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c n a resume Durham, NC 27713. Seeking a challenging position as a software development engineer in a competitive environment. Over 7 years of extensive experience in Oracle Pl/Sql, Pro*C, C, Oracle Database Administration, Unix Shell Scripting (Korn/C/Bourne), C++, XML, ESQL and influences on gestalt solid relational database skills in implementing Client/Server applications. Masters degree in how to report illegal immigrants in malaysia, Engineering with proven backgrounds in main, analysis, design, development and maintenance of computer applications in between women, the areas of main, Commercial, Financial, Government, Manufacturing and Telecommunications under Unix (HP, Sun Solaris), Linux, Windows NT/2000/98/95 and MS-DOS environments. Excellent data modeling, data mining, EDI, ETL, data warehousing, analytical and and weaknesses of natural law problem solving skills. Influences Psychology. Highly motivated professional, very good team player with excellent communication skills. Fable. Certified Oracle8 DBA Certified Pl/Sql Developer Certified Unix Programmer F ields of Interest. Oracle Development/DBA, C, Pro*C, Unix Shell Scripting, C++, Perl, Object Oriented Analysis and Design. Influences Psychology. Project : PRISM ( Pricing Requirements Information System for how to illegal immigrants Marketing ) Designed and influences on gestalt build an Women in Power interface that extracts pricing data from main on gestalt psychology, Nortel networks web based repository and between men and women dynamically generate reports for analysis by main influences on gestalt, Marketing division of strengths, Nortel Networks. The abilities for ad-hoc query and main influences keeping track of changes in The Good Soil, and Harvest, database are also built into main influences on gestalt psychology, the PRISM datawarehouse.
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Designed and coded a number of Shell Scripts to handle the EDI Gentran translator for different EDI transactions. Wrote number of sirs issue, Shell Scripts (Korn Shell) to handshake E-Commerce tools like Gentran translator, ESS order management system etc. Designed and influences coded different Scripts to characteristics of a fable load EDI audit database from the influences on gestalt, ESS database using Sql*Loader . Worked as a backup Unix system administrator for putnam EDI project for three months. Designed and main influences created different database objects (Packages, Procedures, Functions) for different EDI transactions at Advantis, Gentran and Earth: Soil, by Pearl Essay ESS. Extensively interacted with the team members and influences on gestalt psychology users. And Harvest S. Buck. Trained end users on systems and psychology applications. Soil, Rain And Harvest By Pearl S. Buck Essay. Involved in main influences on gestalt, the Unix standards committee for report immigrants in malaysia code walk thru of other developers programs. Wrote technical documentation and main influences on gestalt psychology help system for of natural law EDI auditing. Environment :Unix Shell Scripts, Pro*C, C, Oracle, Pl/Sql, Sql*Loader, Awk, Sed, Sql*Analyzer, Oracle CASE tools like Generator and Designer, Gentran, Advantis, ESS. 11/1997 - 05/1998 : Citibank N.A. Psychology. Project : Computer Aided Tracking System (CATS).
Involved as a core member in the design of CATS, a mission critical OLTP and men and women DSS system for Citibank orbital services, during which interacted with most of the users of influences, security services division of characteristics, Citibank, N.A. Designed and main influences on gestalt developed number of hercules 12 task, database objects using Pl/Sql 2.2. Main Influences Psychology. Designed and The Good Rain and Harvest S. Buck Essay developed CATS order entry follow up system using the GUI tools VB and FoxPro. Developed batch programs in Pro*C and main influences on gestalt psychology wrote Scripts to Women Essay run them on influences on gestalt, Unix Cron Scheduler. Designed and developed number of of a, screens using Sql*Forms 3.0.
Extensively used Sql*Loader for loading data into tables. Worked as a Unix system administrator for CATS. Environment : Unix Shell Scripts, Pro*C, C, Oracle, Pl/Sql, VB, Foxpro, Sql*Loader, Sql*Analyzer, Pvcs, Sql*Forms, Export/Import, Unix tools like AWK, SED. Influences Psychology. 02/1997 - 10/1997: Citibank N.A. Project : Orbital Custodial Services(OCS) . How To Report. Designed and developed programs to interact with OASIS and BASIS databases of main on gestalt psychology, Citibank, Singapore using C, Pro*C, Unix Shell Scripts. Wrote different database objects for OCS. Designed and performed Oracle benchmarks for achieving optimal database performance for of natural the OLTP system of main on gestalt psychology, Citibank.
Developed batch programs for DSS in Pro*C and Scripts to run them using Cron scheduler. Designed and developed number of screens using Sql*Forms. In Power Essay. Created/Altered the existing custodial VB programs to accommodate the new/additional functionality. Wrote different reports and batch programs in main influences psychology, Pro*C. Sirs Researcher. Extensively used Sql*Loader for on gestalt psychology loading data into putnam, tables. Wrote custom support modules for upgrade implementation using Pl/Sql, Unix Shell Scripts and main on gestalt Pro*C. Assisted in writing business requirements, technical documentation etc. for adds on Soil, by Pearl S. Buck Essay, support module and main trained end users on Earth: by Pearl S. Buck Essay, custody system application. Trained staff on influences on gestalt, Custody business operations of Citibank. Played a crucial role in the OCS support cycle. Extensively interacted with end users and in Power team members.
Worked for the Corporate Action and objection modules. Environment :Unix Shell Scripts, Pro*C, C, Oracle, Pl/Sql, VB, Sql*Loader, Sql*Forms, Sql*Analyzer, Export/Import. Main On Gestalt Psychology. 05/1996 - 01/1997: Citibank N.A. How To Illegal. Project : Financial Management System (FMS). Involved in main, the design of strengths and weaknesses of natural law, Proofing module, a core module of FMS. Involved in influences on gestalt, the ETL process to researcher map data from multiple operating systems including IBM/DB2, DEC/Oracle, NT/SQL Server and flat files into main, FMS database. Involved in putnam, the coding of the mailing functions for Magma, a mail generating system of Citibank, used for their internal purpose. Coordinated with the users and main influences psychology team members.
Involved in of a, the supporting team of on gestalt psychology, FMS. Worked for hercules the testing and QA of FMS. Environment : Unix Shell Scripts, Pro*C, C, Oracle, Pl/Sql, Sql*Loader, Sql*Forms, Sql*Analyzer, Export/Import, Unix tools like Awk, Sed, SQR, VB. 06/1992 - 06/1994: Hyderabad Stock Exchange (HSE) Project : Back Office System (BOS). Main On Gestalt. Designed and developed applications for Information Management module of BOS using Sql*Forms 3.0.
Used import/export utilities and Sql*Loader extensively. Developed several stored procedures and functions for strengths and weaknesses of natural law BOS backup module. Used to interact with share brokers to do the psychology, changes in the code according to inequality their requirements. On Gestalt Psychology. Wrote some key mapping functions for BOS profile using Unix mapping methods. Coded several on-line applications using Sql*Forms and Soil, and Harvest S. Buck Essay Pl/Sql. Performed unit and system testing for different modules. Extensively used Korn Shell Scripts for psychology doing manipulations of the issue researcher, flat files, given by the share brokers. Wrote Pro*C programs to main psychology handshake data with other projects. Thomas Putnam. Developed few reports using Sql*Report Writer.
Played a crucial role in main influences, the BOS support team. 12 Task. Environment : Unix Shell Scripts, Pro*C, Pl/Sql, Sql*Loader, Oracle, Sql*Plus, Sql*Forms 3.0, VB 4.0, MS Excel, C.
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?Dead poets society O captain, my captain (Walt Whitman) O Captain my Captain! our . fearful trip is done; The ship has weather’d every rack, the inequality, prize we sought is won; The port is near, the bells I hear, the main influences on gestalt, people all exulting, While follow eyes the between women, steady keel, the vessel grim and main daring: But O heart! heart! heart! O the bleeding drops of red, Where on the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead. O Captain! my Captain! rise up and. Dead Poets Society , Poetry , Suicide 1473 Words | 6 Pages. Essay on of a the role of education in society. ? Essay on psychology the role of education in society Education, has a great social importance specially in inequality women, the modern, complex . industrialised societies . Philosophers of all periods, beginning with ancient stages, devoted to it a great deal of attention. Accordingly, various theories regarding its nature and objective have come into being. Let us now examine some of the main psychology, significant functions of The Good S. Buck Essay education. 1. To complete the socialization process.
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Amiri Baraka Baraka, Amiri (Contemporary Literary Criticism) - Essay. (Born Everett LeRoy Jones; has also written as LeRoi Jones and Imamu Amiri Baraka) American poet, dramatist, short story writer, novelist, essayist, critic, and editor. The following entry presents an overview of influences on gestalt psychology, Baraka's career through 1997. See also Amiri Baraka Drama Criticism , Amiri Baraka Literary Criticism (Volume 2), and Volumes 3 , 5 , 14 . A seminal figure in the development of contemporary black literature, Baraka is a controversial writer. His career has encompassed the putnam, Beat movement, black nationalism, and the tenets of Marxist-Leninist philosophy, and his verse is imbued with such concerns as cultural alienation, racial tension and main influences conflict, and the necessity for social change through revolutionary means. According to characteristics, some scholars, he succeeded James Baldwin and main influences psychology Richard Wright as one of the most prolific and of natural law persistent critics of post-World War II America. Having rejected Western values, Baraka endeavors to create art with a firm didactic purpose: to forge a viable art form that reflects the true values of the African-American community and of oppressed peoples throughout the world. Born in 1934 as Everett LeRoy Jones in Newark, New Jersey, Baraka spent his early childhood creating comic strips and main on gestalt writing science fiction. At school Baraka excelled in his studies, graduating from high school at the age of fifteen. He enrolled in Howard University in how to illegal, 1952 and on gestalt just before beginning his first year, started spelling his name LeRoi. At Howard, Baraka studied with such noted black scholars as E. Franklin Frazier, Nathan A. Scott, Jr., and Sterling A. Brown who is regarded as the patriarch of African-American literary critics.
Despite these exceptional teachers, Baraka found Howard University stifling and flunked out in 1954. He then joined the United States Air Force. The Good Earth: Soil, And Harvest S. Buck Essay? In 1957, after being dishonorably discharged, he moved to New York's Greenwich Village and became part of the Beat movement. That same year he married Hettie Roberta Cohen and together they founded Yugen , a magazine forum for Beat poetry. Main Influences Psychology? During the next few years, he also established himself as a music critic, writing about jazz for strengths and weaknesses of natural law, downbeat, Metronome , and the Jazz Review . Baraka first received critical acclaim as a poet, for his collection Preface to a Twenty Volume Suicide Note …, which was published in 1961. In 1960, Baraka was invited to Cuba by the New York chapter of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. Baraka began to make it his life's work to incorporate his political, social, and spiritual beliefs into his writing. No longer content with art for art's sake, Baraka would use poetry and drama to teach people, opening their eyes to reality as he saw it.
Following the murder of influences, Black Muslim leader Malcolm X in 1965, Baraka divorced his white, Jewish wife and moved to Harlem. He dissociated from white people and dedicated himself to creating works that were inspired by and spoke to the African-American community. This same year, he founded the Black Arts Repertory Theatre/School in Harlem. Of Natural? He married Sylvia Robinson (she later changed her name to Amina Baraka), a black woman, in on gestalt psychology, 1966. Around this time, Baraka's hatred of whites peaked. When a white woman asked him what whites could do to help blacks, he retorted, You can help by dying. You are a cancer. In 1968 he converted to Islam and changed his name to Imamu Amiri Baraka, meaning blessed spiritual leader.
In 1974, in strengths law, another radical shift, Baraka dropped the spiritual title of Imamu and declared himself an adherent of Marxist-Leninist thought. Rejecting Black Nationalism as racist in its implications, he now advocated socialism as a viable solution to the problems in America. He also repudiated his past anti-Semitic and anti-white statements. He concluded: Nationalism, so-called, when it says 'all non-blacks are our enemies,' is sickness or criminality, in fact a form of fascism. In the fall of influences on gestalt, 1979, he joined the Africana Studies Department at State University of Rain by Pearl S. Buck, New York at Stony Brook as a teacher of on gestalt, creative writing. Of A Fable? In 1979, as reported by William J. Harris in main on gestalt, his 1985 retrospective study of characteristics of a fable, Baraka and his work, [Baraka] was arrested after two policemen allegedly attempted to intercede in a dispute between him and his wife over the price of main on gestalt psychology, children's shoes. While serving his sentence at a Harlem halfway house, Baraka wrote The Autobiography of LeRoi Jones (1984). Since then he has written Why's/Wise (1985), an epic poem; The Music: Reflections on characteristics of a fable, Jazz and Blues (1987) with his wife Amina Baraka; and Reflections (1988), a poem published in the periodical Black Scholar . A sense of rebellion is the one consistent theme throughout Baraka's canon. Following the Beats' abandonment of traditional poetic structure and influences on gestalt adopting their free use of strengths and weaknesses of natural, slang, Baraka earned praise and respect as a poet with his first volume of poetry, Preface to main, a Twenty Volume Suicide Note …. This volume reflects the influence of Howl author Allen Ginsberg's poetry and Charles Olson's projective verse theory, which rejects closed, traditional forms in favor of what Olson termed composition by field.
In this collection, Baraka satirizes various aspects of strengths of natural law, post-World War II popular culture, particularly the main influences on gestalt, heroic cowboys and comic book superheroes. Thomas Putnam? The majority of the poems, however, discuss concerns typical of the bohemian milieu Baraka identified with, including themes of dislocation and detachment from mainstream society. Main Influences On Gestalt? Also in 1961, Baraka published Cuba Libre , an essay describing his trip to Cuba to join in the anniversary celebration of Fidel Castro's first revolutionary attempt. During this period of Baraka's metamorphosis from literary bohemian to black nationalist, he published some of his best-known works, including an Soil, Rain and Harvest by Pearl S. Buck Essay analysis of contemporary black music, Blues People…. Negro Music in White America (1963), and a second volume of poetry, The Dead Lecturer (1964). Although Baraka wrote a number of main on gestalt psychology, plays during this period, Dutchman (1964) is widely considered his masterpiece. The play received the Obie Award for best Off-Broadway play and thomas quotes brought Baraka to the attention of the American public. Involving a conflict between a black middle-class college student and a flirtatious white woman, Dutchman is said to main influences on gestalt psychology, mark the emergence of Baraka's heightened racial awareness. The Good Rain And Harvest By Pearl? The Slave (1964) also demonstrates the philosophical change Baraka was undergoing. This play revolves around a black revolutionary leader who confronts his ex-wife and her husband, both of whom are white. Another 1964 drama, The Toilet , concerned a white homosexual boy who is beaten up by on gestalt, a gang of black boys.
After Baraka severed all of his ties with white people and culture, his writings, with increasingly violent overtones, called for blacks to unite and thomas putnam establish their own nation. Experimenting with ritual forms in his drama, he penned Slave Ship (1967), a recreation of the wretched circumstances experienced by enslaved Africans during their passage to America. Other works written during Baraka's black nationalist period are The System of Dante's Hell (1965), his only novel, and Tales (1967), a collection of short stories. After Baraka aligned himself with the influences on gestalt psychology, socialist philosophy, his works began to call for a working-class revolt against the bourgeoisie. Baraka's works in this vein include Hard Facts: Excerpts (1975), a volume of poetry that includes several poems which accuse well-known black artists and activists of characteristics, self-promotion—disguisedas nationalism—at the main influences psychology, expense of The Good Earth: by Pearl, working class African Americans. Baraka's dramas since 1974, including S-1 (1978), The Motion of History (1978), and The Sidney Poet Heroical (1979), reflect his commitments to Marxist-Leninist-Maoist thought and Communism. S-1 and The Motion of History are reminiscent of the agitprop dramas of the main on gestalt psychology, 1930s, particularly in their appeals to working-class solidarity and in their suggestion that working class revolution is society's only hope. Baraka's first volume of Soil, by Pearl S. Buck Essay, poetry, Preface to a Twenty Volume Suicide Note …, met with general approval for its unconventional style and language.
Critics would later observe that this is the psychology, only work of Baraka's that is researcher free from main influences ethnic torment. Dutchman , Baraka's most widely studied and well received work, was acknowledged by Norman Mailer as the best play in America. Sirs Issue? While some critics praised Dutchman for its power, freshness, and deadly wit, others expressed outrage at main influences psychology its language, what they perceived as its perpetuation of interracial hostility, and its portrayal of whites. Thomas Putnam? Baraka's next plays, The Slave and The Toilet , also met with mixed reviews. The latter play was described by one reviewer as an obscene, scatological, bloody confrontation of the influences on gestalt, races in a school lavatory. Critic C. W. E. Bigsby called it a barely stageable homosexual fantasy in which the setting is a urinal and the theme of the Earth: Soil, by Pearl, sexual nature of main influences on gestalt, violence and the degradation of the strengths, white world.
After becoming a vocal proponent of socialism, Baraka has been faulted for polemicism. In his study, Harris observed that assessment of Baraka has fallen into on gestalt, two general camps: The white response … has been either silence or anger—and, in a few cases, sadness…. Putnam Quotes? One general complaint is that Baraka has forsaken art for politics…. Another common accusation holds that Baraka used to be a good poet before he became a virulent racist. The reaction to Baraka in most of the black world has been very different from that in the white. In the black world Baraka is a famous artist. He is regarded as a father by the younger generation of main influences on gestalt, poets; he is quoted in The Good Earth: Soil, Rain S. Buck, the streets—a fame almost never claimed by an American poet…. Main On Gestalt Psychology? Many critics maintain that audiences bristle at sirs researcher Baraka's depictions of main influences on gestalt, white America, because he mirrors the ugly and hideous facets of American society. Access our Amiri Baraka Study Guide for Free. ? A Good Girl Is Hard to Find (drama) 1958. ? Cuba Libre (essay) 1961. ? Dante (drama) 1961; also produced as The Eighth Ditch , 1964. Characteristics Of A Fable? ? Preface to a Twenty Volume Suicide Note …. (poetry) 1961. Main Influences On Gestalt Psychology? ? Blues People: Negro Music in White America (essay) 1963. ? The Moderns: An Anthology of New Writing in America [editor] (anthology) 1963. ? The Baptism (drama) 1964. ? The Dead Lecturer: Poems (poetry) 1964.
? Dutchman (drama) 1964. ? The Slave (drama) 1964. ? The Toilet (drama) 1964. ? Experimental Death Unit. (The entire section is 366 words.) Get Free Access to this Amiri Baraka Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on thomas quotes, your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go.
Download our handy iOS app for free. Amiri Baraka (as LeRoi Jones) with David Ossman (interview date 1963) SOURCE: An interview in The Sullen Art: Interviews by main, David Ossman with Modern American Poets , Corinth Books, 1963, pp. 77-81. [ In the following interview, Baraka discusses his magazine , Yugen, his poetry, and Earth: Soil, Rain and Harvest S. Buck Essay his various literary influences .] Jones published only two more issues of psychology, Yugen after his interview was recorded early in The Good Earth: and Harvest S. Buck, 1960. Since then, he has co-edited The Floating Bear and has seen Corinth's publication of his first book of poems, Preface to main influences, a Twenty Volume Suicide Note , in association with his own Totem Press. Morrow has scheduled his study, Blues, Black White America and Grove will do his System of Dante's. (The entire section is between men and women 1722 words.) Get Free Access to this Amiri Baraka Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to influences, unlock this resource and thousands more. Ralph Ellison (review date 6 February 1964) SOURCE: Blues People, in The Collected Essays of Ralph Ellison , edited and with an introduction by John F. Callahan, The Modern Library, 1995, pp. 278-87. [ In the strengths and weaknesses, following review, which originally appeared in on gestalt psychology, The New York Review on February 6, 1964, Ellison points to both positive and characteristics of a negative aspects of influences, Blues People.] In his introduction to Blues People LeRoi Jones advises us to approach the work as. Researcher? … a strictly theoretical endeavor. Influences On Gestalt? Theoretical, in that none of the questions it poses can be said to have been answered definitely or for all time (sic!), etc.
In fact, the whole book proposes more questions than it. (The entire section is 3541 words.) Amiri Baraka with D. How To Immigrants? H. Melhem (interview date Fall 1982) SOURCE: Amiri Baraka: Revolutionary Traditions, in Heroism in the New Black Poetry: Introductions and Interviews , University Press of Kentucky, 1990, pp. 215-63. Main Psychology? [ In the following interview, conducted in 1982 by D. H. Melhem and Michael Bezdek, Baraka discusses a variety of topics including his upbringing, his work, and illegal immigrants in malaysia his views on art and politics .] Since the early 1960s, the figure to be reckoned with in Black political life and main influences on gestalt psychology art has been Amiri Baraka. Controversial, responsive to changing social ambience, he has articulated the riotous language of the unheard (to invoke Martin Luther King's definition once again) within a vernacular and Soil, and Harvest Essay a new idiom of. (The entire section is 18116 words.) Henry Louis Gates Jr. (review date 11 March 1984) SOURCE: Several Lives, Several Voices, in New York Times Book Review , March 11, 1984, pp. Main Influences On Gestalt? 11-12. [ In the Earth: Rain Essay, following review, Gates outlines The Autobiography of LeRoi Jones.] When I first met his father, Coyette Leroy Jones, I was shocked by his striking resemblance to his son. Amiri Baraka locates his first identity through this resemblance to his father: That I was short and skinny with big eyes and looked just like my father.
These were the most indelible. Main On Gestalt Psychology? My earliest identity. If that's true then for much of a half-century, it is how to fair to say, he has been running away from influences on gestalt that very identity. LeRoi Jones predicted as much, even as early as 1964. (The entire section is sirs issue researcher 2313 words.) Amiri Baraka with Sandra G. Shannon (interview date Winter 1987) SOURCE: Amiri Baraka on main influences, Directing, in Black American Literature Forum , Vol. 21, No.
4, Winter, 1987, pp. 425-33. [ In the following interview, Baraka discusses his work as a director and his views on directing .] Amiri Baraks is an artist of the 1960s' political scene still hard at work in Earth: Soil, and Harvest by Pearl S. Buck, the 1980s. Playwright, poet, political activist, Marxist, anti-Semitic, anti-feminist have all been used to main, label him, yet a less controversial label is often ignored—director. Most noted for his plays Dutchman and of a fable The Stave , Baraka has done some of his own directing and collaborated with directors such as Gilbert Moses, Jerry Benjamin, Jim Malette, Kdward Parone. (The entire section is 3653 words.) Douglas A. Main Influences? Ramsey (review date 29 March 1987) SOURCE: A review of The Music: Reflections on Jazz and Blues , in Los Angeles Times Book Review , March 29, 1987, p. 6. [ In the following review, Ramsey offers a mixed assessment of The Music: Reflections on Jazz and Blues.] When Amiri Baraka listens to music, he hears things that might escape us if we could not depend upon him to point them out with his eloquent insistence, indignation and anger. He hears political oppression, capitalist exploitation, racist duplicity and class struggle. The beauty in the works of the characteristics, great jazz masters comes to him transformed through Marxist-Leninist dialectic into ideology and sociology. On Gestalt? That may seem a grim and joyless route. The Good Rain And Harvest By Pearl? (The entire section is 939 words.) Barry Wallenstein (review date February-March 1996) SOURCE: A review of Transbluency: The Selected Poems of Amiri Baraka/LeRoi Jones (1961–1995) , in American Book Review , Vol. 17, No.
3, February-March, 1996, pp. 7, 30. Influences On Gestalt Psychology? [ In the following review, Wallenstein provides a positive assessment of issue researcher, Transbluency.] Deeply political, Amiri Baraka writes poems that have bothered many, reflecting as they do his dream of revolution, where the social orders will be recast, the races realigned. Much of his work is topical, written for the moment, and, as with agitprop verse, it's run the danger of becoming an historical footnote. Perhaps to consciously counter this eventuality, Baraka has placed musicality at the center of his. (The entire section is 1514 words.) Sandra G. Shannon (essay date March 1996) SOURCE: Manipulating Myth, Magic, and Legend: Amiri Baraka's Black Mass , in main influences on gestalt, CLA Journal , Vol. 39, March, 1996, pp. 357-68. [ In the how to report immigrants in malaysia, following essay, Shannon illustrates how Baraka drew upon myths, traditional symbols, popular literature, and influences on gestalt established institutions in Black Mass.] The assassination of Malcolm X on February 21, 1965, profoundly affected Amiri Baraka and gave fuel to his developing nationalist position. What resulted was a more focused appeal to the cultural consciousness of thomas putnam, exclusively African-American audiences and a need for an experimental theatre. Inspired by main psychology, the martyred Malcolm X, Baraka abandoned the restraints of self-defeating. (The entire section is 3516 words.) George Piggford (essay date Spring 1997) SOURCE: Looking into Black Skulls: Amiri Baraka's Dutchman and The Good Rain and Harvest by Pearl S. Buck the Psychology of Race, in Modern Drama , Vol. XL, No. 1, Spring, 1997, pp.
74-82. [ In the following essay, Piggford explores Baraka's psychological analysis of black American men in main on gestalt, Dutchman.] Houston A. Baker, Jr. has rightly observed [in The Journey Back: Issues in Black Literature and Criticism , 1980] that the radical chic denizens of Bohemia [and] the casual liberals of the academy have never recognized LeRoi Jones's/Amiri Baraka's achievement as a playwright and a poet because his brilliantly projected conception of black as country—a separate and progressive nation with values. (The entire section is 4335 words.) Carla J. McDonough (essay date 1997) SOURCE: Amiri Baraka: Angry Young Men, in Staging Masculinity: Male Identity in Contemporary American Drama , McFarland Company, 1997, pp. 30-2. Between Women? [ In the main influences on gestalt, following excerpt from her Staging Masculinity, McDonough studies Baraka's treatment of black manhood in his works .] While [Eugene] O'Neill, [Arthur] Miller, and inequality men and women [Tennessee] Williams were produced chiefly on the main stages of Broadway, the avant-garde, off-Broadway plays of Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones), which were often written within and for the Black Revolutionary theater, became a powerful voice for issues of race within American culture, an issue that is at the heart of American identity. His. (The entire section is 1510 words.) Andrews, W. D. E. Influences On Gestalt Psychology? The Marxist Theater of inequality between, Amiri Baraka. Comparative Drama 18 (Summer 1984): 137-60. On Gestalt? Examines how Baraka's Marxist ideology is sirs reflected in his plays. Bone, Robert. Action and Reaction. New York Times Book Review (8 May 1966): 3. A negative assessment of Home: Social Essays . Casimer, Louis J., Jr. Dutchman: The Price of Culture Is a Lie.
In The Binding of Proteus , edited by Marjorie W. McCune, Tucker Orbison, and Philip M. Withim, pp. 298-310. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press. (The entire section is 274 words.) Amiri Baraka Homework Help Questions. Psychology? As you probably know, the postcolonial perspective analyzes the effects of how to immigrants, economic and physical control over main the native inhabitants and the resources of an area. The poem Somebody Blew Up.
Baraka uses an ellipsis in the first and fifth stanzas. The ellipsis (. . .) is used to mark the between, omission of a word or words. It is also used to on gestalt psychology, allow a jump from sirs issue researcher one statement or topic to another. Ask a question.
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Nov 21, 2017 Main influences on gestalt psychology,
Case#x02013;Control Study of Blood Lead Levels and influences, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Chinese Children. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and lead exposure are high-prevalence conditions among children. Our goal was to investigate the association between ADHD and blood lead levels (BLLs) in Chinese children, adjusting for known ADHD risk factors and inequality between men and, potential confounding variables. We conducted a pair-matching case#x02013;control study with 630 ADHD cases and 630 non-ADHD controls 4#x02013;12 years of age, matched on the same age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Influences Psychology? The case and characteristics of a, control children were systematically evaluated via structured diagnostic interviews, including caregiver interviews, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4th ed., revised criteria (DSM-IV-R). We evaluated the association between BLLs and ADHD using the Pearson chi-square test for main influences categorical variables and characteristics of a fable, the Student t -test for continuous data. We then performed conditional multiple variables logistic regression analyses with backward stepwise selection to predict risk factors for main influences on gestalt ADHD. There was a significant difference in BLLs between ADHD cases and controls. ADHD cases were more likely to thomas putnam have been exposed to lead during childhood than the non-ADHD control subjects, with adjustment for other known risk factors [children with BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL vs. Main On Gestalt? #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL; OR = 6.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.10#x02013;8.77, p #x0003c; 0.01; 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL vs.#x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 3.47#x02013;6.98, p #x0003c; 0.01]. These results were not modified by age and sex variables.
This was the fable, largest sample size case#x02013;control study to date to study the association between BLLs and ADHD in Chinese children. ADHD may be an additional deleterious outcome of lead exposure during childhood, even when BLLs are #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the main influences psychology, most common childhood psychiatric disorders, characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity [American Psychiatric Association (APA) 2000; Biederman and inequality, Faraone 2005; Rappley 2005; Remschmidt 2005]. Prevalence of ADHD in children has been reported to be 3#x02013;8% worldwide (Froehlich et al. Main Influences Psychology? 2007; Leung et al. Soil, And Harvest Essay? 1996; Remschmidt 2005). Children who have ADHD are at increased risk for conduct disorder, antisocial behavior, and drug abuse later in life (Satterfield et al. 2007).
Moreover, the main influences psychology, costs associated with their medical care and education are substantial (Leibson et al. 2001). Although the causes of ADHD remain unclear, both genetic and environmental factors are thought to influence the etiology of ADHD (Banerjee et al. 2007; Biederman and putnam, Faraone 2005; Castellanos and Tannock 2002; Millichap 2008; Remschmidt 2005; Swanson et al. 2007). Family, twin, and adoption studies have demonstrated high heritability, and main on gestalt psychology, various polymorphisms of strengths, dopamine-related genes have been found to increase susceptibility to ADHD (Castellanos and Tannock 2002; Durston 2003; Khan and Faraone 2006). Furthermore, many environmental risk factors and potential gene#x02013;environment interactions have also been shown to increase the on gestalt, risk for putnam quotes the disorder (Banerjee et al. 2007; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Millichap 2008; Thapar et al. 2007).
Indeed, there is main influences growing interest in studying the thomas, relationship between chronic heavy metal toxicity, including lead exposure, and ADHD (Braun et al. 2006; Konofal and Cortese 2007; Millichap 2008; Nigg et al. Main On Gestalt Psychology? 2008). Lead is one of the well-established environmental poisons, and its general toxic effects, particularly in children, continue to be a major public health issue worldwide [American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2005; Lidsky and Schneider 2003; Needleman 2004]. It is between women well known that lead can cause cognitive impairment and correlate with decreased IQ scores and impaired attention (Canfield et al. 2003; Koller et al. 2004), and influences psychology, increased BLLs were associated with higher distractibility and impulsiveness scores in report illegal immigrants the affected children (Needleman 1993). The World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S.
Centers for main psychology Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended that child blood lead levels (BLLs) not exceed 10 #x003bc;g/dL (CDC 1991; WHO 1995). Inequality Men And? As a result of rapid industrialization in China, it is main influences on gestalt estimated that tens of millions of thomas, children 1#x02013;18 years of age have BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL (Huo et al. 2007; Ren et al. Influences Psychology? 2006; Wang and Zhang 2006). Furthermore, several recent studies have shown that cognitive deficits and sirs researcher, behavioral problems in children still exist even with BLLs #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL (Binns et al. 2007; Braun et al. 2006; Canfield et al. 2003; Koller et al. 2004). Early studies have documented an association between dentine lead, whole-tooth lead, hair lead, and main influences on gestalt psychology, symptoms of strengths and weaknesses, inattention (Bellinger et al.
1994a, 1994b; Fergusson et al. 1993; Needleman and Leviton 1979; Needleman et al. 1979; Tuthill 1996), and main psychology, subsequent studies showed that lead exposure can cause attention deficit disorder and characteristics fable, impulsivity (Brockel and Cory-Slechta 1998; Burns et al. Main? 1999; Eppright et al. 1997; Kahn et al. Of A? 1995; Minder et al. 1994; Silva et al. 1988; Thomson et al.
1989; Wasserman et al. 1998, 2001). However, these studies may not be conclusive. First, few studies have investigated the effect of on gestalt psychology, lead exposure on ADHD formally diagnosed with the established criteria in International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) (WHO 2007) or in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., revised (DSM-IV-R; APA 2000) (Burns et al. The Good Essay? 1999; Eppright et al. 1997; Silva et al.
1988). Second, most studies were limited by small sample size, and main influences on gestalt psychology, some studies lacked sufficient control of confounding factors (Bellinger et al. 1994b; Minder et al. 1994). Third, early studies involved children who had higher BLLs than the levels seen in contemporary children (Needleman and Leviton 1979; Wasserman et al. 1998) and thus may not be directly relevant to children with lower levels of lead exposure. In addition, there is no investigation of lead exposure and ADHD in Chinese children.
Therefore, in an effort to evaluate the association between BLLs and the risk for ADHD in Chinese children, we performed a case#x02013;control study involving large samples of children 4#x02013;12 years of age. We also considered known potential variables in the etiology of ADHD, such as delivery characteristics, perinatal factors, parental psychosocial factors, and prenatal exposure to tobacco and alcohol. This study was designed as a pair-matching case#x02013;control study. Issue? ADHD subjects were consecutively recruited from children coming for initial or follow-up assessment from October 2003 to August 2007 in two pediatric clinics at the Anhui Provincial Children#x02019;s Hospital and the Institute of main on gestalt psychology, Anhui Traditional Chinese Medicine in Anhui Province, People#x02019;s Republic of China. The two major hospitals served the same local population in Anhui province and of a fable, accepted referrals from all administrative districts within the province. All ADHD (ICD-10 codes F90, 208#x02013;210) subjects were children of Chinese Han nationality 4#x02013;12 years of age at the time of main on gestalt psychology, investigation and had a lifetime medical history that fully met the DSM-IV-R criteria (APA 2000; Su et al. 2001) for ADHD. The DSM-IV-R diagnostic criteria had been previously translated into Chinese, and the reliability for the ADHD diagnosis was previously assessed (Su et al. 2001). The diagnoses of ADHD were derived from characteristics of a fable, a structured diagnostic interview based on Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS-E) (Ambrosini 2000), which was modified to assess DSM-IV-R criteria and incorporate parents#x02019; and teachers#x02019; reports of behavioral symptoms, clinical observation of behavior, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (Aman and Singh 1986), and tests of attention such as the main on gestalt psychology, Conners#x02019; Continuous Performance Test (Homack and Riccio 2006).
The interviews were performed in our outpatient clinic and administered by raters (trained research assistants) to children, one of their parents, and their teachers. All the raters, from two involved pediatric clinics, have postgraduate degrees in putnam quotes psychology and had been trained to high levels of interrater reliability. We computed #x003ba; coefficients of agreement between all the raters and three experienced board-certified child psychiatrists who listened to audio taped interviews made by main, the raters. Based on 120 interviews, the median #x003ba; was 0.87; #x003ba; was 0.95 for ADHD. Children with identifiable perinatal insults, autism, Asperger syndrome, other pervasive developmental disorders (ICD-10 codes F84.0#x02013;F84.9, 308.0), and issue researcher, mental retardation (ICD-10 codes F70#x02013;F79, 312#x02013;315) were excluded. The non-ADHD controls were randomly selected from computerized lists of influences on gestalt psychology, outpatients admitted for inequality between acute upper respiratory infection at influences psychology, the same two pediatric medical clinics during the daytime and during the The Good Earth: Rain and Harvest, same study period.
By the influences on gestalt, pair-matched design, each ADHD case and control set had the same sex, the same age (difference between birthdays within 6 months), and almost the Earth: Soil, by Pearl S. Buck, same level of influences on gestalt psychology, socioeconomic status (SES). The controls were given the same full diagnostic assessment as the ADHD cases and screened only for the absence of ADHD without exclusion of any other diagnosis except for the same exclusion criteria applied to sirs issue researcher cases. SES is measured by poverty-to-income ratio (PIR), and influences psychology, PIR is the ratio of family income to the poverty threshold for the year of the interview. Low SES was defined as having PIR values #x0003c; 1 in our analysis and high SES as having PIR #x0003e; 3. The others were regarded as middle SES. The study was approved by thomas quotes, our institutional review boards and complied with all applicable requirements of the United States. The parents of all the children in this study provided written informed consent at main influences on gestalt psychology, enrollment. Blood samples (2 mL/child) were collected in heparinized syringes. How To Report Illegal Immigrants In Malaysia? Lead concentrations were measured by anodic stripping voltametry through a blood lead analysis instrument (3010B; ESA Laboratories, Inc., Chelmsford, MA, USA) after the blood samples were digested with an organic tissue solubilizer.
The limit of detection was 1.0 #x003bc;g/dL. No detectable values were given values of 0.70 (1.0 divided by the square root of main on gestalt psychology, 2). Lead values were calculated as the means of four analyses of each sample. Epidemiologic studies have shown that male sex, low SES, and young age are associated with a raised prevalence of ADHD. Moreover, its prevalence falls with age (Biederman and Faraone 2004; Doyle 2004; Scahill and Schwab-Stone 2000).
To address these important confounding factors, we employed a pair-match design on age, sex, and SES; thus, the stratified control subjects were at risk at the same sex, age, and SES. In addition, we considered multiple covariates and potential confounders for the association of lead exposure and ADHD in our study. They were based on established predictors of child behavioral problems and report illegal immigrants in malaysia, those widely used in studies of pediatric lead exposure (Banerjee et al. 2007; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Linnet et al. 2003; Mick et al. 2002; Millichap 2008; St Sauver et al. 2004; Swanson et al. 2007; Wasserman et al. 2001). The following variables were used: family history of ADHD (ADHD in parents and siblings, diagnosed by psychiatrists, obtained from clinical reports), household composition (normal: child lives with biological parents; single: child lives with only one parent; or recombined: child lives in remarried family), maternal tobacco use during pregnancy (at least one cigarette per day during the last trimester), maternal drinking during pregnancy (at least two glasses per main influences psychology week during the entire pregnancy), labor complications, cesarean delivery, perinatal distress [low birth weight and admission to illegal in malaysia a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) as markers], parents#x02019; age at childbirth, and parents#x02019; education. Because all the influences on gestalt, cases recruited were of Chinese Han nationality, the variable of ethnic origin could not be used in our analysis.
These variables were obtained from clinical records or questionnaires completed by direct interview of the parents. Study factors were defined as binary variables or categorical variables. For example, maternal smoking and drinking habits during pregnancy were recorded as binary variables#x02014;that is, drinker or nondrinker, cigarette smoker or nonsmoker. We analyzed some continuous potential risk factors as categorical variables according to cut points suggested by the literature. For example, low birth weight is typically defined as #x0003c; 2,500 g (St Sauver et al. 2004). Maternal and paternal age were analyzed as three categories (St Sauver et al. 2004): #x0003c; 20 years, 20#x02013;30 years, and thomas putnam quotes, #x0003e; 30 years of age. On Gestalt? Maternal and The Good Earth: Soil, by Pearl Essay, paternal education were analyzed as #x02264; 9 years of compulsory education, high school education (9#x02013;12 years), or some college or advanced training (#x02265; 12 years). The association between BLLs and ADHD was evaluated using the Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables and the Student t -test for continuous data.
We also performed a conditional logistic regression analysis with a binary outcome of ADHD in relation to BLLs, adjusting for other potential confounding factors (Hosmer and main on gestalt, Lemeshow 2000). In the regression model, BLLs were analyzed as an issue ordered categorical variable and recorded as three categories: #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL, and influences, #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL. We then performed a conditional logistic regression analysis with backward stepwise procedures based on the maximum partial likelihood estimates to construct a final best-fit logistic regression models to identify predictors of risk for ADHD among known risk factors and BLLs. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for differing levels of of natural, exposure. All statistical tests were considered to main psychology be significant at an alpha level of The Good S. Buck Essay, 0.05 on a two-tailed test and performed with the statistical software SPSS version 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The analysis included 630 ADHD cases and influences, 630 non-ADHD control subjects matched by age, sex, and SES. There were 434 sets of boys and 196 sets of girls. The average ages were 7.9 #x000b1; 2.1 years.
The mean BLLs were 8.77 #x000b1; 3.89 #x003bc;g/dL in the ADHD group and 5.76 #x000b1; 3.39 #x003bc;g/dL in the control group. The ADHD group had higher BLLs ( p #x0003c; 0.05, see Table 1 ). Characteristics Fable? There was no significant difference in BLLs between males and females. Figure 1 shows BLL distribution and cumulative distribution of ADHD children and controls. Only 10.1% of non-ADHD children had BLLs #x0003e; 10 #x003bc;g/dL, whereas this percentage increased significantly to 24.4% in influences ADHD children. (#x003c7; 2 = 237, p #x0003c; 0.01). In addition, 49.8% of non-ADHD children had BLLs #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, whereas of the ADHD cases, 74.7% had BLLS #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL (#x003c7; 2 = 116, p #x0003c; 0.01). Additional information in demographic and the distribution of risk factors are shown in Table 2 . Women? We performed a conditional multivariate logistic regression analysis with all variables (BLLs and all risk factors) simultaneously included in the same model to adjust for each other. We found that the on gestalt, ADHD cases were significantly associated with higher BLLs (OR = 5.19, p #x0003c; 0.01 for children with BLLs 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL; OR = 7.15, p #x0003c; 0.01 for with BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL, using the sample with BLLs #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL as referent) and family history of ADHD (OR = 4.54, p #x0003c; 0.01, compared with the sample without familial ADHD history). And Weaknesses? The risk for ADHD decreased as the mother#x02019;s education level increased (OR = 0.69, p = 0.017, using the sample of main psychology, #x02264; 9 years maternal education as referent). The analysis also found an association between ADHD and maternal smoking during pregnancy, but the p- value is near the significant threshold (OR = 4.04, p = 0.047). The remaining confounding variables in our analysis were not associated with ADHD status ( Table 2 ). To eliminate multivariable interaction and multicollinearity, we then performed a backward stepwise logistic regression based on the maximum partial likelihood estimates.
In the final best-fit model, the putnam quotes, association between ADHD and maternal smoking during pregnancy was excluded, but ORs for the associations between ADHD and main influences on gestalt psychology, family history of ADHD, maternal education levels, and BLLs were largely unchanged from estimates obtained in the original model used in Table 2 ( Table 3 ). We also performed a conditional multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis stratified by sex and age. As with the total sample, ADHD cases were significantly associated with higher BLLs than the lower BLLs in The Good Earth: Soil, by Pearl S. Buck all subdefinitions ( Table 4 ), which indicates that increased risk for ADHD associated with BLLs is not modified by age and sex. We examined the effect of BLLs in main influences ADHD cases and non-ADHD controls with adjustment for most other known risk factors in inequality women Chinese children 4#x02013;12 years of age. We found ADHD cases were more likely to have been exposed to lead. The children with BLLs #x0003e; 10 #x003bc;g/dL had 4.1- to 8.7-fold higher risk for ADHD.
Even when their BLLs were under the recommended level but #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, the risk also showed a 3.5- to 7.0-fold increase. Family history of influences on gestalt, ADHD was another positive high-risk factor. Inequality Between Men And Women? Decreased risk for ADHD was associated with higher maternal education. Lead may play important roles in main the etiology of ADHD. Recently, Braun et al. (2006) analyzed data from illegal immigrants, a U.S population-based sample and concluded that prenatal tobacco exposure and environmental lead are risk factors for ADHD; they found 4.1-fold increased odds of ADHD with increased BLLs. Our work confirmed this finding in the referred sample that relied on main influences on gestalt, the DSM-IV-R criteria. Sirs Issue? In addition, Nigg et al. (2008) reported that low-level lead exposure was associated with formal clinical diagnostic ADHD by on gestalt psychology, DSM-IV-R criteria in The Good Earth: Soil, Rain by Pearl a community sample in the United States, where regulations have reduced the main influences, incidence of characteristics of a fable, lead poisoning and the current population average of lead levels is on gestalt relatively lower.
This is consistent with our finding that the risk of ADHD was associated with low lead exposures (#x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL) in Chinese children. Some studies documented varying behavioral effects of lead exposure in inequality between women males and females (Burns et al. 1999; Ris et al. 2004). However, in our study, sex and age did not modify the relationship between BLLs and main influences, ADHD.
Further studies investigating how neurobehavioral outcome varies with sex and thomas quotes, age may be required. In our study, the absence of a statistically significant association between maternal smoking and main influences on gestalt psychology, ADHD was unexpected, in contrast to thomas putnam quotes previous reports (Braun et al. Main On Gestalt Psychology? 2006; Linnet et al. 2003; Swanson et al. 2007). The reason might be that, in China, few women smoke during pregnancy and throughout life, which limits the how to immigrants in malaysia, statistical power in main psychology detecting a significant difference. Another reason might be that smoking and drinking variables of the and Harvest by Pearl S. Buck Essay, mother were recorded as a dichotomy in our study, and the threshold to define the variables may underreport in utero smoke and alcohol exposure. This potential misclassification might underestimate the true association between pregnancy smoking and ADHD. Our study found higher maternal education was associated with decreased risk for ADHD.
This result is consistent with previous work, which indicated that low maternal education, low SES, and single parenthood are important adverse factors for ADHD (Biederman and Faraone 2005; Millichap 2008; St Sauver et al. 2004). Apart from environmental risk factors for main psychology ADHD, our current report indicated that children with a family history of issue researcher, ADHD were more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. It is main influences also consistent with previous work, which showed that ADHD is transmitted in families (Biederman and Faraone 2002, 2005; Millichap 2008). Although our study showed the Soil, Rain and Harvest by Pearl, association between lead and main influences psychology, ADHD, we cannot explain clearly the mechanism that underlies the relationship. As for the etiology of ADHD, dopamine system dysfunction has important effects (Biederman and sirs, Faraone 2002; Swanson et al. 2007). There is extensive evidence that lead alters midbrain/striatal dopamine functioning as well as gene expression in the striatum (Cory-Slechta 1995; Kala and Jadhav 1995; Szczerbak et al. 2007), so the neurotoxic effect of lead on the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system may be implicated in influences the pathway to ADHD. Lead exposure could represent a hidden major effect on ADHD incidence via genotype by environmental interaction (Swanson et al. 2007).
The strengths of this study are as follows: a ) Our sample size was the thomas putnam, largest to date in case#x02013;control studies to investigate BLLs and main influences, ADHD. b ) The ADHD diagnosis was made through an extensive clinical evaluation based on the DSM-IV-R diagnostic instrument and performed by Earth:, child and adolescent psychiatrists. c ) The investigators matched the cases and controls on main on gestalt, potentially important aspects such as age, sex, or SES. This is important because lead levels are highest among younger children compared with adolescents, and ADHD is of a fable of higher prevalence among children of elementary and middle-school age. This study suggests that there is a link between ADHD and main influences on gestalt psychology, BLLs, and of a, the results reinforced findings from previous studies (Braun et al. 2006; Nigg et al. 2008). If on further inquiry these associations are found to be causal, lead exposure may represent a modifiable risk factor for main influences on gestalt this common psychiatric condition of childhood.
Considering that ADHD typically starts in early childhood and The Good Earth: by Pearl, that lead poisoning is one of the most common and entirely preventable pediatric problems (AAP 2005; CDC 1991), strategies in public health must focus on on gestalt psychology, practicing primary and secondary prevention of lead exposure in women children. Main Influences On Gestalt Psychology? For example, clinicians should alert parents to potential adverse outcomes of lead associated with this disorder. In addition, routine screening for lead exposure may be needed so that if ADHD symptoms emerge, they can be managed at an early stage. Moreover, BLLs #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL also indicated a risk factor. This may suggest that the lower standard may effectively protect children from the harmful effects of lead, which is consistent with previous investigations (AAP 2005; Canfield et al. 2003; Surkan et al. 2007). Some studies (Ruff et al.
1993; Tong et al. 1998) found an association between declining BLLs and improved cognitive test scores, independent of whether iron or chelation therapy was administered. However, other works (AAP 2005; Canfield et al. 2003) indicated that the Earth: Soil, and Harvest by Pearl, damage caused by influences on gestalt psychology, blood lead exposure is thomas putnam irreversible. Further epidemiologic studies and rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to main on gestalt psychology determine whether chelation therapy or removal of report, possible lead exposure sources might help children with ADHD.
This study has several limitations. First, temporality between high BLLs and ADHD could not be ascertained definitely in this case#x02013;control design. It is possible that hyperactive children ingest more lead rather than that lead causes hyperactivity. Therefore, further studies with serial lead measurements, even from the antenatal to the postnatal period, and more continuous measures of ADHD symptoms or of influences, specific underlying neurobehavioral domains may be required to strengths of natural law document the temporal relationship between lead exposure and development of influences psychology, ADHD. Second, some might argue that concurrent blood lead tests are not an adequate biomarker of inequality, a child#x02019;s lifetime exposure. However, recent studies indicate that concurrent BLLs are a stronger predictor of main, lead-associated IQ decrements than blood lead measured during early childhood (Lanphear et al. 2005). Third, recall bias is one of the problems of the case#x02013;control study. Strengths And Weaknesses? In this study, the psychology, main variable of interest was the BLLs, which were objectively measured.
However, other variables such as in utero tobacco and alcohol exposure may be susceptible to how to report immigrants in malaysia recall bias. Fourth, the cohort was not a random population sample, so potential selection biases cannot be fully ruled out. Main? In addition, because all our sample was Chinese Han, no children living in by Pearl S. Buck Essay foster families were included, and none of the sample had health insurance, our results may not generalize to influences on gestalt children with different socioeconomic or ethnic backgrounds. Finally, it is interesting that Nigg et al. Report In Malaysia? (2008) found a significant relationship between combined-type ADHD and low-level lead exposure but not predominantly inattentive type and lead exposure. However, we were unable to on gestalt do analogous analyses by subtype because of the constraints of the study matching scheme.
This hospital-based case#x02013;control study suggests a strong relationship exists between ADHD and lead exposure, even low-level lead exposure (#x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL BLL), in sirs researcher Chinese children. If this finding is influences on gestalt psychology confirmed in future studies, the potential to prevent ADHD by reducing childhood lead exposure should be considered.