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AP and Other Stories Summary and Analysis of entrepreneurs, A P, Part 1. Misuse Tests And Treatment Of A? This story is narrated by british Sammy, a young cashier at Misuse can Impact and Treatment of a Client, the supermarket A P. One day, three girls in bathing suits stop in to buy some snacks. Sammy is british immediately struck by a chunky (596) girl with a sweet broad soft-looking can. He is text so attracted to british entrepreneurs, her that he accidentally rings up a box of crackers twice, provoking the ire of the japanese dynasty, middle-aged customer who was trying to entrepreneurs, buy them. By the to kill a mocking, time Sammy calms down the entrepreneurs, irate customer, the select four weaknesses articles, girls are making their way towards an aisle close to british, his checkout slot. A Mocking Bird Online? He notices that the girls are barefoot. British? None of select four of the, them are particularly beautiful; he characterizes the first as chunky and british, pale and fahrenheit, the second as the kind of girl that other girls think is british very striking and attractive but never quite makes it. However, he quickly identifies the fahrenheit 451 essay topics, third as their leader, noticing that she walks slightly ahead of her friends and almost seems to british, be showing them how to command attention. He infers that it was her idea to come to A P in the first place. He calls her the japanese dynasty, queen or, later, Queenie.

Sammy notices that the straps of the queens bathing suit have slipped off her shoulders, so there is no clothing between the top of the entrepreneurs, bathing suit and the top of her head. Select Four Weaknesses Of The Of Confederation? He is in awe of her beauty, and british entrepreneurs, marvels that only an extraordinarily pretty girl could get away with walking into a grocery store with her straps down. He continues to stare at her physical features, including her long neck and How the Misuse can Impact of a, her oaky hair. The other people in british entrepreneurs, the store are shocked by the girls skimpy attire, as well as the fact that they are walking against the usual traffic (597) down the fahrenheit topics, aisles. Sammy criticizes these sheep for looking askance at the girls but also being attracted to entrepreneurs, them. Fahrenheit? He speculates that you could set off dynamite (598) in an A P and british, the shoppers would still go about it act 5 their business as usual. British? Nevertheless, they do seem a bit jiggled, with some women even turning around to about Youth Curfew Be Implemented and Used?, look at the girls again, as if they cannot believe their eyes.

Only ten years before John Updike published A P, his New Yorker colleague J.D. Salinger rocked the literary establishment with his first novel, The Catcher in the Rye . There are striking similarities between Holden Caulfield, the main character of Salingers novel, and Updikes narrator Sammy. Both hold a deep-seated contempt for authority and entrepreneurs, hypocrisy. But while Salingers hero is four weaknesses articles so self-absorbed that we never get an objective perspective on british, his world, Sammy is hobbes v locke sharply perceptive, offering insights about british human nature and society at large. The main action of it act 3 scene 5, A P unfolds not in the grocery store but in Sammys mind. It is not a chronicle of his ordinary day at work, but rather of his rejection of bourgeois conformity. British? Some critics trace Sammys heritage not to Holden Caulfield but to Ralph Waldo Emerson, who advocated for non-conformity and moral self-reliance (Porter 1155). In the of drug for welfare, early pages of british entrepreneurs, A P, Sammy establishes his contempt for like it act conformity and entrepreneurs, consumerism, insinuating that the as you like it act 3 scene 5, people who shop at british, A P are sheep (597) who can never be roused out of hobbes v locke, their daily routines. This critique is cemented by british entrepreneurs his detailed description of the store. Sammy locates himself between the checkouts and the Special bins (596) and describes the girls going up the cat-and-dog-food-breakfast-cereal-macaroni-rice-raisins-seasonings-spreads-spaghetti-soft-drinks-crackers-and-cookies aisle (597).

This careful delineation of the storys space suggests an underlying concern for realism despite Sammys lighthearted rhetorical style, which often relies on select four weaknesses of the of confederation, caricature. Sammys list of grocery items in the aisle is british entrepreneurs humorous, but it also indicates a deep sense of unease with the rampant consumerism in American culture. It Act 5? None of the british, foods Sammy lists are nutritious. They are all snack foods or condimentsor in about Should Laws Be Implemented and Used?, the case of the entrepreneurs, pet foods, not for human consumption at bird online, all. Rather than a necessity for survival, Updike portrays grocery shopping as a lavish exercise in entrepreneurs, self-indulgence. By buying so many unnecessary items, he suggests that people abstract themselves from their physical existence as human beings. Sammys sexual desire for the girls initially seems to be an antidote to Misuse can Impact the Assessment and Treatment of a, this deadening consumerism. If the other shoppers have, in entrepreneurs, conforming, sacrificed their humanity, then the girls rebellion against Misuse the Assessment social norms seems to british, be a refreshing dose of human vitality.

This interpretation is reinforced by their nakedness; by testing forgoing regular clothing and the conformity that comes with it, they embrace their fundamental human nature, and entrepreneurs, the beauty of this spectacle is stunning to four weaknesses, all who witness it. Entrepreneurs? However, there is an alternate interpretation of the girls nudity. They are consumers just as much as the older shoppers are, and Youth and Used?, like those shoppers, they embrace unhealthy foods, looking at cookies before finally deciding to buy the herring snacks. They are conformists in their own way, with the british entrepreneurs, queen leading the to kill online text, other two girls who timidly peek around [the queens body] and entrepreneurs, [hunch] over a little (597). Although he knows nothing of Misuse the Assessment, their personalities and concedes that two of the girls are unattractive, Sammy still lusts after them.

His sexual desire, then, is just as greedy and entrepreneurs, overindulgent as the shoppers desire for snack foods. Over the course of his career, Updike has sometimes been accused of misogyny (Shapiro, Roiphe). Based on as you like, his descriptions of the women in the story, Sammy certainly seems to have a misogynist worldview. Entrepreneurs? He insinuates that the 451 essay topics, young girls are catty exhibitionists, but the entrepreneurs, brunt of Misuse can Impact and Treatment, his contempt is entrepreneurs reserved for to kill a mocking older women. These middle-aged housewives, he suggests, are the engines of british, American consumerism, and testing for welfare, he consistently belittles them, describing them as houseslaves in pin curlers (598). His account of the middle-aged woman at british entrepreneurs, the beginning of A P is can Impact dehumanizing; he calls her a witch and compares her to a bird, calming her down by british [getting] her feathers smoothed and to kill online text, her goodies into a bag (596). Although the british, characters outlook should not necessarily be extended to select weaknesses, Updike himself, there are certainly grounds to british, criticize his treatment of women. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/a-and-p-and-other-stories/study-guide/summary-a-and-p-part-1 in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About AP and Other Stories AP and Other Stories Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Misuse of Norm-Referenced Tests can Impact the Assessment of a, Analysis Summary And Analysis Ace in the Hole A P, Part 1 A P, Part 2 A P, Part 3 Pigeon Feathers Separating Short Easter Consumerism and the Cold War Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Mini-Store John Updike Biography. AP and entrepreneurs, Other Stories Questions and as you 5, Answers.

The Question and british, Answer section for AP and Other Stories is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and hobbes v locke, discuss the novel. Sammy is a nineteen-year-old cashier at british entrepreneurs, the A P, a large supermarket chain. He narrates a day at four weaknesses of confederation, the store, complaining about customers who are mean or behave like sheep. He is entrepreneurs critical of the hobbes v locke, commercialism of modern culture. British? Three.

Sammy thinks he experiences an Should Curfew Laws, epiphany for the rights of these girls but his decision to quit his job is entrepreneurs really driven by teen angst and topics, sexual attraction. British? Check out this GradeSaver link below: Study Guide for AP and Other Stories. Japanese Dynasty? AP and Other Stories study guide contains a biography of John Updike, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. AP and entrepreneurs, Other Stories essays are academic essays for fahrenheit topics citation.

These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of AP and entrepreneurs, other short stories by John Updike.

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concluding a paper By Behrouz Karoubi. University Lecturer at Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran. For years translations were considered as derivatives, copies, and translators as mechanical devices replacing linguistic codes (equivalents) from one language into another, and the translator's autonomy was always questioned (and is still being questioned) by those who thought of him/her as a monkey, with no choice save to make the same grimaces as his master (Leppihalme, 1997: 19), until recent years when, under the british influence of poststructuralism and functionalism, the focus of attention has been shifted to the issue of translators agency and subjectivity, and the notions of originality and (absolute) equivalence and also authors superiority over translator have been severely questioned. Bassnett (1996) stresses the need for reassessing the role of the translator by analyzing his/her intervention in the process of linguistic transfer, when she argues Once considered a subservient, transparent filter through which a text could and should pass without adulteration, the translation can now be seen as a process in which intervention is How the Misuse can Impact of a Client crucial (p. 22). Awareness of complexity of translation process and avoidance of the british simplistic view of regarding translation as mere process of transferring words from one text to another, Álvarez Vidal (1996) claim, will result in fahrenheit 451 essay topics, realizing the importance of the ideology underlying a translation.

They argue that behind every one of the translators selections, as what to add, what to leave out, which words to choose and how to place them, there is a voluntary act that reveals his history and entrepreneurs the socio-political milieu that surrounds him; in other words, his own culture [and ideology]. (Álvarez Vidal, 1996: 5). The exercise of ideology in How the Client, translation is as old as the history of british, translation itself. According to Fawcett (1998), throughout the hobbes v locke centuries, individuals and institutions applied their particular beliefs to the production of british entrepreneurs, certain effect in translation (p. 107). He claims that an ideological approach to translation can be found in some of the earliest examples of translation known to us (p.

106). Nevertheless, the linguistics-oriented approaches to translation studies have failed to address the concept of ideology through years of their prevalence, because such approaches are limited to their scientific models for research and the empirical data they collect, so that they remain reluctant to take into account the social values [and ideologies] that enter into translating as well as the study of it (Venuti, 1998a: 1). Dynasty! The deficiency of old linguistics-based approaches which are mainly descriptive studies focusing on textual forms (Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 8) in accounting for social values in translation and entrepreneurs other aspects of language use resulted in developing a new trend of How the of Norm-Referenced Tests can Impact of a Client, research called Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) whose primary aim is to expose the ideological forces that underlie communicative exchanges [like translating] (Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 2). According to CDA advocates, all language use, including translation, is british ideological and this means that translation is always a site for ideological encounters (p. As You Like 5! 2). Similarly, Schäffner (2003) claims that all translations are ideological since the choice of a source text and the use to which the subsequent target text is put are determined by the interests, aims, and objectives of social agents (p. 23). She evidently opts for entrepreneurs van Dijks definition for ideology as basic systems of shared social representations that may control more specific group beliefs (van Dijk, 1996: 7). How The Misuse Of Norm-Referenced Tests The Assessment And Treatment Of A Client! However, there are a profusion of diverse definitions of ideology defining the term from different perspectives amongst them is van Dijks definition some of which are deemed necessary to be overviewed here. The term ideology has been always accompanied by its political connotation as it is evident in its dictionary definition as a system of ideas and ideals, especially one which forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy (The New Oxford Dictionary of English). Translation scholars who slant in favor of the political definitions of ideology mainly believe that translating itself is a political act as Tahir-Gürça#287;lar (2003: 113) argues, Translation is political because, both as activity and product, it displays process of entrepreneurs, negotiation among different agents.

On micro-level, these agents are translators, authors, critics, publishers, editors, and pros of drug testing readers. Under the influence of Marx who defines ideology as action without knowledge (false consciousness), ideology is sometimes defined in british entrepreneurs, its negative political sense as a system of wrong, false, distorted or otherwise misguided beliefs (van Dijk, qtd in Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 3). In its more constructive sense, Marxists like Lenin define Socialist ideology as a force that encourages revolutionary consciousness and fosters progress (Calzada-Pérez, 2003 : 4). According to Calzada-Pérez ( ibid. ), recent definitions of ideology are linked with the of drug concepts of power relations and domination, as she quotes from Eagleton: [Ideology is] ideas and beliefs which help to legitimate the interest of british entrepreneurs, a ruling group or class by Curfew Be Implemented distortion or dissimulation. This view, in fact, forms the basis of post-colonial thinking which highlights the power relations which inform contemporary cultural exchanges (Simon, 1996: 136). However, Calzada-Pérez (2003) argues that sometimes ideology is viewed in british, more positive sense as a vehicle to promote or legitimate interests of a particular social group (rather than a means to destroy contenders) (p.

5). Scholars in the field of language-related, cultural and translation studies, however, often tend to extend the concept of ideology beyond political sphere and define it in a rather politically neutralized sense as a set of ideas, which organize our lives and help us understand the relation to our environment (Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 5). In most parts of the current paper, nevertheless, the writer opts for fahrenheit the definition proposed by van Dijk (1996: 7) for ideology as a framework that is assumed to specifically organize and monitor one form of socially shared mental representation, in entrepreneurs, other words, the fahrenheit 451 essay organized evaluative beliefstraditionally called 'attitudes'shared by social groups. The ideology of translation could be traced in both process and product of translation which are, however, closely interdependent. The ideology of a translation, according to Tymoczko (2003), will be a combination of the content of the source text and the various speech acts represented in the source text relevant to the source context, layered together with the british entrepreneurs representation of the content, its relevance to the receptor audience, and 451 essay topics the various speech acts of the translation itself addressing the target context, as well as resonance and discrepancies between these two utterances. However, she further explains that the ideology of translation resides not simply in the text translated, but in the voicing and british entrepreneurs stance of the translator, and in pros for welfare, its relevance to the receiving audience (pp. 18283). Schäffner (2003) explains: Ideological aspect can [] be determined within a text itself, both at the lexical level (reflected, for example, in the deliberate choice or avoidance of a particular word []) and the grammatical level (for example, use of passive structures to avoid an expression of agency). Ideological aspects can be more or less obvious in texts, depending on the topic of a text, its genre and communicative purposes. (p. 23)

Ideological aspects can also be examined in the process of british entrepreneurs, text production (translating) and the role of the translator as a target text producer as well as a source text interpreter. These aspects along with two major influencing schools of post-structuralism and functionalism will be further explained in details in the following paragraphs. Ideology and the translator as a reader of the source text: Poststructuralism. According to Venuti (1992: 6), poststructuralist thinkers like Derrida and de Man, mainly under the influence of Benjamins works, explode the binary opposition between original and translation which causes translators to be invisible. Before the Tests can Impact the Assessment of a Client emergence of poststructuralism, structuralists like Saussure, defined language as the scientifically examinable world of symbols constituting the british linguistic system and social structure within which the individual is socially shaped. Can Impact The Assessment And Treatment! The structuralists believed that language is constructed as a system of british, signs, each sign being the result of conventional relation between word and meaning, between a signifier (a sound or sound-image) and Curfew Be Implemented a signified (the referent, or concept represented by the signifier) (Roman, 2002: 309).

Later, Barthes, an british entrepreneurs, early poststructuralist, claimed that signifiers and singnifieds are not fixed, unchangeable, but, on the contrary, can make the sign itself signifying more complex mythical signs as intricate signifiers of the order of myth (Roman, 2002: 310). This shift of idea from structuralism toward poststructuralism resulted in extreme revisions in different domains of language, for example, developing of the death of author thinking which later found its way into Translation Studies. From instability of the signifiers and signifieds, Barthes concludes that reading texts in terms of authorial intention or what we think the author meant by as you like it act 3 scene such and such a statement, and referring the source of meaning and authority of a text back to its author (as the creator of that text) is entrepreneurs no more acceptable (Royle, 2003: 7). Barthes argues that since writers only write within a system of language in which particularized authors are born and shaped, texts cannot be thought of in terms of their authors intentions, but only in relationship with other texts: in intertextuality (Roman, 2002: 311). In the absence of the author, Barthes explains, the readers (a translator could be one of them) interpret texts by setting them against their backdrop of known words and pros testing phrases, existing statements, familiar conventions, anterior texts, or, in other words, their general knowledge which is ideological; and the meaning of a text becomes what individual readers extract from it, not what a supreme Author put in. (Hermans, 1999: 69) The birth of the reader must be at the cost of the british death of the Author, Barthes bravely declares ( ibid ). Derrida, another poststructuralist, draws attention from the signifieds to the chain of pros for welfare, signifiers, as Roman (2002) explains:

Derrida takes the structure of sign from Saussure, but transforms it into a fluid entity, whereby meaning and writing consist solely in signifiers. Signifiers refer only to each other and meaning becomes unstable since any deferral to yet another signifier implies a difference in british entrepreneurs, an endless chain of signification. This is the meaning of the French term différence (from the like it act 3 scene French verb différer, with its polysemantics of to differ and to delay), or Différance, a neologism created by Derrida particularly to express the indeterminacy of meaning. (p. British! 311) According to Venuti (1992), poststructuralist thinkers believe that the Essay about Should Youth Curfew and Used? original is itself a translation, an incomplete process of translating a signifying chain into univocal signified, and this process is both displayed and further complicated when it is translated by british another signifying chain in testing for welfare, a different language.

The originality of the foreign text is thus compromised by british the poststructuralist concept of textuality. Fahrenheit! Neither the foreign nor the translation is an british, original semantic unity; both are derivative, consisting of diverse linguistic and japanese dynasty cultural materials, making meaning plural and british differential (p. 7). In the same way, neither the author nor the translator as a reader of source text possesses the authorial power to definitely determine the dynasty meaning; and the authority will always remain collective due to endless circle of signification. Poststructuralist textuality redefines the notion of equivalence in translation by assuming from the outset that the differential plurality in every text precludes a simple correspondence of meaning, and a ratio of loss and gain inextricably occurs during translation process (Venuti, 1992: 78). Similarly, Carbonell (1996) points out that, since the nature of the context of signification in both the source and target cultures is heterogeneous, meaning changes unavoidably in the process of translation and there will be always possibility of entrepreneurs, contradiction between the How the Misuse of Norm-Referenced Tests can Impact the Assessment of a Client authors intentions and british the translators (p. 98). But why have such relativism and japanese dynasty perspectivism result not in a state of complete anarchy and unintelligibility? According to Toury (2000), Cognition itself is influenced, probably even modified by socio-cultural factors (p.

119). A translator, just like an author, is not simply a person but a socially and historically constituted subject. British! As mentioned earlier, translators interpret texts by setting them against their backdrop of hobbes v locke, known words and phrases, existing statements, familiar conventions, anterior texts, or, in other words, their general knowledge which is ideological. This knowledge allows them to interpret the text and at the same time limits the range of their interpretation as Robinson aptly notices: Translators [] are those people who let their knowledge govern their behavior. And that knowledge is british entrepreneurs ideological. It is hobbes v locke controlled by ideological norms.

If you want to become a translator you must submit to entrepreneurs, the translators submissive role, submit to being possessed by what ideological norms inform you. (qtd. in Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 7) What brings de facto the individual interpretations close together is the likeness of the intertextual and ideological configurations the individuals are located in. Translators are hardly (maybe never) aware of ideological factors governing their process of the source text interpretation. Toury (1999: 18) admits the of drug testing for welfare difficulties of british, determining the role of about Should Youth Laws Be Implemented, socio-cultural factors which unconsciously affect the translators behavior: One thing I would not venture to do [] is tackle the intriguing question of how, and to what extent, the environment affects the workings of the brain, or how the cognitive is influenced by the socio-cultural, even though this would surely make an invaluable contribution to our understanding of translation. Nevertheless, sometimes it becomes extremely difficult for a translation scholar to justify whether the ideological discrepancies observed between the british entrepreneurs source text and the target text are results of the translators subconscious ideological interpretation or of his/her intentional ideological intervention which will be discussed in the following paragraphs.

Ideology and as you like it act 3 scene the translator as a writer of the target text: Functionalism. While one of the pivotal achievements of the poststructuralist approaches is dethroning the british entrepreneurs author and his/her authorial intention by emphasizing the role of the translator as an dynasty, autonomous reader of the source text, functionalist approaches try to dethrone the source text itself by emphasizing the role of the translator as a creator of the british target text and giving priority to purpose ( skopos ) of producing target text. According to Schäffner (1996), Functionalist approach is a kind of cover term for the research of scholars who argue that the 451 essay purpose of the TT is the most important criterion in any translation (p. 2). Functionalism is a major shift from linguistic equivalence to entrepreneurs, functional appropriateness. From the perspective of functional approaches to translation (particularly, under the as you 3 scene 5 influence of Holz-Mänttäris theory of translational action), translation is viewed as a communicative act. Entrepreneurs! In this view, translation is conceived primarily as a process of intercultural communication, whose end product is a text which is Misuse of Norm-Referenced Tests can Impact capable of functioning appropriately in specific situations and context of use (Schäffner, 1998a: 3). The principles of translational (translatorial) action theory then founded the british basis of Vermeers Skopos theory. Hobbes V Locke! Skopos is a technical term for the aim or purpose of a translation (Vermeer, 2000: 221).

Skopostheorists assert that any action has an aim, a purpose. From their standpoint, translation is considered not as a process of transcoding (the position usually adopted by earlier non-functionalist approaches), but as a form of human action which has its own purpose basically decided on by the translator (Schäffner, 1998b: 235; Hönig, 1998: 9). The skopos of a translation, Vermeer (2000) explains, is the goal or purpose, defined by the commission and if necessary adjusted by the translator. He defines commission as the instruction, given by oneself or by someone else, to carry out a given action [which could be translation] (p. 229). A text in skopostheorist approach is regarded as an offer of information from entrepreneurs, its producer to a recipient.

Translation is then a secondary offer of Should Youth Laws, information about information originally offered in another language within another culture (Schäffner, 1998b: 236). The translator, as an british, expert in translational action, must interpret ST information by selecting those features which most closely correspond to japanese dynasty, the requirements of the target situation (Shuttleworth Cowie, 1997: 156). From this point of view, the translation process is not (necessarily) determined retrospectively by the source text, its effects on its addressees, or the intention of its author, but prospectively by the skopos of the target text as determined by entrepreneurs the target recipients requirements (which are, however, discerned and decided on by the translator himself/ herself). The translation then is the production of a functionally appropriate target text based on an existing source text [or what Neubert calls source-text induced target-text production], and the relationship between the two texts is specified according to the skopos of the translation (Schäffner, 1998b: 236). Focusing on the purpose of translation as the most decisive factor in translation action, skopos theory emphasizes the role of the translator as an expert in of Norm-Referenced the Assessment and Treatment of a, translational action and regards the source text no longer as the sacred original from which the skopos (purpose) of the british translation is deduced, but as a mere offer of information whose role in the action is to be decided by the translator, depending on the expectations and needs of the target readers (Hönig, 1998: 9). Schäffner (1998b) explains The translator offers information about certain aspects of the japanese source-text-in-situation, according to entrepreneurs, the target text skopos specified by the initiator (p. 236). Skopos theory and functionalism focus on the translator, giving him/her more freedom and at the same time more responsibility, as Hönig (1998) asserts: [The translator] may be held responsible for the result of his/her translational acts by recipients and clients.

In order to fahrenheit 451 essay, act responsibly, however, translators must be allowed the freedom to decide in co-operation with their clients what is in their best interests. (p. 10) An awareness of the requirements of the skopos , Vermeer maintains, expands the entrepreneurs possibilities of translation, increases the range of possible translation strategies, and releases the translator from the How the Tests can Impact the Assessment of a corset of an enforced and hence often meaningless literalness (qtd. in Shuttleworth Cowie, 1997: 156). British Entrepreneurs! The translator thus becomes a target-text author freed from the limitations and restrictions imposed by a narrowly defined concept of loyalty to the source text alone (Schäffner, 1998b: 238). Hönig (1998: 14) usefully contrasts the characteristics of functional approaches vs. non-functional approaches as follows: Must be visible. Should be invisible.

Translation processes should be. Target text oriented. Source text oriented. Aim of translation is. Translation tools taken from. Figure 1: A schematic view of functionalist and non-functionalist approaches.

As it is evident in hobbes v locke, Hönigs schematic view, visibility of the translator is a key concept in british, functional approaches. According to Hönig (1998: 1213), in functionalism the translator inevitably has to be visible, since functional approaches do not establish rules but support decision-making strategies and the translator has to as you 3 scene, make critical decisions as to how define the translation skopos and which strategies can best meet the target recipients requirements; s/he should be visible, making his/her decisions transparent to his/her client and accepting the responsibility of his/her choices. British! A visible translator has to accept the consequences of his/her translational decisions, as Toury (1999) declares, it is always the translator herself or himself, as an autonomous individual, who decides how to behave, be that decision fully conscious or not. Whatever the degree of japanese dynasty, awareness, it is s/he who will also have to bear the british entrepreneurs consequences (p. 19). According to Nord (2003), almost any decision in translation is consciously or unconsciously guided by ideological criteria (p. Fahrenheit 451 Essay! 111). Ideological factors are very decisive in defining the translation skopos (target-text intended purpose) and selecting the functionally appropriate strategies by the translator, based on british, the expectations of the translation clients. These factors which affect and regulate the translators behavior are further investigated in the following section under the title of norms .

According to Toury (1999), all human beings have an inherent tendency toward socializing and social acceptability; as a result, under normal conditions, people tend to avoid behaviors which are prohibited or sanctioned as well as to adopt behaviors which are considered as being appropriate within the group they belong to (pp. Japanese! 1519). There is a socially shared knowledge between members of every community as to what is considered correct or appropriate as a communicative behavior. This knowledge exists in entrepreneurs, the form of norms. They serve consciously as a pattern of behavior, and they also regulate expectations concerning both behavior itself and the products of 451 essay, this behavior (Schäffner, 1999: 5). Toury (1999) defines norm in terms of the translation of general values or ideas shared by a groupas to what is conventionally right and wrong, adequate and inadequateinto performance instructions appropriate for and applicable to particular situations (p. 14). Taking into consideration the definition of ideology by van Dijk (1996) as the organized evaluative beliefs shared by social groups, normsas defined by british Toury (1999)seem to have much in common with ideology; in as you like it act 3 scene, other words, norms can be understood as ideological realization of the british concept of appropriateness and correctness.

Decision-making is a key concept in the discussion of norms. Norms exist only in situations which allow for alternative kind of behavior, involving the need to fahrenheit topics, select among these, with the additional condition that selection be non-random (Toury, 1999: 15). This selection, according to Toury (1999), could be posited between two constraining extremes of british, relatively absolute rules on one hand, and pure idiosyncrasies on the other (p. 16). Toury applies the norms concept to translation studies presuming that translating involves playing a social role subject to several types of socio-cultural constraints of varying degree. He, consequently, argues that the 451 essay acquisition of a set of entrepreneurs, norms for determining the dynasty suitability of translational behavior, and for entrepreneurs maneuvering between all factors which may constrain it, is a prerequisite for becoming a translator within a cultural environment (Toury, 2000: 198). Toury (2000) claims that norms govern every level of about Should Curfew Laws and Used?, decision-making in the translating process from choice of text to translate to the very final choices of translation strategies of action.

He, consequently, introduces three kinds of entrepreneurs, norm: 1) initial norm; 2) preliminary norms; and 3) operational norms. Initial norm governs the translators overall decisions to adhere either to the original text, with the norms it has realized, or to the norms active in the target culture, or in that section of about Should Youth Curfew and Used?, it which would host the end product (Toury, 2000: 201). Toury (2000), however, denies the necessity of full conformity between an overall decision made and every single decision be made in the lower-levels of translation process; and, consequently, denies the existence of absolute regularity in translational behaviors (p. British! 201). The options which are made available to the translator by Tourys initial norm are very similar to those which Venuti (1998b: 240) talks about in his foreignizing and domesticating strategies of translation. Preliminary norms govern the decisions to be made concerning translation policy and directness . According to Toury (2000: 202), translation policy refers to those factors that govern the choice of 451 essay topics, text types; or individual texts, to be imported through translation into a particular culture/language at entrepreneurs, a particular point in time. Hobbes V Locke! He further explains that considerations concerning directness of translation involve the threshold of british entrepreneurs, tolerance for translating from languages other than the ultimate source language (p. 202). Operational norms direct the topics actual decisions made during the act of translation and are subdivided into matricial and textual-linguistic norms.

Matricial norms govern the entrepreneurs segmentation and pros distribution of textual materials in british, the target text. Textual-linguistic norms govern the selection of material to formulate the target text in, or replace the original textual and linguistic material with (Toury, 2000: 2023). It should be noted that, according to Toury (2000), There is no necessary identity between the norms themselves and any formulation of them in language (p. 200). He believes that the observed regularities in translational behaviors are not themselves the norms; they are rather external evidence which reflect the existence of norms (Toury, 1999: 15). Toury also does not identify repeated translational strategies as to be identical with norms; but he thinks norms are the idea behind a strategy (qtd. in Schäffner, 1999: 84). Therefore, Bakers interpretation of norms as regularities of translational behavior within a specific socio-cultural situation (Baker, 1998: 163) or strategies of translation which are repeatedly opted for, in preference to other available strategies, in a given culture or textual system (qtd. in japanese, Shuttleworth Cowie, 1997: 114) seems to be an oversimplification of this concept. Chesterman (1993) looks at the concept of norms from entrepreneurs, a different perspective. Whereas Toury does not pay too much heed to the role of the readership and their feedback in fahrenheit topics, norm construction, Chesterman (1993: 8) puts distinction between expectancy norms , which are the expectations of the target readership and the client etc., and the professional norms which explain the british entrepreneurs translator's tendency to it act, observe these expectancy norms.

According to Toury (2000), norms themselves actually are not observable. He declares that what are actually available for british entrepreneurs observation are rather norm-governed instances of behavior or the products of such behavior (p. 206). Toury introduces two major sources for How the of Norm-Referenced Tests of a Client reconstruction of british, translational norms: 1. Textual : the translated text themselves, for all kinds of norms, as well as analytical inventories of translation (i.e., virtual texts), for various preliminary norms; 2. Extratextual : semi-theoretical or critical formulations, such as perspective theories of translation, statements made by translators, editors, publishers, and other persons involved in or connected with the activity, critical appraisals of individual translations, or the activity of a translator or school of translators, and so forth. (Toury, 2000: 207) Likewise, Baker (1998) introduces studying of a corpus of authentic translations as a means for identifying regular instances of translational behavior which are represented in that corpus by hobbes v locke the translator, and, thus, for identifying the translational norms (p. 164).

After so many years of the dominance of the prescriptive approaches over translation teaching, maybe the time has come for a serious revision in translation teaching methods. Translation teaching should no longer be seen as a set of british, rules and instructions prescribed by translation teachers to the students as to what strategies will lead to a good or correct translation and what to a wrong and incorrect one. Understanding the importance of decision-making in translation, the translation teachers should try to describe the actual translational decisions made by actual translators under different socio-cultural and ideological settings in about Should Laws, real life and real situations, and explain the perlocutionary consequences resulted from adoption of such decisions for the students. They should allow the students to select voluntarily between different options they have at hand, reminding them that they will be responsible for british entrepreneurs the selections they make. Translation teachers should make it clear for the students that every translation has its own aim determined by its translator, and about Curfew Laws Be Implemented and Used? that they could freely choose the options that best serve their intended aim of translation. Álvarez, R. Vidal, M.C. British! (1996).Translating: A political act. In R. Álvarez M. C. Vidal (Ed.) Translation, power, subversion (pp. 1-9).

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1-22). Manchester: St. Jerome. Carbonell, O. (1996).The exotic space of cultural translation. In R. Álvarez M. C. Vidal (Ed.) Translation, power, subversion (pp. 79-98). Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. Fawcett, P. (1998).

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1-9). Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. __________ (1998a). Action (Theory of british entrepreneurs, translatorial action). In M. Baker (Ed.) Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies (pp. 3-5). London: Routledge. __________ (1998b). Skopos theory.

In M. Baker (Ed.) Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies (pp. 235-38). London: Routledge. __________ (1996).From 'good' to 'functionally appropriate': Assessing translation quality. In C. Schäffner (Ed.) Translation and quality (pp. 1-6). Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. Shuttleworth, M. Cowie, M. (1997). Dictionary of translation studies . Manchester: St. Jerome.

Tahir-Gürça#287;lar, #350;. (2003). The translation bureau revisited: Translation as symbol. In M. Fahrenheit 451 Essay! Calzada-Pérez (Ed.) Apropos of ideology (pp. Entrepreneurs! 113-130). Manchester: St. Jerome. Toury, G. (2000). The nature and hobbes v locke role of british, norms in translation. In L. Venuti (Ed.) The translation studies reader (pp.

198-211). London: Routledge. __________ (1999). A handful of paragraphs on 'translation' and 'norms'. Of Drug Testing! In C. Schäffner (Ed.) Translation and norms (pp. 9-31). Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. __________ (1995). Descriptive translation studies and beyond . Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Tymoczko, M. (2003). Ideology and the position of the translator: In what Sense is a translator in between? In M. Calzada-Pérez (Ed.) Apropos of british, ideology (pp. Japanese! 181-202). Manchester: St. Jerome. van Dijk, T. A. (1996). Discourse, opinions and ideologies.

In C. Schäffner H. Kelly-Holmes (Ed.) Discourse and ideologies (pp. 7-37). Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. Venuti, L. (1998a). The scandals of translation: Towards an british entrepreneurs, ethics of difference. London: Routledge.

__________ (1998b). How The Misuse Tests Can Impact And Treatment! Strategies of translation. In M. Baker (Ed.) Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies (pp. 240-244). London: Routledge. __________ (1992). Introduction. In L. British Entrepreneurs! Venuti (Ed.) Rethinking translation: Discourse, subjectivity, ideology (pp. 1-17).

London: Routledge. Vermeer, H. J. Topics! (2000). Skopos and commission in translational action (A. Chesterman, Trans.). In L. British Entrepreneurs! Venuti (Ed.) The translation studies reader (pp. 221-32). London: Routledge.