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2300-320-7 - Intramural Research Training Award (IRTA) Program Automated Fellowship Payment System. Remove: NIH Manual 2300-320-7 dated 8/1/03. Insert: NIH Manual 2300-320-7 dated 2/24/09. PLEASE NOTE: For information on: For information on content of this chapter, contact the issuing office listed above. NIH Manual System, contact the definitions of interpersonal communication, Division of Management Support, OMA on unequal of wealth 301-496-4606, or enter this url: http://oma.od.nih.gov/public/MS/manualchapters/Pages/default.aspx.
This chapter transmits the NIH policy on the use of the NIH Intramural Research Training Award (IRTA) Program. IRTA Traineeships are established for the principal benefit of the participant and to provide opportunities for developmental training and practical research experience in a variety of disciplines related to biomedical research, medical library research and definitions communication, related fields. Traineeships are designed to what the us war 1 provide research training “for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487 of the of interpersonal communication, Public Health Services (PHS) Act, and which is not residency training of physicians or other health professionals.” Training must be carried out at a facility of the unequal distribution of wealth definition, NIH, but may be supplemented by additional training acquired at another institution which is found by the Director to definitions be directly related to the purpose of the traineeship and definition, necessary to its successful completion. Communication. Training outside of NIH must not comprise a majority of the training. The IRTA Program encourages the participation of individuals from groups who are underrepresented in new headway biomedical research: women, persons with disabilities, and individuals of diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds. Service is a by-product of the IRTA Program unlike Research and Clinical Fellowships where service is a dominant part of the training objective.
NOTE: Trainees may not independently engage in patient care activities (any clinically-related activity MUST explicitly be under the direct supervision and control of an NIH employee), be assigned official supervisory responsibilities, or sign documents on behalf of the Government (e.g., requisitions). (1) The Director, NIH, may conduct and definitions of interpersonal communication, support research training for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487 of the PHS Act and which is not residency training of physicians or other health professionals [42 U.S.C. 282(b)(13)]; (2) the Directors of the Essay, national research institutes may conduct and support research training for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487, and which is not residency training of definitions, physicians or other health professionals [42 U.S.C. 284(b)(1)(C)]; (3) the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, OD, NIH, may conduct research training as described in 42 U.S.C. 287c-21(a); (4) the National Library of Medicine (NLM) may conduct research training as described in 42 U.S.C. 286b-3 (NLM Traineeships limited to Post-baccalaureate students only); (5) the National Center on new headway Minority Health and of interpersonal, Health Disparities, OD, NIH, may conduct research training as described in 42 U.S.C. Essays Online. 287c-31. (6) 42 CFR Part 63, Public Health Service Regulations re: Traineeships.
See Appendix 10 (Delegations of Authority) Approval by the Deputy Director Intramural Research ( DDIR) is required for all exceptions to program provisions. Requests for exceptions to program provisions must be fully justified in writing, describing the nature and basis for the exception. Trainees are not Federal employees, are subject to the availability of space, funds, and preceptors’ time, and communication, are limited by the number of training assignments available within participating Institutes or Centers (IC). Traineeships are contingent upon submission of acceptable proof of U.S. citizenship or resident alien status, and a medical evaluation if applicable. In addition, trainees must meet the requirements of one of the categories specified below: G. Living Of Others? Essay. Duration of Program Traineeship Programs. Time spent on definitions a Traineeship program within any IC counts toward the total Traineeship duration, regardless of the number of Traineeships granted by different ICs. The duration of the award period and the original termination date will be extended due to periods (4-12 months) of excused absence without stipend. All renewals must be in writing and include beginning and termination dates.
1 to 3 year (2-3 year Traineeships must be processed in 1 year increments.) 1 month to 2 years (2 year Traineeships must be processed in 1 year increments.) 2 years (2 year Traineeships must be processed in 1 year increments.) 1 month to 1 year. Traineeships of less than 1 month or greater than 1 year may not be authorized. 1 or 2-year increments. 1-month to 1-year increments. 1-month to 1-year increments. May return for summer and other traineeship periods for as long as trainee remains a student in good standing. A terminal Traineeship period not to exceed 3 months is permitted. Trainees do not incur a service payback obligation.
Provided they meet eligibility requirements, trainees may be considered for, but are not entitled to, employment or other training appointments at the NIH. The automated Fellowship Payment System (FPS) is programmed for full-time schedules. For full-time schedules less than one year in duration, the system will calculate the correct amount of pro-rated funds to obligate. However, for Living Essay part-time schedules, ICs must compute the percent of time and enter the annual prorated stipend in the Fellowship Payment stipend screen. Scheduling policy for the different Traineeship programs is as follows: NOTE: Part-time schedules of definitions of interpersonal, less than 32 hours per week may affect eligibility for health insurance offered by the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) or other health plans. NOTE: Part-time schedules of less than 32 hours per week may affect eligibility for health insurance offered by the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) or other health plans. Stipends are established based on relevant research experience or completed education level. Stipend ranges and/or fixed stipend levels are periodically reviewed by the Office of Intramural Research (OIR) in consultation with the NIH Board of of recreation, Scientific Directors. See appendices for detailed information. Stipends are established based on 5 or fewer years of relevant postdoctoralresearch experience and up to definitions 2 additional years of type online, experience not oriented towards research (i.e., clinical training for physicians).
NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Stipends are established based on the number of years of definitions communication, postbaccalaureate education completed upon activation of Traineeship. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on Out the Essay training schedule. Postbaccalaureate education completed upon activation of Traineeship can only include postbaccalaureate training in an NIH laboratory or relevant professional medical or graduate school enrollment. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule.
Stipends are established based on definitions of interpersonal communication the degree and amount of relevant experience at activation of Living of Others? Essay, Traineeship. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Stipends are established based on definitions of interpersonal the amount of education completed upon activation of essays online, Traineeship. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. A stipend increase of up to of interpersonal $2,000 per annum may be granted based on growth, development, and accomplishments, but where warranted, increments can be larger, provided they do not exceed the appropriate stipend range (Appendix 1). ICs may approve a one-time merit-based exceptional stipend increase of one stipend step level at the time of renewal for 10 percent of its trainees, e.g., a trainee with one year of postdoctoral experience could be paid a stipend within the Living Essay, range for the two-year experience level.
A stipend increase to communication the next higher level in what caused the us world war 1 Appendix 2 may be granted per annum, based on progress in academic studies and/or the training assignment, for each year the trainee remains in the program . A stipend increase to the next higher level in Appendix 3 may be granted, if the award is renewed for of interpersonal communication second (and final) year in the program. A stipend increase to the next higher level in Appendix 4 may be granted per annum based on progress in academic studies and/or training assignment, for each year the trainee remains in the program. Eligible for the next higher stipend increase (Appendix 5) based on the amount of education completed. An additional allowance of up to $10,000 may be added to the initial stipend level of sonnet, postdoctoral trainees for communication previous training or equivalent experience in caused the us war 1 one of the following specialty categories: Engineer (electrical, chemical, mechanical, biomedical); Computational Biologist: (informatics, information technology); Chemist (analytical, physical, organic, and inorganic); IC Competitive Fellowship, e.g., Kety Fellowship in NIMH; or.
Fellow entering the fifth year, for whom the IC wishes to definitions of interpersonal provide a merit-based stipend higher than the top of the range for the fifth year. Stipends are paid in shakespearean sonnet examples by students arrears on a 30-day monthly basis. All trainees are strongly encouraged to immediately establish (or correct) an of interpersonal electronic file transfer in Out the Reality the NIH Administrative Database (ADB) via the Automated Clearinghouse (ACH) Vendor miscellaneous payment enrollment form in the ADB vendor database. An automatic $2,000 advance will be provided for trainees after activation. An amount less than $2,000 may be provided after activation, based on hardship as determined and approved by the IC Scientific Director prior to the award start date that is entered into the FPS. Any advance payment will reduce the annual stipend payment. The remainder of the of interpersonal, stipend balance will be paid in arrears in distribution definition 12 equal monthly amounts. Definitions Communication. Subsequent monthly stipend payments, for those that have ACH, are direct-deposited, usually within the first 5 business days of each month. Trainees who do not have established electronic file transfers to their bank accounts will receive stipend payments by what the us world, check on or about the 10th business day of each month.
If the communication, trainee leaves within 12 months of the initiation of the Living Essay, award, the final check may NOT be for of interpersonal communication the 1/12th amount because it will have been offset by the balance of the advance. The trainee may owe money to NIH if the caused the us to enter world war 1, time served does not offset the balance of the advance. Communication. A personal check covering a stipend overpayment must be hand-carried to the Office of unequal distribution of wealth, Financial Management “Fellowship Payment Office” with a copy of the FPS-generated termination notice. Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed to the U.S. Government. Stipends will be made in equal monthly payments. Stipend payments will be certified monthly and authorized in the FPS by the IC Designated Program officials between the 20th - 25th of the month so the Office of Financial Management (OFM) may authorize payments each month. If the IC does not certify and authorize payment for a trainee, no stipend payment will be issued for definitions of interpersonal communication that month until certification is what caused the us to enter, received.
Supplemental funding should be granted to definitions of interpersonal Trainees who wish to come to NIH for a period of research training under the auspices of definition of recreation, traineeships or grants awarded by outside (non-Federal) organizations or institutions, when the funding provided is insufficient to support the Trainees during research training in NIH laboratories. Supplemental Funding should be granted: ONLY to Trainees who have already been approved for of interpersonal or currently receive outside (non-Federal) support; ONLY to Trainees NOT receiving support under the distribution, National Research Service Award (NRSA) Program; ONLY to Trainees that have NO employment relationship with the outside (non-Federal) sponsor: other issues, e.g., potential conflict of interest, intellectual property, etc., must also be addressed. The amount of the of interpersonal, NIH IRTA supplement will be determined on definition of recreation a case-by-case basis and will vary depending on the level of support provided by the outside (non-Federal) sponsor. Definitions Of Interpersonal. The supplement will be fixed at unequal distribution definition such a rate that the combined level of support will match the stipend rate for a similarly qualified Trainee. Of Interpersonal. Supplemental funding that would result in a combined amount from NIH and of wealth definition, the outside (non-Federal) sponsor that is either less than or in excess of the authorized stipend rate for the relevant trainee level and Traineeship program may not be approved. Supplemental funding must be terminated when outside (non-Federal) support ceases. An IC cannot provide a supplement solely to provide health insurance coverage – a stipend of at least $1 per year must also be authorized.
Applicants may apply directly to a specific Principal Investigator or may apply online at the NIH Office of Intramural Training and Education (OITE) website. Designated IC Program Administrative Officials receiving application documents should determine candidate's eligibility. Traineeship preceptors and Laboratory/Branch Chiefs will review applications, evaluate and recommend candidates, and develop individualized training plans for approval by the IC Scientific Director or delegated approving official. Candidates may not be excluded from consideration or evaluation on the basis of communication, race, color, religion, gender, disability, age, national origin, political affiliation or any other non-merit factor. Appropriate documentation should be routed through the designated IC Program Administrative Officials. Curriculum Vitae (CV), bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference, applicant's statement of research goals, official copy of transcript. Unequal Distribution Of Wealth Definition. In addition, applicant must provide official copy of doctoral degree and definitions of interpersonal, brief summary of doctoral dissertation (if applicable).
CV, bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of Living Out the Reality, reference emphasizing research potential, applicant's statement of definitions of interpersonal communication, research goals, official copy of undergraduate, graduate, and/or medical school transcript. Verification from the university that the applicant is in good academic standing; is enrolled in a doctoral degree program; and that the school is agreeable to essays online the student's participation is required. CV, bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference emphasizing potential, applicant's statement of of interpersonal communication, research goals, and official copy of new headway, undergraduate school transcript. Applications must be made online at http://www.training.nih.gov/student/pre-irta/previewpostbac.asp. Resume or CV, 2 letters of reference, statement of career goals, and definitions of interpersonal communication, official copy of undergraduate transcript. Applications must be made online at http://www.training.nih.gov/student/pre-irta/previewtechnical.asp. Resume or CV, 2 letters of reference, official copy of essays, school transcript, letter from communication, school verifying academic standing, information on honors and achievements, and statement of interest in biomedical research.
Applications must be made online at http://www.training.nih.gov/student/sip/ The principal responsibility rests with training preceptor; other assistance is available from IC Lab/Branch Chiefs and Scientific Director. The NIH Office of of Others? Essay, Intramural Training and definitions, Education Career Services Center and NIH Work/Life Center staff are available for career counseling. All trainees may receive training or tuition assistance to the extent that it is definition, directly related to the NIH research experience. Individual Development Plans (IDPs) are required for all trainees and they must complete all NIH mandatory training. When Trainees will be working with animals, exposed to hazardous situations, or in contact with patients, ICs are responsible for assuring that Trainees receive instruction, as appropriate, including but not limited to, safety, use of of interpersonal, equipment, handling hazardous materials, patient privacy, human subject protections and proper animal care and treatment. Trainees may not engage independently in definition of recreation any patient care activities. Any clinically related activities MUST be explicitly under the direct supervision and control of an communication NIH employee. A rotation in a science policy office, generally only one rotation of three months or less, is type essays online, permitted when such activity can be justified as an of interpersonal communication integral part of the NIH research experience. All training, regardless of distribution of wealth definition, duration or type, must be documented in the training plan and/or other appropriate administrative training databases and should be offered to all similarly situated trainees, regardless of definitions of interpersonal, whether they receive supplemental or sole NIH funding. In addition to the above:
ICs are expected to new headway fund training directly related to the purpose of the of interpersonal communication, Traineeship, generally consisting of two courses per year at an accredited academic institution. In addition, trainees are expected to attend one FAES BIO-TRAC course or equivalent per each 6-month period and shakespearean sonnet examples, other seminar series designated by the IC. Travel cost to NIH for trainee, dependents, movement of household goods, and temporary storage of household goods not to exceed (NTE) $3,000 is permitted at the discretion of the IC; no allowance for return travel is definitions, authorized. Payment of travel to scientific meetings or training at a remote site is at the discretion of the IC and is subject to availability of funds. IRTA trainees may accept payment only on an “In Kind” basis to cover travel and per diem expenses from an outside entity while attending an “official duty” type event for the purpose of teaching, speaking or writing (such as presenting a paper at a scientific meeting), provided there is no conflict of interest in the source of the funds. No honorarium, or compensation for services rendered, may be accepted. Reimbursement must be from nonfederal funds. IRTA trainees must request, and new headway, receive, advance approval, in writing, from the IC Scientific Director in definitions communication order to to enter accept outside travel reimbursement. Definitions Communication. The HHS Form 348 is not to be used since Postdoctoral Trainees are not Government employees.
However, IC administrative staff, on behalf of an IRTA Trainee, must complete an Acceptance Letter and a Certification Checklist indicating that the funding source is new headway, non-federal. For additional information, see NIH Manual 1500, Chapter 08-00(F)(3)). When a separate travel allowance is available through an outside sponsor, at of interpersonal its discretion, an IC will supplement that allowance only to of recreation the extent that outside funding is insufficient to pay authorized travel costs. A personal check covering a travel advance overpayment must be hand-carried to the Cashier’s Office attached to a copy of the travel voucher. Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed the U.S. Government.
Use the FPS to process terminations of definitions of interpersonal communication, all trainees immediately. Termination of the definition of recreation, traineeship may be made prior to specific expiration date for scientific or other forms of misconduct or failure to comply with terms of the traineeship or to of interpersonal communication carry out or satisfy the purpose for which it was made. All termination proposals for sonnet examples cause must be in writing and provide the trainee with an opportunity to definitions of interpersonal communication make a reply before a decision is rendered. New Headway. In the case of personal incompatibility or any unforeseen programmatic circumstances, and definitions communication, absent any conduct issues, the IC should arrange for transfer of the trainee to new headway another laboratory. Fiscal considerations should not be the basis for early termination within the NIH Intramural Research Program. Trainees must reimburse Office of Financial Management (OFM), NIH for of interpersonal communication any and all stipend overpayments prior to the us to enter war 1 OFM clearance. A personal check must be hand-carried to definitions communication the OFM “Fellowship Payment Office” with a copy of the FPS-generated termination notice.
Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed the U.S. Government. In addition, if the Foundation for caused the us to enter world Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) (301-496-8063) is handling the trainee’s health insurance, it must be provided a “Notification of Termination” form, obtained from the IC’s Administrative Officer. The FPS-generated “Notification of Termination” form must be hand-carried to FAES, which will provide advice and of interpersonal communication, answer questions on Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (C.O.B.R.A.) benefits. The form must be signed by an FAES representative before the end of the month in new headway which the fellowship is terminated to avoid overpayment. If a trainee is transferring to another IC within NIH, the losing IC must indicate this in the FPS module and of interpersonal communication, notify the gaining IC. The gaining IC must accept and retrieve the trainee’s record. Of Wealth. The effective date of transfer must be the first day after the original award has ended or the first day of the subsequent month. Trainees, because they are not employees, do not earn annual or sick leave. However, they may be excused for: 1) Federal holidays, 2) illness, 3) personal emergencies, and 4) vacations when awards are for more than 90 days.
For vacations, trainees receive a minimum of two weeks excused absence per year and the number of days should be prorated for Traineeships of definitions of interpersonal, 90 days or less. Preceptors may exercise discretion in unequal definition granting additional short absences (less than a week per year) as they deem appropriate. More extended absences must be approved by definitions, the IC Scientific Director. Eight weeks of what, excused absence will be granted for the birth or adoption of of interpersonal communication, a child or other family health care. In addition, ICs must excuse absences to accommodate a trainee’s military obligations, e.g. active duty, active duty training, and inactive duty training Not to Living Out the of Others? Essay Exceed (NTE) six weeks per year. Z. Excused Absence without Stipend. Absence without stipend may be approved by the preceptor with concurrence from the respective IC Scientific Director and OIR. Through the FPS, the IC must enter the effective date to of interpersonal communication temporarily stop payment and must reactivate the award in the FPS to type online resume payment. For absences of definitions, 4-12 months, the appointment clock will be extended to reflect the period of the absence without stipend.
Absence without stipend for greater than 12 months will require a new appointment upon shakespearean by students, return. FAES Elected Health Insurance: Should a trainee with FAES health insurance plan to of interpersonal be absent without stipend for less than 3 months, FAES requires the trainee to maintain continuous health insurance coverage. Specifically, trainees must personally complete a Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of shakespearean examples, 1985 (C.O.B.R.A.) Application through FAES and of interpersonal, begin to pay health insurance coverage premiums on the 1st day of the unequal distribution, month following the start date of the unpaid absence and continue to pay for any month when trainee is not in a pay status on the first day of the month. For example, if the trainee is absent without stipend effective June 15th through August 15th, the trainee must pay health insurance premiums beginning July 1st (1st day of the month following the start date of definitions, unpaid absence) and pay the premium for the month of August (any month when trainee is not in a pay status on the first day of the shakespearean, month) Should the trainee plan to be absent without stipend for definitions communication more than 3 months, the sonnet examples, trainee may choose to stop coverage and not pay the premium.
Upon return to NIH, the trainee may then re-enroll as a new subscriber. Should the trainee prefer to continue health insurance coverage during this period of absence, the definitions communication, trainee must complete a C.O.B.R.A. application through FAES. Generally, C.O.B.R.A. coverage is limited to 18 months. Regardless of total time spent in unpaid absence, respective ICs must provide to FAES written notification generated from the FPS to include start and end date of unequal of wealth, unpaid absence. In addition, upon trainee’s return, ICs must provide a written notification generated from the FPS to FAES and definitions, OFM. All trainees may use the new headway, Occupational Medical Service for injuries sustained and emergency care on the training assignment. Workers' compensation and benefits under the Federal Employees Compensation Act, 5 U.S.C. Definitions Communication. 8101(1)(B) may be applicable in caused war 1 the event of a work-related injury. All trainees must have adequate health insurance coverage to receive training in NIH facilities.
This requirement may be satisfied by a policy held either in the Trainee's name or in of interpersonal communication another's name with the Trainee identified as a family member. Verification of health insurance enrollment is required. An approved plan of health insurance is available through the Foundation for shakespearean examples by students Advanced Education in definitions the Sciences (FAES). FAES coverage requires that Trainees be on a training schedule of at least 32 hours per week and a minimum duration of 90 days. Should trainees elect FAES health insurance, they are responsible for enrolling in FAES health insurance within the first 30 days of the type online, award. Health insurance enrollment will be effective the date the trainee meets with FAES and all required forms are signed. Enrollment data that reflects the FAES effective date must be entered into the FPS . Trainees must maintain an existing policy or purchase a personal policy until they have met with FAES and of interpersonal communication, elected health insurance. Funds for what the us to enter war 1 individual or family FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option health insurance are provided to FAES by of interpersonal, the sponsoring IC at the direction of the trainee. For a non-FAES policy, NIH will pay or reimburse for a policy issued in the Trainee's name in an amount not to exceed that of the FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option, individual or family coverage, as appropriate. What To Enter World. Alternatively, NIH will reimburse for any additional health insurance cost, if incurred, as a result of being covered under a spouse's plan and communication, identified as a family member in an amount not to exceed the cost of the type online, FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option.
Sufficient documentation verifying health insurance coverage and documenting health insurance costs are required when using a non-FAES policy. When the outside sponsor provides insufficient funding for the purchase of health insurance coverage, the IC may provide supplemental funding to permit the purchase of a policy equivalent in cost to the FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option, individual or family coverage, as appropriate. An IC cannot provide a supplement solely to definitions communication provide health insurance coverage – a stipend of at new headway least $1 per year must also be authorized, even when the outside funding is greater than the applicable stipend. See Section Z, “Excused Absence without Stipend” if applicable. In cases where: 1) the duration of the Traineeship is less than 90 days and; 2) the personal purchase of a Health Insurance Policy would result in undue financial hardship for the student, the IC may pay the total associated cost. Trainees are not employees and therefore not eligible for definitions of interpersonal communication Federal retirement benefits. Stipends are subject to Federal, state, and local income taxes; however, NIH does not withhold taxes from the Trainees' stipends. The OFM annually prepares and what to enter war 1, sends appropriate income information to the IRS and to Trainees.
Trainees may be required to definitions file quarterly estimated Federal and State income tax returns. Since interpretation and implementation of the tax laws are the responsibility of the caused war 1, Internal Revenue Services (IRS) and courts, Trainees should consult their local IRS office and/or tax advisor if they have questions about the applicability of the definitions of interpersonal communication, current tax code to the taxability of Traineeships, the proper steps to be taken regarding tax obligations, and concerns regarding their own situations. Trainees are likely to be eligible for world coverage under the Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. Of Interpersonal Communication. 2671 et seq.) for damages or injuries that arise from actions occurring within the scope of by students, their assignment and of interpersonal, while under the direct control and supervision of a Federal employee. However, the ultimate decision on issues of what caused world, liability is made on definitions of interpersonal a case-by-case basis by the courts. Living. Should claims arise from the actions of Trainees acting within the scope of their assignments under the direct control and supervision of a federal employee, NIH would ask that they be defended by the Department of Justice as if they were Federal employees.
Outside employment for Trainees must be approved in accordance with NIH Ethics Office policies http://ethics.od.nih.gov/. The NIH Office of Intramural Training and Education will periodically evaluate the IRTA Program for representation of women, minorities, and disabled persons; to of interpersonal assess its relationship with other NIH Traineeship Programs; and to determine whether it is functioning effectively and accomplishing the purpose for which it was designed. The results of these evaluations and any recommendations for changes to the Program will be presented to the Office of Intramural Research (OIR), NIH, and of wealth definition, the NIH Board of Scientific Directors (SD) for consideration. OIR will periodically review stipend ranges and/or schedules in consultation with the NIH Board of definitions of interpersonal communication, Scientific Directors. Recommended adjustments by to enter war 1, OIR and of interpersonal communication, the SD subcommittee on trainee stipends will be submitted to type essays online the Scientific Directors for review and concurrence and then to the Director, NIH for final approval.
The publication and presentation of scientific research by Trainees are governed by the same policies as applied to other scientists, either employed by or in definitions training at NIH, as described in NIH Manual 1183 “NIH Publications and Audiovisuals: Preparation, Review, Approval, and Distribution.” Trainees, like employees and others working at NIH, are bound by all provisions of Executive Order 10096, as amended, 45 C.F.R. Part 7 and any orders, rules, regulations or policies issued thereunder for inventions conceived or first actually reduced to practice while at the NIH, as well as by HHS Technology Transfer Procedure Manual, Chapter 203.1, NIH Procedures Related to Disposition of of wealth definition, Rights in Inventions by Non-Employees Working at NIH, Receiving NIH Intramural Training Support or Working On-Site under Research Collaborationshttp://ottintranet.od.nih.gov/Policy/203-1-Procedure.pdf (NIH-Access only). Trainees will disclose promptly, to the appropriate NIH officials, all inventions which they conceive or first actually reduce to practice during their assignment, and will sign and execute all papers necessary for conveying to the government the rights to which it is communication, entitled by virtue of Executive Order 10096, as amended. Records must be maintained in accordance with Privacy Act System Notice: 09-25-0158, Administration: Records of Applicants and of Others? Essay, Awardees of the of interpersonal communication, NIH IRTA Program, HHS/NIH/OD/OIR/OITE (Office of Intramural Training Education) for 5 years. AK. Retention and Disposal of Records. Records Retention and online, Disposal: All records (e-mail and non-e-mail) pertaining to this chapter must be retained and disposed of under the authority of the NIH Manual Chapter 1743, Keeping and Destroying Records, Appendix 1, NIH Records Control Schedule, Section 2300 Personnel, 320 Staff Fellowship Programs (all items that apply).
NIH e-mail messages: NIH e-mail messages (messages, including attachments, that are created on the NIH computer systems or transmitted over the NIH networks) that are evidence of the activities of the agency or have informational value are considered Federal records. Of Interpersonal Communication. These records must be maintained in new headway accordance with current NIH Records Management guidelines. Contact your IC Records Officer for additional information. All e-mail messages are considered Government property, and if requested for a legitimate Government purpose, must be provided to the requester. Employees' supervisors, the NIH staff conducting official reviews or investigations, and the Office of Inspector General may request access to or copies of the e-mail messages. E-mail messages must also be provided to the Congressional Oversight Committees, if requested, and are subject to the Freedom of Information Act requests. Since most e-mail systems have back-up files that are retained for significant periods of of interpersonal, time, e-mail messages and attachments are likely to be retrievable from a back-up file after they have been deleted from an individual's computer.
The back-up files are subject to the same requests as the original messages. The purpose of this manual issuance is to provide policies and procedures for the implementation of the NIH Intramural Research Training Program. The Office responsible for internal controls relative to this manual issuance is the Office of Intramural Research (OIR). Through this issuance the OIR is accountable for the method used to ensure that internal controls are implemented and working. Frequency of Review: Periodic review of the shakespearean sonnet, fellowship process will be completed to determine if ICs are in compliance with policy. Reviews will be conducted every 3-5 years. Method of Review: The OIR will initiate and lead reviews consisting of a random sampling of fellowship files/documentation using a checklist that will monitor the ICs’ compliance with various important aspects of the policy.
Review reports are sent to the Deputy Director for Intramural Research and to of interpersonal the Deputy Director for Management, NIH. Shakespearean Sonnet Examples. Reports should indicate that controls are in place and communication, working well or indicate any internal internal control issues that should be brought to Living Out the Reality Essay the attention of the definitions of interpersonal communication, report recipient (s). Questions on how to obtain these forms should be directed to the designated IC Program Administrative Officials. Fellowship Request (FPS-generated) Fellowship Activation (FPS-generated) Election of Health Insurance Choice 1, 2, or 3 (FPS-generated)
Absence without stipend and reactivation (FPS-generated) These documents (or copies) (in printed paper version) should be retained by the ICs as official system records for the IRTA Program. Fellowship Termination Notice (FPS-generated) Since all IRTA Traineeships are considered awards for training and not wages for service or employment, neither Social Security nor Medicare is deducted from stipends. Although definitive determinations regarding Social Security obligations and coverage must be made by the Internal Revenue Service and new headway, the courts, it is the opinion of the NIH Legal Advisor that Trainees are not self-employed but in training for purposes of coverage under the Social Security Act and definitions, therefore, can not make Social Security or Medicare payments on their own behalf. Trainees are encouraged to discuss this with their tax advisors. * If you require a 508 compliant PDF version of sonnet by students, a chapter please contact [email protected]
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Do My Homework Online - Interpersonal Communication - Dictionary definition of Interpersonal - University of Cincinnati
Nov 21, 2017 Definitions of interpersonal communication,
18 Professional CV Templates and Examples. A Complete Guide to Creating Your Curriculum Vitae. Definitions Of Interpersonal Communication. Table of Contents. Studies show that only 1 of 5 employers have the definition of recreation, patience or the time to read a CV in its entirety. If you don’t want your CV to end up getting rejected after a cursory scan, then read on definitions communication to discover how to of recreation produce a professional and impressive CV that represents you well to potential employers. A Curriculum Vitae , or CV , describes an applicant#8217;s education, qualifications, and of interpersonal communication previous experience. Sending a CV or a resume is considered part of the definition of recreation, application process for a new job. A Curriculum Vitae is more than a resume: it is an in-depth exploration of your career path, going into detail about communication your achievements, publications, and what the us to enter awards.
While a resume is typically short and concise, a CV can give you room to introduce yourself more thoroughly. A traditional academic or industry CV, for example, represents your career direction. It is organized in reverse chronological order so that individuals can see how you created and exploited opportunities based on available resources. It#8217;s a unique way for the employer to view how you translated the benefits of definitions of interpersonal, a better position or of more experience into positive outcomes for sonnet examples your company or university. A CV is standard in academia.
For example, you might use a CV if you were applying for a professorship. Many science- or research-oriented industry employers prefer a CV as well, and it is the standard for all job applications in some European countries, such as the UK. CV vs Resume – what is the difference? Generally, your resume would of course include your name and contact information; however, your education and work experience should be tailored specifically to the job you are applying for. For example, if early in your career life you taught in a high school classroom for two years and are now applying for a job as a chemical engineer, you might exclude listing that job in definitions of interpersonal communication your resume, even if you won the Best New Teacher award in your district. The goal of a resume is to convince the type online, employer that you#8217;re the one they want and that you have the definitions, skills they need. New Headway. You#8217;re creating the greatest impact possible in definitions communication the least amount of space, and listing any experience that doesn#8217;t directly relate to the job is considered futile. Shakespearean By Students. An academic CV , on the other hand is a more detailed list of your accomplishments, and does not exclude any professional experience you have. It presents you as a whole-picture candidate, and gives the employer a better idea of the scope of your abilities and experience. If you are a graduate student looking for your first job in academia, listing all of your accomplishments might take a few pages. However, if you have been in the field for some time and definitions of interpersonal communication are looking for a higher paying position, it might take ten or even more pages to describe everything noteworthy that you have accomplished throughout your career.
Don#8217;t worry though: your potential employer knows that more experience means a longer CV! No employer looking to fill an entry-level position expects fifteen pages of CV material. A CV in science research or an industry might be shorter or more targeted than an Reality Essay, academic CV, but it is communication still longer than the typical resume. There are several important distinctions between a CV and a resume : To present yourself as someone who is well-tailored to the position you are applying for. To represent your accomplishments over the course of your professional or scholastic career. Shakespearean Sonnet By Students. Your resume should be tweaked for each individual employer, to appeal to what they want in an employee. Communication. You should edit your job list and experiences to only include information relevant to the position applied for. Your CV is a list of all jobs you’ve had as an essays online, adult that are even loosely related to your career, but should not include your job as cashier at McDonald#8217;s. However, in general, you should not edit the jobs, experiences, or accomplishments on of interpersonal your CV for different employers. Instead, individualize your cover letter to appeal specifically to the company or university to which you are applying.
Applicants are strongly encouraged to keep it short – usually one page and definitely no more than two. What Caused The Us. Applicants in of interpersonal communication academia should provide an accounting of all their accomplishments –ten or more pages for accomplished or experienced individuals. Applicants in industry may produce a condensed version of their CV #8212; generally 2 or 3 pages. Organized in Out the Reality Essay many different ways; highly customizable. Always organized by main topic (the order of which is customizable) and then chronologically, starting from the most recent accomplishment, publication, or event. Used most often in definitions communication the US and definition of recreation Canada for non-academic and non-research positions. Ireland and communication New Zealand use a CV only; CVs are used more predominantly in Europe as a whole.
There is even a European standard format for of wealth definition a CV. Where the of interpersonal communication, CV is used only (or predominantly, such as in the UK), it tends to be shorter, and it shares some characteristics of a resume. See the CV samples at the end of the article for Essay examples of UK-style CVs. A long-form CV is used in the US and of interpersonal Canada for academia and industry research. Can#8217;t i just send my resume instead? There is a good chance that your application will be rejected if you send an employer or university a resume when it asks for a Curriculum Vitae. Definition Of Recreation. They may suppose you have not read their instructions, or you did not care to read them carefully. Moreover, when an employer asks for your CV, they are asking you for an in-depth document that may serve as a pre-interview. Definitions Of Interpersonal. If you respond with a resume instead of a CV, that may be viewed as a reluctance on your part to share information about yourself, or a lack of confidence in online your academic accomplishments. When should i use a cv instead of definitions of interpersonal communication, a resume?
Which to use won#8217;t be a guessing game! Your potential employer will usually let you know whether they want a Curriculum Vitae or a resume. In the US and Canada, the #8216;default#8217; is a resume; in Ireland, New Zealand, and most of Europe, it#8217;s the Curriculum Vitae. Essays. Generally, in academia, the long-form CV is favored. If you have done your due diligence to discover whether your employer is looking for a CV or a resume but you are still uncertain, the professional thing to do is to definitions communication place a polite call to the company’s Human Resources to ask. The following sections are generally required on every CV.
Although which you place first will depend on your strengths and weaknesses, ensure that your name and definition contact information are prominently displayed near the beginning. Your name and definitions of interpersonal communication contact information. Unlike in new headway a resume, you will want to include a professional address and phone number #8212; that is, the address for the university or company where you are currently employed, or where you are currently enrolled, and the phone number for the department where you work. You may also include a home or personal address, but this is definitions communication optional. There are some companies or university departments where the knowledge that you are searching for a new job elsewhere could make your remaining time there stressful. If that is potentially the the us to enter world war 1, case, you may choose to instead provide your personal address and communication phone number, although this is considered less professional. This section should include not only a list of your completed degrees, but also of of recreation, degrees-in-progress as well as any professional certifications. For example, if you were applying for a professorship and you were also a National Board Certified Instructor in Biology, you might consider putting this certification under this Education section. Many candidates also choose to of interpersonal communication put information about their dissertation in this section.
The record of your employment should include start and end dates, the title of your position, the type online, location of your company, and a brief description of definitions of interpersonal, your accomplishments. Avoid including a laundry list of duties, and online focus instead on accomplishments: not the definitions of interpersonal communication, day-to-day grind, but describe when you went above and beyond your job description. If you are applying for an academic institution or position, focus on to enter world teaching experience, experience that involves editing or providing feedback to others, and management or administration experience. Besides research and communication publications, those are the online, most important skills in communication academia. In this section, you can also discuss your laboratory and field experiences. You can even describe volunteer work or leadership positions you’ve held. This section isn#8217;t just about #8216;official#8217; jobs or positions, but responsibilities you took on that showed initiative and responsibility.
Your references, while chronological, should otherwise read like a traditional bibliography. Harvard-style citations are often used because they’re short and to the point, though you may want to use the citation style that is most often used in your discipline. For example, if you were applying for a psychology position, you would use the APA-style citation. Shakespearean. Many choose to include presentations, and not just publications. However, if you have a great number of publications and presentations, you may wish to place them in definitions of interpersonal communication two separate sections. New Headway. For a presentation, you would identify your role in the presentation, followed by the title of the presentation, and where and when it was given, e.g.: Panel Convener and Chair, Black Radical Experimentation, CAALL, 2016. In both cases, it is common practice to definitions communication use boldface type to bring special attention to a particular aspect of the reference.
For example, if you are the fourth author on your first published paper, it is definition not unusual to boldface your own name in order to draw attention to it. Definitions Of Interpersonal Communication. You may also boldface your role when discussing presentations: Panel Convener and Chair , Black Radical Experimentation, CAALL, 2016. Living Out The Reality Of Others? Essay. Due to the length of a CV, accomplishments and publications stand a good chance of fading into a universal sameness. By making judicious use of boldface or italics, you can make important words and phrases stand out on the page. Your Curriculum Vitae should have a References section, where you list, among other things, those who support your bid for the position you are applying for. Definitions Of Interpersonal Communication. Most jobs require three references.
If you are applying for an academic position or a PhD candidacy, it is standard to obtain two academic references to attest to your professional and intellectual capacity, and one personal or professional reference to attest to your character. Generally, the format for the References section is: Name of individual, with title (Position held by definition of recreation individual) Institution where the definitions of interpersonal, individual works. Address of of recreation, institution. Definitions Of Interpersonal. Email and/or telephone number of world, individual. Prof.
F. Smith (Academic Supervisor) School of Environment, University of Carmathen, Oxford Road, Carmathen CA4 3DE. There are those who argue against including the of interpersonal communication, full contact information for references, and state that the old standby #8216;References upon of recreation Request#8217; is more useful. This may come into play if your employer prefers a very short CV, and if your references are not particularly well-known in your field. Otherwise, you should supply the information needed rather than requiring your potential employer to ask for definitions communication it. On a related note, you should cultivate a variety of definition of recreation, references over time. If you haven#8217;t spoken to one of your references in a few months and are going on a job hunt, be sure to contact them to ensure that their contact information is still the same, and to double check that they are still comfortable being a reference. If you detect a hint of doubt, remove them from your references list immediately. The following sections may be important in one person#8217;s CV but not in another#8217;s. If you find that what you would place within the optional section is both important to an employer#8217;s understanding of of interpersonal, your abilities and accomplishments and does not easily fit within one of the essential sections discussed above, you should include it.
For many, it may be difficult to envision what might go in each optional section without actually going through the process of attempting to complete it. Sonnet Examples. Consider attempting to populate each of the additional sections, then deleting the definitions, ones for which you can#8217;t say much or for which you can easily insert the information into one of the sonnet, standard sections. While doing so, why not also consider developing a #8216;skeleton#8217; CV that has every section #8212; even optional ones #8212; filled out completely. As you gain more experience you may find that some of the optional sections garner enough data to be placed into your growing CV. Your CV is an definitions of interpersonal, important document, and working out the best format for you is worth your time and new headway energy.
An #8216;Areas of Interest#8217; section can show that you are well-rounded, and it can present you as a unique individual. However, you can#8217;t fill this space with just anything. What will be appealing to each employer will depend strongly on the company or university atmosphere, and whether or not your areas of interest are of definitions, relevance to your career path. What War 1. An employer who stresses that well-rounded candidates make the best employees may be genuinely pleased to see that you have placed highly in of interpersonal communication several footraces, speak fluent Japanese, or write science fiction on the weekends. New Headway. Many academics use this space to briefly describe areas of interest for future research. That is advisable, and a good use of space! In the case of definitions of interpersonal communication, academia, this is often one of the very first sections; in all other cases, it is often the very last.
If your primary accomplishments can be placed in the education section, do so; a feeble section for grants, honors, and awards can be off-putting to potential employers if you are applying for a higher-level position or have been in sonnet the field long. However, if you have more than two or three entries for this section, it is absolutely vital to make it a part of definitions of interpersonal communication, your CV. If you#8217;ve never written a CV before, give yourself plenty of time to populate this section. Chances are, over the course of your academic and professional career, you have been recognized multiple times for a variety of reasons; but honors and of recreation awards that did not appreciably alter your career direction may not jump to mind at of interpersonal, first. Look through your employment history or your scheduling documents, such as bullet journals or meeting notes, to gather more details. Once you have written your first-draft CV, it#8217;s a good idea to begin keeping track of examples by students, these in a dedicated file on your computer or on the cloud; or just add honors to your CV as you acquire them. Definitions. According to The Balance, technical skills are #8220;abilities and knowledge needed to perform specific tasks.
They are practical, and often relate to mechanical, IT, mathematical, or scientific tasks.#8221; If you have learned how to use a complex piece of laboratory equipment with ease, know the ins and outs of a useful piece of software, or mastered a new programming language, those should go in this section. Definition Of Recreation. Just as with the grants, honors, and awards section, if you don#8217;t have anything significant to place in definitions of interpersonal this section, consider omitting it. However, this section is absolutely vital for an Industry CV. Essays Online. The #8216;Presentations#8217; section can be placed in the #8216;Research#8217; section if you have few presentations or publications. However, if you have a large number of definitions of interpersonal communication, both, consider making a separate section for your presentations. For projects, you may want to list your contribution, followed by the names of unequal distribution of wealth, others you worked with, and a descriptive synopsis. Definitions Of Interpersonal. See the CV examples at the end of the article for shakespearean examples by students more information. Definitions. Scholarly and professional memberships.
This is another section where you may want to give yourself a while to ponder. Many of shakespearean by students, us join professional associations when we are in academia, and use their resources, or participate in their discussions for of interpersonal a brief time before moving on to another area of academic interest. New Headway. For example, if you are a medical researcher studying a particular illness, you may join an definitions, epidemiological society to garner information; but if your interest next turns to the immunological aspects of the disease, you may not participate as much in the forums and professional societies you joined previously. Going through your publication and presentation history may help you recall professional societies to which you#8217;ve belonged, or forums in what to enter world war 1 which you have been active. If you held office or some other powerful position within a scholarly or professional organization but currently don#8217;t belong to definitions of interpersonal many professional organizations, consider placing this information in Out the Essay your employment section. Just as in the other optional sections, if what is of interpersonal here does not add anything significant to Reality Essay your CV, consider excluding it. If you have employment experience outside of academia or industry that has taught you skills that you find useful in communication your career, you might want to include this section. Of Others? Essay. However, be wary of including information that doesn#8217;t apply to your field of research or to what will be asked of you in industry.
If this section is included, it is often the very first main section after the candidate#8217;s name and definitions of interpersonal communication contact information, and it includes a description of what you are hoping to be able to accomplish. Of Recreation. However, its inclusion may be considered old-fashioned or associated more with resumes than with CVs. Definitions Of Interpersonal. Therefore, it is most often found in short-form European CVs that share some characteristics with resumes. Definition Of Recreation. You may feel like a photo of you on your CV will make you appear more personable and engaging. Consider the following Suppose you send your CV to a new employer and they don#8217;t hire you.
Would you suspect that this was because they didn#8217;t like your skin color, or your facial hair? Or perhaps they preferred another gender, or a different age? Having a photograph can invoke a bias from the person reviewing your CV, so it is best to not include it. There are several countries, however, where a photograph is considered standard, including Japan, China, and some parts of Europe #8212; though not the definitions, UK, Ireland, Sweden, or the new headway, Netherlands. When in doubt, ask the communication, Human Resources department if they prefer to have a photograph included in CVs. Your email address should include some version of your first and last name, and not be from an outdated email system such as AOL. The best possible email address is [email protected] email client dot-com, e.g. [email protected] If you don#8217;t have such an email address, get one.
Scroll to the bottom of the of recreation, article to see some sample CVs. CVs for definitions of interpersonal industry and for academia have some important differences, as do CVs in the arts and the sciences. Perhaps you have a PhD in of wealth biomedical engineering, and you#8217;re hoping to consult for a biotech company. Your CV is going to look very different from the one you would create if you were applying to definitions communication become a biology professor at Princeton. First, you have to keep in mind that a company isn#8217;t necessarily looking for every detail of your academic career the way that someone considering you for a professorship might. Instead, they are looking for what will make you a good fit for their company in particular. How does your experience line up with their goals, the Out the Essay, projects they#8217;re working on, and the level of definitions communication, expertise required for the position?
In fact, a CV for industry is very similar to a resume #8212; except that it contains the sections recommended for definition of recreation a CV and definitions of interpersonal is still usually a bit longer than a resume. Distribution. An industry CV is communication more to the point than an type online, academic CV, and it places more emphasis on readability and layout than on sheer impressive weight. Put another way, the focus in an industry CV is on what you might accomplish, whereas an academic CV depicts what you have done so far. Definitions Communication. This is based on how these institutions determine value. A professor with numerous publications brings value by attracting prestige and pulling in new students excited about definition their work, and lower-level employees who wish to bask in the glow of definitions communication, their reflected authority and expertise. Shakespearean Examples By Students. A company wants to know what you will be able to do to create a cohesive research team, work swiftly and professionally, and, in general, increase or maintain their revenue stream. Can you design experiments that will solve problems? Will you understand what the results mean? It follows that an definitions of interpersonal, industry CV should then place time, focus, and energy on the #8216;Technical Skills#8217; and #8216;Experience#8217; sections. An industry job may also place more emphasis on essays online the #8216;Areas of Interest#8217; section to show that the of interpersonal communication, applicant has social skills as well as intellectual ability: that he or she is sonnet examples by students capable of managing a team of other skillful and intelligent people.
Finally, you should be aware that larger companies may rely on technology, rather than people, to examine CVs to weed out the undesired. According to definitions communication the Wall Street Journal, approximately 90% of larger companies use software that skims through CVs looking for certain words and phrases, eliminating 50% of applicants this way. For this reason, it#8217;s important to definition use the latest jargon for the industry, and to assiduously avoid terms that are considered outdated or unprofessional in your industry. Science is a collaborative enterprise. The arts? Not necessarily. Therefore, Science CVs will place more emphasis on collaborative research, presentations, and posters displayed at conferences. If, on of interpersonal communication the other hand, you are applying to teach in the arts at the graduate level, you may have a small handful of papers authored by you, and your thesis, or another novel-sized description of your detailed research (a monograph). Reality Of Others?. Scientists spend much of their time at university doing research, where PhD students in the arts may have a great deal more teaching experience. Teaching experience may also be of definitions communication, more value (and therefore should be emphasized) in unequal definition a CV in definitions communication the arts.
There is no standard CV format, so do the best you can. What The Us To Enter War 1. Be on the lookout for definitions of interpersonal communication requested formats from employers. If there is what caused to enter world no guidance given on the CV structure, there are no set rules beyond the fact that your name and contact information ought to definitions go first, and that you must include the #8216;core#8217; sections described above. The rest is all about what you want to emphasize in your CV. Living. This in turn is based on what you believe your potential employer most values. Which sections should be placed at the beginning? If you are applying to of interpersonal a research-based university, it is your research and shakespearean examples by students publications. If you#8217;re a graduate student applying for a PhD, it would be your education, as it is your most impressive recent accomplishment. A university where teaching is the focus indicates that your teaching experience should go first. If you are going into industry, then highlighting your technical skills, administration experience, and community service is important. If employers focus most of their attention on the first half of the first page, you should lead with the category that best presents your skills #8212; or is most suited to definitions communication the position in question.
Find CV examples within your field, and learn from new headway them. You should look at communication, many examples to see how others have leveraged their skills and experience to best advantage. Ask people in your discipline to show you their CV. It#8217;s even better if you#8217;re aware of who has struggled to find a position, and who was accepted for distribution one right away. If you know that these individuals have relatively similar skill sets, their CVs can serve as good and poor examples. There are several other resources that can help you write your CV and may provide examples: The Academic Job Search Handbook, 5th Ed. by definitions of interpersonal communication Julia Miller Vick, Jennifer S. Furlong, and Rosanne Lurie has lots of great advice about the type essays online, job hunt in general, along with many CV samples for different career paths The Purdue OWL Writing Lab contains some excellent advice about writing in general, as well as several pages devoted to CVs in particular. Definitions Of Interpersonal Communication. A fabulous resource. The Chronicle of definition, Higher Education is another great resource with a plethora of job-related advice as well as several sections on how best to compose a CV Rice University#8217;s How-to includes a concise description of how to definitions communication write both a CV and a resume, with two CV examples.
Check out our repository of sample CVs with descriptions at definition of recreation, the end of the article! Employers value accomplishments. Definitions. Qualities represent potential. Accomplishments represent reality. Guess which an employer values more? Focus on accomplishments or responsibilities in type essays your CV rather than traits. For example, it#8217;s more effective to state that you led your team to finish a research study in communication record time and under budget, than to of wealth definition blandly state your confidence in something as intangible as your #8220;leadership qualities#8221;. Use gapping, parallelism, and bullet points to write like a pro.
Use incomplete sentences to increase impact and to communication ditch extraneous words. The following example is NOT very effective: I taught a full lecture hall#8217;s worth of sonnet, students at University X twice weekly, over definitions communication 300 students#8217; worth. I also graded papers, planned curriculum with a team, and engaged in tutorial sessions online. Instead, you could say: Primary Instructor Organic Chemistry (2001-2008). Planned curriculum. Responsible for definition daily grading. Created engaging tutorials online. This has more #8216;punch#8217; and takes up much less space. Definitions Of Interpersonal Communication. Perhaps most importantly it#8217;s much easier to read and absorb quickly #8212; vital when you#8217;re trying to catch the wandering attention of an individual who#8217;s looking at Living Reality of Others? Essay, their fortieth CV. Definitions Of Interpersonal Communication. Use the Living Reality of Others? Essay, same type of phrasing so that the reader can swiftly understand your meaning.
Here is part of a CV in of interpersonal communication which the author did NOT use parallelism: Supervision support for two undergraduate projects in econometric models for conservation. Delivering seminars in ‘Conservation theory’ and ‘Environment modeling’ to groups of 10-20 undergraduate students planning teaching methods. Mentor to 2 new PhD students in the Department. Group leader on 3 field trips requiring leadership, problem solving under pressure and enthusiasm. Note that each of the leading verbs has a different ending. This lack of parallelism requires longer for the brain to process, and may mean that the reader skims over the words without taking them in. Check out how much better this CV reads when parallelism is used to make each line grammatically and stylistically similar: Supervised two undergraduate projects in econometric models for conservation. Shakespearean By Students. Planned and delivered seminars in ‘Conservation theory’ and ‘Environment modeling’ to groups of 10-20 undergraduate students. Mentored two PhD students in the Department. Led 3 field trips with enthusiasm.
By cutting down on the verbiage and definitions communication creating commonalities between each of the bullet points, this section is now far stronger. Bullet points are used more often in resumes than in CVs because resumes tend to have more short and declarative statements that take up less than a line each, such as the new headway, examples from the #8216;Parallelism#8217; section. Shorter verb-noun pairs belong on the same line. For example, Primary Instructor Organic Chemistry (2001-2008). Definitions Of Interpersonal Communication. Planned curriculum. Responsible for daily grading. Definition. Engaged in additional tutorials online.
Primary Instructor Organic Chemistry (2001-2008) Planned curriculum Responsible for daily grading Engaged in additional tutorials online Use captivating action words. Avoid cliches like the of interpersonal, plague. Avoid verbs and descriptors that were once evocative but have since become cliches, such as #8220;team player#8221;, and #8220;detail-oriented#8221;. Instead, use fresh and essays powerful phrases that catch the of interpersonal communication, reader#8217;s attention. Online. According to definitions The Telegraph, over-used words and phrases that irritate recruiters and potential new bosses are: #8220;I#8217;m a hard worker#8221; #8220;I work well under pressure#8221; #8220;I can work independently#8221; #8220;I#8217;m a team player#8221; #8220;I am a problem solver#8221; #8220;Good communicator#8221; #8220;I#8217;m proactive#8221; I am a good listener#8221; #8220;I#8217;m enthusiastic#8221; #8220;Excellent written communication skills#8221; According to LinkedIn, the ten most over-used words on resumes today are: Motivated Creative Enthusiastic Track record Passionate Successful Driven Leadership Strategic Extensive experience. Most of these aren#8217;t horrible terms in and of themselves; it#8217;s that they#8217;ve been used so often that their meanings have become hollow. Generally, these descriptive words don#8217;t belong on CVs in the first place, since a CV is a description of what you#8217;ve accomplished, and it should be factual rather than aspirational (save the ambitions for the cover letter!). Some even older and over-used terms include #8220;go-getter#8221;, synergy, and #8220;I think outside of the box#8221;. New Headway. Remember to describe your actions and accomplishments rather than yourself, and of interpersonal communication you will be well on your way to crafting a compelling CV.
The Daily Muse has an incredible compilation of 185 action words based on accomplishments. Here are some of the best of the bunch: Authored, awarded, earned, ensured, documented, critiqued, corresponded, lobbied, reviewed, promoted, composed, measured, quantified, tested, tracked, discovered, investigated, examined, explored, mapped, advocated, consulted, educated, fielded, resolved, navigated, secured, mentored, trained, recruited, cultivated, directed, fostered, guided, revitalized, transformed, redesigned, generated, expanded, delivered, decreased, introduced, launched, spearheaded, engineered, formalized, operationalized, instituted, developed, built, designed, programmed, produced, planned, chaired, headed. Note that these action words are all directly associated with tasks and accomplishments and unequal distribution of wealth definition do not describe the individual#8217;s inherent qualities. Definitions Of Interpersonal Communication. CV Design and document formatting is important. White space and readability is of utmost importance. You can use the #8216;print preview#8217; selection in examples by students MS Word to get a good feel for your layout.
It will show you where fonts or margins are too big or too small, or where information is cramped. Definitions Of Interpersonal Communication. In industry, white space is especially important: go for clarity and readability over distribution of wealth impressiveness and definitions communication length. Don#8217;t get fussy with your fonts. For stylistic purposes, consider using boldfaced and normal font, or italics and normal font. Online. Mixing too many font types together creates the impression of of interpersonal communication, disharmony. The result you want to of Others? create is one of clarity and organization. Not only does this help make your document more readable, it makes you, the applicant, appear straightforward and organized. Communication. Note that these are not all good examples, as some are presented here in order to outline their flaws. Please mind the descriptions. Also, the Reality of Others?, PDF documents typically are to be used as examples to learn from, as they are real-life CVs, but not in editable format.
The Microsoft Word templates are to be used to definitions of interpersonal help create your own CV. What War 1. The candidate#039;s strengths are his publication and presentation sections. It was a good idea to separate these as he has plenty of both! The font choice here may be too fussy, which look very stylized. The layout is unique, and it serves to emphasize important points and separate sections, which increases readability and makes good use of the available space. Communication. Size: 44 KB Downloads: 3668 Filename: Physics-PhD-Candidacy-CV.docx Uploaded: 2017-02-09 14:27:00 / 35045. Academic CV Research Associate - Medicinal Chemistry. This is a good example of the layout typical to the UK, but in many other ways it can serve as an example of what not to do. Generally, this one needs an editor for detecting capitalization errors and unimportant or unrelated information (specifically, a good driving record, the ability level of his violin playing, and what world war 1 a part-time job as a customer service representative, are all unnecessary), and for suggesting stronger action words. Size: 45 KB Downloads: 1780 Filename: Academic-CV-Research-Associate-Medicinal-Chemistry.docx Uploaded: 2017-02-09 14:57:00 / 35515.
The first page looks great until we get to the 'Personal Statement' section (similar to the 'Motivation' or 'Objective' section). That section could be a lot stronger, considering how prominently it is displayed. Definitions Communication. There are some minor grammatical errors throughout. There is an Reality of Others?, over-use of communication, underlining and bullet points. It is better to be prudent with techniques used to draw greater attention to one part of your CV.
Size: 37 KB Downloads: 1119 Filename: Neuroscience-PhD-Candidacy-CV.docx Uploaded: 2017-02-09 15:49:00 / 35890. Associate Professorship in definition Physics and Genomics CV. It could use some boldface or italics for communication the gaze to be drawn to, but overall this is an excellent example that makes the candidate appear quite impressive. Size: 44 KB Downloads: 1118 Filename: Physics-PhD-Candidacy-CV.docx Uploaded: 2017-02-09 17:37:00 / 36449. Sonnet Examples By Students. Apart from a bit of odd spacing on page 3 -- the definitions of interpersonal, author might have italics or boldface rather than indentation here -- this is an excellent CV. Unequal Definition. Despite the fact that it's a pharmacy CV, it's probably too long to appeal to industry, and it might be better suited for an applicant aiming for a research position at a university, or for offering their services as part of a panel or advisory board. Size: 39 KB Downloads: 1650 Filename: file59340.pdf Uploaded: 2017-02-09 17:43:00 / 37451. Go to page 20 for the Jane Alexander CV Example.
There are a few minor errors here, but they all add up. Jane's address could have been spread out across the top of the page rather than giving it four lines of its own: this is definitions too much emphasis on something that is essentially unimportant. Online. Another line is used up on definitions of interpersonal the second page to tell us that the previous section has thereby been continued. There are grammatical errors in the first few lines: magna cum laude should be italicized. Finally, the formatting is not consistent throughout. This is an impressive candidate, but aspects of her CV make her look unorganized and less qualified than she probably actually is.
Size: 153 KB Downloads: 1126 Filename: cv_covlets.pdf Uploaded: 2017-02-09 17:50:00 / 37526. Environmental Studies and Politics Academic CV. Another solid classic UK-style CV. Layout is superlative. The only issue is a minor lack of parallelism in the verb-tenses used. Size: 69 KB Downloads: 1259 Filename: cv_academic.pdf Uploaded: 2017-02-09 18:20:00 / 37783. Politics and Communication PhD Candidacy CV.
An excellent example of an academic CV. The author includes her non-academic employment because that work still relates, at least peripherally, to her overall career direction. Boldfacing her name in the publications section might have broken up the sameness a bit, but overall the layout is clear and clean. Interests and sonnet professional associations are merged in the 'activities' section. Size: 33 KB Downloads: 1301 Filename: Politics-Communication-PhD-Candidacy-CV.docx Uploaded: 2017-02-09 18:46:00 / 37834. Communication. While this candidate includes all the information she needs, and focuses laudably on her teaching experience, the of wealth, sections of her CV are out of order. Remember to lead with your strengths. Her academic employment should be presented straightaway, not down on of interpersonal page 4. Size: 44 KB Downloads: 1013 Filename: Physics-PhD-Candidacy-CV.docx Uploaded: 2017-02-09 19:09:00 / 38197. A really good example of a professional CV. It's worth noting that, if your CV is going to be this long (seven pages!), then it's acceptable to add more white space.
The most important results are that it appears clean and organized, and unequal of wealth that it reads well. Size: 365 KB Downloads: 1003 Filename: AAMishra_CV_July2016.pdf Uploaded: 2017-02-09 19:16:00 / 38266. Go to page 5 to see the CV example for Benjamin F. Goldfarb. By the time we reach the of interpersonal communication, end of the first page, this candidate has already told us about his PhD from what caused to enter Harvard, as well as all of his publications. He has also begun to discuss his scholarship and awards. A smart use of definitions of interpersonal, space! This candidate also knows where his strengths are: in instruction. As a result, you'll note that he put his research and teaching interests front-and-center.
It's an unusual choice to put this so early on, but it works here. To break up all the visual sameness, it might have been better to boldface the dates in type his Fellowships and Awards section. Size: 2 MB Downloads: 955 Filename: gsas-cvs-and-cover-letters.pdf Uploaded: 2017-02-09 19:23:00 / 38305. Another very effective CV (go to definitions of interpersonal page 8 to shakespearean examples by students see the CV example for Vidita Chatterjee). Vidita puts her current position first in order to place emphasis on of interpersonal her teaching experience, and her education section prominently displays her graduate degree in sonnet examples by students education. This emphasizes the theme throughout the CV, which is that she is best suited to become a music instructor at the graduate level. The use of white space and the lining up of the definitions communication, dates are very effective, and give the CV a very professional look. Size: 2 MB Downloads: 911 Filename: gsas-cvs-and-cover-letters.pdf Uploaded: 2017-02-09 19:30:00 / 38347. Another excellently done CV. This CV allows the reader to understand the what caused the us to enter world, qualifications of the applicant at definitions of interpersonal communication, first glance. The choice to place her research interests all on one line and separated by semicolons allows the reader to sonnet spot her research experience on the first page rather than second.
The judicious use of definitions of interpersonal communication, boldface type allows the reader to spot important information with little effort. The addition of a Languages section was a wise choice, given that her language proficiency is both remarkable and what caused the us world war 1 an asset in her field (history). Definitions Of Interpersonal Communication. Size: Downloads: 1079 Filename: Sample%20CV.pdf Uploaded: 2017-02-09 19:34:00 / 38402. This CV is an excellent example from a psychology student, with marked commentary that may be useful. Using citations in the References section is not a requisite for all fields, but it is the APA style typically used in new headway the field of psychology. The use of space is exceptional: the dates line up, and the descriptions are indented so that the reader's eyes are naturally drawn from section to of interpersonal communication section. Of Recreation. The descriptions themselves could use a little work. Remember to describe your accomplishments in some detail, and communication not just outline your duties. Size: 422 KB Downloads: 1227 Filename: Psi_Chi_Sample_CV.pdf Uploaded: 2017-02-09 19:36:00 / 38428. Undergraduate Math and distribution of wealth definition Physics CV.
This is a great CV for a young professional with not much research experience, and it would be ideal for definitions of interpersonal communication industry. However, the applicant's personal information should be front-and-center (not hidden at the end of the CV), and more attention could be paid to new headway the layout. Definitions Of Interpersonal Communication. Especially when your CV is short, make sure that it is readable, and pay attention to white space. Of Recreation. In particular, the definitions communication, section entitled 'Academic and definition of recreation Related Professional Experience' needs editing. Size: 32 KB Downloads: 1767 Filename: Undergraduate-Math-Physics-CV.docx Uploaded: 2017-02-09 19:49:00 / 38450. With only two pages, this CV manages to communication convey the candidate#039;s credentials, potential, and personality, complete with a few hobbies towards the end. The emphasis on tennis throughout is a bit much, as it should be in the activities section or in the employment section, but overall this is an excellent CV. Size: 183 B Downloads: 1496 Filename: phd-science-physics-cv.docx Uploaded: 2017-02-09 20:45:00 / 38894.
The professional summary in shakespearean this CV could use some work; it describes characteristics rather than accomplishments. The phrase #039;Utilizing strong communication skills#039; used as its own sentence is of interpersonal particularly improper! Putting his education into a chart was a good choice: it organizes the information and it is essays online visually dissimilar from the rest of the CV, making it stand out. One assumes that #039;Personal History#039; was something the employer required on their resume, or something that is standard in Pakistan. Still, the #039;Personality Traits#039; section would do far better being replaced by an #039;Accomplishments#039; section. Definitions Of Interpersonal Communication. Anyone can say they possess certain characteristics; however, claiming specific accomplishments shows what you can do for an employer, which is what HR staff are looking for in a new employee. Size: Downloads: 2155 Filename: chemical-engineer-cv-59516157 Uploaded: 2017-02-09 21:19:00 / 39007. There is some repetition in new headway the 'Motivation' section (new/new/new). There are also a few typos that could have been easily remedied by a careful proofread, and, on the second page in particular, the of interpersonal communication, bullet points should have been indented to create a better sense of order and new headway clarity. That said, this candidate describes his accomplishments in a way that is straightforward, clear, and impressive. He succeeds quite well.
Size: 350 KB Downloads: 1060 Filename: Michael%20Gabay-1-2_0.pdf Uploaded: 2017-02-09 21:29:00 / 39185. Enjoyed our templates? Don#8217;t forget to like and share! 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited.
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chemotherapy essay The thought of definitions of interpersonal, chemotherapy frightens many people. Understanding what to expect before, during, and after chemotherapy can calm many of these fears. This essay will help explain what chemotherapy is, how it works, and what to expect, in to enter general, with chemotherapy. To doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and health professionals, the word chemotherapy means any drug (like aspirin or penicillin) used for treating people with any disease. Cancer chemotherapy is understood to mean medications or drugs that destroy cancer cells. Most lay people, however, think of anti-cancer drugs when they hear the term chemotherapy. Two of the medical terms often used to describe cancer chemotherapy are antineoplastic (anti-cancer) and cytotoxic (cell-killing). The first drug used for cancer chemotherapy was not originally intended for that purpose.
Mustard gas was used as a chemical warfare agent during World War I and was studied further during World War II. During a military operation in World War II, a large number of military personnel was accidentally exposed to that agent and were later found to have abnormally low white blood counts. It was reasoned that an agent that damaged the definitions rapidly growing white blood cells might have a similar effect on cancer. Therefore, in new headway the 1940's several patients with advanced lymphomas were given the definitions of interpersonal communication drug (by vein, rather than by breathing the irritating gas). Their improvement, although temporary, was remarkable. That experience provided the impetus for the study of other substances that might have similar effects against cancer - as a result, many additional drugs have been developed to treat many other types of cancer.
Chemotherapy is sometimes the definition of recreation first choice for communication treating many cancers. It differs from sonnet examples by students surgery or radiation in that it is almost always used as a systemic treatment . This means the drugs travel throughout the communication whole body or system rather than being localized to one area such as the breast, lung, or colon. This is important because chemotherapy can reach cancer cells that may have spread to other parts of the body. There are now well over by students 90 drugs used for definitions chemotherapy and many more are expected to become available soon. These chemotherapy drugs vary widely in their chemical composition, how they are taken, their usefulness in treating specific forms of cancer, and definition of recreation, their side effects. New drugs are first developed through laboratory research in test tubes and animals. Definitions Of Interpersonal. Then, their safety and unequal definition, effectiveness are tested in three phases of clinical trials in humans.
Clinical trials are studies of new or experimental drugs (or other new treatments). The study is done when there is a reason to believe a new drug or a new combination of drugs may be of of interpersonal, value in curing or controlling cancer. The study will be fully explained to the individual and their family and unequal distribution of wealth definition, the individual has the opportunity to of interpersonal, volunteer or refuse to participate in the study. Living Out The Of Others?. Taking part in a clinical trial does not prevent anyone from receiving other medical or nursing care that is needed. Patients who participate in clinical trials make an important contribution to definitions of interpersonal communication, medical care because the study results will also help future patients.
And, the to enter world war 1 participant will be the first to of interpersonal communication, benefit from these new treatments. Unequal Distribution Definition. To learn more about clinical trials, you can contact the American Cancer Society (1-800-ACS-2345 or www.cancer.org) or the communication National Cancer Institute (1-800-4-CANCER or cancertrials.nci.nih.gov). The National Cancer Institute can provide a listing of the us to enter, clinical trials for people with various types and stages of cancer. HOW CHEMOTHERAPY WORKS. To understand how chemotherapy works as a treatment it is helpful to understand the normal life cycle of a cell in the body.
All living tissue is composed of cells and sustained by cell growth and reproduction that replaces cells lost during injury or normal wear and tear. The cell cycle is a series of steps through which both normal cells and abnormal cancer cells grow and definitions communication, reproduce to form two new cells. There are 5 steps, called cell cycle phases, that are designated by letters and numbers: G0, G1, S, G2, and unequal distribution of wealth, M. G 1 = RNA and protein synthesis. S = DNA synthesis. G 2 = Construction of mitotic apparatus. Cells in the G 0 phase, which is sometimes referred to as the definitions of interpersonal communication resting phase, have not yet started reproducing. The length of the type online G0 phase varies from hours to years for definitions of interpersonal different types of cells. Caused World. When the cell is stimulated to reproduce (for instance, when other cells wear out and definitions of interpersonal communication, need to be replaced), it moves into the G1 phase.
During this step, the cell's production of RNA and proteins increase. This phase lasts about 18-30 hours, and is followed by the S phase. During the S phase, the cell replicates its DNA so that both of the new cells it will eventually form will have the right amount of DNA. Shakespearean Examples. This phase lasts about 18-20 hours. Definitions Of Interpersonal Communication. G2, the period right before the definition cell starts the process of splitting into two cells, lasts from 2-10 hours. It is definitions of interpersonal communication, also a period when RNA and proteins are formed. The last step is called M for mitosis. Living Reality Essay. In this last step, which lasts only 30-60 minutes, the cell actually splits into two new cells.
This cell cycle is important to oncologists because many cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs work only on actively reproducing cells (not G0, the resting phase). These drugs specifically attack cells in a particular phase of the cell cycle (the M or S phases, for example). Understanding how these drugs work helps oncologists predict which drugs are likely to work well together, and of interpersonal communication, plan how often doses of each drug should be given. Although chemotherapy drugs attack reproducing cells, they do not distinguish between reproducing cells of normal tissues (that are replacing worn-out normal cells) and cancer cells. The damage to normal cells can result in side effects, which will be discussed later in this essay. Thus, each time chemotherapy is given it involves a balance between destroying the cancer cells (in order to unequal distribution of wealth, cure or control the of interpersonal communication disease) and the us to enter war 1, sparing the normal cells (to minimize undesirable side effects). GOALS OF TREATMENT WITH CHEMOTHERAPY. There are three main goals of chemotherapy treatment. The first is to cure the cancer, meaning that the tumor or cancer disappears and does not return. If this is not possible, the second goal is to control the disease (stop the cancer from definitions growing and spreading) in order to provide the best quality of of Others? Essay, life for the person with cancer.
Sometimes cure and of interpersonal communication, control are not possible if the cancer is in an advanced stage. At this point the goal is called palliation. This means that chemotherapy drugs will be used to relieve symptoms caused by the cancer, thereby improving the patient’s quality of life, even though the length of their life may not be prolonged. For some patients, chemotherapy is the only treatment used in definition an attempt to cure, control, or palliate their cancer. In other cases, chemotherapy may be given as neoadjuvant therapy before surgery or radiation, or as adjuvant therapy after surgery or radiation. Adjuvant chemotherapy is given to prevent the reproduction of stray cancer cells remaining in the body after surgery or radiation. In most cases, these stray cancer cells cannot be recognized by routine tests such as x-rays, but are assumed to be present. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be used to shrink a large tumor so that it can be removed by definitions of interpersonal surgery or a less extensive operation can be used to essays, accomplish that goal. TYPES OF CHEMOTHERAPY DRUGS. Chemotherapy drugs are divided into several categories based on how they affect specific chemical substances within cancer cells, which cellular activities or processes the drug interferes with, and which specific phases of the cell cycle the drug effects. Communication. This information helps oncologists decide which drugs are likely to sonnet examples, work well together and, if more than one drug will be used, plan exactly when each of the definitions communication drugs should be given (in which order and how often).
Alkylating agents work directly on DNA to prevent the cancer cell from reproducing. As a class of drugs, these agents are not phase-specific (they work in all phases of the cell cycle). These drugs are active against what to enter war 1, chronic leukemias, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, multiple myeloma, and certain cancers of the lung, breast, and ovary. Communication. Examples of Living of Others? Essay, alkylating agents include busulfan, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide (cytoxan), dacarbazine, ifosfamide, mechlorethamine (mustargen), and melphalan. Nitrosureas act in a similar way to alkylating agents. They inhibit enzymes that are needed for DNA repair. These agents are able to travel to the brain so they are used to communication, treat brain tumors, as well as non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, multiple myeloma, and malignant melanoma. Examples of type online, nitrosureas include carmustine and lomustine. Antimetabolites are a class of drugs that interfere with DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) growth.
These agents are phase specific (S phase) and are used to communication, treat chronic leukemias as well as tumors of breast, ovary and the gastrointestinal tract. What The Us To Enter World. Examples of antimetabolites include 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, gemcitabine, cytarabine (Ara-C), and fludarabine. Antitumor antibiotics have both antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. These drugs also interfere with DNA by definitions chemically inhibiting enzymes and mitosis or altering cellular membranes. These agents are not phase specific so they work in all phases of the cell cycle. Type Essays. Thus, they are widely used for a variety of cancers. Examples of antitumor antibiotics include bleomycin, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), and idarubicin.
Mitotic inhibitors are plant alkaloids and natural products that can inhibit mitosis or inhibit enzymes that prevent protein synthesis needed for of interpersonal communication reproduction of the type cell. These are phase cycle specific and communication, work during the M phase. Unequal Distribution Definition. Examples of mitotic inhibitors include paclitaxel, docetaxel, etoposide, vinblastine, vincristine, and vinorelbine. Other chemotherapy drugs which have slightly different mechanisms of action and do not fit into any of the above categories include such drugs as L-asparaginase, amsacrine, and tretinoin. Corticosteroid hormones are natural hormones and hormone-like drugs that are useful in treating some types of cancer (lymphoma, leukemias, and multiple myeloma) as well as other illnesses. When these drugs are used to kill cancer cells or slow their growth, they are considered chemotherapy drugs. Definitions Communication. They are often combined with other types of chemotherapy drugs to what the us, increase their effectiveness.
Examples include prednisone and dexamethasone. Sex hormones or hormone-like drugs alter the action or production of communication, female or male hormones and are used to new headway, slow the definitions of interpersonal growth of breast, prostate, and endometrial (lining of the uterus) cancer. Sonnet By Students. Examples include estrogens, anti-estrogens, progesterones, and androgens. Because these hormones do not work in the same ways as cytotoxic drugs, they are discussed in separate documents. Immunotherapy drugs given to people with cancer are intended to stimulate their immune systems to definitions communication, more effectively recognize and attack cancer cells. These drugs are a unique area of chemotherapy and are covered in a separate document.
PLANNING WHICH DRUGS AND HOW MANY DRUGS TO USE FOR CHEMOTHERAPY TREATMENTS. The most important factors in choosing which drugs to use for each patient's chemotherapy treatment are the type of cancer and definition, its stage (how far it has spread). The patient's age, general state of definitions communication, health, other serious health problems (such as liver or kidney diseases), and other types of anticancer treatments given in the past are also taken into account. The oncologist will consider these factors in the context of information published in the us world war 1 medical journals and textbooks describing the outcomes of similar patients treated with various chemotherapy drugs. In some cases, the best choice of chemotherapy drugs, doses, and of interpersonal communication, schedules for giving each drug are relatively clear, and most oncologists would recommend the same treatment. Type Online. In other cases, less may be known about the best way to treat people with certain types and stages of cancer, and different oncology physicians might choose different drug combinations with different schedules.
Chemotherapy regimens (treatment plans) may use a single drug or a combination of drugs. Oncologists recommend a combination of drugs for most people with cancer. Combinations of different drugs, by definitions attacking the cancer cells in several different ways, are often more effective than a single drug. And different drugs may have different side effects, so it is often better to use moderate doses that cause bearable side effects rather than very high doses of essays online, a single drug that might cause severe side effects and possibly permanent damage to an important organ. However, there are important exceptions to definitions of interpersonal communication, this rule, and a single chemotherapy drug may be the best option for some people with certain types of cancer. The doctor will try to give chemotherapy at levels high enough to cure or control the cancer, while keeping side effects at a minimum. The doctor will also try to avoid drugs with similar and additive side effects. PLANNING DRUG DOSES AND SCHEDULES. Some drugs, especially those available to new headway, people without a prescription have a relatively wide therapeutic index. This means that wide ranges of doses can be used effectively and safely. For example, the label on a bottle of aspirin may suggest taking two tablets for a mild headache.
But, one tablet will probably help many people with a mild headache, and taking three tablets will not cause serious harm to most people. Most chemotherapy drugs, on the other hand have a narrow range of safe and definitions of interpersonal, effective doses. Type. Not taking enough will not effectively treat the cancer and definitions communication, taking too much may cause life-threatening side effects. For this reason, doctors must calculate chemotherapy doses very precisely, based on each patient's size. The chemotherapy doses, usually measured in milligrams (mg), given to people with cancer are sometimes based on their body weight in kilograms (1 kilogram is definition of recreation, 2.2 pounds). Definitions Of Interpersonal Communication. For instance, if the standard dose of a drug is 10 milligrams per kilogram (usually abbreviated as 10 mg/kg), a person weighing 50 kilograms (110 pounds) would receive 500 milligrams (50 x 10). Definition. Chemotherapy doses are most commonly determined based on body surface area (BSA), which doctors calculate using a patient's height and weight.
Dosages for children and adults differ, even after BSA is definitions of interpersonal, taken into account. Dosages of some drugs may also be adjusted for people who are elderly, have poor nutritional status, have already taken or are currently taking other medications, have already received or are currently receiving radiation therapy, have low blood cell counts, or have liver or kidney diseases. Chemotherapy is generally given at regular intervals called cycles. A cycle may involve one dose followed by several days or weeks without treatment for normal tissues to recover from the drug's side effects. Doses may be given several days in a row, or every other day for several days, followed by a period of rest. If more than one drug is Essay, used, the treatment plan will specify how often and exactly when each drug should be given. The number of definitions of interpersonal communication, cycles a person receives may be determined before treatment starts (based on the type and stage of cancer) or may be flexible, in order to take into account how quickly the tumor is shrinking. Certain serious side effects may also require doctors to adjust chemotherapy plans to type essays, allow the patient time to recover.
WHERE CAN PEOPLE RECEIVE CHEMOTHERAPY TREATMENTS ? Chemotherapy treatments may be given in: a hospital a doctor’s office an outpatient clinic an individual’s home a workplace. In addition to convenience, how the drugs are given is important in considering the best place to receive chemotherapy. Definitions Of Interpersonal. For instance, a chemotherapy regimen requiring placement of a special intravenous catheter and infusion over 24 hours or longer may require hospitalization. And, the specific drugs and their doses, as well as the patient's general state of sonnet, health, will determine the expected side effects and of interpersonal, whether the new headway patient needs to be monitored more closely during treatment. WAYS TO TAKE CHEMOTHERAPY. Drugs used in chemotherapy regimens can be given in many ways. They may be given orally (by mouth), topically (on top of the skin as a cream or lotion), intravenously (into a vein or IV), intramuscularly (into a muscle or IM), subcutaneously (under the definitions of interpersonal communication skin or SQ), intra-arterially (into an artery), intrathecally (into the central nervous system via the cerebrospinal fluid), intrapleurally (into the chest cavity), intraperitoneally (into the abdominal cavity), intravesically (into the bladder), and intralesionally (into the tumor). Oral Versus Parenteral Chemotherapy. Some chemotherapy drugs are never taken by mouth because the digestive system cannot absorb them or because they are very irritating to the digestive system. Even when a drug is unequal distribution, available in definitions of interpersonal an oral form, this method may not be the best choice for some people who already have certain digestive system symptoms (vomiting, diarrhea, or severe nausea), cannot swallow liquids or pills, or cannot remember when or how many pills to take.
The term parenteral is used to describe drugs given intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously. The intravenous route is most common. Intramuscular and subcutaneous injections are less frequently used because many drugs can be very irritating or even damaging to the skin or muscle tissue. The IV route provides a rapid therapeutic blood level and rapid spread throughout the body. IV therapy may be given by several methods.
These include peripheral acces s (through a vein in the arm or hand), or through a vascular access device (VAD), which is a device with a catheter implanted into new headway, a larger vein in the chest, neck, or arm. There are different types of of interpersonal communication, VADs with different types of catheters and implantable ports. VADs are used if there is a need: to give several drugs at one time for long-term therapy for continuous infusion chemotherapy to give drugs that are vesicants that can cause serious damage to skin and muscle tissue if they leak outside of a vein. (A VAD provides more stable access in a vein than a regular IV, thus reducing the risk of the drug leaking outside of a vein.) The type of what to enter, VAD used is based on the length of chemotherapy planned, patient and doctor preference, care required to definitions communication, maintain the VAD and cost. Types of Vascular Access Devices. Care of the us to enter, catheter needed.
When there is a need to give high doses of chemotherapy to a specific area of the body, it may be given by a regional method. Regional chemotherapy involves directing the anticancer drugs into the tumor-bearing region of the of interpersonal communication body. The purpose is to achieve greater regional exposure than could be achieved by systemic chemotherapy while minimizing side effects to other parts of the body. Examples of regional chemotherapy include intra-arterial, intravesical, intrathecal, intrapleural, and intraperitoneal routes. Intra-arterial infusions gained some popularity during the 1980s.
An intra-arterial infusion allows a chemotherapy drug to be given directly through a catheter in an artery to an organ (like the liver or brain) or to an extremity such as the leg. The catheter is attached to new headway, an implanted or portable pump. Although this approach sounds like a good idea for communication increasing effectiveness and reducing side effects, most studies have not found it to be as useful as it was anticipated. What The Us War 1. Although clinical trials continue to refine this approach to of interpersonal communication, chemotherapy, it is not widely used except in caused war 1 these studies. Intracavitary is a broad term used to describe chemotherapy given directly into a body cavity such as intravesical (into the bladder), peritoneal (abdominal) cavity, or pleural (chest) cavity. The drug is given through a catheter placed directly into one of these areas. Of Interpersonal. Intravesical chemotherapy is the us, especially effective for early stage bladder cancer. The chemotherapy is usually given weekly for 4 to 12 weeks. Each treatment involves the placement of a urinary catheter to of interpersonal communication, give the drug into war 1, the bladder. The drug is retained in the bladder for 2 hours and then drained.
The urinary catheter is definitions of interpersonal, removed after each treatment. Intrapleural and intraperitoneal chemotherapy are not used very often, but are useful for essays online some people with mesothelioma (cancer that develops in the lung pleura), ovarian cancer that has spread to the peritoneum, and lung or breast cancers that have spread to the pleura. Definitions Of Interpersonal. Intrapleural chemotherapy is given through large or small chest catheters that may be connected to distribution, an implantable port. These catheters can be used to definitions, administer drugs as well as to drain fluid that often accumulates in the pleural or peritoneal cavity when cancer has spread to these tissues. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy is given through a Tenkhoff catheter (a catheter specially designed for removing or adding large amounts of fluid from or into the peritoneum) or through an implanted port.
Cancers of the appendix that spread extensively within the abdomen are sometimes treated with intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Most chemotherapy drugs that are given into veins are unable to cross the barrier between the bloodstream and war 1, the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) called the blood-brain barrier. Intrathecal chemotherapy is given directly into the cerebrospinal fluid (fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord), and can reach cancer cells in the central nervous system. Definitions. Intrathecal chemotherapy may use one of caused the us world war 1, two methods. Communication. In one method, the chemotherapy is given by a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) daily or weekly into the space around the distribution of wealth spinal cord. The second method uses a special reservoir called an Ommaya reservoir , which is placed into the skull and definitions of interpersonal communication, has a catheter inserted into a ventricle (a space inside the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid). Intrathecal chemotherapy may be necessary for some people with leukemia or other cancers that have spread to the brain or spinal cord.
Safety Precautions for shakespearean Healthcare Professionals. Many chemotherapy drugs are mutagenic (can cause abnormal changes in DNA), teratogenic (may be able to alter development of a fetus or embryo, leading to definitions communication, birth defects), or carcinogenic (able to definition, cause another type of cancer). Some may cause localized skin irritation or damage. Therefore, the nurses and doctors who give chemotherapy will take precautions to avoid direct contact with the drugs. Nurses may wear special gloves and gowns when preparing and definitions of interpersonal communication, giving the chemotherapy drugs. What Caused To Enter World. Additionally, the drug will be prepared by pharmacists or nurses in of interpersonal areas with special ventilation systems. Unequal Of Wealth. If patients are hospitalized, nurses and health care professionals may take special precautions in handling urine and stool for of interpersonal communication two days after treatment.
Any individual receiving chemotherapy drugs at home will be given special instructions and precautions to ensure the safety of caregivers in the home. Lastly chemotherapy drugs are considered hazardous so there will be special procedures for disposing of materials used when mixing and administering the drugs. Definition Of Recreation. There will be special plastic containers to dispose of sharp items, syringes, IV tubing, and medication bags. Gowns and gloves will be disposed of in definitions of interpersonal communication special bags. If any drug leaks or spills, special precautions will be used to clean up the drugs. SIDE EFFECTS OF CHEMOTHERAPY. Although chemotherapy is given to kill cancer cells, it also can damage normal cells.
Normal cells that are rapidly dividing, such as blood cells, cells of hair follicles, and cells in the reproductive and digestive tracts are more likely to be damaged by chemotherapy medications. Damage to these cells account for many of the side effects of chemotherapy drugs. Bone Marrow Suppression. The bone marrow is the tissue inside some bones that produces white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), and blood platelets. What Caused To Enter War 1. Damage to the blood cell-producing tissues of the bone marrow is called bone marrow suppression , or myelosuppression, and is one of the definitions communication most common side effects of chemotherapy. Cells produced in the bone marrow tissue are growing rapidly and are sensitive to what to enter world war 1, the effects of chemotherapy. Until the communication bone marrow cells recover from this damage, the patient may have abnormally low numbers of WBCs, RBCs, and blood platelets. The numbers of these cells in samples of the patient's blood will be counted at regular intervals, sometimes daily when necessary, by a complete blood count (CBC).
Bone marrow samples may also be taken periodically to check on the blood-forming marrow cells that develop into WBCs, RBCs, and blood platelets. The decrease in blood cell counts does not occur immediately after chemotherapy because the drugs do not destroy the cells already in the blood stream. Instead the new headway drugs temporarily prevent formation of new blood cells by the bone marrow. It is important to understand that each type of blood cell has a different life span. WBCs average a six-hour lifespan, platelets average ten days, and RBCs average 120 days. As blood cells normally wear out, they are constantly replaced by the bone marrow.
Following chemotherapy, as these cells wear out, they are not replaced as they would be normally and the blood cell levels will begin to drop. The type and dose of the chemotherapy will influence how low the blood cell counts will drop and how long it will take for the drop to occur. The lowest count that blood cell levels fall to is called the nadir. The nadir for each blood cell type will occur at different times but usually, WBCs and platelets will reach their nadir within 7-14 days. RBCs live longer and will not reach a nadir for several weeks. Knowing what the three types of blood cells normally do can help in understanding the effects of low blood cell counts. WBCs help the body resist infections.
Platelets help prevent excessive bleeding by forming plugs to seal up damaged blood vessels. RBCs bring oxygen to tissues so cells throughout the of interpersonal communication body can use that oxygen to turn certain nutrients into energy. The side effects caused by distribution of wealth low blood cell counts will be at their maximum peak when the WBC, blood platelet, and RBC are at their nadirs or lowest value. Low white blood cell counts: The medical term for low WBC count is leukopenia. Blood normally has between 4,000 and 10,000 WBCs per of interpersonal cubic millimeter.
The major function of WBCs is to type, defend the body against infections. WBCs are divided into 2 main categories: 1) granulocytes, which contain granules in the cytoplasm of the cell, include 3 sub-types of WBCs - neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils 2) agranulocytes, which do not contain granules in the cystoplasm of the cell, include 3 sub-types of definitions, WBCs - lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages. Granulocytes, especially neutrophils, provide an Out the Essay important defense against infections. They also are the most numerous type of WBC. Neutropenia, an abnormally low actual decrease in neutrophils, is the most common factor that makes individuals with cancer at risk for infection. The normal range of definitions communication, neutrophils is between 2500 and 6000 cells per cubic millimeter. To determine how likely an individual is to develop an infection, health care providers calculate a number called the absolute neutrophil count (ANC). When an what caused the us to enter world individual has an definitions of interpersonal ANC of 1000 or less they are considered to Living Reality of Others? Essay, be neutropenic and at risk to definitions, develop an infection. An ANC 500 is considered severe neutropenia. Even though the WBC count or the neutrophil count is distribution definition, low, it does not mean every individual will have an infection.
Signs and definitions of interpersonal, symptoms of an infection are: fever sore throat new cough or shortness of breath nasal congestion burning during urination shaking chills redness, swelling and warmth at the site of an injury. Fever is a very important sign and may be the first sign of an infection. Usually individuals are instructed to new headway, call their doctor or nurse with a fever greater than or equal to 100.5 degrees Fahrenheit, any signs or symptoms of infection, or shaking chills. Patients are given preventive care measures to reduce their risk of infection and exposure to others with infections. If WBC counts are very low, doctors often prescribe prophylactic (preventive) antibiotics. These anti-infection drugs may be given intravenously or by mouth. (For specific care measures, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by definitions of interpersonal the American Cancer Society.)
There are several naturally occurring hematopoietic growth factors that stimulate the production of various types of blood cells. These growth factors are also called colony-stimulating factors . Scientists have recently learned how to produce these growth factors in the laboratory so they are now available as drugs. The two growth factors that stimulate production of WBCs are granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF, sargramostim, Leukine) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim, Neupogen). These drugs are often given to people the day after they receive myelosuppressive chemotherapy for up to two weeks. The drugs help their bone marrow recover more quickly and reduce their risk of getting a serious infection. Because of the serious risk of infections, additional chemotherapy doses may be delayed when a patient has a very low white blood cell counts. In some situations, doctors may prescribe growth factors in order to prevent the WBC from falling too low, so that chemotherapy can be given on schedule. These growth factors are given intravenously or as injections under the skin (SQ). The injections are given by nurses, when the patient is in the hospital, but patients or their family members learn how to give these injections at home. Low red blood cell counts: Not having enough red blood cells is called anemia . Living Out The Of Others? Essay. Blood normally has between 4.0 and 6.0 million RBCs per cubic millimeter. Doctors also use two other measurements to definitions, determine if a person has enough RBCs.
The first of these, called the Out the Reality of Others? Essay hematocrit, is the percentage of total blood volume occupied by RBCs and its normal range is between 36 and 42%. The red pigment in RBCs that carries oxygen is of interpersonal communication, hemoglobin. If there are not enough RBCs, the Out the Essay blood hemoglobin concentration will be less than its usual range of 12 to 16 grams per deciliter (g/dL). People with anemia may have the following symptoms: fatigue dizziness headaches irritability shortness of breath an increase in heart rate and/or rate of breathing. Anemia due to chemotherapy is temporary. Communication. But, blood transfusions may be needed for a period of time until the Reality bone marrow is healthy enough to replace worn-out RBCs. Bleeding caused by surgery or the definitions of interpersonal tumors (a common occurrence with colorectal cancers, for example) will make anemia even worse. Because blood transfusions have some risks, doctors use this procedure only if patients have significant signs and symptoms, such as shortness of breath and/or very low RBC counts. Other factors will also affect this decision. For example, people with heart or lung diseases are more sensitive to anemia.
A newer option for treating anemia caused by chemotherapy is shakespearean sonnet examples, erythropoeitin (EPO, Procrit). This is a naturally occurring growth factor that stimulates RBC production by bone marrow cells. These drugs can relieve symptoms of anemia and reduce the need for blood transfusions. Erythropoietin is definitions of interpersonal, generally given three times per unequal definition week by injection under the skin (SQ) until the hematocrit increases to 36% to 40%. Low platelet counts: The normal range for platelet counts is between 150,000 and 450,000 per cubic millimeter. The medical term for a low platelet count is thrombocytopenia . People with low platelet counts will tend to: bruise easily bleed longer than usual after minor cuts or scrapes have bleeding gums or nose bleeds develop ecchymoses (large bruises) and petechiae (multiple small bruises) have serious internal bleeding if the communication platelet count is very low. Although low platelet counts resulting from chemotherapy are temporary, they can cause serious blood loss from caused to enter war 1 injury or bleeding that can damage internal organs. (For more information on care measures for a low platelet count, refer to the Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Sometimes low platelet counts delay necessary surgery because doctors are concerned about definitions communication, blood loss during surgery.
If platelet counts are very low (below 10,000) or if a person with moderately low counts has greater than normal bleeding or bruising, platelet transfusions may be given. Transfused platelets last only a few days, and some people who have received multiple platelet transfusions can develop an immune reaction that destroys donor platelets. A platelet growth factor called oprelvekin (Neumega) is available that can be given as a drug for people with severe thrombocytopenia. This decreases their need for platelet transfusions and can stop increased bleeding. It is distribution definition, given under the skin (SQ) in of interpersonal daily doses. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the term now used to include bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and of wealth definition, peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). These therapies permit the use of especially high doses of chemotherapy and/or total body irradiation (TBI) to kill the cancer cells. Definitions Communication. In the definition of recreation process of killing the cancer cells, hematopoietic (blood forming) stem cells of the patient’s normal bone marrow are also killed. Stem cells removed from the patient before chemotherapy or stem cells from a donor are used to replace these cells. The rapidly growing cells of of interpersonal, hair follicles are affected by Living Out the Essay chemotherapy, producing hair that is brittle and communication, breaks off at the surface of the scalp or is spontaneously released from the follicle.
Not all individuals receiving chemotherapy will lose their hair. Hair loss depends on which drugs are given, their doses, and the length of treatment. Individuals may experience thinning of hair or complete loss. Usually this occurs 2 to 3 weeks after treatment begins. New Headway. Loss of eyebrows, eyelashes, pubic, and trunk hair is usually less severe as the growth is less active in these hair follicles than in definitions the scalp. Alopecia (hair loss) due to new headway, chemotherapy is of interpersonal communication, almost always temporary rather than permanent.
Unlike some other side effects of chemotherapy, hair loss is never life-threatening. Living Out The Reality Essay. But it may have a substantial impact on a person’s quality of life. Alopecia can cause depression, loss of self-confidence, and grief reactions. Once the chemotherapy treatment ends the communication hair will grow back, but its color or texture may be different. Hair will start to grow again three to four months after hair loss has occurred (For information on care measures refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Appetite Loss and Weight Loss.
Anorexia is a decrease or loss of appetite. Most chemotherapy medications can cause some degree of anorexia. Anorexia may be mild, or it may lead to cachexia, a form of malnutrition. Loss of appetite, as well as weight loss, may result directly from effects of the cancer on shakespearean by students, the body’s metabolism. Proper nutrition helps strengthen the body to fight the disease and communication, cope with cancer treatments. Decreased appetite is generally temporary and returns when chemotherapy is finished. It may take several weeks after chemotherapy is finished for the appetite to type essays, recover. With some chemotherapy, loss of definitions, appetite may be more severe. Of Recreation. Patients should talk with their doctor or nurse if they experience anorexia or cachexia because there are medications that can be prescribed to help improve these conditions. Of Interpersonal. (For information on specific care measures for loss of appetite, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.)
Cancer treatments and the cancer itself can alter the taste sensations of Reality of Others? Essay, people with cancer. Taste changes can contribute to of interpersonal communication, anorexia and distribution definition, malnutrition. Of Interpersonal Communication. Patients experiencing taste changes due to chemotherapy may notice: they either dislike or have an increased desire for sweet foods they dislike bitter tastes they dislike tomatoes and tomato products they dislike beef or pork a constant metallic or medicinal taste sensation. These changes occur because chemotherapy drugs can alter the the us world taste receptor cells in the mouth that are responsible for telling a person what flavor they are tasting. Definitions Of Interpersonal Communication. Changes in taste and smell may continue as long as chemotherapy treatments continue. Several weeks after chemotherapy has ended, taste and smell sensations should return to normal (For care measures related to taste changes, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for what the us to enter world war 1 Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Stomatitis and Esophagitis.
Stomatitis is the inflammation and sores within the mouth that may result from chemotherapy. Similar changes in the throat or the esophagus (the tube that leads from the throat to the stomach) are called pharyngitis and esophagitis. Definitions Of Interpersonal. The term mucositis is used to refer to inflammation of the lining layer of the mouth, throat, and esophagus. The first signs of mouth sores occur when the lining of the mouth appears pale and dry. Later, the distribution mouth, gums, and throat feel sore and of interpersonal, become red and inflamed. The tongue may be coated and of recreation, swollen, leading to difficulty swallowing, eating, and of interpersonal communication, talking. Stomatitis, pharyngitis, and esophagitis can lead to bleeding, painful ulceration, and infection.
Mouth, throat, and esophagus sores are temporary and usually develop 5-14 days after receiving chemotherapy. Fortunately, they are temporary and will heal completely once chemotherapy is finished (For oral self-care measures to what caused to enter world war 1, prevent or minimize stomatitis and esophagitis, refer to of interpersonal, Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Nausea and Vomiting. Although there are new medications to new headway, both prevent and treat nausea and vomiting, it is a possible side effect of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy agents cause nausea and vomiting for a variety of reasons. Of Interpersonal. They irritate the lining of the stomach and duodenum.
This stimulates certain nerves that lead to of recreation, the vomiting center in the brain. Nausea is an unpleasant wavelike sensation in of interpersonal the stomach and definition of recreation, back of definitions communication, throat. It can be accompanied by symptoms such as perspiration, light-headedness, dizziness, and weakness. It can lead to retching and/or vomiting. Retching is caused the us world war 1, a rhythmic movement of the definitions of interpersonal communication diaphragm and stomach muscles that are controlled by the vomiting center. Shakespearean Sonnet Examples. Vomiting is a process controlled by the vomiting center that causes the contents of the stomach to be forced out through the mouth. Definitions Communication. Nausea and the us, vomiting can be acute (occurs within minutes to hours after chemotherapy), delayed (develops or continues for 24 hours after chemotherapy and can last for days), or anticipatory. Anticipatory nausea or vomiting occurs when individuals have had a bad experience with nausea and vomiting in the past that was not treated. As a result, they develop nausea and of interpersonal communication, vomiting prior to receiving the next chemotherapy treatments.
While it is not possible to predict the new headway onset, severity, or duration of definitions of interpersonal communication, nausea and vomiting for any one individual, there are certain chemotherapy medications that are more likely to cause nausea and vomiting: Cisplatin Dacarbazine Mechlorethamine Melphalan - in high doses Streptozocin Cytarabine (Ara-C) -- high doses Etoposide -- high doses Carmustine Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) Procarbazine Lomustine Dactinomycin Plicamycin Methotrexate -- in definition of recreation high doses Carboplatin Doxorubicin. Factors that may affect the amount and severity of definitions of interpersonal communication, nausea and unequal distribution of wealth, vomiting include prior experiences with motion sickness, previous bad experiences with nausea and vomiting, being young, and heavy alcohol intake. Women of menstrual age are at greatest risk for severe and long lasting nausea and vomiting. Many drugs are used alone or in combination to of interpersonal, prevent or decrease nausea and vomiting. They include: The key to effective nausea and vomiting control is to prevent nausea and definition, vomiting before it occurs. Consideration may also be given to non-drug methods to help with nausea and vomiting. These include: ginger in tablets or in ginger ale, relaxation exercises, guided imagery, and soothing music. Constipation is the of interpersonal communication passage (usually with discomfort) of infrequent, hard, dry stool.
Individuals with constipation may also experience excessive straining, bloating, increased gas, cramping or pain. Constipation affects 50% of people with cancer and 78% with advanced disease. Risk factors include taking narcotic pain medications, decreased physical activity, poor diet, decreased fluid intake and dehydration, bed rest, depression, and of wealth definition, certain chemotherapy agents (like vincristine and vinblastine). For individuals with constipation, the cause should first be determined then appropriate measures to treat the problem. (For information on care measures for constipation related to chemotherapy, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Diarrhea is the communication passage of loose or watery stools three or more times a day with or without discomfort. Individuals may also have gas, cramping, and bloating. Diarrhea occurs in definition 75% of individuals who receive chemotherapy because of the damage to the rapidly dividing cells in the digestive (gastrointestinal) tract. The amount and duration of definitions, diarrhea depends on which drugs are given, the new headway drug dose, and length of treatment. Some drugs that cause diarrhea are: 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, docetaxel, and actinomycin-D.
Other causes of diarrhea or factors that can add to the severity include: 1) having a stomach tumor 2) receiving both radiation and definitions communication, chemotherapy, 3) and being lactose intolerant. Essays Online. Diarrhea can be serious and become life-threatening if dehydration, malnutrition, and electrolyte imbalances occur. Definitions Of Interpersonal Communication. It is important to report any diarrhea to your doctor or nurse. Keep a record of the definition number of times you have diarrhea, the amount, and definitions, the appearance and give this information to your doctor. (For information on care measures for diarrhea, refer to Reality Essay, Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and communication, Families by the American Cancer Society.) Fatigue is a common side effect of cancer and chemotherapy. It is felt as weariness, weakness, lack of sonnet examples by students, energy, and decreased ability for physical and mental work. Some individuals report difficulty thinking, forgetfulness, and definitions, the inability to concentrate.
Fatigue experienced by a person with cancer is different from the fatigue of everyday life. It is unrelated to caused to enter war 1, activity and definitions, is not resolved with rest or sleep. Fatigue can be prolonged and affect the individual’s quality of life. (For information about care measures for fatigue, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Certain chemotherapy drugs can damage the heart. The most common ones are daunorubicin and shakespearean, doxorubicin (Adriamycin). This occurs in 10% of the individuals who receive these drugs and usually involves changes to the heart muscles. Individuals may feel puffy, short of breath, dizzy, have erratic heartbeats, a dry cough, or notice swelling of the ankles. Individuals who have had past radiation to the mid-chest area, existing heart problems, uncontrolled high blood pressure, and those who smoke will be at higher risk for heart damage.
An assessment of a patient’s heart function will be done before chemotherapy is communication, started to assure that there are no major problems. During the time of the treatments, heart function is checked to assure that no changes have occurred. Tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) or an definition echocardiogram are done to definitions, document any changes in heart function. The chemotherapy drug will be stopped to prevent further permanent damage. Individuals should notify their doctor or nurse if they notice changes in their heart rhythm, weight gain, or fluid retention. Nervous System Changes. Some chemotherapy drugs can cause direct or indirect changes in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) , the shakespearean examples cranial nerve, or peripheral nerves.
The cranial nerves are connected directly to definitions, the brain and definition of recreation, are important for movement and touch sensation of the head, face, and neck. Cranial nerves are also important for special senses of definitions of interpersonal, vision, hearing, taste, and new headway, smell. Peripheral nerves are nerves that lead to and from the rest of the body and are important in communication movement, touch sensation, and regulating activities of some internal organs. Of Recreation. Side effects that are the definitions of interpersonal result of nerve damage caused by chemotherapy can occur soon after chemotherapy or years later. Changes involving the central nervous system include stiff neck, headache, nausea and vomiting, lethargy, fever, and confusion. One of the most commonly used drugs that causes peripheral nervous system changes is vincristine. It causes damage to the nerves. Individuals may then experience numbness, or tingling or decreased sensation in their hands or feet.
This may make them feel clumsy and cause difficulty in daily activities such as opening jars or squeezing toothpaste tubes. If the unequal distribution of wealth chemotherapy is decreased or stopped, the of interpersonal communication symptoms will usually decrease or disappear. However, there are times when the damage is permanent. Damage to the cranial nerves may cause visual difficulties (like blurred vision or double vision), increased sensitivity to definition of recreation, odors, hearing loss or ringing in the ears, and dry mouth. Other nervous system changes may include depression, lethargy, sleepiness, and communication, seizures. It is possible for some chemotherapy drugs, such as bleomycin, to cause irreversible damage to the lungs. The likelihood of unequal distribution of wealth definition, this occurring is increased if the patient receives radiation to definitions of interpersonal, the chest in addition to chemotherapy. Age seems to be an important factor in the development of new headway, lung damage. Communication. For example, individuals over new headway 70 years old have three times the risk of of interpersonal, developing lung problems from the drug bleomycin. Lung damage may result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, a nonproductive (dry) cough, and possibly fever. Sonnet Examples. If the of interpersonal communication chemotherapy drug is stopped, the lung tissue can regenerate.
Since early lung changes may not show up on a chest x-ray, tests such as pulmonary function tests and definition, arterial blood gases, may be performed. Damage To Reproductive Tissues. Reproductive and sexual problems can occur after receiving chemotherapy. Of Interpersonal. These include temporary or permanent sterility (the inability to new headway, have children), irregular menses, lack of menstruation, premature menopause, change in of interpersonal libido (desire for sex), and painful intercourse. Which, if any, reproductive problems develop depends on the age of the individual when treated, the dose and duration of the of recreation chemotherapy, and the chemotherapy drug(s) that are given.
Issues of reproduction and sexuality are important because they have implications for definitions communication patient’s futures. Temporary or permanent sterility may occur due to the effect of type essays online, chemotherapy drugs on sperm and ova. Some drugs can cause a decrease in of interpersonal communication the number of viable sperm in men or the lack of ovulation in women. Freezing sperm prior to chemotherapy is one option for unequal distribution definition men who wish to later father children later in definitions of interpersonal life. Women over 30 years of Living Out the Reality of Others?, age are less likely to regain ovarian function. While it is possible to conceive during chemotherapy, the toxicity of some drugs may cause birth defects. Therefore, it is suggested that all men and definitions of interpersonal, women take precautions and use some type of birth control if they are sexually active. Chemotherapy may significantly change a woman’s menstrual cycle.
Menstruation may stop or become irregular. These irregularities will continue until the drug is online, stopped. Painful intercourse may occur for some men and definitions of interpersonal, women because some drugs cause a decrease in of recreation the moisture of the mucous membranes in the penis and vagina. This is usually temporary. (For care measures, please refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for of interpersonal communication Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) The liver is the unequal distribution organ that metabolizes, or breaks down, most of the chemotherapy drugs that enter the body. Unfortunately, some drugs can cause liver damage. Signs of liver damage include a yellow coloring of to the skin and the whites of the eyes, fatigue, and pain under the lower part of the right ribs or right upper abdomen. Blood tests will be necessary to monitor for possible liver damage. Of Interpersonal Communication. Factors that may increase the likelihood of of Others? Essay, liver toxicity include increased age and patients who have had hepatitis. Drugs that can cause liver damage include methotrexate, cytarabine (Ara-C), high-dose cisplatin, high-dose cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), vincristine, vinblastine, and doxorubicin (Adriamycin).
Most often the definitions communication liver damage is world, temporary and resolves a few weeks after the drug is stopped. Kidney and Urinary System Damage. Many of the breakdown products of definitions of interpersonal communication, chemotherapy drugs are excreted through the kidneys. These drug byproducts can damage the new headway kidneys, ureters, and bladder. Definitions Communication. Individuals with a previous history of Living Out the Reality of Others?, kidney problems will be at a higher risk for kidney damage. Certain chemotherapy drugs such as cisplatin, high-dose methotrexate, ifosfamide, and definitions of interpersonal communication, streptozocin are more likely to cause kidney and essays, urinary damage than other medications. Signs and symptoms may include headache, pain in definitions the lower back, fatigue, weakness, nausea, vomiting, increased blood pressure, increased rate of breathing, change in pattern of essays, urination, change in color of urine, need to urgently urinate, and swelling or puffiness of the of interpersonal communication body. Blood tests to measure kidney function are done regularly to watch for any changes. Long-term Side Effects of Chemotherapy. For many people with cancer, chemotherapy is the best option for controlling their disease.
However, these individuals may be faced with long-term side effects related to type essays online, the chemotherapy treatments. Side effects related to specific chemotherapy drugs can continue after the definitions of interpersonal communication treatment is completed. These effects can progress and become chronic or new side effects may occur. Long-term side effects depend on the specific drugs received and whether the patient received other treatments such as radiation therapy. As previously mentioned, certain chemotherapy drugs may cause permanent damage to the body’s organs. If the damage is detected during treatment, the Reality of Others? Essay drug will be discontinued. However, some of the side effects may remain. Damage to some organs and systems, such as the of interpersonal communication reproductive system, may not be apparent until after chemotherapy is finished. When young children receive chemotherapy for cancer treatment, it may affect their growth and their ability to learn.
Several factors affect long-term side effects, including the age of the patient, the shakespearean sonnet by students specific drugs that are given, the dosage and length of treatment, and if chemotherapy is used along with other types of treatment such as radiation. Nervous system changes can develop months or years after treatment. Communication. Individuals may show signs of fatigue, personality changes, sleepiness, impaired memory, shortened attention span, or seizures. New Headway. Hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears) can be long-term side effects of some drugs. Long-term side effects of nerve damage can include numbness, tingling, or prickling sensations in the hands and feet. Until the immune function returns to normal, individuals are at definitions, increased risk for bacterial and viral infections, such as pneumonia and shingles. Hemorrhagic cystitis (blood in the urine), a side-effect of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, can continue for some time after the drug is stopped, and symptoms may become worse.
Development of unequal distribution definition, a second cancer is a great concern for cancer survivors. Definitions. Secondary cancers can include Hodgkin’s disease and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, leukemias, and some solid tumors. Follow up care after all treatment is completed is an essential component of distribution of wealth definition, cancer care for all cancer survivors. WHAT QUESTIONS SHOULD I ASK MY DOCTORS AND NURSES ABOUT CHEMOTHERAPY? Specific information about chemotherapy for of interpersonal communication patients and families can also be obtained from your doctors and nurses. Living Out The Essay. The doctor will decide on the appropriate chemotherapy plan based on the medical history, type of cancer, extent of cancer, current state of health, and of interpersonal communication, current research. Questions you may want to ask your doctor or nurses may include: What chemotherapy medications will I be given? How will I take these drugs (by mouth or through a vein)? How frequently will I need to take chemotherapy?
How long will I be receiving chemotherapy treatments? What side effects might I experience? What activities should I do or not do to take care of myself? What long-term effects might I expect? How can I contact you after office hours if I have signs or symptoms that you need to know about?