign Settings. If you haven’t tried it before, here is how to social determinants and wellbeing essay, do it: Create a search network only campaign with all features enabled. Set up the example, locations, the industrial revolution sewing, budget, the language etc. as you always do. Warming Example! When you get to the Advanced settings part, set it up like as we did on machine, the image.

In our particular case we simply used Google’s index because our site is of Global Warming Essay example quite frequently indexed feel free to pre birth, use your own feed at Threat of Global Warming Essay, your will, though. Set up the pages you want to machine, use dynamically. When you are done with the campaign settings, create an ad group and head to the Auto segments tab. Add a Dynamic ad target (yeey there’s a big red button for Threat of Global Warming example, that): Set up the pages you want to use dynamically. You will have several options like the ones here. You can choose from the recommendations adwords provides for you, Target all your site or Target specific pages.

Consider your site#8217;s structure and product/service palette before you make your choice. We used the third option because it left us more control. This way you can choose specific URLs or even better, pages with specific content on it how cool is rules that? Also, we browsed our site to find common patterns among the products we wanted to promote and excluded all the pages with the textual content “Out of inventory”: We were done with the settings, it was time to of Global Warming Essay example, create some ads. You have two options here: creating simple text ads and/or dynamic ads. If you’ve split the site granularly enough you can use the pre birth assessment, expanded text ads to create specific copies. In other cases choose dynamic ads and profit from the power of dynamic headlines but for of Global, a cost: you’re going to have less characters to operate with in the other parts of the ad. Of A Knight! If you’re ready with the of Global Warming Essay, ads, you’re pretty much all set, all other sections are the same. You can create ad extensions, RLSA audiences and more if you want. We also added keywords with broad match modifier match type.

That way we could catch more search queries and gain additional ideas for profitable ad groups to test. Of Health Essay! To the top of of Global all difficulties, dialogue with the store had to be suspended for a month due to dante, some unfortunate external issues to focus on from their side. No other options left, we let the example, campaigns collecting the data. Essay About Friends! I didn’t have high hopes, but our team did whatever we could.. Threat Warming Essay Example! After a month of inactivity we finally got back on track in December and we already had Christmas coming#8230; The very limited time frame before the Holidays didn’t leave us much space to assessment, create heavenly creatives, but the company was one of our first clients; There was no plan B. We badly needed to pull this off.

I dug deep into analytics and compared the previous 3 years to see which campaigns brought the most revenue for of Global Warming example, the lowest cost per conversion in this pretty broad period. I also looked into the assisted conversions to make sure we don’t pause anything that has significant role in lady capulet the conversion path. Threat Of Global Essay Example! An action plan started to social of health, form. We took a deep breath, and. Reallocated our entire budget aligning the goals to the long-term insights.

Paused keywords and ad groups with no conversion or too high cost per conversions (something the previous PPC expert just didn’t dare to do before.) Wrote new ads, then rephrased them again and again. Expanded text ads were new at that time and Warming example I thought maybe moving quickly could be a significant advantage for us it turned out to be a colossal idea! We also set up a new remarketing campaign for cart abandoners leading them back to their cart. After the end of January we looked like this, compared to the previous year: Better, but not the kind of miracle our valued client was looking for#8230; Let’s take a quick look at assisted conversions: Better but it’s still not Nirvana. Hell, how will I write an adwords case study from this? So we started to optimize the campaigns: we adjusted bids, added some negative keywords, wrote even more ad copies, set up bid adjustments by device type and rewrote the ad extensions. By February, it all came out to this: At the end, we managed to increase last click conversions value. plus the bonus in dante assisted conversions!

We still have a lot of room for Essay example, improvement, we are testing new keyword groups, and writing even better ad copies. For the dante, record: Some of the originals are working so well that we still couldn’t outperform them at of Global Warming Essay, least not by doing the regular optimization. Meanwhile, another squad of our team helped the client develop a 15 step guide to improve the pre birth assessment, shopping experience through influence psychology, while we, the geeks were focusing on further boosting conversion rates, and reducing bounce and cart abandonment rates. Key takeaways of this Adwords case study. Optimize for conversions and cost per Threat of Global Warming example conversion. Check assisted conversions before giving up on about, an ad group or campaign. Jumping at once on novel technologies like Expanded text ads were back then may have a huge result. A tiny bid modification here and adding some negative keywords there means the world! Never stop optimizing!

In this digital world, you can always do better and better is more sales. Threat! If you had any experience when tiny mods had a huge impact, please don’t hesitate to add a comment. If you know a similar adwords case study, feel free to add it in comment. I#8217;d also highly appreciate sharing this one. 6 E-commerce Growth Hacks That Will Change Your Game. If you reached out to us from Hungary, you'll find our local blog clicking here:

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Classics in the History of Psychology. By John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner(1920) In recent literature various speculations have been entered into concerning the possibility of conditioning various types of emotional response, but direct experimental evidence in support of such a view has been lacking. Essay? If the theory advanced by Watson and Morgan [1] to lady capulet the effect that in infancy the original emotional reaction patterns are few, consisting so far as observed of fear, rage and Threat of Global love, then there must be some simple method by means of which the range of lady capulet stimuli which can call out Warming Essay example, these emotions and their compounds is greatly increased. Otherwise, complexity in adult response could not be accounted for. These authors without adequate experimental evidence advanced the view that this range was increased by means of conditioned reflex factors. It was suggested there that the essay about early home life of the child furnishes a laboratory situation for establishing conditioned emotional responses. The present authors have recently put the Warming Essay example whole matter to an experimental test. Experimental work had been done so far on rules only one child, Albert B. This infant was reared almost from birth in a hospital environment; his mother was a wet nurse in the Harriet Lane Home for Invalid Children. Albert's life was normal: he was healthy from birth and one of the best developed youngsters ever brought to the hospital, weighing twenty-one pounds at nine months of age. Threat Of Global Warming Example? He was on the whole stolid and unemotional.

His stability was one of the principal reasons for social determinants essay, using him as a subject in this test. We [p.2] felt that we could do him relatively little harm by Warming example, carrying out such experiments as those outlined below. At approximately nine months of age we ran him through the emotional tests that have become a part of our regular routine in determining whether fear reactions can be called out by other stimuli than sharp noises and the sudden removal of support. Tests of friends this type have been described by the senior author in another place.[2] In brief, the infant was confronted suddenly and for the first time successively with a white rat, a rabbit, a dog, a monkey, with masks with and without hair, cotton wool, burning newspapers, etc. A permanent record of Albert's reactions to Warming these objects and industrial sewing machine situations has been preserved in a motion picture study. Manipulation was the most usual reaction called out.

At no time did this infant ever show fear in Warming Essay example any situation. These experimental records were confirmed by the casual observations of the mother and essay about friends hospital attendants. No one had ever seen him in a state of fear and rage. The infant practically never cried. Up to approximately nine months of age we had not tested him with loud sounds. The test to determine whether a fear reaction could be called out by a loud sound was made when he was eight months, twenty-six days of age.

The sound was that made by of Global Warming Essay, striking a hammer upon industrial revolution sewing machine, a suspended steel bar four feet in length and three-fourths of an inch in Threat of Global Essay diameter. The laboratory notes are as follows: One of the 9 circles of hell two experimenters caused the child to turn its head and fixate her moving hand ; the other stationed back of the child, struck the steel bar a sharp blow. The child started violently, his breathing was checked and of Global Warming example the arms were raised in about a characteristic manner. On the second stimulation the same thing occurred, and in addition the lips began to Threat of Global example pucker and tremble. On the dante 9 circles third stimulation the child broke into a sudden crying fit. This is the first time an emotional situation in the laboratory has produced any fear or even crying in Albert. [p.3] We had expected just these results on account of our work with other infants brought up under similar conditions. It is worth while to call attention to the fact that removal of support (dropping and jerking the blanket upon Threat of Global, which the infant was lying) was tried exhaustively upon this infant on the same occasion.

It was not effective in producing the fear response. Pre Birth Assessment? This stimulus is effective in younger children. Of Global? At what age such stimuli lose their potency in lady capulet producing fear is not known. Nor is it known whether less placid children ever lose their fear of them. This probably depends upon the training the child gets. It is well known that children eagerly run to be tossed into the air and caught.

On the other hand it is equally well known that in the adult fear responses are called out quite clearly by the sudden removal of support, if the of Global individual is walking across a bridge, walking out upon a beam, etc. There is a wide field of study here which is aside from our present point. The sound stimulus, thus, at nine months of age, gives us the 9 circles of hell means of testing several important factors. I. Can we condition fear of an animal, e.g., a white rat, by visually presenting it and simultaneously striking a steel bar? II. If such a conditioned emotional response can be established, will there be a transfer to other animals or other objects? III. What is the effect of time upon such conditioned emotional responses?

IV. If after a reasonable period such emotional responses have not died out, what laboratory methods can be devised for their removal? I. Of Global Warming Essay? The establishment of conditioned emotional responses. At first there was considerable hesitation upon our part in making the rules attempt to set up fear reactions experimentally. A certain responsibility attaches to such a procedure. We decided finally to make the attempt, comforting ourselves by the reflection that such attachments would arise anyway as soon as the of Global Warming Essay example child left the sheltered environment of the nursery for the rough and assessment tumble of the home. We did not begin this work until Albert was eleven months, three days of age. Before attempting to set up a conditioned response we, as before, put him through all of the regular emotional [p.4] tests. Not the of Global Warming Essay slightest sign of rules of a a fear response was obtained in any situation. The steps taken to condition emotional responses are shown in our laboratory notes. 11 Months 3 Days.

1. White rat suddenly taken from the basket and presented to Albert. He began to reach for rat with left hand. Just as his hand touched the animal the bar was struck immediately behind his head. The infant jumped violently and fell forward, burying his face in the mattress. He did not cry, however. 2. Just as the right hand touched the rat the bar was again struck. Again the infant jumped violently, fell forward and began to whimper. In order not to disturb the child too seriously no further tests were given for one week. 11 Months 10 Days. 1. Rat presented suddenly without sound.

There was steady fixation but no tendency at first to reach for it. The rat was then placed nearer, whereupon tentative reaching movements began with the right hand. When the Threat Essay rat nosed the infant's left hand, the hand was immediately withdrawn. He started to reach for the head of the animal with the forefinger of the left hand, but withdrew it suddenly before contact. It is thus seen that the two joint stimulations given the previous week were not without effect. He was tested with his blocks immediately afterwards to see if they shared in lady capulet the process of conditioning. He began immediately to pick them up, dropping them, pounding them, etc.

In the remainder of the tests the blocks were given frequently to quiet him and to test his general emotional state. They were always removed from sight when the process of conditioning was under way. 2. Joint stimulation with rat and sound. Started, then fell over immediately to right side No crying.[p.5] 3. Joint stimulation. Fell to right side and rested upon hands, with head turned away from rat. No crying. 4. Joint stimulation. Same reaction.

5. Rat suddenly presented alone. Puckered face, whimpered and Threat Warming example withdrew body sharply to the left. 6. Joint stimulation. Fell over immediately to right side and began to whimper. 7. Joint stimulation. Started violently and cried, but did not fall over.

8. Rat alone. The instant the determinants of health and wellbeing essay rat was shown the baby began to Threat Essay cry. Almost instantly he turned sharply to the left, fell over on left side, raised himself on all fours and began to crawl away so rapidly that he was caught with difficulty before reaching the edge of the social and wellbeing essay table. This was as convincing a case of a completely conditioned fear response as could have been theoretically pictured. In all seven joint stimulations were given to of Global bring about the complete reaction. It is not unlikely had the sound been of greater intensity or of a more complex clang character that the number of joint stimulations might have been materially reduced. Lady Capulet? Experiments designed to define the nature of the sounds that will serve best as emotional stimuli are under way. II. Threat Essay? When a conditioned emotional response has been established for one object, is there a transfer? Five days later Albert was again brought back into the laboratory and tested as follows: 11 Months 15 Days.

1. Tested first with blocks. He reached readily for them, playing with them as usual. This shows that there has been no general transfer to the room, table, blocks, etc. 2. Rat alone. Whimpered immediately, withdrew right hand and turned head and trunk away. 3.Blocks again offered. Played readily with them, smiling and gurgling. [p.6] 4. Social Of Health Essay? Rat alone. Warming? Leaned over to the left side as far away from the rat as possible, then fell over, getting up on all fours and scurrying away as rapidly as possible. 5. Blocks again offered.

Reached immediately for them, smiling and laughing as before. The above preliminary test shows that the conditioned response to the rat had carried over about, completely for Threat Warming Essay example, the five days in lady capulet which no tests were given. Of Global Essay Example? The question as to whether or not there is a transfer was next taken up. 6. Rabbit alone. The rabbit was suddenly placed on the mattress in front of him. Lady Capulet? The reaction was pronounced.

Negative responses began at once. He leaned as far away from the animal as possible, whimpered, then burst into tears. When the rabbit was placed in contact with him he buried his face in the mattress, then got up on all fours and crawled away, crying as he went. This was a most convincing test. 7. The blocks were next given him, after an Threat Essay example, interval. He played with them as before. It was observed by four people that he played far more energetically with them than ever before. The blocks were raised high over assessment, his head and Threat of Global Essay slammed down with a great deal of essay about force. 8. Dog alone.

The dog did not produce as violent a reaction as the rabbit. The moment fixation occurred the child shrank back and as the animal came nearer he attempted to get on all fours but did not cry at first. Threat Essay? As soon as the dog passed out of his range of vision he became quiet. The dog was then made to approach the rules of a knight infant's head (he was lying down at the moment). Albert straightened up immediately, fell over to the opposite Threat of Global Warming Essay, side and turned his head away.

He then began to cry. 9. The blocks were again presented. He began immediately to play with them. 10. Lady Capulet? Fur coat (seal). Withdrew immediately to the left side and began to fret.

Coat put close to him on the [p.7] left side, he turned immediately, began to cry and tried to crawl away on all fours. 11. Cotton wool. The wool was presented in a paper package. At the end the of Global Warming example cotton was not covered by the paper. It was placed first on his feet. He kicked it away but did not touch it with his hands. When his hand was laid on friends the wool he immediately withdrew it but did not show the shock that the animals or fur coat produced in of Global Warming Essay him. He then began to play with the paper, avoiding contact with the wool itself. He finally, under the impulse of the manipulative instinct, lost some of his negativism to the wool.

12. Just in of a knight play W. put his head down to see if Albert would play with his hair. Albert was completely negative. Two other observers did the same thing. He began immediately to play with their hair. W. then brought the Threat of Global Warming Essay Santa Claus mask and presented it to Albert.

He was again pronouncedly negative. 11 Months 20 Days. 1. Blocks alone. Played with them as usual. 2. Assessment? Rat alone. Withdrawal of the whole body, bending over to left side, no crying. Fixation and following with eyes. The response was much less marked than on first presentation the previous week. It was thought best to freshen up the reaction by Threat of Global Essay example, another joint stimulation. 3. Just as the rat was placed on his hand the rod was struck.

Reaction violent. 4. Rat alone. Fell over at once to left side. Determinants And Wellbeing Essay? Reaction practically as strong as on former occasion but no crying. 5. Rat alone. Fell over to left side, got up on all fours and started to crawl away. On this occasion there was no crying, but strange to say, as he started away he began to gurgle and coo, even while leaning far over to Threat Essay the left side to avoid the rat. 6. Rabbit alone. Lady Capulet? Leaned over to Essay left side as far as possible. Did not fall over.

Began to whimper but reaction not so violent as on former occasions. 9 Circles Of Hell? [p.8] 7. Threat Warming Essay? Blocks again offered. He reached for them immediately and began to play. All of essay friends these tests so far discussed were carried out upon a table supplied with a mattress, located in Threat of Global a small, well-lighted dark-room. We wished to test next whether conditioned fear responses so set up would appear if the situation were markedly altered. We thought it best before making this test to freshen the reaction both to the rabbit and to the dog by showing them at the moment the pre birth steel bar was struck. It will be recalled that this was the of Global Warming Essay example first time any effort had been made to directly condition response to the dog and rabbit. The experimental notes are as follows: 8. The rabbit at of health and wellbeing essay, first was given alone. The reaction was exactly as given in test (6) above.

When the of Global Essay rabbit was left on Albert's knees for knight, a long time he began tentatively to reach out and manipulate its fur with forefingers. Threat Warming Essay? While doing this the steel rod was struck. A violent fear reaction resulted. 9. Rabbit alone. Reaction wholly similar to that on trial (6) above. I0. Rabbit alone. Determinants? Started immediately to whimper, holding hands far up, but did not cry. Conflicting tendency to Threat of Global example manipulate very evident.

11. Dog alone. Began to whimper, shaking head from dante 9 circles of hell side to side, holding hands as far away from the animal as possible. 12. Threat Essay? Dog and sound. The rod was struck just as the dante of hell animal touched him. A violent negative reaction appeared. He began to Threat of Global Warming Essay example whimper, turned to one side, fell over pre birth assessment, and started to get up on Threat example all fours. 13. Blocks.

Played with them immediately and readily. On this same day and immediately after the above experiment Albert was taken into the large well-lighted lecture room belonging to the laboratory. He was placed on essay about friends a table in the center of the Threat of Global Warming room immediately under the skylight. Four people were present. Of A? The situation [p.9] was thus very different from that which obtained in the small dark room. I. Rat alone. No sudden fear reaction appeared at first. The hands, however, were held up and away from the of Global Warming animal. Machine? No positive manipulatory reactions appeared. 2. Warming? Rabbit alone. Fear reaction slight.

Turned to left and kept face away from the animal but the reaction was never pronounced. 3. Dog alone. Turned away but did not fall over. Cried. Hands moved as far away from the animal as possible. Whimpered as long as the dog was present. 4. Of A? Rat alone. Warming Example? Slight negative reaction. 5. Rat and essay about sound.

It was thought best to freshen the reaction to the rat. The sound was given just as the rat was presented. Albert jumped violently but did not cry. 6. Rat alone. At first he did not show any negative reaction. When rat was placed nearer he began to show negative reaction by drawing back his body, raising his hands, whimpering, etc. 7. Blocks.

Played with them immediately. 8. Threat Of Global Warming Essay Example? Rat alone. Pronounced withdrawal of body and whimpering. 9. Blocks. Played with them as before. 10. Rabbit alone. Pronounced reaction. Whimpered with arms held high, fell over backward and had to be caught. 11. Dog alone.

At first the 9 circles of hell dog did not produce the pronounced reaction. The hands were held high over the head, breathing was checked, but there was no crying. Just at this moment the dog, which had not barked before, barked three times loudly when only about six inches from the baby's face. Albert immediately fell over and broke into a wail that continued until the dog was removed. The sudden barking of the hitherto quiet dog produced a marked fear response in the adult observers!

[p.10] From the above results it would seem that emotional transfers do take place. Furthermore it would seem that the number of transfers resulting from an experimentally produced conditioned emotional reaction may be very large. In our observations we had no means of testing the complete number of transfers which may have resulted. III. The effect of time upon conditioned emotional responses. We have already shown that the Threat Essay example conditioned emotional response will continue for a period of one week. It was desired to make the time test longer. In view of the imminence of Albert's departure from the hospital we could not make the interval longer than one month. Accordingly no further emotional experimentation was entered into for rules of a knight, thirty-one days after the above test.

During the month, however, Albert was brought weekly to Warming the laboratory for tests upon right and left-handedness, imitation, general development, etc. No emotional tests whatever were given and during the whole month his regular nursery routine was maintained in the Harriet Lane Home. The notes on the test given at the end of this period are as follows: 1. Santa Claus mask. Withdrawal, gurgling, then slapped at it without touching. When his hand was forced to touch it, he whimpered and cried.

His hand was forced to touch it two more times. He whimpered and cried on both tests. He finally cried at the mere visual stimulus of the mask. 2. Of A? Fur coat. Wrinkled his nose and withdrew both hands, drew back his whole body and Warming example began to whimper as the coat was put nearer. Dante Of Hell? Again there was the strife between withdrawal and the tendency to manipulate. Reached tentatively with left hand but drew back before contact had been made.

In moving his body to one side his hand accidentally touched the coat. He began to cry at once, nodding his head in a very peculiar manner (this reaction was an entirely new one). Threat Of Global Example? Both hands were withdrawn as far as possible from the coat. The coat [p.11] was then laid on his lap and he continued nodding his head and pre birth assessment whimpering, withdrawing his body as far as possible, pushing the while at the coat with his feet but never touching it with his hands. 3. Fur coat. The coat was taken out of his sight and presented again at the end of a minute. He began immediately to fret, withdrawing his body and nodding his head as before.

4. Blocks. He began to play with them as usual. 5. The rat. He allowed the Warming Essay example rat to sewing machine crawl towards him without withdrawing. He sat very still and fixated it intently. Rat then touched his hand. Albert withdrew it immediately, then leaned back as far as possible but did not cry. When the rat was placed on his arm he withdrew his body and began to fret, nodding his head. The rat was then allowed to crawl against Threat Essay, his chest.

He first began to fret and then covered his eyes with both hands. 6. Blocks. Reaction normal. 7. The rabbit. The animal was placed directly in front of him. Dante 9 Circles Of Hell? It was very quiet. Albert showed no avoiding reactions at first. After a few seconds he puckered up his face, began to nod his head and to look intently at the experimenter. He next began to push the rabbit away with his feet, withdrawing his body at the same time.

Then as the rabbit came nearer he began pulling his feet away, nodding his head, and wailing da da. After about a minute he reached out tentatively and slowly and touched the rabbit's ear with his right hand, finally manipulating it. The rabbit was again placed in example his lap. Determinants Of Health? Again he began to fret and of Global Warming Essay withdrew his hands. He reached out tentatively with his left hand and touched the 9 circles of hell animal, shuddered and withdrew the whole body.

The experimenter then took hold of his left hand and laid it on the rabbit's back. Albert immediately withdrew his hand and Threat of Global Essay example began to suck his thumb. Again the rabbit was laid in his lap. He began to cry, covering his face with both hands. [p.12] 8. Lady Capulet? Dog. The dog was very active. Albert fixated it intensely for a few seconds, sitting very still. He began to cry but did not fall over Threat of Global Warming example, backwards as on his last contact with the dog. When the dog was pushed closer to him he at first sat motionless, then began to of hell cry, putting both hands over his face. These experiments would seem to show conclusively that directly conditioned emotional responses as well as those conditioned by transfer persist, although with a certain loss in of Global Warming Essay example the intensity of the reaction, for a longer period than one month. Machine? Our view is that they persist and Threat Essay example modify personality throughout life.

It should be recalled again that Albert was of an extremely phlegmatic type. Had he been emotionally unstable probably both the directly conditioned response and those transferred would have persisted throughout the month unchanged in form. IV. Detachment or removal of dante conditioned emotional responses. Of Global Example? Unfortunately Albert was taken from the dante 9 circles of hell hospital the day the above tests were made. Hence the opportunity of Threat Essay example building up an of a, experimental technique by means of which we could remove the conditioned emotional responses was denied us. Our own view, expressed above, which is possibly not very well grounded, is that these responses in the home environment are likely to persist indefinitely, unless an accidental method for removing them is hit upon.

The importance of of Global Warming Essay example establishing some method must be apparent to all. Had the opportunity been at 9 circles, hand we should have tried out several methods, some of which we may mention. (I) Constantly confronting the child with those stimuli which called out the responses in the hopes that habituation would come in corresponding to fatigue of reflex when differential reactions are to be set up. (2) By trying to recondition by showing objects calling out fear responses (vsual) and simultaneously stimulating the erogenous zones (tactual). We should try first the lips, then the nipples and as a final resort the Essay example sex organs. (3) By trying to recondition by feeding the subject candy or other food just as the animal is shown. Lady Capulet? This method calls for of Global Warming example, the food control of the subject. (4) By building up constructive activities around the object by imitation and determinants and wellbeing [p.13] by putting the hand through the motions of manipulation. At this age imitation of overt motor activity is strong, as our present but unpublished experimentation has shown. I NCIDENTAL O BSERVATIONS. (a) Thumb sucking as a compensatory device for blocking fear and noxious stimuli. During the course of these experiments, especially in the final test, it was noticed that whenever Albert was on the verge of tears or emotionally upset generally he would continually thrust his thumb into his mouth.

The moment the hand reached the mouth he became impervious to the stimuli producing fear. Again and again while the motion pictures were being made at the end of the thirty-day period, we had to remove the thumb from his mouth before the conditioned response could be obtained. Threat Warming Essay? This method of blocking noxious and emotional stimuli (fear and social of health and wellbeing essay rage) through erogenous stimulation seems to of Global example persist from birth onward. Determinants Essay? Very often in our experiments upon the work adders with infants under ten days of Warming example age the same reaction appeared. When at work upon the adders both of the infants arms are under slight restraint. Often rage appears. They begin to revolution cry, thrashing their arms and legs about. Threat Of Global Warming Example? If the social finger gets into the mouth crying ceases at once. The organism thus apparently from birth, when under the Warming Essay example influence of love stimuli is blocked to all others.[3] This resort to sex stimulation when under the influence of lady capulet noxious and emotional situations, or when the individual is restless and idle, persists throughout adolescent and Threat example adult life.

Albert, at social and wellbeing essay, any rate, did not resort to thumb sucking except in the presence of such stimuli. Threat? Thumb sucking could immediately be checked by offering him his blocks. Of A Knight? These invariably called out active manipulation instincts. It is worth while here to call attention to the fact that Freud's conception of the stimulation of erogenous zones as being the of Global example expression of an original pleasure seeking principle may be turned about [p.14] and possibly better described as a compensatory (and often conditioned) device for the blockage of noxious and lady capulet fear and rage producing stimuli. (b) Equal primacy of fear, love and Threat of Global example possibly rage.

While in general the industrial machine results of our experiment offer no particular points of conflict with Freudian concepts, one fact out of harmony with them should be emphasized. According to proper Freudians sex (or in our terminology, love) is the principal emotion in which conditioned responses arise which later limit and distort personality. We wish to Threat Warming example take sharp issue with this view on the basis of the experimental evidence we have gathered. Fear is as primal a factor as love in influencing personality. Fear does not gather its potency in pre birth assessment any derived manner from love. Of Global Warming? It belongs to the original and inherited nature of man. Probably the same may be true of rage although at present we are not so sure of this. The Freudians twenty years from now, unless their hypotheses change, when they come to analyze Albert's fear of rules a seal skin coat - assuming that he comes to analysis at Threat of Global Warming Essay, that age - will probably tease from him the determinants recital of a dream which upon their analysis will show that Albert at three years of age attempted to play with the pubic hair of the mother and was scolded violently for it. (We are by no means denying that this might in of Global Warming example some other case condition it). If the analyst has sufficiently prepared Albert to accept such a dream when found as an explanation of his avoiding tendencies, and if the analyst has the authority and personality to put it over, Albert may be fully convinced that the dream was a true revealer of the factors which brought about the fear. It is probable that many of the phobias in psychopathology are true conditioned emotional reactions either of the direct or the transferred type. Essay Friends? One may possibly have to believe that such persistence of early conditioned responses will be found only in persons who are constitutionally inferior.

Our argument is meant to be constructive. Emotional disturbances in adults cannot be traced back to sex alone. They must be retraced along at Threat Warming example, least three collateral lines - to conditioned and transferred responses set up in infancy and early youth in all three of the fundamental human emotions. Footnotes. [1] 'Emotional Reactions and Psychological Experimentation,' American Journal of Psychology , April, 1917, Vol. 28, pp. 163-174. [2] 'Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist,' p.202.

[3] The stimulus to love in pre birth assessment infants according to our view is stroking of the skin, lips, nipples and sex organs, patting and rocking, picking up, etc. Patting and rocking (when not conditioned) are probably equivalent to actual stimulation of the sex organs. In adults of course, as every lover knows, vision, audition and of Global Warming Essay olfaction soon become conditioned by joint stimulation with contact and kinaesthetic stimuli.