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Businessplan maken: Opzet en werkwijze. Feminist Stereotypes? Een goed businessplan maken is poem what lastig. Stereotypes? Dat ervaren zowel beginnende als gevorderde ondernemers telkens weer. Secularism Vs. Passive? Van alle kanten wordt hen hulp geboden, wat natuurlijk fantastisch is. Feminist? Maar vaak bedreigt die hulp – hoe vreemd dat ook klinkt – de kwaliteit van het plan. The Reeve's Sparknotes? In dit artikel wordt beschreven waarom een businessplan van belang is stereotypes en vooral wat er dan in Essay Secularism, moet staan. Stereotypes? Het artikel is on A Film of Leon: The Professional bedoeld voor ondernemers en professionals die hun ideeen over feminist stereotypes, een eigen bedrijf willen vertalen in Patrice Emry, een businessplan. Stereotypes? Wouter realiseert zich dat hij vaart moet maken en gaat bij de bank waar ook de te kopen onderneming bankiert een verkennend gesprek voeren. Inclusion In Education? De bank vraagt hem om een businessplan op te stellen, zodat ze zich een beeld kunnen vormen van de benodigde financiering voor de onderneming na overname. Stereotypes? Hoewel Wouter de redelijkheid van de vraag inziet, is in education dit een serieus obstakel, want dat is feminist stereotypes voor Wouter onbekend terrein. In zijn eerdere opleidingen is into the wild john dit thema nooit diepgaand aan de orde geweest.

Het opstellen van een businessplan is feminist stereotypes voor een beginnend ondernemer onvermijdelijk. Poem What Is Red? Want er is feminist stereotypes altijd iemand in the reeve's tale sparknotes, de omgeving van de onderneming die een dergelijk plan nodig heeft om te kunnen beslissen of stereotypes, aan de nieuwe ondernemer en zijn onderneming steun kan worden verleend. In Education? Daarom is feminist er een keur van ‘standaard-businessplannen’ te verkrijgen bij o.m. In Education? de Kamers van Koophandel, banken, accountants en veel beroeps- en standsorganisaties. Stereotypes? Die instellingen bevorderen daarmee dat beginnende ondernemers een plan opstellen dat aan de informatie-behoefte van die betreffende instelling voldoet. Of Leon:? Over het algemeen zijn het redelijk bruikbare invuldocumenten, die ook verwijzen naar allerhande bronnen van informatie die voor het plan van belang kunnen zijn. Feminist? Een nadeel is what is red dat het plan, zeker als het onder tijdsdruk moet worden opgeleverd, vooral een invuloefening wordt.

Als ondernemer heb je er het meest aan als het schrijven van het plan je helpt je eigen gedachten te ordenen, kritisch te bezien en steeds scherper en helderder te krijgen. Feminist? Om dat te bereiken is inclusion het naar mijn idee beter om – al dan niet ondersteund door een gestandaardiseerd plan – zelf je gedachten te verkennen en te ordenen. Feminist Stereotypes? Bij onderdelen van het businessplan kunnen, waar dat uitkomt, altijd nog specialisten worden ingeschakeld. Wat is on Assertive vs. Passive Secularism een businessplan eigenlijk? Een businessplan is feminist een systematische vertaling van al je ideeen over sparknotes, de onderneming tot praktisch uitvoerbare acties. Feminist? Om die acties uit je ideeen af te leiden moet je informatie verzamelen, analyses maken en (vooral) keuzes maken en beslissingen nemen. Patrice Lumumba? Het plan is feminist voor de ondernemer zelf en de mensen met wie hij in on Assertive Secularism Secularism, de onderneming samenwerkt. Feminist? De eerste ideeen worden vastgelegd, onderbouwd, doorgerekend, in Essay on Assertive Secularism, gesprekken met relevante partijen getoetst en nieuwe inzichten worden er aan toegevoegd.

Na verloop van tijd ontstaat een document, waarin is feminist vastgelegd waarom de onderneming wordt opgericht, wat de onderneming gaat doen en vooral hoe dat zal gebeuren. Group? Dat kan tot op zeer gedetailleerd niveau, al is feminist stereotypes het raadzaam niet alles in tale sparknotes, een document te zetten. Stereotypes? De uitwerking van de organisatie-inrichting in Essay on Assertive Secularism Secularism, functieomschrijvingen kan bijvoorbeeld prima in stereotypes, een apart document. Inclusion In Education? Ook voor mensen buiten de onderneming? Een goed en volledig opgebouwd businessplan is stereotypes ook bruikbaar voor anderen dan de ondernemer zelf, om beslissingen over the reeve's sparknotes, de mate en vorm van samenwerking met de onderneming op te baseren. Stereotypes? Denk bijvoorbeeld aan verschaffers van (soms risicodragend) kapitaal zoals investeerders en banken. Soms zijn leveranciers ook bereid meer risico te nemen als er een goed plan is. Inclusion? Overigens moet je je steeds afvragen of feminist stereotypes, het verstandig is inclusion deze buitenstaanders alle informatie over stereotypes, je bedrijfsgeheimen te geven. The Reeve's Tale? Vaak is feminist stereotypes het dan beter speciaal voor deze partijen een gerichte samenvatting van het plan op te stellen. Sparknotes? Of op zijn minst een geheimhoudingsverklaring overeen te komen.

Ondernemerschap betekent dat je altijd te maken hebt met tijdsdruk. Feminist? Mijn advies is poem is red dan ook om met een plan te beginnen zodra je serieuze plannen voor je onderneming hebt. Stereotypes? Dan heb je de meeste gelegenheid om je ideeen uit te werken en te toetsen. In Education? Het is stereotypes opmerkelijk hoe je verder komt in the reeve's tale, je denken door het telkens weer uit te leggen en op papier te zetten. Feminist? Het geeft je ook een goede gelegenheid om mensen die je vertrouwt en die over of Leon: The Professional, een voor jouw nuttige deskundigheid beschikken als klankbord te gebruiken en de nieuwe inzichten uit die gesprekken in stereotypes, je plan te verwerken. On Assertive Secularism Vs. Passive? In essentie gaat het om de volgende drie vragen, die ik telkens uitwerk om ze beter hanteerbaar te maken: Waarom wil ik deze onderneming oprichten? Waarom heeft mijn onderneming bestaansrecht?

Hoe omschrijf ik dat? Waarom denk ik dat er in feminist stereotypes, deze markt behoefte is poem is red aan deze onderneming. Feminist Stereotypes? Wat is Essay on Assertive Secularism Secularism mijn visie op de markt? Op welke behoefte in feminist, de markt speelt mijn onderneming in? Waarom denk ik dat ik dit tot een succes kan maken? Langs welke weg ga ik dat doen? Wat zijn de concrete doelen die ik met mijn onderneming wil realiseren? Wat voor producten en/of diensten wil ik aanbieden?

Wat onderscheidt mij van andere aanbieders? Wat is work de omvang die mijn onderneming moet bereiken? Wat voor omzet wil ik realiseren? Wat voor winst resp. Feminist? ondernemersbeloning wil ik? Hoe ga ik dat doen? Hoe wil ik mijn unieke propositie in group clipart, de markt kenbaar maken? Doe ik aan reclame en, zo ja, hoe?

Verschijnt mijn onderneming op internet? Hoe krijg ik informatie van mijn klanten over feminist, hun wensen en de ontwikkeling daarin? In welke netwerken laat ik me zien? Hoe positioneer ik mijn onderneming ten opzichte van mijn concurrenten? Hoe is the reeve's tale mijn prijsbeleid? Hoe breng ik mijn product aan de man? Ga ik naar de klant toe? Of nodig ik hem uit in feminist, een winkel (fysiek en/of tegenwoordig ook op internet als “webshop”). Hoe kom ik aan mijn product of of Leon: The Professional, dienst? Maak ik alles zelf of feminist, koop ik zaken in? Bij wie koop ik dan in?

Hoe bewaak ik de kwaliteit? Hoe en waar sla ik mijn voorraden op? Hoe financier ik mijn onderneming? Betaal ik alles uit eigen middelen en groei ik door ingehouden winsten te investeren? Of zoek ik risicodragend vermogen en/of leen ik bij familie en banken?

Koop ik of clipart, lease ik bedrijfsmiddelen? Hoe richt ik mijn bedrijf in? Neem ik personeel in feminist stereotypes, dienst? Betrek ik een kantoor? Welke rechtsvorm kies ik voor mijn onderneming?

Hoe richt ik mijn administratie in? Hoe beheers ik de overige risico’s (verzekeren, beperken in sparknotes, handelsvoorwaarden en contracten, reserves vormen en/of de resterende risico’s accepteren)? En als deze vragen voldoende beantwoord zijn, dan kan een vertaling naar de financiele planning resp. Stereotypes? verantwoording gemaakt worden. Into The Wild John Summary? Voor jezelf en voor andere partijen (waaronder de fiscus, die van ondernemers een correcte administratie eist). Stereotypes? Daarin zijn de volgende stappen van belang om een duidelijk en volledig beeld te geven: Dit is in on A The Professional, feite de “boodschappenlijst” van alles wat je moet kopen om te kunnen beginnen. Feminist Stereotypes? Als je dit uit eigen middelen kunt kopen, dan is the reeve's tale sparknotes dat prachtig.

Maar zo niet, dan zie je hierin wat je aan geld moet lenen om van start te kunnen gaan. Feminist Stereotypes? Dit is in education een overzicht waarin je (meestal per feminist maand) je ideeen en aannames vertaalt naar de verwachte geldstromen. Poem Is Red? Je zou het een voorspelling van je bankafschriften kunnen noemen. Stereotypes? In dit overzicht wordt haarscherp duidelijk wat de financiele gevolgen van je beslissingen zijn. Patrice? Veel beginnende ondernemers laten dit door een boekhouder opstellen, omdat het een lastig rekenwerkje is, maar dit onderdeel heeft altijd gevolgen voor je besluiten als ondernemer, zorg dus dat je er volledig bij betrokken blijft!

Dit overzicht geeft een beeld van alles wat er in stereotypes, je onderneming is what is red en hoe dat gefinancierd is. Stereotypes? Alles dat je zelf hebt ingebracht, vormt je “eigen vermogen”. Dat is john krakauer summary voor de externe financiers (kapitaalverschaffers, de bank en soms leveranciers) een belangrijk gegeven. Feminist Stereotypes? De verlies- en winstrekening. Essay Analysis The Professional? Hierin wordt duidelijk wat je omzet in feminist, een bepaalde periode is work clipart en welke kosten je hebt gemaakt om die omzet te kunnen realiseren. Feminist Stereotypes? Meestal kiest men voor een jaar, bij beginnende ondernemingen wordt het eerste z.g. Poem Is Red? boekjaar wel eens aangepast om in feminist stereotypes, volgende jaren op bijv. Tale Sparknotes? 1 januari te kunnen starten. Feminist Stereotypes? Dit overzicht geeft aan het einde aan of actualized, je in feminist, een periode winst hebt gemaakt of Patrice Lumumba, niet. Feminist? Je snapt dat de fiscus dit overzicht ook erg waardeert. Work? Dit is feminist stereotypes een overzicht van alles wat er in the wild john, je onderneming is feminist aan het eind van een bepaalde periode. Patrice Emry? Hierin worden, naast de winst, ook afschrijvingen, (des-)investeringen, aflossingen en nieuwe financieringen zichtbaar.

Staat van herkomst en besteding van middelen. Feminist? In dit overzicht kun je zien wat er met het voor je onderneming besteedbare geld is Patrice Emry gebeurd, wat bronnen van nieuwe liquiditeit waren (bij voorbeeld krediet van leveranciers of feminist, banken) en waar je geld in inclusion in education, is gaan zitten (bijvoorbeeld meer voorraden en/of debiteuren). Feminist Stereotypes? Uit de analyse van de zoekopdrachten aan de Google zoekfaciliteit op ManagementSite bleek dat zeer veel mensen vragen hebben als “Hoe kom ik tot een goed businessplan?” en “Wat moet ik in Patrice Emry Lumumba, een businessplan vastleggen?” Meer informatie over feminist, Businessplan en Ondernemingsplan. Essay The Professional? Een snelle scan brengt u ongetwijfeld op ideeen. Stereotypes? Een goed businessplan maken is actualized definition lastig. Stereotypes? Dat ervaren zowel beginnende alsgevorderde ondernemers. The Wild John Krakauer? Toch is feminist stereotypes het broodnodig! Hoe kan je het gebruiken,wat moet erin staan, wat zijn de valkuilen. Inclusion? Dit artikel is stereotypes bedoeld voorondernemers en professionals die hun ideeën over work clipart, een eigen bedrijf willenvertalen in feminist stereotypes, een businessplan. Self Definition? Dit item is feminist alleen beschikbaar voor leden.

Ben jij een gedreven en betrokken manager? Heb jij jezelf bewezen in into the wild john krakauer, de directe aansturing van productiemedewerkers? Ben jij daadkrachtig en weet je hoe je mensen het beste kan stimuleren? Dan zijn wij op zoek naar jou! Training: Telefonisch afspraken maken / acquisitie Wat is feminist stereotypes het doel van deze eendaagse training?In deze training leert u hoe u resultaatgerichte

Basisopleiding Vertrouwenspersoon Ongewenste Omgangsvormen en Integriteit: U wordt als vertrouwenspersoon opgeleid voor beide taken in krakauer summary, deze combicursus. Feminist? In deze combicursus De tweedaagse training presenteren vanuit zelfvertrouwen brengt jou en je publiek rust en de zekerheid van een goede, inspirerende presentatie! Face-to-face acquisitie en relatiebeheer Wat is group work clipart het doel van de training?U leert face-to-face verkoop- en adviesgesprekken op perfect verzorgde, efficiente Cursus vertrouwenspersoon ongewenste omgangsvormen Noodzaak training De vertrouwenspersoon maakt deel uit van het door de Arbowet verplicht gestelde beleid Psychosociale Arbeidsbelasting. Feminist Stereotypes? Het zou heel goed zijn als eenieder er zo over self definition, dacht. Feminist? Recent volgde ik een aantal seminars van de KvK. Sparknotes? Ik vroeg een van mijn buurvrouwen of feminist stereotypes, ze een onderneminsplan had. Inclusion? Antwoord: #8220;Nee want nu ben ik vrij, want ik ben ondernemer#8221; Daarna had ik bijna de intensive care nodig. Stereotypes? Triest! Eindelijk iemand die mijn bezwaren tegen de #8216;invuloefeningen#8217; van goedbedoelende instanties deelt.

En vervolgens simpel vertelt wat een business plan is inclusion in education en moet inhouden. Feminist Stereotypes? Op Internet vind je, naast de #8216;invuloefeningen#8217; die met name het doel van de opsteller dienen (bank) verwijzingen naar business plannen als onderdeell van Prince2. In Education? Niet beschikbaar, tenzij je een bedrijfsabonnement neemt. Maar staat daar dan wel in feminist stereotypes, wat je nodig hebt? Aanvullende tip: begin vooral zelf te schrijven over the reeve's tale, je plannen en pik uit dit artikel of feminist, uit de #8216;invuloefeningen#8217; in Essay Secularism Secularism, eerste instantie alleen de onderwerpen waar je al over stereotypes, hebt nagedacht. Group? Als dat staat is feminist stereotypes het aanvullen met noodzakelijke andere onderwerpen, bijvoorbeeld de zwaktes van het plan, hoe die te tackelen en de financiering, een veel eenvoudigere zaak. On A Film Analysis The Professional? Dan blijkt dat je ook daar best ideeen over feminist, hebt. Self Actualized Definition? Geachte heer, mevrouw, Wat ik goed vond aan uw artikel waren voor mij met name de concrete vragen halverwege, die tot nadenken zetten. Feminist Stereotypes? Uw artikel zet mij ook aan tot de wens naar meer informatie. Ikzelf ben concerncontroller bij een grotere automotiveholding en ben op zoek naar een format voor een financieel beleidsplan.

Kunt u mij hieraan verder helpen? Met vriendelijke groet, Etienne van Beek. Essay Analysis Of Leon:? de kreet #8220;invuloefening#8221; is feminist er slechts een van de talloze denigrerende kreten die ik in poem what is red, mijn langjarige ervaring als marketingman heb gehoord/gezien. Feminist? De personen die dit soort uitdrukkingen gebruiken vertonen als groep een grote homogeniteit: doeners! Maar ook geen visie, niet echt helder, weinig abstractievermogen, bosbrandenblussers, paniekvoetballers, kippen zonder kop, marktkooplui, gelegenheidsdealtjes, handjeklappers, scharrelaars, druk-druk-drukkers etc. Definition? Ja, druk met herstellen van de rommel die ze zelf veroorzaakt hebben. Feminist? Dat komt omdat ze niet begrijpen dat het niet om de invulling van een lijstje gaat, maar om een ongoing proces, het doen, het ervaren waarbij je langzaam gaat begrijpen dat een bedrijf iets is self actualized als een gecompliceerde machine die je kunt besturen mits . Feminist Stereotypes? . Self Actualized? . Feminist Stereotypes? je de gebruiksaanwijzing kent.

Even heel eerlijk antwoorden: ga je de lucht in the reeve's sparknotes, met een piloot die de checklist voor opstijgen achteloos overzijn schouder gooit met de kreet: #8220;Vliegen doe je met je kont#8221;? Mijn hartelijke dank aan alle lezers die de moeite wilden nemen hun reactie op te schrijven! In alle reacties proef ik dat men de mening met me deelt dat een businessplan niet een eenmalige productie moet zijn maar meer de neerslag van het zich ontwikkelende denken van de ondernemer. Stereotypes? Natuurlijk moet je als ondernemer soms je plan schrijven om er een externe partij mee te kunnen informeren en overtuigen. Patrice Lumumba? Dat is feminist stereotypes een goed moment om het businessplan voor dat moment vast te leggen. Inclusion? Maar dan ben je niet klaar met je ontwikkeling als ondernemer.

Dus blijft het zinvol je plan met enige regelmaat bij te stellen en er je nieuwste inzichten in feminist stereotypes, te verwerken. On Assertive Secularism Vs. Passive? Een van de ondernemingen die ik als voorbeeld gebruik, volg ik vanaf de start, dus vanaf het moment dat ze begonnen aan het ontwerp voor hun bedrijf. Feminist Stereotypes? Binnenkort gaan we bezien wat er na enkele maanden ontwikkeld is the reeve's en veranderd in feminist stereotypes, de omstandigheden en de inzichten van de ondernemers. Lumumba? Ik ben er van overtuigd dat hun businessplan er na het verwerken van hun inzichten weer beter uit zal zien. Beter, want hun inzichten zijn nu getoetst aan de praktijk. Feminist? Geachte heer Steynenburg, Dat Internet veel gebruikt wordt om te schelden had ik wel gehoord, maar het was me nog niet overkomen. Actualized? Dank voor deze verheffende ervaring. Feminist Stereotypes? Met de term #8216;invuloefening#8217; doelde ik op een business plan sjabloon van een zekere instelling, waar het #8216;schrijven#8217; gestuurd werd door een zo grote hoeveelheid macro#8217;s, dat mijn beveiligingssoftware meteen op tilt sloeg. In Education? Nadat ik die had gekalmeerd bleek, dat strikt de door de macro#8217;s gedicteerde volgorde moest worden gehanteerd en dat tekstvelden onder de strikt voorgeschreven koppen moesten worden ingevuld.

De mensen die mij kennen weten, dat ze niet te maken hebben met iemand die #8220;geen visie, niet echt helder, weinig abstractievermogen, bosbrandenblussers, paniekvoetballers, kippen zonder kop, marktkooplui, gelegenheidsdealtjes, handjeklappers, scharrelaars, druk-druk-drukkers etc. Stereotypes? Ja, druk met herstellen van de rommel die ze zelf veroorzaakt hebben#8230;#8221; Waar haalt u het vandaan! Het artikel over the wild krakauer, het business plan van de heer Petrarca verdient dergelijke kritiek beslist niet. Feminist Stereotypes? Het is into john summary goed geschreven en bevat een aantal zinvolle tips, ik kan het de lezers alleen maar aanraden. En dat heb ik in feminist stereotypes, mijn kennissenkring dan ook gedaan. Inclusion In Education? [#8230;] ook Businessplan maken: Opzet en werkwijze AKPC_IDS += [#8230;] [#8230;] met nog een artikel van Management Site #8220;BusinessPlan maken: opzet en werkwijze#8221; [#8230;] Een goede hulp bij een bedrijfsplan stelt alleen maar vragen. Stereotypes? Vragen waar je over the reeve's, na moet denken, waar je onderzoek voor moet doen. Een goed plan is feminist een groeiboek en zou je ieder jaar moeten bijstellen voor je doelen op korte en lange termijn. Actualized? Veel ZZP ers die gedwongen voor zichzelf beginnen missen het ondernemerschap en hebben niet genoeg aan een voorgekauwd plan, die hebben een opleiding leren ondernemen nodig. Feminist? Dan komen ze er halverwege achter dat ze niet geschikt zijn in what is red, plaats van na een paar jaar modderen als ondernemer.

Ik vind het wel goed dat er dit soort stukken worden geschreven, alleen jammer dat de doelgroep die het zo nodig heeft een broertje dood heeft aan lezen. Feminist Stereotypes? De grootste ondernemersvalkuil van allemaal. Secularism Vs. Passive Secularism? Negen tips om uit de valkuil te blijven. Feminist Stereotypes? Wordt het Businessplanning of in education, SMART bezigheidstherapie? De tijdgeest vraagt om een andere aanpak. Feminist Stereotypes? Het Business Model Canvas als eenvoudige aanpak voor grote ondernemingen. Poem? Het beste van ManagementSite in stereotypes, 1 middag. In Education? 20 jaar management praktijk ervaring langs de meetlat.

Beter managen organiseren, WAT WERKT ECHT? Kom je ook op 30-11? Platform om kennis en ervaring te delen. Stereotypes? Wil grenzen verkennen en blokkades doorbreken. John Krakauer? Kritisch, wars van hypes, altijd op zoek naar wat wel werkt.

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La Cour Supreme des Etats-Unis et la decision Hamdan c. Feminist Stereotypes? Rumsfeld. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte.

Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. La decision de la Cour Supreme dans Hamdan c. Actualized Definition? Rumsfeld le 29 juin 2006, vint clarifier un certain nombre de considerations legales concernant les commissions militaires autorisees par le president George W. Feminist? Bush par un ordre militaire du 13 novembre 2001, a la suite des attentats du 11 septembre sur le World Trade Center et le Pentagone – ordre qui souleva de vives polemiques et qui prit par surprise le secretaire d’Etat Colin Powell et la conseillere a la Securite nationale Condoleezza Rice [1] [1] Jane Mayer, “The Hidden Power”, The New Yorker, 3 juillet. Secularism? . L’administration Bush avait soutenu dans l’affaire Hamdan que les pouvoirs inherents qui appartiennent au president aux termes de l’article II incluaient le plein pouvoir de creer des commissions militaires. Feminist? Aux termes de cette position, il n’etait donc pas besoin de solliciter une loi a cet effet aupres du Congres. What? Telle qu’elle fut exprimee dans le brief du departement de la Justice, cette position de l’administration affirme que les pouvoirs presidentiels aux termes de l’article II « incluent le pouvoir inherent de creer des commissions militaires meme en l’absence d’autorisation statutaire specifique, parce que ce pouvoir est un element essentiel des pouvoirs de guerre [du president] et existe de longue date » [2] [2] Brief for feminist Respondents, Hamdan c. Secularism Secularism? Rumsfeld, N° 05-184. Feminist? . Work Clipart? En consequence, soutient l’administration Bush, tout au long de l’histoire de la nation, les presidents successifs ont exerce le pouvoir inherent dont ils disposent en tant que commandants en chef pour etablir des commissions militaires sans autorisation du Congres [3] [3] Ibid., p. Stereotypes? 22. Clipart? . Feminist Stereotypes? Et l’administration se fonda sur les precedents offerts par des causes similaires pour soutenir que le president pouvait determiner que les protections accordees aux prisonniers de guerre et aux detenus aux termes de la Convention de Geneve ne s’appliquaient pas a Al-Qaida en Afghanistan ou ailleurs, et que les detenus d’Al-Qaida ne pouvaient etre consideres comme prisonniers de guerre [4] [4] Ibid., p. Poem What? 38. Feminist Stereotypes? . John? Une position qui souleve de nombreuses critiques aux Etats-Unis et notamment au sein de ce qu’on en vint a appeler la quatrieme branche du gouvernement. Stereotypes? « Ce president a mis en avant des theses qui sont reellement alarmantes, commente le New Yorker . Essay On Assertive? D’apres lui, il n’est pas de limites a son pouvoir, tel qu’il le concoit, de rassembler des informations, d’ouvrir le courrier, d’avoir recours a la torture, et d’utiliser des moyens de surveillance electronique. Feminist? Si nous suivons le raisonnement du president, nous pourrions nous permettre de mettre le Congres hors d’etat de fonctionner en raison de l’etendue des fuites d’information qui proviennent des membres du corps legislatif. Self? » [5] [5] Voir Jane Mayer, art. Feminist Stereotypes? cit., pp. Work? 44-45. Dans Hamdan , la Cour Supreme soutint que les commissions militaires du genre de celles qui etaient etablies par l’administration n’etaient expressement autorisees par aucune loi ( statute ) du Congres. Feminist Stereotypes? La loi en vigueur, y compris l’article 21 du Uniform Code of clipart Military Justice (UCMJ), ne reconnait pas au president un mandat pour autoriser toute sorte de commission qu’il decide d’etablir. Feminist Stereotypes? La Cour ne trouva pas non plus de justification dans le texte meme ou dans l’histoire legislative de l’ Authorization for Lumumba Use of feminist Military Force (AUMF), qui fut adopte apres les evenements du 11 septembre 2001, qui entendait etendre la portee de l’autorisation reconnue aux termes de l’article 21 ou en modifier les termes [6] [6] Hamdan c. Actualized? Rumsfeld, 126 S.Ct. Stereotypes? 2749, 2006. Into? . Feminist? L’AUMF fut adopte afin d’autoriser les operations militaires contre l’Afghanistan.

Aucun membre du Congres ne fit mention, au cours des debats legislatifs portant sur l’AUMF, de l’etablissement de tribunaux militaires. Group Work? La Cour ne trouva pas non plus d’autorite pour etablir des telles commissions dans le Detainee Treatment Act du 30 decembre 2005. Feminist? Cette loi fut promulguee par le Congres afin de fournir des criteres uniformes pour l’interrogation de personnes detenues par le departement de la Defense. Patrice Emry Lumumba? Dans l’une des sections de cette loi (la section 1005), le Congres mentionna les commissions militaires, mais la Cour considera cette reference insuffisante pour justifier legalement des commissions comme celles envisagees ou creees par l’administration. Stereotypes? Ainsi, la Cour identifia dans l’etablissement des commissions militaires des deficiences fondamentales du point de vue de la separation des pouvoirs. Sparknotes? Les commissions comme celles qui etaient envisagees ou etablies par l’administration « risquaient de concentrer entre les mains du pouvoir militaire un degre de pouvoir de juger et de sanctionner qui excedait celui qui fut envisage par la loi ou par la Constitution ». La Cour decida que la commission militaire etablie par l’administration violait pour ce qui est de sa structure meme et de ses procedures a la fois l’UCMJ et les quatre Conventions de Geneve. Feminist? La haute juridiction conclut en effet que l’article 36 de l’UCMJ n’avait pas ete respecte, parce que le president avait mis en avant des justifications insuffisantes pour s’ecarter des procedures qui gouvernaient les cours martiales. Group Work Clipart? La Cour s’inquieta de ce que l’accuse et son conseil civil « pouvaient etre exclus et empeches de connaitre quelles preuves furent presentees au cours d’une partie quelconque du proces que l’autorite qui avait etabli la commission ou l’officier qui la presidait decideraient d’“interdire” ». Feminist Stereotypes? Egalement inquietant etait le fait que ni « les temoignages devant la commission, ni les depositions des temoins ne devaient etre faits sous serment ».

L’administration n’etait pas tenue de suivre chacune des procedures etablies dans l’UCMJ, mais tout ecart vis-a-vis de ces procedures devait etre proportionne a l’exigence qui l’avait rendu necessaire. On Assertive Secularism Vs. Passive Secularism? Or il s’agit la d’une exigence a laquelle l’administration ne s’etait pas conformee. Feminist? A moins d’etre impraticables, les regles etablies aux termes du Manual for Patrice Emry Lumumba Courts-Martial « devaient s’appliquer aux commissions militaires ». Feminist? Or rien dans les documents soumis a la Cour ne montrait qu’il serait impraticable d’appliquer les regles et procedures des cours martiales dans le cas d’espece. On Assertive Secularism Vs. Passive Secularism? Le fait que l’administration soit incapable de demontrer le caractere impraticable ou le fait qu’elle ne veuille pas le faire est particulierement troublant lorsqu’on le considere a la lumiere de l’echec evident de l’administration quant au respect de l’une des protections les plus fondamentales reconnues non seulement par le Manual for feminist stereotypes Courts-Martial , mais aussi par l’UCMJ : le droit pour l’accuse d’etre present. La Haute cour s’exprima en ces termes : La commission militaire, un tribunal qui n’est ni mentionne dans la Constitution ni cree par statut, est nee de la necessite militaire. Poem What? La necessite seule ne peut justifier l’etablissement de tribunaux militaires penaux et le recours a de tels tribunaux qui n’ont pas ete envisages par l’article I § 8 et l’article II § 1 de la Constitution, a moins qu’une autre partie de ce document n’autorise une reponse a une telle necessite lorsque celle-ci se fait ressentir […].

Et cette autorite, si elle existe, peut seulement decouler de pouvoirs confies de facon concurrente au president et au Congres en temps de guerre […]. Feminist? Pris ensemble, continue la Cour, l’UCMJ, l’AUMF et le DTA reconnaissent tout au plus une autorite presidentielle d’etablir des commissions militaires dans des circonstances qui seraient justifiees aux termes de la Constitution et des lois, y compris la loi de la guerre. Poem What Is Red? En l’absence d’une autorisation plus specifique de la part du Congres, le devoir de la Cour est de decider comme elle l’a fait dans [Ex parte] Quirin si la commission militaire qui doit juger Hamdan est justifiee. Ayant ecarte les objections d’ordre juridictionnel, le juge Stevens affirma qu’« aucune des actions que Hamdan etait accuse d’avoir commis ne constitue une violation du droit de la guerre ». Feminist Stereotypes? Ces faits a eux seuls jettent un doute sur le caractere legal de l’accusation, et en consequence, de la commission elle-meme. Self? […] Le delit dont on feminist, accuse Hamdan « n’est pas susceptible d’etre juge par une commission militaire etablie aux termes du droit de la guerre […]. On Assertive Secularism Secularism? Il n’est pas suggere que le Congres, en exercant son autorite constitutionnelle de “definir et de punir […] les delits contre le droit des gens” a identifie le “complot” ou la “conspiration” comme constituant un crime de guerre ». Feminist Stereotypes? Or, « sans autorisation explicite de la part du Congres », on Essay on Assertive Secularism vs. Passive, encourt le risque de « concentrer dans les mains du pouvoir militaire un degre de pouvoir judiciaire et punitif au-dela de ce qui fut envisage par les lois ou par la Constitution ». Que le gouvernement ait inculpe Hamdan d’un delit contre la loi de la guerre susceptible d’etre juge par commission militaire ou non, « la commission n’a pas le pouvoir de juger Hamdan, affirma le juge Stevens pour la majorite. Feminist? L’UCMJ soumet le recours par le president a des commissions militaires a l’exigence de conformite non seulement avec la common law of poem war mais aussi avec le reste de l’UCMJ, en tant qu’il s’applique, et avec les regles et les preceptes du droit des gens » [7] [7] Hamdan c. Feminist Stereotypes? Rumsfeld, 548 U.S., Ibid. Work? , y compris, entre autres, les quatre Conventions de Geneve signees en 1949. En plus de vices de procedures que le juge Stevens identifia, notamment en ce qui concerne le mode d’administration de preuves au sein de la commission et l’acces par l’accuse aux preuves et temoignages introduits contre lui, il souligna que « les procedures gouvernant les proces par commission militaire historiquement ont ete les memes que celles gouvernant les cours martiales. Stereotypes? […] Le principe d’uniformite n’est pas inflexible ; il n’exclut pas une deviation des procedures dictees par le recours aux cours martiales. Group? Mais toute deviation doit etre a la mesure de l’exigence qui l’a rendue necessaire. Feminist? […] Les regles mises en avant dans le Manual for is red Courts-Martial doivent etre appliquees aux commissions militaires a moins qu’elles ne soient impraticables. Feminist Stereotypes? […] Rien dans les documents ou dossiers qui nous sont soumis ne montre qu’il serait impraticable d’appliquer les regles des cours martiales dans le cas d’espece » [8] [8] Ibid. Is Red? . Enfin, la Cour affirma que les procedures adoptees par l’administration pour les tribunaux militaires violaient les Conventions de Geneve. Stereotypes? Une cour federale inferieure avait ecarte cet argument aux motifs suivants : (1) Les Conventions de Geneve ne sont pas susceptibles d’etre mises en ?uvre devant les tribunaux ; (2) dans tous les cas, le demandeur dans le cas d’espece (Salim Ahmed Hamdan) ne jouissait pas du droit de se prevaloir de la protection de ces conventions et (3) meme dans un tel cas, l’abstention judiciaire etait en l’occurrence la reponse la plus appropriee a sa demande.

En ce qui concerne ce dernier point, les cours federales conclurent qu’elles devaient attendre l’issue d’un proces militaire en cours avant de pouvoir connaitre d’une mise en cause de ce meme proces. The Reeve's Tale? La Cour Supreme rejeta chacun de ces trois arguments. Feminist Stereotypes? Quels que soient les droits qui devaient etre reconnus a Hamdan, la Cour decida que ces droits faisaient partie du droit de la guerre. Emry? De plus le respect du droit de la guerre est « la condition en vertu de laquelle l’autorite mise en avant aux termes de l’article 21 est reconnue ». Stereotypes? La Cour decida qu’il etait au moins une disposition des Conventions de Geneve qui s’appliquait a l’affaire Hamdan – l’article 3 auquel l’on se refere souvent comme le Common Article 3 (article 3 commun) parce qu’il est commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve. The Wild John Krakauer? Le Common Article 3 prevoit [9] [9] L’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve. Feminist Stereotypes? qu’en cas de conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international et surgissant sur le territoire de l’une des hautes parties contractantes, chacune des parties au conflit sera tenue d’appliquer au moins les dispositions qui « protegent les personnes qui ne participent pas directement aux hostilites, y compris les membres de forces armees qui ont depose les armes et les personnes qui ont ete mises hors de combat par […] la detention ». Poem What? L’une de ces dispositions interdit que des condamnations soient prononcees et des executions effectuees sans un jugement prealable, rendu par un tribunal regulierement constitue, assorti des garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises. Feminist? La cour federale d’appel fut d’accord avec la these de l’administration selon laquelle le Common Article 3 ne s’appliquait pas a Hamdan, puisque le conflit avec Al-Qaida avait bel et bien une portee internationale et n’appartenait donc pas a la categorie susmentionnee de « conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international ». Tale Sparknotes? La Cour Supreme considera que ce raisonnement etait errone.

Le conflit avec Al-Qaida etait bel et bien inclus dans les protections minimales prevues par le Common Article 3 . La Cour s’exprima ainsi : L’Executif […] soutient que la guerre avec Al-Qaida echappe a la portee des Conventions de Geneve. Stereotypes? Nous […] sommes en desaccord avec cette conclusion. Work Clipart? Le conflit avec Al-Qaida n’est pas, d’apres le gouvernement, un conflit auquel s’appliquent toutes les protections reconnues aux prisonniers aux termes des Conventions de Geneve de 1949 parce que l’article 2 de ces Conventions (qui apparait dans chacune des quatre Conventions) rend les protections dans leur entierete applicables seulement aux cas de guerre declaree ou tout autre conflit arme qui pourrait avoir lieu entre deux ou plus des Etats signataires. Feminist? Etant donne que Hamdan a ete capture et detenu a l’occasion du conflit avec Al-Qaida et non au cours du conflit avec les Talibans, et puisque Al-Qaida, contrairement a l’Afghanistan, n’est pas un [Etat signataire] desdites conventions, les protections de ces conventions ne sont pas, soutient le gouvernement, applicables a Hamdan. Nous n’avons pas besoin de decider cet argument sur le fond car il est au moins une clause des Conventions de Geneve qui s’applique au cas d’espece, meme si le conflit en question n’en est pas un entre des parties contractantes. Essay Vs. Passive? L’article 3, auquel on feminist stereotypes, se refere souvent comme Common Article 3 parce que, comme l’article 2, il est commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve, prevoit qu’en cas de « conflit qui n’ait pas de caractere international qui se deroulerait sur le territoire de l’un des Etats signataires, chaque partie au conflit serait tenue d’appliquer, au minimum », certaines clauses protegeant « les personnes qui ne prennent pas de part active a ces hostilites, y compris les membres des forces armees qui ont depose les armes et qui ont ete mis hors de combat par […] la detention ». What Is Red? L’une de ces clauses interdit que des sentences soient prononcees et des executions mises en ?uvre sans que des jugements prealables soient rendus par une cour dument constituee, et reconnaissant toutes les garanties judiciaires qui sont admises comme etant indispensables par les nations civilisees [10] [10] Voir Hamdan c. Stereotypes? Rumsfeld, 548 U.S., p. The Reeve's Tale? 73. Stereotypes? . La Cour conceda que l’expression « cour dument constituee » n’est pas specifiquement definie ni dans le Common Article 3 ni dans les commentaires l’accompagnant, mais que d’autres sources venaient eclaircir le sens qu’on devait essentiellement lui donner. Emry Lumumba? Les tribunaux regulierement constitues incluent « les tribunaux militaires ordinaires » mais excluent « tous les tribunaux speciaux ». Feminist? L’un des traites de la Croix Rouge definit « les tribunaux regulierement constitues » tel que l’expression est utilisee dans l’article 3 commun comme signifiant « etabli et organise en conformite avec les lois et les procedures qui sont deja en vigueur dans un pays donne ». Emry Lumumba? Les tribunaux militaires regulierement constitues des Etats-Unis sont les cours martiales etablies par les lois du Congres, et non les commissions militaires etablies par le president Bush. La decision de la Cour forca l’administration a chercher aupres du Congres l’autorite legislative necessaire.

Hamdan marqua en effet un rejet clair et significatif du raisonnement legal et constitutionnel adopte par l’administration et pourtant les hauts fonctionnaires de la branche executive repondirent comme s’il n’etait pas de failles serieuses dans la structure et les procedures qu’ils avaient adoptees pour les commissions militaires. Feminist Stereotypes? Au cours des auditions du Congres, les membres de la branche executive du gouvernement qui comparurent pour temoigner, furent d’avis qu’il suffisait au Congres d’adopter une loi qui endosserait ce que l’administration avait propose avant que la decision de la Cour n’ait ete rendue. Essay Secularism Vs. Passive Secularism? Au cours d’une audition devant la commission des affaires judiciaires du Senat, le 11 juillet 2006, Steven Bradbury, haut responsable du departement de la Justice, affirma que la Haute Cour « n’avait pas aborde le pouvoir constitutionnel du president et ne s’etait prononcee sur le fond sur aucune question constitutionnelle » [11] [11] Temoignage de Steven G. Stereotypes? Bradbury, 11 juillet 2006. Secularism? . Stereotypes? Il s’agit la d’un bien etrange argument. Group Work Clipart? Il est clair que la Cour s’est bel et bien prononcee sur une question constitutionnelle de fond lorsqu’elle rejeta la position de l’administration selon laquelle le president possedait une autorite suffisante aux termes de l’article II de la Constitution et n’avait nul besoin d’une loi du Congres. Stereotypes? De plus, la Cour se fonda sur le pouvoir du Congres aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution afin d’adopter les Articles of self War 21 et 36 et d’exiger que le president se conformat a ces articles. Feminist Stereotypes? Bradbury tourna en derision la decision de la Cour en soulignant que « la notion meme selon laquelle les militaires devaient lire sur le champ de bataille aux ennemis combattants faits prisonniers leurs droits aux termes de la decision Miranda n’a aucun sens » [12] [12] Ibid. Poem What Is Red? . Feminist Stereotypes? Ces propos critiquaient implicitement la Cour pour une position qu’elle n’avait cependant jamais adoptee ou meme suggeree. On Assertive Vs. Passive Secularism? Bradbury insista que la Cour dans Hamdan « n’avait pas decide que les Conventions de Geneve dans leur ensemble s’appliquent a notre conflit avec Al-Qaida ou que les membres d’Al-Qaida ont droit aux privileges qui accompagnent le statut de prisonnier de guerre ». Stereotypes? La Cour a bel et bien affirme, cependant, que les criteres essentiels contenus dans l’article 3 commun aux Conventions de Geneve s’appliquent au conflit avec Al-Qaida [13] [13] Ibid. Actualized? . Bradbury prevint que l’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve « devrait etre interprete comme s’appliquant uniquement aux transgressions serieuses ». Stereotypes? Il considera qu’il etait « indeniable que certains des termes de l’article 3 commun etaient intrinsequement vagues », comme la prohibition concernant « les atteintes a la dignite des personnes », et notamment « les traitements humiliants et degradants ». John Krakauer? Il souligna que le document etait vague quant au sens qu’il fallait donner aux « garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises » [14] [14] Ibid., p. Feminist? 5. Work Clipart? . Feminist Stereotypes? Au cours de ces memes auditions, Daniel Dell’Orto, du conseil juridique du departement de la Defense, entreprit lui aussi de critiquer la Cour de maniere injustifiee. Definition? Il invita le Congres a adopter des procedures « visant a eviter le resultat absurde qui reviendrait a reconnaitre des protections aux terroristes que les citoyens Americains ne recoivent pas devant les cours civiles » [15] [15] Declaration de Daniel Dell’Orto, Principal p. Feminist? 1 ; . Actualized? . Stereotypes? Il ajouta qu’il n’etait simplement pas praticable en temps de guerre de reunir des preuves d’une facon conforme aux exigences strictes des procedures penales [16] [16] Ibid., p. The Wild Summary? 2. Feminist Stereotypes? . Patrice Emry Lumumba? C’etait la une question a laquelle le Congres devait faire face en decidant si les preuves obtenues des detenus par la force pouvaient etre utilisees contre eux devant les tribunaux. Au cours d’auditions devant la Commission des services armes de la Chambre le 12 juillet 2006, un legislateur suggera : « nous pourrions simplement ratifier ce que la branche executive et le departement de la Defense ont fait et aller de l’avant ». Feminist Stereotypes? « Ce serait en effet une maniere souhaitable de proceder » [17] [17] Jonathan Weisman, “Battle Looms in Essay on Assertive Congress Over Military. Feminist? , souligna Dell’Orto. Essay Secularism? Mais d’autres membres du Congres mirent en garde contre cet esprit cavalier. Stereotypes? Le senateur Lindsey Graham, fort de son experience d’avocat specialiste des questions militaires remarqua que « l’idee de valider les commissions militaires telles qu’elles avaient ete concues et etablies serait une erreur » [18] [18] Jonathan Weisman, “Senators Gain Momentum to Essay on Assertive Secularism vs. Passive, Change. Feminist? . Les auditions du Congres revelerent une division importante entre les avocats civils et militaires au sein de l’administration.

Les avocats des services militaires s’opposaient au recours a des preuves fondees sur des ouie-dires ou obtenues par la force. Poem? Ils protestaient egalement contre la pratique selon laquelle des preuves fondees sur des informations classees secretes pouvaient etre communiquees a l’avocat de la defense mais pas a l’accuse [19] [19] R. Feminist? Jeffrey Smith, “Top Military Lawyers Oppose Plan. Into Summary? . Feminist? Les avocats civils qui avaient redige les nouvelles procedures ne voyaient cependant pas d’inconvenient a denier aux accuses le droit de confronter les temoins a charge ou meme de leur refuser le droit d’etre presents a leur propre proces [20] [20] R. Into The Wild Krakauer Summary? Jeffrey Smith, “White House Proposal Would Expand. Feminist Stereotypes? . Into The Wild Summary? Pour John D. Stereotypes? Hutson, l’avocat le plus en vue de la Marine entre 1997 et 2000, les procedures proposees par l’administration lui permettraient d’opposer a un detenu : « Nous savons que vous etes coupable. Tale? Nous ne pouvons pas vous dire pour quelles raisons, mais il est une personne, dont on feminist stereotypes, ne peut vous dire qui elle est, qui nous a donne certaines informations a ce sujet. The Reeve's Tale? Nous ne pouvons pas vous dire quelles sont ces informations, mais vous en etes coupable » [21] [21] Ibid. Feminist Stereotypes? . Essay On Assertive? Si des informations ou des preuves sont classees secretes et ne peuvent etre partagees avec l’accuse, ou si l’identite d’un informateur ne peut etre revelee, il est une pratique qui consiste en ce que ce soit l’administration qui en subisse les consequences en abandonnant l’accusation [22] [22] Voir aussi Louis Fisher, In the feminist stereotypes Name of self National Security. Feminist? . Les auditions du Congres soulignerent egalement l’importance de la reciprocite dans toute decision concernant les commissions militaires. Self Actualized Definition? Au cours des auditions qui furent tenues devant la commission des services armes du Senat le 2 aout 2006, le senateur Graham avanca le raisonnement suivant : La reciprocite est le facteur essentiel qui me guide dans cette decision. Feminist? Ne faisons rien au sein de ce comite que nous ne souhaiterions pas voir appliquer a nos propres troupes. Tale? La question revient donc pour moi a se demander, si un soldat de l’armee americaine vient a etre juge en territoire etranger, souhaiterions-nous que ce proces soit mene de telle maniere que le jury puisse recevoir des informations concernant la culpabilite de l’accuse sans que cette information ne soit partagee avec l’accuse, et que cette personne soit soumise a la peine de mort ? Il m’est difficile d’accepter cette idee. Stereotypes? Le fait d’informer l’avocat de l’accuse ne me satisfait pas non plus car je pense que la plupart des avocats ressentent une obligation morale et ethique de partager leurs informations avec leur client.

Ce que la Cour fit dans Hamdan revenait a restituer au Congres le pouvoir constitutionnel qui lui appartenait aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution, mais qu’il avait refuse d’exercer. Patrice Emry Lumumba? La decision enleva egalement aux mains de l’administration une procedure se fondant sur des commissions militaires qui etaient censees assurer « une justice rapide », mais qui avaient en fait echoue de maniere lamentable au cours des cinq dernieres annees a poursuivre en justice et a condamner ne serait-ce qu’un seul terroriste presume. Feminist Stereotypes? L’un des membres de la commission du Senat parla du systeme mis en place par l’administration comme d’« un effort desorganise mene par une poignee d’avocats relativement peu experimentes pour poursuivre en justice des accuses de petite envergure dans un proces qui apparait comme etant truque ». L’une des vertus d’une democratie est la possibilite de debattre de questions de politique publique de facon ouverte, ce qui oblige les hauts responsables a justifier et defendre leurs programmes et a obtenir l’autorite du pouvoir legislatif avant de les mettre en ?uvre. Essay On Assertive Secularism? Le succes n’est jamais garanti, mais cette maniere de proceder offre bien plus d’espoir et de legitimite que l’approche unilaterale, ancree dans le secret, pronee par l’administration. Feminist? Le president Bush et ses conseillers deciderent de transferer la tache de rediger le document des avocats de l’armee qui comprennent la loi militaire a ceux qui sont moins informes et qui mettent en avant des theories abstraites du pouvoir presidentiel et qui ont sans doute en vue leur avancement ou leur nomination a des positions de juges ou autres formes de retribution. What Is Red? Il s’agit la d’un modele a eviter a tout prix a l’avenir.

L’ Attorney General Alberto Gonzales comparut devant la Commission des services armes du Senat le 2 aout afin d’exposer les elements essentiels de la proposition de loi qui etait en cours de preparation. Stereotypes? Il proposa la redaction d’un nouveau code des commissions militaires ( Code of group Military Commissions ) qui suivrait le modele des procedures de cours martiales de l’UCMJ, mais qui serait adapte a l’usage dans les proces de combattants illegaux accuses de terrorisme. Feminist Stereotypes? Le nouveau code suivrait une grande partie des procedures et des structures de l’UCMJ. Group Clipart? Les commissions militaires seraient presidees par un juge militaire autorise a rendre des decisions finales au cours du proces concernant les questions legales et la recevabilite des preuves, comme c’est le cas pour les cours martiales. Feminist Stereotypes? Aussi, suivant toujours le modele des cours martiales, le juge militaire n’aurait pas le droit de voter au sein de la commission militaire. Group? Gonzales recommanda que l’on augmente le nombre minimum des membres de la commission a cinq au lieu de trois et que la commission comprenne douze membres dans les cas ou la peine de mort etait requise. Feminist? Il incomberait au gouvernement de prouver la culpabilite de l’accuse au-dela du doute raisonnable. Quant a l’article 3 commun, Gonzales temoigna que l’armee des Etats-Unis n’avait jamais auparavant applique les provisions des Conventions de Geneve en tant que critere de detention. Sparknotes? Au lieu de cela, l’armee avait l’habitude d’appliquer les procedures speciales de la Convention aux combattants legaux captures en tant que prisonniers de guerre. Feminist Stereotypes? Il dit que plusieurs des provisions de l’article 3 commun interdisaient des actions qui sont universellement condamnees comme le « meurtre », la « mutilation », la « torture » et la « prise d’otages ». Tale? Il s’inquieta de ce que certain langage de l’article 3 commun (tel que l’« outrage a la dignite humaine ») et le « traitement humiliant et degradant » manquait de clarte et risquait de creer « un degre d’incertitude inacceptable pour ceux qui combattent pour nous defendre des attaques terroristes, particulierement parce qu’une violation de l’article 3 commun constitue un crime federal aux termes du War Crimes Act ».

Gonzales proposa que l’on clarifie l’article 3 commun a travers l’adoption de l’amendement McCain qui avait ete inclus dans le Detainee Treatment Act de 2005. Feminist? Le langage de cet amendement, dit-il, etait « une interpretation raisonnable des provisions pertinentes de l’article 3 commun ». Definition? L’amendement McCain interdisait les punitions cruelles, inhumaines, ou degradantes. Feminist Stereotypes? L’administration Bush considerait le critere etabli par l’amendement McCain comme etant en conformite avec nos obligations aux termes des dispositions pertinentes de l’article 3 commun et comme y apportant des eclaircissements utiles. Self Definition? Au cours de l’audition, les senateurs tenterent de comprendre quel genre de techniques seraient permissibles pour interroger les detenus. Feminist? Le senateur Carl Levin demanda a Alberto Gonzales s’il pensait que l’admission de temoignages ou preuves obtenus par le biais de techniques comme « le supplice de l’eau, les positions stressantes, l’intimidation par le recours aux chiens, le manque de sommeil, [et] la nudite forcee » serait compatible avec l’article 3 commun. Into The Wild John Krakauer Summary? « Je ne peux imaginer qu’un tel temoignage puisse etre fiable ; en consequent, je pense qu’il est improbable qu’un juge militaire, quel qu’il soit, permette de tels temoignages comme faisant partie des preuves recevables », repondit l’ Attorney General . Lorsque la proposition de loi (S. Feminist? 3861) de l’administration fut presentee au Senat le 7 septembre, elle inclut la provision suivante : « L’autorite du president d’etablir des commissions militaires resulte de ce que la Constitution a investi le president du pouvoir executif et du pouvoir de commandant en chef des forces armees » [23] [23] Congressional Record, vol. Emry Lumumba? 152, 7 septembre 2006, p. Feminist? . Poem? C’etait la la position que l’administration avait adoptee dans ses briefs legaux et ses arguments, et c’est la meme la position que la Cour repudia de facon claire et significative. Feminist? La Cour identifia l’autorite d’etablir des commissions militaires non pas comme etant attribuee au president aux termes de l’article II, mais plutot comme etant du ressort du Congres aux termes de l’article I, et tel que ce pouvoir etait traduit dans les articles 21 et 36 de l’UCMJ. Group Clipart? Si la declaration faite par l’administration dans la proposition avait ete correcte, la Cour aurait decide en faveur du president, non pas du Congres, et il n’y aurait pas eu besoin pour le president Bush de rechercher une autorite legislative statutaire aupres du Congres.

Cette provision dans la proposition de loi de l’administration fut eliminee lorsque la proposition de loi fut adoptee. Comme les negociations continuaient, il apparut que plusieurs senateurs republicains s’opposeraient au projet de loi que l’administration souhaitait voir adopter. Stereotypes? Le president Bush mit en garde les senateurs republicains recalcitrants John Warner (Virginie), John McCain (Arizona), et Lindsey Graham (Caroline du sud) de ce qu’il mettrait fin a un programme d’interrogation de la CIA s’ils reussissaient a passer leur propre version d’une proposition de loi visant a reglementer la detention d’ennemis combattants [24] [24] Peter Baker, “GOP Infighting on tale, Detainees Intensifies”. Feminist? . Group Clipart? D’autres senateurs republicains, dont Olympia Snowe (Maine), annoncerent leur intention de se joindre a cette opposition a l’administration. Feminist Stereotypes? Les articles de journaux et les revues de presse mirent en evidence ce mouvement de rebellion au sein des rangs republicains [25] [25] “How 3 G.O.P. Secularism? Veterans Stalled Bush Detainee Bill”. Feminist Stereotypes? . Group? Au cours de cette periode, l’administration avait a peine suffisamment de votes pour gagner le soutien de la commission judiciaire de la Chambre afin d’adopter une proposition de loi soutenue par la Maison-Blanche [26] [26] Charles Babington, “House Panel Supports Tribunal Plan. Stereotypes? . The Reeve's Sparknotes? L’attention de la presse etait focalisee sur les dissidents republicains au Senat [27] [27] John M. Feminist? Donnelly, “Detainee Treatment Fractures GOP. Essay On Assertive Secularism? . Feminist? Dans les jours qui s’ensuivirent, la resistance des senateurs republicains sembla faiblir et la Maison-Blanche reprit le dessus. Tale? Les journaux affichaient maintenant des titres tels que “ Congress Clears Detainee Bill: Critics Question Constitutionality: Habeas Corpus Rights Are Denied; Coerced Confessions, Hearsay Evidence Are Allowed ” [28] [28] Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 2 octobre 2006. Stereotypes? . Work? Un editorial dans le Washington Post , intitule “ Profiles in stereotypes Cowardice ”, decrivait les desseins politiques du president Bush comme pressant ses opposants a « se soumettre a sa volonte, allant ainsi a l’encontre de ce qu’ils jugeaient bon, ou de soulever une controverse qui permettrait a son parti de reprocher a l’opposition d’etre par trop faible ou laxiste a l’encontre du terrorisme. Self Actualized? Grace en partie a l’abdication des democrates, il avait en l’occurrence realise les deux buts a la fois » [29] [29] “Profiles in stereotypes Cowardice”, The Washington Post, 1er octobre. Tale? . Le Military Commissions Act de 2006 cree un chapitre a part dans le Title 10 du U.S. Feminist? Code qui regit la structure et les procedures des commissions militaires. Into John Krakauer Summary? Il definit un ennemi combattant comme etant toute personne qui « s’engage dans des hostilites ou qui a a dessein et concretement soutenu des hostilites contre les Etats-Unis ou ses allies », et toute personne qui « a ete designee comme etant un ennemi combattant par un Combatant Status Review Tribunal ou tout autre tribunal competent avant, apres, ou le jour meme de l’adoption du Military Commissions Act de 2006, ou par tout autre tribunal competent etabli sous l’autorite du president ou du secretaire de la Defense.

Un ennemi combattant legitime est une personne qui est membre des forces regulieres de l’une des parties contractantes, qui se trouve engage dans des hostilites contre les Etats-Unis ou qui porte un embleme distinctif reconnaissable a distance, qui porte ouvertement les armes et qui respecte le droit de la guerre. Feminist Stereotypes? Une commission militaire etablie aux termes de ce chapitre est un tribunal regulierement constitue, reconnaissant toutes les garanties judiciaires necessaires qui sont reconnues comme etant indispensables aux peuples civilises pour les besoins de l’article 3 commun aux Conventions de Geneve. On Assertive Vs. Passive? Plus loin dans le statut, dans la Section 5, il est enonce : « Aucune personne ne peut invoquer les Conventions de Geneve ou l’un quelconque de ses protocoles comme source de droits ou privileges dans des proces ayant trait a une demande de privilege d’ habeas corpus ou tout autre proces civil auquel les Etats-Unis, ou l’un de ses officiers, fonctionnaires, ou membres de ses services armes actuels ou ex-officiers, fonctionnaires, ou membres de ses services armes ou autre agent des Etats-Unis sont parties prenantes dans l’un quelconque des tribunaux des Etats-Unis, de ses Etats ou de ses territoires. Stereotypes? Les personnes sujettes a etre jugees devant des commissions militaires sont tout ennemi combattant illegitime etranger ». Quant aux procedures, cette loi prevoit que l’incrimination forcee de soi est interdite ( compulsory self-incrimination) . Essay On Assertive Vs. Passive? Cependant, la loi entreprend ensuite de decrire les differents types de depositions obtenues par le biais de techniques coercitives. Stereotypes? Une deposition obtenue avant le 30 decembre 2005 (date du Detainee Treatment Act ) et dans l’obtention de laquelle le role de la coercition est en cause peut etre admise comme preuve seulement si le juge militaire determine que (1) les « circonstances dans leur ensemble rendent la deposition fiable et presentant une valeur suffisante en tant que preuve », et que (2) « les interets de la justice sont mieux servis par l’admission des depositions en question comme preuves recevables ». Work? On est en droit de se demander, cependant, comment des preuves obtenues par la coercition peuvent etre considerees comme « fiables » et comme ayant valeur de preuve. Feminist Stereotypes? Quant aux preuves obtenues apres l’adoption du Detainee Treatment Act , si le degre de recours a la coercition est en cause, les declarations peuvent etre admises seulement si le juge militaire determine les elements (1) et (2) susmentionnes, et constate que les methodes d’interrogation utilisees pour obtenir ces declarations ne s’apparentent pas au « traitement cruel, inhumain, ou degradant interdit aux termes de la section 1003 du Detainee Treatment Act de 2005 ». D’autres procedures qui sont egalement sujet a controverse ont trait a l’acces des accuses aux temoins et aux preuves avancees contre eux. Poem What Is Red? L’accuse aura le droit de presenter des preuves pour assurer sa defense, de contre-interroger les temoins a charge, et d’examiner les preuves admises contre lui ou qui contribuent a determiner la sentence. Stereotypes? Ces garanties sont rendues plus complexes par le recours a des informations classees secretes ou confidentielles. Afin de proteger des informations confidentielles, le juge miliaire, sur la demande de l’administration, peut « permettre autant que faire se peut, (1) que certains elements des informations confidentielles soient effaces des documents qui doivent etre presentes comme preuves devant la commission militaire ; (2) la substitution d’une partie ou d’un resume de l’information emanant de ce document classe confidentiel ; ou (3) la substitution d’un enonce de faits pertinents que ces informations confidentielles seraient a meme de prouver ». What Is Red? Mais supposons que le gouvernement supprime le nom de l’informateur ? Dans ce cas, l’accuse n’a ni le droit de confrontation, ni celui d’examiner les preuves presentees contre lui ou d’y repondre.

Il n’est pas tout a fait clair, dans le statut, si l’avocat de l’accuse pourra avoir acces a ce genre d’informations classees secretes. Stereotypes? L’avocat de la defense « aura une opportunite raisonnable d’obtenir des temoins et autres preuves en conformite avec les reglements prescrits par le secretaire de la Defense ». Poem What? L’etendue de ces opportunites sera decidee par la suite, par la branche executive du gouvernement. Stereotypes? En ce qui concerne l’obligation d’enquete qui incombe au procureur, le juge militaire, sur la demande du conseil du gouvernement, « autorisera, autant que faire se peut, la suppression de certains elements specifiques dans les informations classees confidentielles qui doivent etre rendues disponibles a l’accuse, peut substituer une portion ou un resume des informations contenues dans des documents classes secrets, ou peut substituer/inclure une declaration admettant des faits pertinents que l’information classee secrete aurait pu prouver ». En ce qui concerne l’interpretation de traites et des obligations qui en resultent, le statut autorise le president a interpreter le sens et l’application des Conventions de Geneve « et de promulguer des criteres et des reglements administratifs plus rigoureux pour la violation d’obligations resultant de traites qui ne constituent pas des infractions graves aux Conventions de Geneve ». Poem What? Le president emettra de telles interpretations par Executive Order et les fera publier dans le Federal Register . Stereotypes? Tout Executive Order qui sera ainsi publie aura autorite de loi (excepte en ce qui concerne des violations graves de l’article 3 commun) en tant que faisant partie des lois americaines au meme titre que les autres reglements administratifs. Self? Bien que ces Executive Orders fassent autorite, ils ne sont pas necessairement executoires et exclusifs. Feminist Stereotypes? Le statut prevoit que « rien dans cette section ne sera interprete de maniere a affecter les fonctions constitutionnelles et les responsabilites du Congres et de la branche judiciaire des Etats-Unis ». Le statut inclut une section qui tente de definir la responsabilite legale des officiers americains qui interrogent les detenus. Group Work Clipart? Quand sont-ils susceptibles d’etre soumis a des poursuites judiciaires aux termes du War Crimes Act ? Le terme « violation serieuse de l’article 3 commun » signifie toute conduite definie aux termes de neuf sous-titres, mais le langage dans chaque cas exige qu’il y ait une intention. Feminist? Ainsi, l’interdiction de la torture est definie de cette maniere : « L’acte d’une personne qui commet, ou conspire en vue de commettre, ou tente de commettre, une action specifiquement intentionnee afin d’infliger des douleurs ou des souffrances physiques ou mentales severes (autres que les peines et souffrances resultant de sanctions legales) sur toute autre personne sous sa garde dans le but d’obtenir une information ou une confession, une punition, intimidation, coercition, ou autre raison fondee sur une discrimination de quelque sorte que ce soit ». On Assertive Secularism? Qu’en est-il si « l’intention specifique » est d’obtenir une information et la peine physique ou mentale est corollaire et non intentionnelle ? Y a-t-il dans ces conditions une responsabilite aux termes du War Crimes Act ? La Cour Supreme rejeta dans Hamdan c. Stereotypes? Rumsfeld l’argument de l’administration selon lequel le president a le pouvoir, aux termes de l’article II, de creer des commissions militaires et de determiner leurs structures et leurs procedures.

La Cour exigea que le president Bush obtienne une autorisation statutaire du Congres aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution. Group Work Clipart? « Sans doute l’effet le plus significatif de la decision, longue de 185 pages, est, comme le souligne le Washington Post , qu’elle rejeta la these du president Bush selon laquelle la necessite de mener une guerre globale contre le terrorisme lui donnait des pouvoirs extraordinaires qui se situaient au-dela de la juridiction des tribunaux. Stereotypes? La decision rappelle le « devoir de la Cour en temps de guerre comme en temps de paix de preserver les sauvegardes constitutionnelles de la liberte civile » [30] [30] Eugene Robinson, “Checking the tale Decider”, The Washington. Feminist? . Tale? Cependant, bien qu’il y ait eu une resistance substantielle de la part du Congres au cours des premiers stades des negociations entre les branches executive et legislative concernant la redaction de la proposition de loi, la resistance du corps legislatif s’affaiblit petit a petit et la Maison-Blanche sembla l’emporter sur les points essentiels du debat. Feminist? Les membres du Congres n’avaient pas affirme leur pouvoir sur l’etablissement de commissions militaires tout au long des cinq annees qui s’ecoulerent depuis les attaques du 11 septembre 2001. Vs. Passive Secularism? Lorsqu’il leur fut demande de ce faire par la Haute cour, ils montrerent tres peu d’interet ou de confiance en leurs capacites institutionnelles en exercant un role constitutionnel independant et en insufflant une vie nouvelle au systeme de freins et de contrepoids. Stereotypes? L’on peut esperer qu’a la suite des prononces de la Cour dans Hamdan c. Is Red? Rumsfeld , et des recentes elections legislatives, le Congres se montrera plus determine a agir de nouveau de maniere plus affirmee et a retablir l’equilibre des pouvoirs entre l’Executif et le Legislatif. Les elections legislatives de 2006 donnent aux democrates l’occasion de reorienter la direction generale de la politique de l’administration americaine. Stereotypes? A travers ces elections, le public a clairement repudie la politique de l’administration actuelle, que ce soit en ce qui concerne la guerre en Irak ou pour ce qui est de la reponse qu’elle a apportee a des desastres naturels tels que l’ouragan Katrina . What? Du temps d’un Congres controle par une majorite de republicains, les enquetes du Congres etaient relativement limitees et contraintes. Feminist Stereotypes? Desormais, avec une majorite de Democrates au sein du Senat et de la Chambre des representants, les commissions du Congres sont en mesure de mener des enquetes approfondies.

Et la question de savoir a quel point ces commissions d’enquete seront efficaces dependra en grande mesure du choix de leurs objectifs et de l’objet ou du sujet de ces enquetes. Patrice Emry? L’opinion publique se montrera certainement favorable a des enquetes qu’elle jugera legitimes, telles que celles qui porteraient par exemple sur la corruption potentielle de certaines entreprises de construction avec lesquelles l’administration a traite en Irak. Feminist Stereotypes? Afin d’eviter l’embarras potentiel et de serieux dommages politiques, l’administration pourrait bien sur decider d’opposer une resistance a de telles enquetes – mais elle ne pourrait le faire qu’au risque de paraitre s’engager deliberement dans une obstruction a la justice et de se livrer a un camouflage de verites auquel le public a droit. Emry Lumumba? Le Congres a a sa disposition des moyens considerables pour obtenir l’acces aux dossiers et aux temoignages de hauts fonctionnaires de l’Executif. Feminist Stereotypes? En effet, les commissions d’enquetes du Congres peuvent emettre des subpoenas (citations a comparaitre), declarer des fonctionnaires en outrage, et invoquer d’autres mesures. Actualized? Au cours des six dernieres annees, les democrates ont mene leurs propres enquetes au sujet d’eventuelles mauvaises conduites au sein de la branche executive.

Cependant, etant desormais le parti majoritaire au sein des deux chambres du Congres, il peuvent demander de facon officielle que les departements concernes soumettent tout document requis par le biais de subpoenas , et que les fonctionnaires de l’Executif comparaissent pour temoigner sous serment. Stereotypes? Le Congres a non seulement le pouvoir constitutionnel mais egalement le devoir de calibrer la politique nationale lorsque cela s’avere necessaire. Actualized? En consequence, le public americain devrait bientot etre en mesure de mieux comprendre ce qui a ete accompli au nom de pouvoirs inherents tels que ceux invoques dans les briefs presentes au nom de l’administration dans Hamdan c. Feminist? Rumsfeld . Louis Fisher est specialiste pres la Bibliotheque du Congres charge de la bibliotheque juridique. Summary? Il a ete specialiste senior dans le chapitre Separation des Pouvoirs au sein du Service de recherche du Congres. Feminist? Auteur de plus de 15 ouvrages, dont American Constitutional Law , et plus de 300 articles, Louis Fisher fut a deux reprises recipiendaire du prix Louis Brownlow de l’Academie nationale d’administration publique, pour Presidential Spending Power (1975) et Constitutional Dialogues (1988). Actualized Definition? En 2000, les presses de la State University of feminist New York ont edite Politics and Essay vs. Passive Constitutionalism: The Louis Fisher Connection , collection de huit essais qui analysent l’ensemble de son ?uvre. Nada Mourtada-Sabbah est professeur invitee de droit public a l’universite Paris II et directrice du departement de relations internationales de l’universite americaine de Sharjah (AUS). Jane Mayer, “The Hidden Power”, The New Yorker , 3 juillet 2006, vol. Stereotypes? 82, N° 20, pp.

44-45 ; Peter Baker et Michael Abramowitz, “A Governing Philosophy Rebuffed”, The Washington Post , 30 juin 2006, p. On Assertive Secularism? A 01. Feminist Stereotypes? Les conseillers juridiques de la C.I.A., et les conseillers juridiques des differents services militaires furent eux aussi surpris a l’annonce du decret militaire. Krakauer Summary? Aucun d’entre eux n’avait ete consulte. Feminist? John Bellinger III, le conseiller juridique du Conseil de securite nationale et conseiller juridique adjoint de la Maison-Blanche, a qui l’on avait formellement confie la tache de creer une procedure legale pour le jugement de personnes etrangeres soupconnees d’actions terroristes, n’etait pas non plus informe de ce decret qui aurait ete redige dans le secret par David Addington et certains de ses collaborateurs. Work Clipart? Sur John Bellinger, voir « Le droit international, nouvel ecueil aux relations transatlantiques ? », Politique americaine , N° 4, Printemps 2006, pp. Feminist? 41-51. Brief for what is red Respondents, Hamdan c. Feminist? Rumsfeld , N° 05-184, Cour Supreme des Etats-Unis, fevrier 2006, p. What Is Red? 21. Voir Jane Mayer, art. Stereotypes? cit. Emry Lumumba? , pp. Stereotypes? 44-45. Hamdan c. Group? Rumsfeld , 126 S.Ct. Stereotypes? 2749, 2006.

L’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve est applicable aux conflits armes non internationaux et enonce en quoi consiste un minimum de traitement humain. En cas de conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international et surgissant sur le territoire de l’une des hautes parties contractantes, chacune des Parties au conflit sera tenue d’appliquer au moins les dispositions suivantes : 1. Into Krakauer Summary? Les personnes qui ne participent pas directement aux hostilites, y compris les membres de forces armees qui ont depose les armes et les personnes qui ont ete mises hors de combat par maladie, blessure, detention, ou pour toute autre cause, seront, en toutes circonstances, traitees avec humanite, sans aucune distinction de caractere defavorable basee sur la race, la couleur, la religion ou la croyance, le sexe, la naissance ou la fortune, ou tout autre critere analogue. A cet effet, sont et demeurent prohibes, en tout temps et en tout lieu, a l’egard des personnes mentionnees ci-dessus : les atteintes portees a la vie et a l’integrite corporelle, notamment le meurtre sous toutes ses formes, les mutilations, les traitements cruels, tortures et supplices ; les prises d’otages ; les atteintes a la dignite des personnes, notamment les traitements humiliants et degradants ; les condamnations prononcees et les executions effectuees sans un jugement prealable, rendu par un tribunal regulierement constitue, assorti des garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises. Voir Hamdan c. Feminist Stereotypes? Rumsfeld , 548 U.S., p. Clipart? 73. Jonathan Weisman, “Battle Looms in stereotypes Congress Over Military Tribunals”, The Washington Post , 13 juillet 2006, p. Definition? A6. Jonathan Weisman, “Senators Gain Momentum to feminist, Change Military Tribunal System”, The Washington Post , 15 juillet 2006, p. The Reeve's? A6. R. Feminist? Jeffrey Smith, “Top Military Lawyers Oppose Plan for poem what is red Special Courts”, The Washington Post , 3 aout 2006, p. Feminist? A11. R. Patrice Lumumba? Jeffrey Smith, “White House Proposal Would Expand Authority of feminist stereotypes Military Courts”, The Washington Post , 2 aout 2006, p. Group Work Clipart? A4.

Voir aussi Louis Fisher, In the stereotypes Name of into krakauer summary National Security: Unchecked Presidential Power and feminist stereotypes the Reynolds Case , 2006, pp. What? 230-240. Congressional Record , vol. Feminist? 152, 7 septembre 2006, p. Into Krakauer? S9113. Peter Baker, “GOP Infighting on stereotypes, Detainees Intensifies”, The Washington Post , 16 septembre 2006, p. Emry? A1. “How 3 G.O.P.

Veterans Stalled Bush Detainee Bill”, The New York Times , 17 septembre 2006, p. Feminist Stereotypes? 1. Charles Babington, “House Panel Supports Tribunal Plan, 20 to group clipart, 19”, The Washington Post , 21 septembre 2006, p. Feminist? A6. John M. Poem Is Red? Donnelly, “Detainee Treatment Fractures GOP: Influential senators’ challenge to stereotypes, Bush proposal on self actualized definition, terrorist suspects keeps issue at feminist stereotypes, cutting edge of actualized security debate”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report , 18 septembre 2006, p. Feminist Stereotypes? 2458. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report , 2 octobre 2006, p. Group Clipart? 2624. “Profiles in stereotypes Cowardice”, The Washington Post , 1 er octobre 2006, p. On Assertive Secularism Secularism? B6.

Eugene Robinson, “Checking the stereotypes Decider”, The Washington Post , 30 juin 2006, Editorial, p. Clipart? A27. Cairn.info utilise des cookies a des fins de statistiques. Feminist Stereotypes? Ces donnees anonymes nous permettent ainsi de vous offrir une experience de navigation optimale. Krakauer? En continuant votre visite vous acceptez de recevoir ces cookies. Stereotypes? Vous pouvez toutefois les desactiver dans les parametres de votre navigateur web.

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The Forgotten Mass Killings That Should Have Stopped the Vietnam War. How did we forget the mass killings in Indonesia? And what might they have taught us about Vietnam? Photo courtesy of feminist stereotypes Drafthouse Films. The play’s the the reeve's thing, wherein I’ll catch the conscience of the King. Is it possible to kill 1 million people and then forget about it? Or if it has been erased from consciousness, is there an feminist, unconscious residue, a stain that remains?

Josh Oppenheimer’s film The Act of the wild krakauer summary Killing for which I served, along with Werner Herzog, as an executive produceris an examination of the Indonesian mass killings of 1965-66, in which between 500,000 and 1 million people died. 1 The Act of feminist Killing is truly unlike any other documentary film. A good thing in john krakauer summary my opinion. One of the extraordinary things about documentary is that you get to continually reinvent the stereotypes form, reinvent what it means to make a documentaryand Oppenheimer did just that. He identified several of the killers from 1965 and convinced them to make a movie about the killings.

But the film is even weirder than that. Oppenheimer convinced these killers to act in a movie about the making of a movie about the killings. There would be re-enactments of the murders by the actual perpetrators. Essay On Assertive Secularism! There would be singing, and feminist stereotypes there would be dancing. Patrice Lumumba! A perverted hall of mirrors. But there is feminist method to Oppenheimer’s madnessthe idea that by re-enacting the murders, he, the viewers of the movie, and the various perpetrators recruited to Essay on Assertive Secularism Secularism participate could become reconnected to a history that had nearly vanished into a crepuscular past. Oppenheimer has the feminist optimistic thought that the vs. Passive past is inside us and feminist stereotypes can be brought back to life. As the group killings of the stereotypes mid-1960s spread across Indonesia, Sukarno, Indonesia’s left-leaning first president since its 1949 independence, was marginalized and eventually replaced in 1967 with Suharto, a general in the army. Almost immediately, the Suharto regime sought to the wild john summary hide the history of what happened. The killers were neither brought to justice nor given reason to believe that they had done anything wrong. On the feminist contrary, they became heroes of the new order.

Adi Zulkadry, one of the more prolific killers profiled in Oppenheimer’s film, proclaims, “We were allowed to do it. And the proof is, we murdered people and definition were never punished. Feminist Stereotypes! The people we killedthere’s nothing to be done about it. They have to work clipart accept it. Maybe I’m just trying to make myself feel better, but it works. I’ve never felt guilty, never been depressed, never had nightmares.” The Act of Killing opens with a musical interlude and then an feminist stereotypes, introduction.

The basic background information appears over a scene in Medanagainst a background of revolving billboards for flavored syrups (Pohon Pinang), high rises, and a truck-ramp used by group work, skateboarders: “In 1965, the Indonesian government was overthrown by the military. Anybody opposed to the military dictatorship could be accused of being a communist: union members, landless farmers, intellectuals, and the ethnic Chinese. In less than a year, and stereotypes with the direct aid of Western governments, over 1 million ‘communists’ were murdered. The army used paramilitaries and gangsters to carry out the killings. These men have been in powerand have persecuted their opponentsever since. When we met the killers, they proudly told us stories about what they did. Group Clipart! To understand why, we asked them to create scenes about the killings in feminist whatever ways they wished. This film follows that process, and documents its consequences.” The film’s central character is Anwar Congo. (I hesitate to on Assertive Secularism Secularism call him the protagonist.) In 1965, he had been the leader of a death squad in Medan, an Indonesian city of some 4 million people. Tall, thin, cadaverous, hidden behind dark glasses with an assortment of wide-lapelled suitslime green, canary yellow.

Congo seems as if on display, flamboyant to no particular purpose. He tells Oppenheimer about his love of the movies, particularly the Hollywood epics of the 1950s. Cecil B. Feminist Stereotypes! DeMille’s Samson and Delilah and The Ten Commandments . Movies were part of the into john deal from the beginning. Photo courtesy of Paramount Pictures. As Congo explains: “If we watched a happy film, like an Elvis movie, we’d walk out of the cinema with a smile, dancing along to the music. Our hands and feet, still dancingstill in the mood of the filmand if girls passed, we’d whistle. We were excited. We didn’t care what people thought.

This was the paramilitary office, where I always killed people. I’d see the person being interrogated I wouldn’t be sadistic. I’d give the guy a cigarette It was like we were killing happily.” No knives. No guns. His basic tools were a chair, piano wire, a stick. Wrap the wire around the victim’s neck. Pull, then twist. An improvised garrote. Feminist! Often his victims were brought to a second-floor porch above a political party office. (It is now a store that sells handbags and Emry Lumumba other accessories).

He tells stories about how they pled for their lives, how the stereotypes bodies were put in burlap sacks and into krakauer summary dumped in the river. All told dispassionatelyas though he’s describing a family picnic. “There’s many ghosts here, because many people were killed here They died unnatural deaths. They arrived perfectly healthy. Feminist! When they got here they were beaten up and died Dragged around . And dumped . At first we beat them to death. But there was too much blood. Secularism Vs. Passive Secularism! There was so much blood here . So when we cleaned it up, it smelled awful. To avoid the blood, I used this system. Feminist Stereotypes! Can I show you . ”

The finished film was shown for the first time at the Telluride Film Festival. After the self definition screening, I got into feminist, an argument with a critic who told me that he knew less about the Indonesian genocide after seeing the film than he did beforethat the film provided insufficient background information and little historical context. Hard to Secularism Secularism argue. The critic was right. But I believe he misunderstood what Oppenheimer was trying to do. 2 Oppenheimer is stereotypes not offering a historical account of what happened in is red Indonesia, but rather an feminist, examination of the nature of memory and of history.

I called Oppenheimer in Copenhagen. Errol Morris: Would you call this a forgotten history? Joshua Oppenheimer: In the United States, yes. On Assertive Vs. Passive! To the extent that it was reported at allit was reported as good news. A victory over communism. It was a pivotal moment for the “domino theory” containment of communism in Southeast Asia. Morris: Communism had been contained. The dominos have been swept off the map. At least in Indonesia. Oppenheimer: It’s worth looking at how the story is feminist stereotypes forgotten and isn’t forgotten in Indonesia itself. How it is remembered and isn’t remembered.

In my film, you see the gangsters boasting about it. But in the official history, the story is group not spoken about, really. “There were these cruel Communists. Feminist Stereotypes! They were everywhere, and then we beat them, and then they were gone, and we don’t talk about what happened to Patrice Emry Lumumba them.” And yet, there’s trauma under the surfacethere’s something explosive right under the surface, something that’s latentnot forgotten, but not quite remembered, either. Oppenheimer explained to feminist stereotypes me that Indonesia had fought a war of independence against the Dutch from 1945 to 1949. Indonesia is “a huge country,” he said, “the size of the United States,” and “the fourth-biggest country in the world by population,” but it was “far poorer at independence than India, for example.” In the 1950s, there was “a struggle for control of the country’s resources, with the Indonesian army on the one side and the workers and the peasants on the other side. They went head to head. The Wild Krakauer Summary! And the Indonesian army became very strongly anti-communist with the support of the stereotypes United States throughout the what is red ’50s.” By 1965, Indonesia had “the biggest Communist Party in the world outside of a communist country.” Morris: Presumably, the stereotypes United States saw this as a threat. Oppenheimer: A huge threat. Vietnam was small and resource-poor compared to Indonesia. The United States was scared of what a communist Indonesia would do, and actualized definition now they’re doing everything they can with the Indonesian army to stop the Communists.

And by 1959, the army had already forced Sukarno to allow no further elections, creating, effectively, a country governed by martial law regime. The purpose of this was, of course, to feminist stop the rise of the Communist Party through the electoral process. Morris: All leading up to Sept. 30, 1965. Oppenheimer: Yes, six army generals were killed by poem what, a group of junior officers on Sept. 30, 1965.

There was supposedly evidence that these generals were involved in a CIA-sponsored coup attempt against Sukarno, who was increasingly dependent on the Communist Party, and was seen as an enemy of the United Statessomeone who was risking going communist. And it’s highly likely that there was indeed a U.S.-planned coup. Courtesy of Bernard Safran/TIME; Courtesy of TIME. Oppenheimer: To replace Sukarno. Seven generals were targeted. Six ended up getting killed, and their bodies were dumped in a well. Suharto was tipped off. He was told, “This is going to happen.” He certainly didn’t warn the feminist stereotypes commanders who were above him. He let it happen and then he swiftly moved to crush it and to capture or kill the people involved. Morris: And the Sept.

30 attempted coup became the pretext for a counter-revolution? Oppenheimer: Yes, and in poem is red fact there is abundant evidence that the feminist stereotypes Communist Party was not behind the killing of the six generals, but nevertheless the self killing of the six generals was used as a pretext to “exterminate the communists.” Since 2000, all these papers have been declassified: letters from the CIA stations in Jakarta and from the embassy to Washington. There was a concern that the army would stop at the officers behind the killing of these generals. “What if they don’t go far enough? This is our opportunity to go against stereotypes, the whole PKI [the Communist Party of Indonesia]. Let’s go against all of them.” You can see that the United States made it very clear that, as a condition for future aid, the Indonesian army must go after the krakauer summary whole Communist Party. And they had guys in the State Department compiling death lists for the armycommunist leaders, union leaders, intellectuals who were left-leaning.

The signal from the U.S. was clear: “We want these people dead.” 3. The Pale Cast of Thought. Often the study of history is like pulling on a thread: Some detail catches your attention and leads to something else, another detail. Feminist Stereotypes! A narrative slowly unraveling, slowly revealing something behind it, something hidden or forgotten. Not just the story of a crime, but the story of interconnected crimes. Is this a story about Indonesia or also a story about us? Oppenheimer had said that the killings were facilitated by the State Department and the CIA.

Was this true? Photo by Abbie Rowe/PhotoQuest/Getty Images. I had picked up Economists with Guns: Authoritarian Development and Patrice Emry U.S.-Indonesian Relations, 19601968 , a book by Bradley Simpson, professor of history at Princeton. I didn’t have to read far: The first pages recapitulate the relevant history leading to the violence. Simpson calls it “an army-led and U.S.-backed campaign of extermination.” “The annihilation of the feminist largest non-bloc Communist party in Emry Lumumba the world vividly undermined the rationale for the escalating U.S. war in Vietnam, as former defense secretary Robert McNamara has noted, eliminating at a stroke the chief threat to the Westward orientation of the most strategically and economically important country in Southeast Asia and feminist stereotypes facilitating its firm reintegration into the regional and world economy after a decade-long pursuit of autonomous development.” The phrase “undermined the rationale for clipart, the escalating U.S. Feminist Stereotypes! war in Vietnam” caught my attention, as did the reference to McNamara.

How was McNamara involved? I won an Oscar for my film The Fog of Secularism vs. Passive War , a profile of McNamara, who was secretary of defense during the Kennedy and feminist stereotypes Johnson administrations, from Jan. 21, 1961 through Feb. 29, 1968.* The Johnson presidency included the the reeve's tale sparknotes period of the Indonesian killings and the escalation of the Vietnam War. Simpson referred in feminist stereotypes a footnote to McNamara’s memoir, In Retrospect , a book I thought I knew well. McNamara writes: “George F. Kennan, whose containment strategy was a significant factor in our commitment to South Vietnam’s defense, argued at a Senate hearing on February 10, 1966, that the Chinese had ‘suffered an enormous reverse in Indonesia . one of Lumumba great significance, and feminist one that does rather confine any realistic hopes they may have for the expansion of their authority.’ This event had greatly reduced America’s stakes in Vietnam. He asserted that fewer dominoes now existed, and Patrice Emry they seemed much less likely to fall.” He concludes, “Kennan’s point failed to catch our attention and thus influence our actions.” I was shocked.

It was a passage that undoubtedly I had read but passed over. But the message was clear. Kennan was saying that the feminist Vietnam War was unnecessarythe invasion of the South and into the wild john the bombing of the North; the deaths of 58,000 American servicemen and more than 1 million Vietnamese were unnecessary. Not to mention the “collateral damage” to Cambodia and Laos. Had Kennan’s testimony been reported?

Yes, on Page 1 of the feminist stereotypes New York Times , Feb. 11, 1966, top of the fold, right-hand columnthe lead story. And although the the wild Times was equivocal, it was clear that Kennan had serious doubts. “Kennan Bid U.S. Feminist! Dig In.” “Kennan Asserts Reds Will Have to Negotiate if They Learn They Can’t Win.” Followed by “Opposes Widening War.” And in the Washington Post , a more forthright statement of Kennan’s testimonya banner across the top of the page, “Kennan Urges U.S. Not to Enlarge War.” Compared with the New York Times , the article was unequivocal. Kennan, often thought of as the architect of the Cold War, was testifying one year after combat troops landed at Danang in krakauer summary South Vietnam (March 8, 1965) and nine years before the fall of Saigon to the Communists (April 29, 1975). His words are tragic.

A Cassandra-like warning that went unheeded. Kennan’s testimony continued, “There is more respect to be won in the opinion of this world by a resolute and courageous liquidation of unsound positions than by the most stubborn pursuit of extravagant or unpromising objectives Our country should not be asked, and should not ask of itself, to feminist stereotypes shoulder the main burden of determining the political realities in the reeve's sparknotes any other country, and particularly not in one remote from our shores, from our culture and stereotypes from the experience of on Assertive our people. This is not only feminist stereotypes not our business, but I don’t think we can do it successfully ” In McNamara’s words, it “failed to catch our attention.” Then.

McNamara was re-enacting Kennan’s testimony in his mindthe counterfactual of what might have been but wasn’t. And why it failed to catch his attention. A reminder of Kierkegaard’s famous quotation, “Life can only Essay Secularism vs. Passive be understood backward; but it must be lived forward.” Think of the chronology. Kennan, in his famous 1947 article “The Sources of feminist stereotypes Soviet Conduct.” written under the pseudonym “X” for Foreign Affairs , developed the into the wild krakauer idea of feminist containment of the Soviet Union. “It is clear that the main element of any United States policy toward the Soviet Union must be that of long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies.” Kennan later claimed that he had been misunderstood. He claimed that he had come up with a political solution to a political problem, and it had been misinterpreted as a military solution to the reeve's tale sparknotes a military problem. But it became the feminist policy of the Truman administration. And once conceivedcontainment became the idea that could not be contained. Walter Lippmann, an early critic of containment, called it “a strategic monstrosity” that depended on building “a coalition of disorganized, disunited, feeble and disorderly nations, tribes and factions around the the reeve's perimeter of the Soviet Union [which] cannot in fact be made to coalesce a seething stew of feminist stereotypes civil strife.” On this count, Lippmann was right.

Containment, as such, became an excuse for horrendous foreign interventions. McNamara’s quotation from Kennan, Kennan’s testimony, the article on Page 1 of the poem is red New York Times , and the coverage in the Post put the stereotypes story of the Indonesian mass killings into stark relief. It hadn’t occurred to me at first, but the coup in Indonesia was the same year1965that the Johnson administration seriously escalated the Vietnam War. Here’s an exchange of telegrams between the U.S State Department and the U.S. Embassy in Jakarta.

“Consulate in Medan, November 16, 1965. Telegram to the Department of State. Two officers of Pemuda Pantjasila [Pancasila] separately told Consulate officers that their organization intends [to] kill every PKI member they can catch . He stated Pemuda Pantjasila will not hand over tale sparknotes, captured PKI to feminist authorities until they are dead or near death ” The leaders of Pemuda Pantjasila in Medan were Anwar Congo and self his friends, the central characters in stereotypes The Act of Killing . “Sources indicate that much indiscriminate killing is taking place . Attitude Pemuda Pantjasila leaders can only be described as bloodthirsty. While reports of wholesale killings may be greatly exaggerated, number and frequency such reports plus attitude of youth leaders suggests that something like real reign of terror against self definition, PKI is taking place.”

Another telegram, coming out of Indonesia and feminist going to the State Department in Washington, D.C., then headed by McGeorge Bundy. “Ambassador Marshall Green, December 2, 1965. Poem! Telegram to the Department of State. This is to confirm my earlier concurrence that we provide Malik with fifty million rupiahs requested by him for the activities of the KAP-Gestapu movement. [REDACTION] The KAP-Gestapu activities to stereotypes date have been important factor in the army’s program, and judging from results, I would say highly successful.

This army-inspired but civilian-staffed action group is still carrying burden of current repressive efforts targeted against PKI, particularly in Central Java. [REDACTION] Our willingness to assist him in vs. Passive Secularism this manner will, I think, represent in Malik’s mind our endorsement of stereotypes his present role in the army’s anti-PKI efforts, and will promote good cooperating relations between him and his army. The chances of detection or subsequent revelation of our support in this instance are as minimal as any black bag operation can be. [REDACTION]” Those two telegrams were followed by this one. “Department of actualized State, December 16, 1965.

From William Bundy and Samuel Berger. Telegram to the Embassy in Indonesia. Appears from here that Indonesian military leaders’ campaign to destroy PKI is moving fairly swiftly and smoothly . Stereotypes! ” I spoke with Bradley Simpson. I was particularly interested in the McNamara quote from In Retrospect . Morris: Kennan warned against escalating the war, but McNamara wasn’t predisposed to listen.

But what surprised me in your book is the reeve's tale sparknotes not just the idea that the destruction of the PKI eliminated the need for the Vietnam War, but the extent to stereotypes which the U.S. played a role in all of this. Bradley Simpson: I went into Patrice, the project having read all of the literature on the coup attempt, on the Sept. 30 movement, and being unsatisfied with what, to my mind, was the conspiratorial tone of a lot of the literature, in which the U.S. was somehow pulling all these strings and orchestrating events. Anyone who has actually studied covert operations understands that, one, they almost never go the way they’re planned. To the extent that U.S. covert operations have succeeded in overthrowing governments, they almost inevitably succeed in spite of themselves, or they fail a dozen times before they succeed, and then by the skin of a chicken’s teeth. Simpson: There is no smoking gun in feminist 1965. There is a lot of smoke but no gun. And I think the best that I could come up with at into the wild krakauer summary the time was to demonstrate how, since the late ’50s, U.S. covert operations in Indonesia had been geared toward provoking exactly the kind of clash that took place in late ’65. And that those covert operations accelerated in the summer of 1964 in ways that connect with the expansion of the war in Vietnam.

Johnson’s decision to sign off on expanded covert operations in Indonesia takes place right around the stereotypes time of the Gulf of Tonkin incident. They were looking at all this as a piece. Morris: But in your book you called it “an army-led and U.S.-backed campaign of extermination.” Simpson: The CIA was hoping to use black propaganda and some disbursements of into the wild summary money to try and maneuver the stereotypes Indonesian Communist Party into a position where they would be tempted to do something stupidgiven that the U.S. was actually incredibly weak in Indonesia in 1964 and 1965, and had very few cards to play. The paper trail is a lot clearer and the U.S. role is better documented in is red terms of what the U.S. knew, how much they were encouraging the Indonesian army, and the degree to which they were providing weapons and economic assistance, with the expectation that this assistance was going to be used to exterminate unarmed Communist Party members. Morris: Can you talk more about the U.S. role in the killings? Simpson: It was an extraordinarily rapid genocide and the Johnson administration knew about the events as they unfolded, and feminist stereotypes they made a very deliberate decision to intervene on vs. Passive the side of the génocidaires.

The documentary record is clear-cut. And Kai Bird in his biography of the Bundy brothers has McGeorge Bundy saying, basically, “I have a clear conscience. We knew what we were doing. We did what we were doing because we thought it was the right thing to do, and I sleep easy at night knowing that we played the role that we did.” 4. Suit the Action to the Word.

I’ll have these players. Play something like the murder of my father. Before mine uncle. I’ll observe his looks, I’ll tent him to the quick, if a’do blench. I know my course. Photo courtesy of Criterion Collection/Two Cities Films. The Act of Killing asks the questionswhat is stereotypes history? What is its purpose?

Are we simply trying to uncover what really happened in the past? Trying to provide a moral lesson or a cautionary tale for the future? Both? And it tries to address these questions through re-enactments. The Act of Killing reminds me of the definition central scene in Hamlet not the soliloquy, not the testimony of Hamlet’s ghost, not the graveyard scene, but the re-enactment of the murder of Hamlet’s fatherthe performance of the play, The Murder of feminist Gonzago . Act 3, Scene 2. Or using Hamlet’s more descriptive title, The Mousetrap . The play within the play. The scene where Hamlet attempts “to catch the conscience of the king.” Hamlet, of course, suspects that his uncle, Claudius, has murdered his father, the king of Denmark, then married his mother, the widow of the the reeve's sparknotes murdered king.

Hamlet learns from his father’s ghost (or from a ghost that purports to be the ghost of feminist stereotypes his father), that Claudius really is the killer. “But know, thou noble youth, The serpent that did sting thy Father’s life, Now wears his crown.” Illustration by Daniel Maclise/Wikimedia Commons. In the on Assertive Secularism vs. Passive Secularism play within the play, The Murder of feminist stereotypes Gonzago , Hamlet asks his actors to “hold a mirror up to nature.” It is a re-enactment of the actual murder (as Hamlet believes it to have occurred). But why did Hamlet stage it?

To scrutinize Claudius’ reactions? To provoke him? To serve notice, that he, Hamlet, had solved the the wild summary crime and feminist knows the identity of the criminal? Or as Hamlet tells Horatio, is it an attempt to confirm his suspicions that Claudius is the killer? “There is a play to-night before the king;

One scene of Essay Secularism vs. Passive Secularism it comes near the feminist stereotypes circumstance. Which I have told thee of my father's death: I prithee, when thou seest that act afoot, Even with the very comment of thy soul. Observe mine uncle: if his occulted guilt. Do not itself unkennel in one speech, It is a damned ghost that we have seen, And my imaginations are as foul. Re-enactment as a form of historical reckoning. Into John! Hamlet asks: Can the play capture the conscience of the king? The Act of Killing asks: Can the feminist stereotypes play capture the conscience of a nation?

My discussions with Joshua Oppenheimer turned to the methodology behind his filmthe underlying reason for Secularism Secularism, the re-enactments. Oppenheimer’s attempt to answer the question: Who were these men, the killers? Did they see themselves as killers? Of course, there is a difference. In Hamlet’s play within a play actors are re-enacting the murder of his father.

Here, the actual perpetrators are re-enacting their crimes. And yet, I was taken by stereotypes, the similarities rather than the differences. The idea that the re-enactment of a crime can tease out hidden thoughts and emotions. Congo asks, “Have I sinned? I did this to so many people, Josh. Is this all coming back to me? I really hope it won’t.” We discussed my fascination with a scene from Ibsen’s Peer Gynt , the peeling of the the reeve's onion. The onion represents Peerhis real self. Feminist Stereotypes! He asks, “Who am I? Who am I, really?” As he peels off each layer, he identifies some aspect of himself. “I’m this . ” And then he peels off another layer. Work Clipart! “No, I’m that.” He keeps peeling and peeling, until there’s nothing left.

Shards of onion lying at his feet. That’s the despairing, modernist vision. Feminist Stereotypes! You get to the bottom of a man, and what is left? A mass of evasion, delusion, confusionself-deception. And yet, we all believe that there has to be something more Photo courtesy of Ernst Emil Aubert/Wikimedia Commons. Oppenheimer: Here’s a film where we go into the way that imagination, storytelling, fantasy play into evil acts. What it means to do something that’s devastating, not just to the people whom you’re hurting and their families, but also to yourself You have to be acting in Essay Secularism Secularism a blind spot of self-ignorance in the moment. A kind of feminist stereotypes blindness. Anwar is talking about the Patrice way he used movies not just to feminist stereotypes get clever methods of killing, but to step out of himself.

As he says, coming out of an Elvis movie in a state of trancelike enchantment with the music and the fun of it. Patrice Emry! All so he could kill happily. Morris: You use re-enactment in a way that I’ve never really seen beforere-enactment as a way of asking a question about an even deeper mystery, the feminist mystery of who we are, the mystery of what is on Assertive Secularism inside of usbut at the end of the feminist film I actually do not know who this man is. Oppenheimer: When Anwar’s watching the footage? We are discussing a scene in The Act of self Killing where Anwar Congo is watching the feminist re-enactments of the killings.

That is, a scene where he watches himself re-enact the killings. Followed by a scene of Anwar Congo retching on a rooftop. Morris: Yes. Self Actualized Definition! The vomitingwhether the vomiting is one more performance for himself and for us, or if it is the feminist result of something real. Can we ever know? Oppenheimer: It’s bothin the same sense that an actor can tap into into john, a real emotion through acting or we can make ourselves sad by choosing to remember something and talking about it in a way that makes us sad. It’s definitely both. He’s performing for my camera. He’s certainly aware of the camera and he’s thinking about that. At the same time, he’s performing in stereotypes such a way that he allows the past to self hit him with an unexpected force in that moment. Morris: Well, you know him and feminist stereotypes I don’t.

All I have to go on self actualized is really talking with you and watching the film. But I’m left in the end with a question. Stereotypes! I know that there is a past for people, but do they ever deal with it. or do they just try to reinvent it or just make it up out of whole cloth? Oppenheimer: You’re raising a very, very scary thought. Essay On Assertive Vs. Passive Secularism! It’s so disturbing in some way that it would’ve been hard for me to maintain my relationship with Anwar, if this were an feminist, operating assumption. It could be right. If Anwar doesn’t have a past and also has these at the very most echoes, reverberations or stains from what he’s done that he doesn’t recognize, and if the final moment is maybe yet another moment of performance, if he then disappears into the night and we’re left in this shop of empty handbags, and there’s no connection to the past on Patrice Emry that roof, then it’s almost too chilling for me to contemplate what the stereotypes whole movie is into the wild summary really saying. Stereotypes! It’s a disturbing thought. Real or faux contrition? It goes back once again to actualized Hamlet now to stereotypes Act 3, Scene 3. The confession in the chapel.

Claudius on his knees. “My offense is rank. It smells to heaven . ” But should Claudius be forgiven while still holding the crown and the queen? “May one be pardon’d and retain the offence?” And his final thought. “My words fly up, my thoughts remain below. Words without thoughts never to heaven go.” Is Claudius saying that his prayers are insincere? That all such prayers are insincere? That mere words can never erase the stain of the what is red terrible crime that he has committed? The Suharto regime produced its own film in 1984, called Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI , or Treachery of the September 30th Movement/PKI . It is a government-sponsored false history of what happened in 1965. The hero of the movie?

Suharto himself. When he hears that the Communists have assassinated many of feminist stereotypes his superiors, he is cautious, deliberatethen finally announces that the army will crush the rebellion and avenge the Essay vs. Passive deaths of the generals. The film ends with his funeral oration at the resting site of the dead generals, pleading with the stereotypes Indonesian people to carry on. Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI comes up in The Act of Killing a few scenes are included. And Adi Zulkadry and what Anwar Congo, the two killers at the center of The Act of Killing , are asked about stereotypes it while getting their makeup done for yet another re-enactment of murder. Anwar Congo: For me, that film is the one thing that makes me feel not guilty. Adi Zulkadry: That’s how you feel? Not me. I think it’s a lie.

It’s easy to make the work Communists look bad after they’re destroyed. Everything is stylized to make them look evil! Communist women dancing naked? Congo: But we shouldn’t talk about this, Adi. We should talk about our film. We shouldn’t say bad things about the other film to outsiders. What matters is our film. 5. The Conscience of the stereotypes King. After finding his Senate testimony on into the wild krakauer Page 1 of the New York Times , I looked through the feminist paper for much of 1966.

The troubles in group Indonesia were extensively covered. Kennan was not alone in feminist stereotypes commenting on mass murder in Indonesia. There were articles by Max Frankel, and, in particular, a four-part series that ran from Aug. 2225, 1966, by Seymour Topping, the chief Southeast Asia correspondent and future managing editor of the New York Times . On Aug. The Reeve's Sparknotes! 24, 1966, “Slaughter of Reds Gives Indonesia a Grim Legacy,” the third part, appeared on Page 1. 3. I contacted Seymour Topping, now 91 years old. He had recently published a memoir, On the Front Lines of the Cold War . There was a series of stereotypes chapters on the 1965 coup and the killings that followed. Early in Patrice Emry the book, Topping tells a story about feminist stereotypes his four-part series and work the effect it had on LBJ. Feminist! Johnson didn’t see the Indonesian killings as obviating the need for escalation in Vietnam. Quite the contrary.

He saw his aggressive posture on Vietnam as a good thing because it made the killings in Indonesia possible. It was part of the war against Asian communism. “Transferred from Moscow to group work clipart Hong Kong as chief Southeast Asia correspondent, I traveled to Indonesia, where I covered the dethroning of Indonesian president Sukarno after the 1965 leftist putsch that brought on the retaliatory purge coup by stereotypes, army generals in which an estimated 750,000 people died. Work! Bill Moyers, press secretary to President Lyndon Johnson, tells of the summer of feminist 1966 when Johnson kept copies of my Indonesia dispatches about the group clipart army coup and the genocide that followed ‘in his pocket and on his desk so that he could show them to reporters and visiting firemen.’ Johnson was contending then that his stand in Vietnam had emboldened the Indonesian generals to crush the Communist bid for domination of the archipelago.” I suppose it’s part of an feminist stereotypes, endless discussion about cause and effect. About history. Did LBJ’s actions in Vietnam embolden the right-wing generals in Indonesia, and as a result help to make the 1965 coup possible?

Did the coup obviate the need for the further escalation of the Vietnam War? No more falling dominos, at least in Indonesia. That much was clear to Kennan. Cullen Murphy, the former editor of the Atlantic and now an editor at Vanity Fair, wrote to me about these issues. “I was struck by the insidious circularity of the Indonesia/Vietnam dynamic. On the one hand, what happened in Indonesia, by the brutal logic of the Cold War, should have made Vietnam unnecessary. On the other hand, the Vietnam War, by the brutal logic of the Cold War, and as LBJ argued, made what happened in Indonesia possible. Don’t we have to stop thinking this way? But it's the part of the Essay on Assertive Secularism Secularism imperial British outlook that was transferred intact into the Washington mindset during the course of World War IIlike one of those pathogens carried to a new host by an organ transplant.” Courtesy of the stereotypes New York Times.

Kennan’s attempt to stop the escalation of the Vietnam War reminds us that if you’re trapped in a narrative, you’re not interested in anything that might contradict that narrative. You’re simply not going to listen. (Doors closed; lights out.) You’re not interested in Essay on Assertive Secularism vs. Passive revisiting the feminist stereotypes assumptions on which your narrative is based. Patrice Lumumba! Kennan wrote about being “enslaved to the dynamics of feminist a single unmanageable situationto the point where we have lost much of the power of self initiative and control over our own policy.” 4. Oppenheimer’s The Act of feminist stereotypes Killing opens with questions about historical amnesia. Is it possible to forget about (or to condone) the deaths of 1 million people?

It is much easier for us, probably, to is red imagine such a thing happening in a developing nation. But what started with a story about Indonesia became for me a story about America. About the feminist deep link between Indonesia, Vietnam, and the United States. And our ability to forget. Have we erased the group work memory of what happened? Have we denied our own complicity? When Kennan testified in February of 1966, the stereotypes real carnage had not yet begun. Less than 5 percent of the total deaths: Fifty-eight thousand Americans and much more than 1 million Vietnamese. On Sept. Essay Secularism! 26, 2002, 35 years later, Kennan spoke out again. Ninety-seven years old and confined to a wheelchair, he spoke to a group of reporters.

The one-time architect of containment and the Cold War had become its chief apostate. It was an admonition and a warning. And a re-enactment of what Keenan knew about war. But this time, his remarks were not extensively reported. They did not appear in the New York Times , let alone on Page 1. Nor did they appear in the Washington Post . Feminist Stereotypes! I know about them because Mark Danner quoted from them in his 2006 article “Iraq: The War of the john krakauer summary Imagination,” in stereotypes the New York Review of Books . Here is what Kennan said: “Anyone who has ever studied the history of American diplomacy, especially military diplomacy, knows that you might start a war with certain things on your mind as a purpose of what you are doing, but in the end, you found yourself fighting for entirely different things that you had never thought of before . In other words, war has a momentum of work clipart its own and it carries you away from all thoughtful intentions when you get into it. Today, if we went into Iraq, like the president would like us to do, you know where you begin. You never know where you are going to end.” The interview took place in the apartment of former Sen. Feminist! Eugene McCarthy, whose anti-Vietnam War campaign in 1968 was endorsed by Kennan. Kennan was asked to compare Bush and LBJBush’s request to Congress to go to war in into the wild john krakauer summary Iraq and LBJ’s request to stereotypes Congress to go to war in Vietnamthe 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.

Kennan was adamantsuch resolutions “lead to sparknotes no good . You have to look at stereotypes things all over again, every day, every week, every month, and adjust what you are doing, but do it in the light of the experience of the past . Emry Lumumba! There is a very, very basic consideration involved here, and stereotypes that is that whenever you have a possibility of going in two ways, either for peace or for war, for peaceful methods or for military methods, in the present age there is a strong prejudice for the peaceful ones. Group! War seldom ever leads to good results.” Among other things, Kennan was delivering an argument for the importance of history. Feminist! “You have to look at things all over again, every day, every week, every month, and actualized definition adjust what you are doing, but do it in the light of the experience of the past . ” Kennan was asking the reporters, those that would read his comments, anyone who would listento consider the past. And yet, the past in 2002 had been all but forgotten. I returned to Kennan’s remarks as quoted in the New York Times on Feb. 11, 1966, but I wanted to read the entire transcript of what he had said to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.

It’s not online. It can be found in Foreign Relations of the United States . Stereotypes! Long, eloquent, and impassioned, Kennan’s testimony concluded with a quote from John Quincy Adamshis July 4, 1821 address to Congress. “Wherever the standard of what is red freedom and Independence has been or shall be unfurled, there will [America’s] heart, her benedictions and her prayers be. But she goes not abroad, in search of monsters to destroy. She is the well-wisher to the freedom and independence of all ” I would like to thank my intervieweesBradley Simpson, Joshua Oppenheimer, and feminist Seymour Toppingand other people who I talked to for this projectRon Rosenbaum, Michael Witmore, Mark Danner, Tom Luddy, Cullen Murphy, Fredrik Logeval, and John Roosa.

There were the people who read the piece and Patrice Lumumba checked the factsJessica Melvin, Yvonne Rolzhausen, and George Kalogerakis. And Saul Kripke (for his reference to The Murder of Gonzago in Reference and Existence ). I’d like to stereotypes thank Ann Petrone and Max Larkin for helping research and edit the piece. And of course, my wife, Julia Sheehan. Correction, July 15, 2013: This essay previously listed the dates for the beginning and end of the Emry Johnson administration where it should have had the dates on which McNamara assumed and then left the office of secretary of stereotypes defense. Slate is published by Lumumba, The Slate Group, a Graham Holdings Company. All contents 2017 The Slate Group LLC.

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Accounting jobs in Fort Belvoir, VA. View more towns. View less towns. Jobs By Category ‹ Back Accounting. Jobs By Location ‹ Back Fort Belvoir, VA. Sorry, no jobs match your search criteria. Need help to find that dream job? Read our Job Searching Tips below.

Sorry, none of our jobs match your search criteria. Sorry, no jobs match your search criteria. Below are some recommended jobs based on your recent searches. Washington, District of stereotypes, Columbia (17 miles) Job Juncture, Inc. Into The Wild John Summary! MULTIPLE ACCOUNTING MANAGER POSITIONS FOR A WORLD LEADING CPA FIRM. The job requirements are the stereotypes, following: Bachelors degree in Accounting , Finance or related field.

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Looking for an associate level accounting role at an energetic passionate company? Gelman, Rosenberg Freedman, a Bethesda, MD CPA Firm is in search of an Accounting Associate to work in our Outsourced Accounting Advisory Services Department. We perform a wide range of accounting and controllership roles for a variety of feminist, clients. Essential Duties Responsibilities: * Maintenance of general ledger and posting of Emry Lumumba, certain monthly journal entries. Stereotypes! * Monthly reconciliations of . More. Virginia, Virginia (83 miles) Over 1 week ago. Accounting Professional Davenport Energy is seeking an accounting professional to work in our Corporate Office in Chatham Virginia. Krakauer Summary! Position requires data entry, preparing bank deposits, reconciling bank statements, analyzing and auditing general ledger accounts . Position will assist in preparation of sales tax returns and other regulatory filings. Minimum four-years of accounting experience; accounting degree preferred. Experience and ability to create EXCEL spreadsheets . More. York, Pennsylvania (90 miles) Over 1 week ago. ACCOUNTING CLERK Keystruct is looking for a well-rounded person to join our accounting team.

Candidate should have experience in feminist stereotypes Accounts Payable and Accounts Receivable. Candidate must know Excel Word and actualized be able to multi-task. Ideal candidate will have a minimum of 2 years of experience. Experience in feminist stereotypes the construction industry and into john summary with Timberline accounting software is a plus. Keystruct offers PTO, Medical, Dental, STD, LTD, Life Ins.

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Desirees Baby and stereotypes, Desirees Baby Essay. Man’s Domination Over Woman in Desiree’s Baby . Kate Chopin’s Short Story “Desiree’s Baby ” . Throughout time, humans struggled with issues of conformity and individuality. Patrice? In the modern world, individuality is idealized, as it is associated with strength. Weak individuals are usually portrayed as conforming to society and having almost no personal ideas. In “Desiree’s Baby ”, a short story, the author Kate Chopin deals with the struggles of African descendants in the French colonies during the time of slave labor. The protagonist is a white woman named Desiree who is of unknown origin and birth as she was found abandoned as an infant at an aristocrat’s doorstep. Eighteen years after her discovery, she and a fellow aristocrat, Armand Aubigny, fall in love and feminist stereotypes, get married.

They soon have a child, yet conflict arises when the child is discovered to be black. Into John Krakauer Summary? The young family is destroyed when the baby ’s father, Armand, refuses to accept the child. In “Desiree’s Baby ”, Chopin demonstrates through Armand’s conflicts how weak humans conform to environmental norms.Armand is shown to be a weak character by his internal conflict himself. Armand’s weakness is feminist initially shown by the way he treats his slaves. Although there is evidence to support that Armand is a man characteristic of the poem what, time, he seems to actually have benevolent feelings towards slaves. Feminist? However, he is too weak express these feelings and sparknotes, instead acts in a rather strict manner: “Young Aubigny’s rule was a strict one, too, and under it his negroes had forgotten how to be gay, as they had been during the old master’s easy-going and stereotypes, indulgent lifetime,” (Chopin 9). Tale Sparknotes? In addition to his internal conflict about treatment of slaves, this quotation tells the reader a great deal about Armand’s general weakness as an stereotypes individual.

Besides the fact that his forcefulness is strict by the narrator’s standards, it was strict even for 18th century Louisiana: Armand’s rule is described as far stricter than his father’s rule in the very same passage. From this, the Patrice Lumumba, reader understands that Armand is stereotypes attempting to assume a persona of the powerful aristocratic slave-owner. However, in this attempt, Armand demonstrates his very weakness: he is Essay on Assertive vs. Passive insecure and so must prove his strength. Another example of Armand’s weakness lies in his attempt to destroy all evidence relating to feminist his relationship with Desiree. Armand feels that a marriage to a potentially black woman could be damaging to his to his place in society so he burns all of the evidence of her presence in his life: “In the centre of the smoothly swept back yard was a great bonfire, “ (Chopin 13). Although it is true that during the into krakauer summary, setting of the story, such a marriage could have been damaging, if he truly were a strong character, he would have defended his own beliefs and maintained his marriage. A final example of Armand’s weakness is in his discovery of a letter from his mother to his father and the reactions implied by the author. The letter carries details about Armand’s own race and how he is stereotypes actually black. Armand’s implied reactions are. . Societal Boundaries in Kate Chopin's The Story of an Hour and group work, Desiree's Baby . Stories about the tragic mulatto have conjured feelings of anger, racism, and sympathy since the 19th century. In Kate Chopin’s short story “Desiree’s Baby ,” Desiree plays the role of the feminist, tragic mulatto. This is a person who believes they are white, but finds out that they are actually black.

There are three categories of the tragic mulatto and often they are female. The first is the reeve's tale sparknotes a woman fair enough to pass for white. She falls in love with a white man, but her mixed identity is revealed and stereotypes, the story ends dreadfully. The second is a woman who appears white and hides her “mixed race status” by lying. She’s accepted as being European or Spanish. Once her identity is actualized definition found out, she loses her place in the community. Lastly is a woman who is accepted and liked socially, but once her Black heritage is recognized, she is forced into slavery and is sexually dominated by her slave master.

Desiree is a racial stereotype in the story because her ancestry is unknown. Peel states that “Desiree casts doubt on the meaning of race, sex and class” (Peel 223). Solely based on feminist stereotypes, her looks, she is assumed white and adopted by a white family. When Armand, her husband, interprets their baby ’s appearance, he assumes that “the child and the mother are not white” (225). Her missing identity forces her to act as the tragic mulatto. Racial identity is determined by family history where the assumption of race is through skin color. The story takes place in poem what an “antebellum Creole community ruled by institutions based on apparently clear dualities: master over the slave, white over black, and stereotypes, man over woman” (224). The South was marked with a racial system known as the “one drop- rule”, which meant that “any person with one drop of black blood was deemed black” (Shen 289).

Armand is a great example of how important race and ethnicity was, “Confident that he is white, a male, and a master, he feels in control of the system” (224). Armand was a slave master and treated his slaves harshly. Chopin compares him to satin when it comes to the treatment of the slaves. The Wild John? Rather than being easy-going like his father, he loved to feminist be the dominator and let his slaves know who was in charge. The Wild John Krakauer? He was such a strict and furious master that the slaves had “forgot how to feminist stereotypes be gay” (Chopin 232). What Is Red? Not only were male slaves mistreated, but the women had to endure sexual relations with the master. Zandrine, a female slave, is described as a “yellow woman” (232). This indicates that the former slave master had to have sex with the female slaves to feminist produce mixed children. Another sign of the master having sexual relations with the female slaves are shown when Desiree states that “Armand could hear the group clipart, baby cry as far away as La Blanche’s cabin” (233). Stereotypes? Although Chopin does not directly state the reason of why Armand was at Secularism the slave cabin, it is indirectly understood.

Desiree loves her husband so much that she is oblivious to the obvious.She grew to stereotypes be “beautiful and gentle, affectionate and sincere,-the. . In the story of “Desiree’s Baby ” by Kate Chopin, there are many literary themes that can be analyzed such as love, racism, gender inequality, and miscegenation. What this analysis will focus on is primarily on the central male character, Armand Aubigny, and on his views towards racism. More specifically, what this essay will aim to prove is Lumumba that Armand Aubigny looked down upon the African race to the point where he hated them. One of the biggest driving points to aid this idea is how his family name shaped his behavior and feminist stereotypes, actions according to the societal normalities of his time period. Another important aspect that will be considered is his very relationship towards his slaves in how he treated them cruelly even to the point where he is described as “having the spirit of Satan” (Chopin 3).

In addition to tale sparknotes this, the stereotypes, reader will also see Armand’s negative reaction to being aware of the implications of his son and wife having mixed blood in where he practically disowns them. With all this culminating to group Armand finding out the ugly truth that the race he had treated so horribly is actually a part of his very own blood as well. Armand Aubigny took pride in his family name to the point where it influenced his viewpoint towards his slaves. In the story it says “What did it matter about feminist, a name when he could give her one of the oldest and work, proudest in Louisiana” (Chopin 1)? Typically in the South, the aristocratic family name meant everything in stereotypes terms of identity, wealth, and power. Back in poem is red the antebellum period, segregation and slavery was accepted as it was deeply engraved in the Southern culture.

To be a slave meant to be of the lowest in the social ladder as they were considered property, while the big plantation and feminist stereotypes, slave owners were of the highest class. On top of group work all of stereotypes that, these types of families would have a long lineage of white history as slave ownership was the main occupation as seen with Armand having one of the oldest family names. Not only did he have the oldest, but his name was one of the biggest and wealthiest in all of Louisiana. As a result, Armand Aubigny grew up to view his family name as his sense of pride and superiority while he saw his slaves as an inferior group of people. With this mindset, Aubigny’s oppression of his slaves was so cruel that he practically hated them. The narrator of the story describes, “Young Aubigny’s rule was a strict one, too, and under it his negroes had forgotten how to be gay, as they have been during the old master’s easy-going and indulgent life” (Chopin 1). What is interesting to note is that under the previous owner, Monsieur Aubigny who is the father of Armand, the slaves were happy and enjoyed their master’s tolerant lifestyle. Group Work Clipart? In contrast, the young Aubigny treated his slaves in such a way that took away their happiness. Armand could have treated his slaves the same way his father treated them, but he handled his slaves in a way that made them forget how to be actually happy. Feminist Stereotypes? To make. . Desiree's Baby By Kate Chopin Essay. “Love is a force more formidable than any other.

It is invisible – it cannot be seen or measured, yet it is group work powerful enough to transform you in a moment, and offer you more joy than any material possession could” are words deeply moving and thoughtful to stereotypes love and life. Essay Secularism Vs. Passive Secularism? In Kate Chopin’s Desiree’s Baby , it seemed Armand Aubigny’s love for his baby and wife had done exactly that, transformed him into a happier plantation owner. His wife, Desiree Aubigny, thrived in stereotypes the love he was pouring out because “she loved him desperately.” Their love was immediate as was his parent’s love when they lived in into john krakauer Paris. It seemed Armand and Desiree’s life was to feminist stereotypes be a fairytale from their “pistol shot” love and marriage to their newborn boy that would carry – on the Aubigny’s family name. This fairytale was tragically short – lived, the newborn baby carried African American characteristics. Armand quickly turned on Desiree and proceeded to kick her off the plantation. Clipart? The last time he saw her was when “she disappeared among the reeds and feminist stereotypes, willows . Essay On Assertive Secularism? . . and stereotypes, she did not come back.” He blamed her due to her questionable heritage of being an group orphan before she was welcomed into the Valmonde’s home. Feminist Stereotypes? When in truth, he held the African American trait in his blood on his mother’s side.

Chopin shows one that in true love there is the wild john summary colorblindness; but in others, it relies completely on the blood beneath the skin. Monsieur Valmonde was nervous when Armand began sending wedding gifts to his dear, adopted daughter, Desiree. Valmonde knew of Desiree’s “obscure origin” and “wanted things well considered” for his daughter and did not want Armand to rush into this decision. Armand did not care to feminist stereotypes notice his haste to wed Desiree because “what did it matter . . . when he could give her one of the oldest and proudest names in Louisiana?” This is when Chopin first gives one an what is red inside look into Armand’s distinct and arrogant behavior. Allness is a personality trait in which a person “assumes that what he says or ‘knows’ is absolute, definitive.” Armand is feminist a “cruel, arrogant man” who is blind to everything not involving himself. He is one to believe he is always right. Armand has set himself atop a pedestal and would never consider a connection to the race he torments and punishes daily.

He considers himself a saint for changing Desiree’s last name to that of an Aubigny. Armand is work colorblind to the world and the true blood beneath his skin, but he is soon to realize his true origins and the lie he has been living. The Aubignys were known to feminist fall in love “as if struck by Patrice Lumumba, a pistol shot.” Armand’s father experienced true love with Armand’s mother, regardless of superficial features. Chopin’s “irony is feminist supreme” when mentioning Armand’s mother and father in tale Desiree’s Baby . Feminist? Armand is unaware, but he is facing a “tragic mulatta stereotype.” He does not know his true origin and the reason his parents moved to Paris before his birth. His parent’s love was true and what, blind and only until. . True Love Cannot Be Broken: Desiress's Baby By Kate Chopin. “Desiree’s Baby ” by Kate Chopin is the epitome of amazing love. Stereotypes? This story can be compared to “The Story of an Hour”, as well as “The Storm”. However, rather than highlight her character’s sexuality or internal emotional conflicts, Chopin manages to make a gradual impact on Desiree’s strength, courage, and pride; elements that made me fall in love with the story of a woman who is a victim of poem assumptions, lies, and feminist stereotypes, racism.

Unconditional love is the predominant characteristic that allows both Desiree and her baby to survive her husband’s narrow-minded personality, and indirectly allows them to escape a cruel reality. Chopin story is a realistic example of a woman’s struggles. . Racism In The Father Of Desiree’s Baby By Kate Chopin. The Father of Desiree’s Baby . Throughout the on Assertive, years many variations of the ideas on race, class, and culture have been presented based upon different factors. In earlier times people’s views were not nearly the same as they are presented today. Ideas that women belong in the kitchen or that African-American’s were an inferior race were common.

Those views were very popular during the time of stereotypes Kate Chopin’s book “Desiree’s Baby .” Chopin’s book explores the controversial areas of race and class as well as touching on the subject of culture. The Reeve's Sparknotes? “Desiree’s Baby ” shows the life of Desiree from a young child through adulthood. The young Desiree was found by a rich family alone on the streets. Feminist Stereotypes? Even in self actualized a time where race and social class was important the wealthy, a rich couple took in young Desiree without knowing her ancestral background. Desiree lived a good life with the family. The story then switches to when Desiree was a young adult and falls in love with Armand Aubigny. Armand also comes from feminist, a wealthy background and still falls for Desiree without knowing her racial background. Eventually, the young couple has a baby but to their surprise the baby comes out Emry Lumumba, with African traits.

Armand is not happy and rethinks whether she has African in her background or if maybe she had an affair with a slave. Stereotypes? Desiree’s mother offers to have her and the baby come back and stay with them but when Desiree leaves she disappears and is never seen again. Later, Armand finds out is red, that it may not have been Desiree that carries African roots but himself, from his mother’s side. Overall, Chopin’s work looks into the controversial issues of race, class, gender and culture using ironies and stereotypes, the story-line to infer the views of these topics. Chopin establishes the inferiority of African-American and the reeve's tale sparknotes, the importance of stereotypes race by on Assertive Secularism, establishing the use of slaves on Armand’s plantation and by the conflict that arises when Desiree and stereotypes, Armand’s son resembles African roots. Armand’s brutality to the slaves shows that the white men of that era thought they were the superior race.

They believed that they were of lesser value and less intelligent then Africans. What? Chopin did not appear to put this in to add to the story in terms of literary devices such as character development. The reason appears to be just because the setting would not be complete without the appearance of slaves as this was a big part of wealthy life back in that era. The emphasized point of race was when Desiree and Armand’s son was born resembling that of African roots. Armand’s loving and open nature changed when he accused her of having roots that could be traced back to African descent. Even though it could be seen that she had fairer skin then him. This is stereotypes where one of Patrice Chopin’s many ironies is demonstrated. At the very end of the story after it is feminist inferred that Desiree has killed herself, Armand finds a letter from his mother, “she wrote, “night and day, I think the good God for having so arranged our lives that our dear Armand will never know that. . Kate Chopin's Desiree's Baby This essay will focus on the short story by Kate Chopin and its use of symbols, setting and sparknotes, characters. Desiree’s baby was perhaps one of the best stories I’ve ever read. Stereotypes? Analyzing it was not easy at all.

Its use of symbols was very hard to comprehend. At first, it doesn’t make sense. But as you think critically, all the symbols, and setting and on Assertive Secularism, the characters in this literature plunge together in one amazing story.Literary Analysis on Kate Chopin's Desiree's Baby “Tell me what it means!” she cried despairingly.” It means,” he answered lightly, “that the child is not white; it means that you are not white” (Chopin, p. 192). Kate Chopin's Desiree's Baby is a well-known short story. “In her life, Kate Chopin actively searched for stereotypes, female spiritual emancipation and expressed it in her writing”(Deter, 2000). Throughout the story, Kate Chopin uses symbolism to convey her themes of racial predisposition, unequal gender roles, and social ladder in a society. The characters and the setting in this short story help provide the readers with more understanding of how patriarchal our society is at that time. The story begins with the narrator speaking of Desiree, and how she was found lying asleep, next to the property entrance. It was evident that she was abandoned; there were assumptions of who might have possibly left the small infant child. Poem What? The story line took place in Louisiana. During the particular time era, and in this region, large plantations were very common, slavery too. The family who found Desiree was plantation owners and presumed wealthy.

The name of the great plantation is Valmonde. Feminist Stereotypes? Its namesake came from the name of the owners. The narrator states that the what is red, “Madame” believes the child to be essentially a gift; “that she was without child of the flesh” (Chopin, p. 189). Since she couldn’t carry a child of stereotypes her own, finding a baby at her doorsteps was a blessing for her. What? During this period, some found it tolerable to leave a baby on the doorsteps of a family to provide a chance of a better life. Especially if you are a single parent who can’t sustain a proper life for your child. In the very beginning Desiree was left on a stone pillar at the Valmonde estate; it is also here that Armand Aubigny sees her and falls instantly in love with her.

The stone pillar is feminist a symbol of firm, forced male dominance in Secularism vs. Passive a patriarchal society. It is feminist how men were of Essay Secularism superior to anybody else. Desiree grew into a beautiful and feminist stereotypes, gentle-hearted young woman and soon found a wealthy suitor asking for the wild john summary, her hand. This young suitor was Armand Aubigny. Feminist Stereotypes? He had known of Desiree’s past but was in love and did not care. Armand Aubigny’s character in Patrice Emry Lumumba this story was racist and despicable but the stereotypes, young bride was in love and looked past his faulty character.

Early. . Analysis Of Desiree’s Baby By Kate Chopin. John MooreProfessor Gary WalkerAmerican Literature IIMarch 6th, 2014Desiree’s Baby and Southern Social StructureThe short story Desiree’s Baby by group, Kate Chopin provides a sobering depiction of how the feminist, dark forces of prejudice and social hierarchy tore apart a plantation owning family in the state of Louisiana. The Reeve's Tale? Desiree’s character is that of feminist a lady who carries the burden of being submissive to a domineering husband, a role she keeps until the Lumumba, very end of the narrative. Desiree is portrayed as an agent of light so to speak throughout the feminist stereotypes, plotline but is seriously blinded by her doglike allegiance to into the wild krakauer her husband Armand, who is in essence her master and her livelihood. The struggle for female independence is a signature theme in a number of Chopin’s works and was a struggle for women in the South during this time period (McCullough 413).

Armand’s dominance over Desiree and her overall sense of well-being is certainly a reflection of the issue of sexist prejudice that Chopin chose to write about throughout her literary career. Chopin also depicts the racial prejudice in the South by revealing how blacks on the plantation are treated and by illustrating how severe the consequences were of Desiree and Armand’s baby being African American was. His dark personality coupled with the societal norm of male superiority enabled this toxic relationship structure to occur and helped shape the events following the discovery of the child being black. Armand’s role of master over the plantation workers was based on skin color and his birthright to the plantation which was reflective of Southern culture during the time period (Toth). It is feminist abundantly clear that Desiree’s Baby serves as a microcosm of how societal hierarchy's and traditions that are rooted in Essay on Assertive Secularism Secularism elitist prejudice have a poisoning effect on those who are entangled in feminist stereotypes their grip.Desiree’s unwavering love and codependency upon group work clipart, her husband Armand ultimately proves to stereotypes be unjustifiable and plays a significant role in her demise. “When he frowned she trembled, but loved him (Chopin 417).” This direct excerpt from the story best depicts just how delusional Desiree’s affection for her husband was and what is red, paints a crystal clear picture of the overall state of their relationship. Desiree’s unconditional love of Armand is a stark contrast to the affection he gives her in return. Armand seemingly returns Desiree’s pure and permanent love for him with an stereotypes affection that is conditional and calculated (Toth). The Reeve's? Armand fell in love with Desiree in an instantaneous fashion that occurred eighteen years prior to the events of the stereotypes, story (Chopin 415).

His initial affection for Desiree is portrayed as seemingly dangerous due to its suddenness and great potency. The husband’s love for Desiree is present throughout their marriage up until his discovery that the clipart, child is of African American decent (Chopin). It becomes evident that Armand no longer views Desiree as lovable and that she is now detrimental to his societal standing. . Breaking Through The Barrier: Kate Chopin. Breaking Through the Barrier Inspiration comes from anywhere or anything. Kate Chopin being born at a time where men were thought as superior, “soared above the level plain of tradition and prejudice” through her books and short stories that defied this norm (Chopin 217). As Chopin once said, the artist must possess the courageous soul that dares and defies” (Chopin 165). Prime examples of this writing style are her book and short stories The Awakening, “The Story of an Hour,” and “Desiree’s Baby .” These books share Kate Chopin's passion for feminism and her views toward gender roles and stereotypes, equality. I will analyze Kate Chopin’s style and literary strategies and explain how society had an tale sparknotes effect on women change throughout nineteenth-century. One great example of Chopin's literary style is her book, The Awakening, which was published in feminist 1899, and it immediately created a controversy. Is Red? Critics were shocked by her depiction of a woman with active sexual desires, who dares to leave her husband and have an feminist affair. Patrice? Kate Chopin was socially ostracized after the feminist stereotypes, publication of her novel.

Her main character, Edna, begins to question marriage and describes it as “one of the most lamentable spectacles on group work clipart, earth” (Chopin 70). Stereotypes? This “awakening” happened at the time she met Robert, the elder son of Madame Lebrun. At first, the relationship between Edna and Robert is naive. Group Work? They mostly talk by the beach and swim. However, as time passes Edna becomes closer to Robert. She begins to realize that she is unhappy with her husband and is inspired to feminist stereotypes paint as she used to in her youth. Robert helps her become aware of her independence and sexuality. Chopin uses Edna's childhood memories, her immersion in the sea and birds as symbols of poem is red Edna’s rebirth and awakening to a new conception of self rather than returning to stereotypes the enslavement of a husband and society’s norms. Sparknotes? The Awakening is largely about an identity crisis. Dissatisfied with her labels as wife and mother, the awakening that Edna experiences is the awakening of her true self.

Another story by Chopin is “The Story of an Hour” which was published in feminist 1894. It is a story about a woman, Mrs. Patrice Emry? Mallard who is given the horrible news that her husband has just passed away in stereotypes a train wreck. Devastated by her husband’s sudden death, she rushes to her bedroom to be left alone. Group Work Clipart? While in her room, she is upset about her husband’s sudden death, however; she seems to be pleased about it. Now that her husband has passed away, Mrs. Mallard begins to look at life in a different way: a much more independent and “free” world. She realized that “there would be no powerful will bending hers in that blind persistence with which men and women believe they have a right to impose a private will upon feminist stereotypes, a fellow-creature” (Chopin 1). However her happiness came to sparknotes an end when her husband walked through the feminist, front door, causing Mrs.

Mallard to have a heart attack from “the joy that kills” (Chopin 1). The Wild Summary? Here the protagonist of The Story. . Henry David Thoreau famously said that “the mass of men lead lives of quiet desperation. What is called resignation is confirmed desperation.” When we compare and stereotypes, contrast these two stories, “The Story of an Hour” and “Desiree’s Baby ,” by Kate Chapin, we learn that this sentiment may be especially true for women. Kate Chapin uses “The Story of an Essay Secularism vs. Passive Secularism Hour” and “Desiree’s Baby ” to bravely explore the social inequalities of women in feminist terms of marriage and divorce. The Reeve's Sparknotes? The combination of these two stories point out that despite the presence of stereotypes love, not all marriages are happy and Essay, not all divorces are sad. In “Desiree’s Baby ,” Desiree has married for love and wishes to feminist stay married and through no fault of her own, she is forced to divorce. In contrast “The Story of an is red Hour” is feminist stereotypes about Louise, who has married out of social obligation and tale sparknotes, wishes to divorce, but is forced to stay married. Both women are forced to follow paths not of their own choosing and submit to the rules set down by feminist stereotypes, a male dominated society.

In spite of society’s tendency to romanticize marriage, many women find marriage to be a limiting burden; for others, marriage may be the only chance at life. Into The Wild? Since time out of feminist stereotypes mind society has had a long standing tradition of a double standard in its treatment of the gender roles. Men were judged more on into the wild john krakauer, their assets. Their business and social connections made up their reputations, and they were treated as individual people regardless of their marriage status. In contrast, the feminist, very identity of a woman was dependent on her connection to a man and his social position. For women, marriage and children was the only way to have a happy or meaningful life.

It was unthinkable that a woman would not marry. Single women were sometimes viewed as odd in social circles and a woman’s reputation was her only asset. As a result of this double standard, marriage was the only option available to a woman who did not wish to live in poverty on the fringes of society. Once married, divorce was not a socially acceptable decision for couples, especially for the wife. The only socially acceptable form of Lumumba formal separation of husband and wife was death.

That being said, the feminist stereotypes, event of a divorce in the life of a man was undesirable, but not completely devastating to his social standing. However, for women, divorce meant social death. Poverty and severe criticism from polite society were often the consequences for women in cases of divorce. For these reasons, many women stayed in unhappy marriages. The Reeve's Tale? In these two stories, Kate Chapin tells the truth about this social doctrine. “The Story of An Hour” is feminist stereotypes about Mrs. Louise Mallard, who receives word that her husband Mr. Brently Mallard, has died in krakauer summary an accident. Kate Chapin uses the context of the relationship between Mr. and Mrs. Mallard to show the social inequality of women and the consequences of marriage as a social obligation. Upon receiving word of her husband’s death, Mrs. Mallard immediately breaks down in apparent. . How Writers Of 19th Century Stories Create Tension And Suspense.

How Writers of 19th Century Stories Create Tension and Suspense . I choose symbolism for stereotypes, the stories Desiree’s Baby and Sweat. For Desirees’ Baby , I choose the stone pillar, Armand’s bonfire, the yellow nurse, and L’ Abri. The stone pillar symbolizes Desiree’s unknown past and future; Armand’s bonfire symbolizes Armand’s act of erasing everything of Desiree and their baby ; the yellow nurse symbolizes the Essay vs. Passive, color of the mixed baby ; and feminist, finally L’Abri, symbolizes the secrecy of the plantation and of Armand’s past. The symbols I choose for Sweat are white clothes, the snake, the whip and slavery. Desiree’s Baby starts out with Desiree and the baby not being seen by Madame Valmonde. They were gone for four weeks.

They come back and Desiree goes to sleep with the baby in her arms. Madame takes a look at the baby and the reeve's, says, “This is not the baby !” (903). The baby grew, his fingernails were growing his arms and feminist stereotypes, legs grew as well. (904) Armand was felt proud to have a boy- but if they had a girl, he would still love her the same way as if they had the boy. The baby was 4 months old but he was not white, so Armand thought that Desiree was half black and with her being adopted, no one know for sure . So he throws the baby and Desiree out Essay Secularism, of the house. “He thought Almighty God had dealt cruelly and unjustly with him; and felt, somehow, that he was paying Him back in kind when he stabbed thus into his wife's soul. Moreover he no longer loved her, because of the feminist, unconscious injury she had brought upon his home and krakauer summary, his name.” The stone pillar is what Desiree was sleeping beside in the beginning when Armand first saw her and it was also what she ended up laying by in the end, after Armand kicked her and their baby out. The stone pillar is a symbol of Desiree’s unknown past and soon-to-be future of a tombstone for stereotypes, her unmarked gravesite, ending with an unforeseen future. The second symbol I noticed, was Armand’s bonfire that he had at the end of the Emry Lumumba, story.

In this bonfire, he threw everything of the baby ’s and of Desiree’s into the fire pit. Stereotypes? This bonfire could be a symbol of Armand getting rid of everything in his past and erasing everything from his life that had to do with Desiree and their baby . Another symbol I saw in Desiree’s Baby was the yellow nurse woman who is of a different race, making note to the reader that on the plantation, back in that day, that not all were white there. The yellow nurse is a symbol of Desiree’s baby not being white and tale sparknotes, of being a mixed color, which is what the plot of the story was about. There are many areas and houses that can be scary, maybe even haunted, but theres one place that is pretty scary, which would be L’Abri. Its dark outside and L’Abri is a scary dark gloomy place and it holds a big dark secret which no one knows about. This is another symbol, in Desiree’s Baby . A big dark secret, being of which, is a symbol that no one knows, not even Armand of himself being of stereotypes a mixed race. In the story, when the baby cries Armand says that he can hear the. . Wow, how the times have changed.

Just imagine this scenario. A group of friends go out to eat at a restaurant. They walk in the establishment and a man stops them. “You all are black. You can’t be in here!”, the man says. The group of friends must leave because of the the reeve's, color of their skin. No one really thinks about feminist, events like this anymore because everyone today is self definition allowed to socialize together. Authors Kate Chopin and feminist, Alice Walker were probably very familiar with this type of tale sparknotes situation. Chopin, who was a descendant of the French but lived in Louisiana (Barnet, Burto, and Cain 50), witnessed the era of slavery and the fight to abolish it. Although, she was very young at the time she experienced the action first hand.

Alice Walker, on the other hand, saw a different part of the struggle. She saw the fight for equality and also the feminist stereotypes, Women’s Rights Movement. The struggles of African Americans during each of Emry these time frames are reflected greatly in each of feminist stereotypes their writings. On Assertive Secularism Secularism? “Desiree’s Baby ” and “Everyday Use” both give a vivid portrayal of society’s views on feminist stereotypes, African Americans by showing great detail in the setting description, the Essay on Assertive Secularism vs. Passive Secularism, attitudes of the characters, and the conflicts that the characters face. “It was a sad looking place”, began Chopin in “Desiree‘s Baby “, to briefly describe the stereotypes, home of Desiree and Armand Aubigny. This description automatically sets a bleak tone for the story. The story does have pleasant times such as in the beginning. Desiree was an work clipart abandoned child whom Monsieur Valmonde found by stereotypes, a pillar one day. Actualized Definition? She grew to be beautiful young woman who was then courted and married to Armand Aubigny. Even though Desiree’s origin was uncertain Armand did not care.

The story goes on to state that Armand owned slaves and his “rule was a strict one” (Chopin 105) as most slave owners during this period. The initial description of the feminist, Aubigny home, though, does foreshadow that there will be a twist to the perfect life the couple seems to have. Self Actualized? It does not, however, propose that race will be the issue at the time. Alice Walker’s “Everyday Use” has more insight into the homes many African American’s lived in during the early to mid 1900’s, who had not transitioned into the new era of opportunities for African Americans. Feminist Stereotypes? “The hard clay is swept clean as a floor,” (Walker 109) “the roof is tin…There are not real windows, just some holes cut in the sides,”(Walker 110) and “rawhide holding the shutters up on tale, the outside” (Walker 110) are all great descriptions of the feminist, home in which the mother and Essay vs. Passive Secularism, Maggie lived in. This surely is not what most would picture anyone of any color living in today in America. Stereotypes? The sad part is that there are still people living in homes as described in the story, but most people do not pay them any mind. The next observation that needs to be made of these two stories would be the self definition, attitudes of the characters. Feminist Stereotypes? As stated above about the rule of Armand Aubigny, he ruled very strictly over his slaves. After the Patrice Lumumba, couple had. . The short story “Desiree’s Baby : by Kate Chopin is stereotypes my favorite story so far in what we read in class. Why?

Well because Chopin Shows how far a man will go just to save his family’s name and poem what, reputation. This interested me because I couldn’t believe a man would go that far keep his reputation and how Chopin address real life issues and feminist, shows how one emotion can be your down fall at the same time.. The man in Desiree’s baby who took his words and actions to far is group work named Armand Aubigny . Chopin made Armand make his decision based on assumptions, racism, anger and male dominance. . Imagine finding out that your entire life was a lie, and stereotypes, that every single thing you knew about your identity and your family was completely false! Armand Aubigny, one of the main characters in Desiree’s Baby by Kate Chopin, experiences this exact dilemma throughout this short story. The Reeve's? Desiree’s Baby is a story about stereotypes, a young man and vs. Passive Secularism, woman, who fall in feminist stereotypes love, but Desiree, who does not know her birth parents, is considered nameless. When she and Armand have a child, they are both very surprised because the child’s skin color is not white as expected. It is obvious that the Patrice Emry, child is stereotypes biracial, and immediately, Desiree is blamed for the color of the child’s skin because of her uncertain background. The truth, however, is that it is Armand who has lived his entire life as a biracial person without even knowing his true heritage!

This problem frames the rest of the events in the story, and the ultimate demise of both of the wild john krakauer these characters. Desiree’s Baby takes place in feminist stereotypes the Antebellum Period (1789-1849) where slavery was starting to become less common. Never the less slavery was still prominent in the southern states such as Louisiana, which is where the story takes place. Secularism Secularism? Armand, a plantation owner, treated his slaves as many plantation owners did, with anger, punishment, degradation, and humiliation, which were accomplished through his words and actions. .