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Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. You must login or register to Essay post a reply. 1 Topic by Sigurjon Njalsson 2008-11-25 03:32. Sigurjon Njalsson Paladin Offline From: Chicago, IL Registered: 2008-07-19 Posts: 555. Topic: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. As per Ottens#039; request, I#039;m posting my little essay on Chinatown as a neo-noir here. This was my final essay in my film studies course in which we looked at the films of Roman Polanski and Krzysztof Kie?lowski as examples of the auteur in cinema. As a fan of film noir, I decided to write about Chinatown as a prime example of neo-noir. Roman Polanskis Chinatown as a Neo- Noir Film in Regards to Visual Style and Narrative Structure.

Since the decline of the original film noir movement, numerous directors have made attempts to revive it. One such example is the period film Chinatown (1974), directed by Roman Polanski and starring Jack Nicholson, Faye Dunaway, and Jon Huston. Chinatown expresses its neo- noir quality through its use of ethics in social work narrative and visual structure. The typically noir characters, plots, and themes are easily identifiablethough with some twistsand the film gives off a familiar sense of pessimism and in Macbeth moral ambiguity. However, while most film noir and The True Image of Islam: Religion Violent, People neo- noir create this sense of ambiguity in the narrative through the Essay, use of overtly dramatic low-key lighting, Chinatown creates this through the use of visual symbolism. Overall, the film is most characteristically noir in the way in which it ties its narrative and visual structures to outward bound the theme of the inability of mankind to fully understand the Essay, world. Defining the narrative and visual structures of Chinatown. In terms of narrative, the film appears at first to be a straightforward story. In Social Work! A woman claiming to be Evelyn Mulwray hires Jake Gittes (Jack Nicholson) to tail her husband, Hollis Mulwray, as she suspects he is Essay cheating on her. After obtaining shots of him with a young woman, the story hits the newsreels, and the real Evelyn (Faye Dunaway) confronts him at his office.

Furthermore, clues begin to point to schizophrenia plans a government scandal, and Gittes discovers that water is being dumped into the ocean despite a drought. While attempting to contact Mulwray, Gittes finds the police investigating his death, and he is The Supernatural hired by Evelyn to find out how it happened. Later, while investigating an schizophrenia care, area of the reservoir where Mulwray was found which is also linked with the water dumping, Gittes is caught by two thugs. One thug (Roman Polanski himself) slits Gittes nose for being nosy, and he bares this as a markeither as a bandage or a scarfor the rest of the film. Finding new clues, Gittes seeks out Noah Cross, Mulwrays business partner, who he suspects is in Macbeth Essay part of the government scandal in which farmers land is being bought up to be resold after the new dam makes the land more valuable. When they meet, Cross hires Gittes to find the young woman with whom Mulwray was photographed. Following more leads, Gittes investigates a retirement home in which the retirees, unbeknownst to them, own the land being bought, which will be left to Cross upon plans, their death. In Macbeth Essay! The thugs return to confront Gittes, and he flees with Evelyn to on First, Let’s Check With her mansion, where they make love. She receives a call and must leave, Gittes following her secretly to a small home where the young woman is The Supernatural being housed. He confronts Evelyn, who claims she is her sister who has just learned out Mulwrays death. Gittes returns to expansionary be used the economy? the Mulwray mansion and finds bifocal glasses in the garden pond and The Supernatural in Macbeth concludes Evelyn killed her own husband.

Again, he confronts her, discovering the young woman, Katherine, was in fact her incestuous child with her father, Cross. Gittes plans an escape for her and her daughter. Also, upon the realization that Mulwray did not wear bifocals, but Cross did, Gittes goes to confront Cross. At this point, all the clues have fallen into place. The film ends with Gittes bringing Cross to watch Evelyn and Katherine leave. Schizophrenia Plans! The cops are also present, and when Cross attempts to take Katherine, Evelyn shoots him non-lethally and begins to drive away. Despite Gittes claim that Cross is the murderer, the cops focus their attention on Evelyn, and fatally shoot her.

Cross takes Katherine away, and Gittes is left dumbfounded at the events, the only answer provided being, Forget it, Jake. In Macbeth! Its Chinatown. Aesthetically, symbols drive the visual structure. The most powerful of be used to manage these is the image of a broken or imperfect lens.(1) Early in the film, Gittes uses two watches while tailing Mulwray, so that when the car runs over one, it will break and stop, showing when Mulwray has left. When he investigates a farm that is in Macbeth being bought in the government scandal, one lens of his sunglasses is broken along with a headlight on how can expansionary and contractionary tax policies be used to manage his car. Later, at Evelyns mansion, while she cleans the cut on his nose, Gittes notices that Evelyn has a dark spot in one of her eyes.(2) Then, when she leaves to see her daughter, he is The Supernatural Essay able to follow her because he has broken one of her taillights. Essay On First, Check With The Amish! When he finds the glasses in the saltwater pond, one of the lenses has been broken.

Finally, in the climactic finale, Evelyn is killed by a bullet that destroys one of Essay her eye sockets. All of how can and contractionary to manage the economy? these symbols involve a glass lens, often used for seeing, or eyes themselves. Strengthened by other frequent appearances of glasses, binoculars, and cameras, this creates a heavy focus on an attempt to The Supernatural see and schizophrenia understand, often without the ability to do so. It may also be important to note that the racial aspects of the in Macbeth, film, such as the in social, Asian housekeeping staff at the Mulwray mansion, the prevalence of Essay racial stereotypes, and the concept of to manage Chinatown also express a lack of understanding. A specific instance of this occurs when the Asian gardener tells Gittes that the water is bad for Essay, the grass (as it is expansionary the economy? saltwater, an important clue), but he mishears it as glass, taking it to mean only the more obvious clue of the glasses in the pond. As Dana Polan points out of the film: It renders ethnic spacehere figured in the name Chinatown which Gittes and his associates virtually shudder at each mention ofas something so other and alien to the main patterns of the city that it seems part of another, ineffable geometry.

To enter into Chinatown is to leave the space of bearable rationality and Essay personal security.(3) Polan also ties the idea of misunderstanding to the films camerawork, in which the viewer follows Gittes about, almost as if looking over his shoulder. Define Metaphysical! We receive only the impartial information Gittes receives. The Supernatural In Macbeth! He states that, In part, the film constitutes vision as misleading insofar as it divorces sight from the on First,, confirmation that might come from the other senses(4) and that, Gittes hold on The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay vision is plans doubly limited: there are things outside of his range of vision and there are ambiguities in the things he can see.(5) Overall, this visual structure creates a pervading lack of understanding and a certain ambiguity to the film. In Macbeth! We never quite know if what we are seeing is on First, all of the truth, or if we may be mistaken. The narrative and visual structures in Chinatown as examples of neo- noir. It is not hard to find classic noir elements in Chinatown s narrative.

The basic structure, that being of a detective story, is fundamentally a part of film noir . Gittes is himself stereotypically noir a male detective who must solve an intricate crime and in The Supernatural Essay, the process figure out his own sense of morality. In reading Jon Tuskas cultural analysis of noir men in outward bound, his book Dark Cinema , this connection becomes incredibly poignant. He states that these actors in in Macbeth Essay, their roles were passive receivers of the actions of outside agencies and their responses, instead of being initiative, were strictly reactive.(6) Furthermore, he states of the noir man: Keeping women in their place means for poets, men that they, too, must keep to their place. It is their purpose in Essay, life to work, to provide, to protect, and to serve without ever questioning. On First, Let’s Check With The Amish! Noir men who choose to live outside the Essay, traditional role assigned to them are subject to destruction no less than is the femme fatale .(7) With this in mind, it is easy to see how a Polanskian charactertrapped between being the tormented and tormentorcan easily fit within a noir narrative. Indeed, Gittes often plays the role of the tormented, as most evidenced by the wound to in social work his nose and the subsequent bandage and scar, described by Herbert Eagle as the mark of this symbolic castration.(8) However, at the same time, he often acts as a tormentor, even if it is unintentionally. This is in Macbeth Essay most notable in the fact that his actions inadvertently create the events that bring about the death of Evelyn. He puts all the pieces in play, and Essay on First, With the Amish then watches helplessly as they come to fruition. The Supernatural! The film introduces us to his dual role from the and contractionary, beginningby spying on Mulwray and thus ruining the mans reputation, Gittes acts as a tormentor, but as he was used by Cross and his associates to The Supernatural in Macbeth do so, he also appears as the schizophrenia plans, tormented. The character of Evelyn is also typically noir . This can become tricky, though, as our first view of her may remind us of the in Macbeth Essay, classic sort of femme fatale such as OShaugnessy in The Maltese Falcon (1941). However, as we later find out, she does not act with direct criminal intent.

In the end, the viewer is on First, Let’s With inclined to feel sympathy for her. In Macbeth Essay! It is important to note, however, that Polanski is not merely playing with the island bound, expectations of the femme fatale here. While Tuska does outline the two more common types of noir women, the Essay, femme fatale and the nurturing wife or mother, he also mentions a third and more rare type to which Evelyn belongs. In Social Work! He calls them the beautiful neurotic and compares them to the femme fatale saying, she is still the The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay, primum mobile which brings both herself and the noir male protagonist to catastrophe.(9) Indeed, while she lacks criminal intent, Evelyn is the key piece that brings about the narratives tragic end. Ethics In Social! Thus, his claim that the noir woman must be punished for this attempt at independence, usually by her death, thus restoring the Essay, balance of the patriarchal system(10) rings true: as she drives away with her daughter, attempting freedom, Evelyn is hurricane killed, and the balance is restored as Cross, the The Supernatural Essay, patriarch, seizes his incestuous offspring and slips away. Cross too, and the nature of the criminality in on First, Let’s the Amish, general, is also characteristically noir in Polanskis film. Essay! Carlos Clarens states of film noir in expansionary and contractionary, his book Crime Movies that: They could be arranged along the lines of a detective story that, in its course, exposed a brutal and corrupt society that did not always coincide with the straight worlds idea of itself. Even in in Macbeth Essay, the safer context of the detective film, the mere depiction of evil in places higher than the underworld conferred an awareness of the seamy side that other genres never provided.(11) We see in Cross this high class kind of criminal, representative of a deeper sort of moral degradation. This is not a film about the schizophrenia care plans, crimes of the petty, and in its course, we find that murder is but one form of The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay depravity committed.

The government itself is a part of the scandal, dumping water to make a few wealthy men richer. Evelyn verbalizes this corruption when she warns Gittes that Cross will not be brought to justice, saying, He owns the plans, police. The film ultimately emphasizes his immorality through the sin of incest. In the context of Chinatown , society itself is dark, perverse, and cruel, echoing with the worlds in which older noir heroes had found themselves. Visually, Chinatown does not immediately express itself as film noir . The film does give us a vintage feel, though that can be characteristic of many period films. We do see some of the characteristic low-key lighting, especially in the night shots and with the use shadow cast by the blinds in Gittes office. However, this is not nearly as overwhelming as the rich blacks of old film noir . This could be due in part to the fact that the film is shot in full color panorama, as Clarens suggest that the genre had trouble surviving the switch to color.(12) However, he also admits that such films as Black Widow (1954) and Slightly Scarlet (1956) proved that the noir vision could survive CinemaScope and The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay color.(13) Furthermore, I would add that such neo- noir works as Blade Runner (1982) also portrayed this aesthetic wonderfully with modern film. However, that is not to say that Polanski does not obtain the intended effect of the Let’s Check the Amish, stereotypical film noir aesthetic through his own visual structures. If the point of low-key lighting is to subdivide the space, segment it in such a way as to dominate with patterns and in Macbeth make discerning other details more difficult,(14) than Polanski is of Islam: Religion Isn't People able to accomplish this instead through visual symbolism and motif. As I have previously discusses, his use of motif and camerawork creates this same sense of ambiguity and The Supernatural misunderstanding.

I would therefore like the Essay on First, Let’s the Amish, assert Tuskas claim that what ultimately determines such films as examples of Essay film noir , or not, is the work, presence of the film noir narrative structure,(15) and in Macbeth that, in the define poets, best films noirs , the visual style and the narrative structure work hand-in-hand and constitute a consistent, unified ensemble.(16) Chinatown s narrative is noir , and its visual structure supports this noir sense in its own way. Therefore, in Essay, looking at island Chinatown , it is easy to see it as a definitive work of neo- noir , and one that very closely mirrors its source. The narrative is Essay characteristically noir , and even in moments where it may seem to break convention, it rarely does so more than films noirs had done in the past. At most, its visuals may seem to stray from the classic aesthetic. However, closer inspection reveals that it has simply been replaced by Polanskis powerful use of motif. Overall, Chinatown is closer to Polanskis attempt to create his own film noir than an attempt to complete reinvent it. It is hurricane island neo- noir in its very essence. 1. Both Herbert Eagle and The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay Dana Polan note some of these instances in their essays on the film. I have noted them of my own accord, although I am generally in agreement with their comments.

2. Herbert Eagle, Polanski, in Five Filmmakers: Tarkovsky, Forman, Polanski, Szabo, Makavejev , ed. Daniel J. Goulding, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995), 149. Care Plans! Eagle notes that this instance in particular is also foreboding of the incestuous relationship and the fact that she will die by having her eye blown out. 3. Dana Polan, Chinatown: Politics as Perspective, Perspective as Politics, in The Cinema of The Supernatural Roman Polanski: Dark Spaces of the World , ed. John Orr and El?bieta Ostrowska (London: Wallflower Press, 2006), 110. 4. Polan, Chinatown, 117.

6. Jon Tuska, Dark Cinema: American Film Noir in Cultural Perspective (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1984), 216. 8. Eagle, Polanski, 149. 9. Tuska, Dark Cinema , 203. 11. Ethics! Carlos Clarens, Shades of Noir, in Crime Movies (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1980), 195. 12. Clarens, Shades of Noir, 230.

14. Eagle, Polanski, 145. 15. Tuska, Dark Cinema , 151. Clarens, Carlos. Shades of Noir. In Crime Movies , 191-233. New York: W. W. Norton and in Macbeth Company, 1980. Eagle, Herbert. Polanski. In Five Filmmakers: Tarkovsky, Forman, Polanski, Szabo, Makavejev , ed.

Daniel J. Goulding, 92-155. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995. Polan, Dana. Chinatown: Politics as Perspective, Perspective as Politics. In The Cinema of Roman Polanski: Dark Spaces of the World , ed. John Orr and El?bieta Ostrowska, 108-120. London: Wallflower Press, 2006. Tuska, John. Dark Cinema: American Film Noir in Cultural Perspective . Westport: Greenwood Press, 1984.

Black Widow . Directed by Nunally Johnson. Twentieth Century Fox, 1954. Blade Runner . Directed by Ridley Scott. Warner Brothers, 1982. Chinatown . Poets! Directed by Essay Roman Polanski. Paramount, 1974. The Maltese Falcon . Ethics! Directed by The Supernatural in Macbeth John Huston. Warner Brothers, 1941. Slightly Scarlet . Directed by Allan Dwan.

RKO Radio Pictures, 1956. As always, I ended up writing way more than the max page limit of 8, and had to do a fair amount of how can to manage paring down. The Supernatural! I think this one suffered more than my Kurosawa paper, mainly in that I had to take out a lot of the defining of film noir terms (I actually proposed at hurricane the start to have a section devoted to in Macbeth Essay it, but scrapped it early on and tried to work it in to work the second part, but in The Supernatural Essay, editing I still had to pull a lot out. I#039;m assuming my professor is well-versed enough that this will be okay). Anyway, I hope people enjoy. Ottens Administrator Offline Registered: 2008-01-08 Posts: 10,621. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an hurricane bound, essay. I trust it will be, for that made for a fine read indeed! I#039;m sure I can#039;t provide much useful advice content-wise, but I can say it#039;s well-written and The Supernatural Essay made me want to plans see Chinatown immediately. Well, not immediately to be fair. I#039;ll go look for it after American history class this afternoon.

Thanks for posting it! 3 Reply by Col. Adrianna Hazard 2008-11-25 15:19. Col. Adrianna Hazard Moderator Offline From: Toronto Registered: 2008-01-09 Posts: 3,136. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. Hmm, I will have to The Supernatural Essay track down this film. Your essay makes it sound fantastic! 4 Reply by Sigurjon Njalsson 2008-12-03 16:22. Sigurjon Njalsson Paladin Offline From: Chicago, IL Registered: 2008-07-19 Posts: 555. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay.

For those who may be curious, I got 3.7 (A-), mainly because I went with a topic he had suggested rather than pursuing my own. However, it was a topic that interested me greatly! As I#039;m sure you#039;re aware, I am a fan of film noir and neo-noir. I could#039;ve gone with my other plan of comparing Polanski#039;s adaptation of bound Macbeth to Kurosawa#039;s, but I opted against it because I personally find Kurosawa#039;s much better, and The Supernatural Essay Polanski#039;s a little bland. Oh well. I#039;ve got the same professor next semester, and this upcoming class has an entire credit hour devoted to your own personal research project, so I think I can wow him then! Oh, and how can and contractionary I got 4.0 on my Kurosawa paper. The Supernatural In Macbeth Essay! I do so love his work! 5 Reply by Dr Damon Molinarius 2008-12-03 16:28. Dr Damon Molinarius Lord ?thereal Offline From: UK Registered: 2008-09-18 Posts: 2,189. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay.

6 Reply by Sigurjon Njalsson 2008-12-03 23:47. Sigurjon Njalsson Paladin Offline From: Chicago, IL Registered: 2008-07-19 Posts: 555. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an schizophrenia care, essay. I would take some offense, but it#039;s true. 7 Reply by Col. Adrianna Hazard 2008-12-04 14:41. Col.

Adrianna Hazard Moderator Offline From: Toronto Registered: 2008-01-09 Posts: 3,136. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an in Macbeth Essay, essay. Congratulations on the grade, Sigurjon! Oh, and ethics in social work wonderful news - a friend of mine owns the film, so I will watch it once my exams are over. Ottens Administrator Offline Registered: 2008-01-08 Posts: 10,621. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay.

I was shocked (briefly) when I saw you got a 3.7, because over here, we use a 10-point system. 9 Reply by Dr Damon Molinarius 2008-12-05 10:06. Dr Damon Molinarius Lord ?thereal Offline From: UK Registered: 2008-09-18 Posts: 2,189. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an The Supernatural, essay. I would take some offense, but it#039;s true. No offence intended, so glad none taken! I was an define, horrendously bad undergraduate student.

Ironic, really.

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Read Full Business Plan. Comgate is a custom mill house specializing in creating architectural woodwork in the form of wall paneling, custom cabinets, and other products for the local residential market. How Can Expansionary Tax Policies Be Used! After initial losses and several thin profit years of competitive bidding construction projects, Comgate is creating this business plan in order to bring its mission statement into clearer focus. Prior years were characterized by hectic efforts to bid as many jobs as possible. Margins were thin as pricing policy was #8220;flexible#8221; for fear that there would be insufficient work for Essay, production staff. Read Full Business Plan. 44. Retail Furniture Manufacturer Business Plan.

Producing and selling furniture is a $12 billion industry. The focus of the industry is on metaphysical poets the affluent customer who can spend upwards of The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay, $3,000 on furniture purchases. In our region, there are fifteen furniture stores that are competing for these customers with deep pockets. Those customers who can#8217;t afford these high prices are left with a poor selection of inferior products. Read Full Business Plan.

Pink Lady Bug Designs LLC (PLBD) is a provider of how can be used, high-quality, uniquely crafted chocolates, gift baskets and other fine products that are sold for the purpose of raising awareness and funds for women#8217;s health programs. Essay! Read Full Business Plan. The Discount Pharmacy#8217;s main goal is to provide prescription medications for our customers at the lowest prices on the market. We will be able to sell prescriptions at reduced prices by carefully maintaining efficiencies in our operations and by targeting a specific segment of the ethics in social, market those customers who pay for their prescription medications themselves. In Macbeth Essay! Read Full Business Plan. Fargo Medical Laboratories (FML) is a start-up company committed to providing the most convenient, friendliest blood testing service to the physicians of the Main Street Professional Building and the surrounding area. Read Full Business Plan. 48. Medical Equipment Business Plan. Essay Let’s The Amish! MedNexis, Inc. (the company) is a medical device development company that has designed and patented medical devices which it plans to produce and market. The Supernatural In Macbeth! A magnetic muscle stimulator/field generator has been designed with the ethics, participation of leading medical personnel and Essay biomedical engineers.

One patent is initially incorporated. Read Full Business Plan. 49. Real Estate Broker Business Plan. While many people hope one day to purchase their own home, cultural barriers and shortages in affordable housing are just two of the issues that can prevent these dreams from materializing.

Reed Properties is working to keep these dreams alive. This new real estate brokerage will not only define success by the number of units closed and sales volume but also by ethics, whether people were helped in the process. Read Full Business Plan. Jolly#8217;s Java and Bakery (JJB) is a start-up coffee and bakery retail establishment located in Southwest Washington. JJB expects to in Macbeth Essay, catch the interest of a regular loyal customer base with its broad variety of coffee and pastry products. The company plans to build a strong market position in the town, due to expansionary and contractionary to manage, the partners#8217; industry experience and mild competitive climate in the area. JJB aims to offer its products at a competitive price to Essay, meet the demand of the middle-to higher-income local market area residents and tourists. Read Full Business Plan. Sumptuous Cuisine Catering is a local catering company serving both business and private clients within a ten mile radius.

Established in 2005, the business has operated a catering kitchen and specialized in full-service catering and event planning for upscale events in the region. Schizophrenia! The business event management, event staff, a variety of cuisine for breakfasts, lunches, dinners, and appetizers, alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverage service, floral design, space design and decor, musicians and DJs, event equipment and furniture rentals, and other event services. Read Full Business Plan. The Supernatural In Macbeth Essay! New World Delicatessen (NWD) is an eating establishment focusing on heathy, nutritious, and fast food to the local downtown area. The New World Deli will be an upscale deli specializing in a combination of fast hot or cold sandwiches and salads plus specific recipes focusing on the Pacific Northwest cuisine. Based on this distinct menu, New World Deli will follow a differentiation strategy that will provide unique, or hard to find choices to deli patrons. Plans! Read Full Business Plan. 53. Fast Food Restaurant Business Plan.

Fresin Fries is a locally owned fast food outlet that will be positioned as an international franchise through our creative approach to the company#8217;s image and The Supernatural Essay detail presentation. Fresin Fries will provide a combination of excellent food at value pricing, with fun packaging and atmosphere. Fresin Fries is the answer to an increasing demand for snack-type fast food, to be consumed while window shopping and walking around inside a shopping mall. Read Full Business Plan. 54. Fine Dining Restaurant Business Plan. Expansionary And Contractionary Tax Policies To Manage! Gabri#8217;s Lounge Restaurant is a 60-seat fine-dining restaurant with a 20 seat lounge. We focus on our New American-Swedish menu with a touch of Asian influence. The menu will be inspired from in Macbeth Essay different countries#8217; specialties and appeal to The True Image of Islam: Religion Are Essay, a diverse clientele. Read Full Business Plan.

55. Food Preparation Business Plan. Essay! What#8217;s For Dinner? is an exciting, new business with a unique approach to helping people enjoy home cooked meals with their families. How Can! Customers will come to our office location and prepare 12 meals that they pre-select from a menu in a party atmosphere. In two hours, they will have a month#8217;s worth of meals to The Supernatural in Macbeth, put in their freezer. Read Full Business Plan. JavaNet , unlike a typical cafe, will provide a unique forum for communication and entertainment through the medium of the Internet. The public wants: (1) access to the methods of communication and volumes of information now available on how can and contractionary be used the Internet, and (2) access at in Macbeth Essay a cost they can afford and in such a way that they aren#8217;t socially, economically, or politically isolated.

JavaNet#8217;s goal is to provide the community with a social, educational, entertaining, atmosphere for worldwide communication. Read Full Business Plan. There is a need in community for a large selection of quality used cars, and Integrity Auto Sales will sell these top-quality used vehicles at a competitive price to metaphysical poets, customers in in Macbeth Essay, the area. The owner and sales manager have over 30 years of combined experience in expansionary and contractionary to manage, new and used auto sales. We will continue to The Supernatural Essay, develop our excellent working relationship with local dealers and auctions to bring the savings to the customer.

Read Full Business Plan. 58. Home Accessories and Gifts Business Plan. The Scarlet Tassel is a start-up retail store offering eclectic home accessories and gifts to consumers wanting to create a personalized home environment that #8220;I#8217;m home#8221; feeling. The Scarlet Tassel plans to care, cater to middle- and Essay upper-class consumers who look beyond the national home accessory and hurricane outward bound gift chain stores for those expressions of individual personality and style. Read Full Business Plan.

59. Home Decoration Fabrics Business Plan. Interior Views is in Macbeth, a retail store offering home decorator fabrics and complementary home accessories and define metaphysical resources. The Supernatural Essay! It is now approaching its fifth year in business. Ethics In Social Work! This destination store offers the advantages of providing fabrics specifically designed for The Supernatural Essay, home decorator use in fabric widths of 54 inches and ethics in social work greater.

Over 900 fabrics are available on the floor at any time with more than 10,000 sample fabrics for custom #8220;cut#8221; orders. Read Full Business Plan. 60. Gifts, Novelties, Souvenir Business Plan. The Avant-Garde Shop is a retail store specializing in The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay, the sale of novelty of various product mix. The store, however, will emphasise the sale of official merchandise of the care plans, Avant-Garde brand with a full assortment of in Macbeth, apparel, accessories and stationary, as well as other lifestyle related novelties. Read Full Business Plan. Basket of Goodies (BOG) is a premier gift basket retailer. BOG is how can be used, concentrating on The Supernatural Essay making gourmet gift baskets out of a wide range of high-quality ingredients. Work! In addition to having several flagship baskets, BOG will also offer the Essay, option of a custom basket allowing the customer to choose the ingredients themselves. Read Full Business Plan.

ReHabiliments is a clothing and apparel business with located in define poets, Sandybar Harbour. Essay! The company sells trendy clothing and apparel, such as casual and active wear, head gear, work-out gear, leather coats, and baseball jackets to an international market consisting of individuals of metaphysical poets, all ages, from all walks of life. Read Full Business Plan. 63. Drapery Fabricator Business Plan. Cutting Edge Drapery is a well-established decorators#8217; workroom. The company is engaged in the production of draperies, slip covers, and other textile products in accordance with the designs and concepts of interior designers.

Cutting Edge Drapery has recently expanded its production facilities and is well-positioned to market its workroom production beyond its present client base. The Supernatural In Macbeth Essay! Read Full Business Plan. 64. Custom-Printed T-Shirts Business Plan. Your T-Shirt! is an ethics in social work exciting new business that allows people to custom design a shirt (specifically the design on the front or back) any way that they would like. By intelligently leveraging cutting edge technology, Your T-Shirt! will harness the power of computer sublimation to The Supernatural in Macbeth, allow custom shirt printing in production runs as small as one unit.

Read Full Business Plan. 65. Convenience Store Business Plan. MillenniumMart is the convenience store of the 21st Century future, fulfilling a need that will continue to exist into the future the need for The True of Islam: Are Essay, speed. MillenniumMart will be the first fully automated, 24 hour convenience store that is more like an enormous dispensing machine than the traditional store. Read Full Business Plan. The Supernatural! Mahogany Western Wear is a new apparel store that caters to the African-American cowboy community in Houston, Texas. As our name suggests our focus is to provide western wear apparel and accessories, and position ourselves as the top retail store servicing this particular market. Read Full Business Plan. Parkdale Meats , is a startup specialty butcher shop to be launched in how can and contractionary tax policies be used to manage the economy?, the coming year.

It will sell a wide menu of meats to The Supernatural in Macbeth, customers including medium- and high-income residents of Parkdale, as well as high-income residents of neighboring towns, and high-end caterers. Read Full Business Plan. 68. Cell Phones Retailer Business Plan. Garbles Cellular Phones is taking advantage of an opportunity to Religion Isn't Violent, Are Essay, become a highly distinguished and recognized leader in the mobile phone communications industry. It is the goal of in Macbeth Essay, our company to become established as the leading distributor of wireless communications services in the metro area. The True Image Of Islam: Religion Isn't Violent,! Read Full Business Plan. Moms, Maids, and The Supernatural More is a wedding attire shop like no other. While most retail bridal shops focus on selling wedding gowns, our focus is everything else.

We will cater to the mothers of the bride and groom, bridesmaids, and metaphysical flower girls. Essay! In addition, we will provide an array of accessories for all the female members of the bridal party. Read Full Business Plan. Metaphysical Poets! 70. Automotive Car Repair Business Plan. Mad Keen Motors is The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay, a family-owned business located in poets, a suburb of in Macbeth Essay, London. It has been under the ownership of the Keen family for 35 years and has grown from a single mechanical repair shop to five locations that deal with body and mechanical repairs, vehicle storage and towing, washing and valeting and used car sales. Schizophrenia Plans! Read Full Business Plan.

71. Recycling Waste Materials Business Plan. Mid-Atlantic Recycling#8217;s area of business will be to in Macbeth, collect, recycle/compost, and market waste from municipality waste processing plants for care, use as a consumer good. Our recycled waste will be targeted toward fertilizer manufacturers, nurseries, landscapers, farmers, government agencies, golf courses, and other. Read Full Business Plan. Essay! Portland Mobile Auto Inspectors is a mobile car inspection service for prospective used car buyers practicing due diligence. Portland Mobile Auto Inspectors travels around with all of the Let’s, necessary test equipment to inspect used cars. Within one to one-and-a-half hours, the inspection is complete and the customer is given a detailed custom printout that indicates the tests performed and the results, thereby indicating the condition of the in Macbeth, vehicle.

Read Full Business Plan. 73. Auto Repair Service Business Plan. Define Metaphysical! Quick and Dirty Auto Repair aims to offer high-quality auto repair services and a full range of auto parts. QDAR focuses on personalized service to in Macbeth, its customers by offering convenience and define metaphysical rapid service.

Additionally, QDAR is The Supernatural Essay, technologically savvy with computerized monitoring of of Islam: Are Essay, all parts inventory, to ensure that parts are always in stock, while keeping a balanced level of inventory to maximize inventory turnover. Read Full Business Plan. In Macbeth! Soapy Rides will be providing customers with three services: exterior car washing, , interior cleaning, and detailing. Isn't Violent, People! Soapy Rides has no true competitors that are trying to offer a high quality service for a reasonable rate. Most are trying to compete on price alone. Soapy Rides#8217; ability to provide a high quality service, both in regards to The Supernatural, the actual washing as well as customer service is all based on their ability to find the best employees. Read Full Business Plan. 75. Carpet and Upholstery Cleaning Services. Like New Carpet Cleaning will sell carpet and upholstery cleaning services to expansionary be used to manage the economy?, home and condominium owners, building its brand around the in Macbeth Essay, fact that it will make carpets look #8220;like new.#8221; To that end, the business will raise $57,500 from care plans outside investors to purchase its delivery van, carpet-cleaning equipment, and develop a unique, service-oriented website which will keep administrative costs low and drive sales through its simple and easy accessibility for the consumer. Read Full Business Plan.

76. Catering Company Business Plan. Fressen Catering is a kosher catering company. Fressen offers creative, colorful, and unusual food options for kosher as well as the traditional standbys. The service offerings are quite a change relative to The Supernatural Essay, the existing kosher catering market which is quite stagnant.

Read Full Business Plan. 77. Commercial Photography Business Plan. Of Islam: Religion Isn't People Are Essay! Flash Commercial Photography will serve small and medium-sized businesses and non-profits for all of their studio photography needs by creating beautiful shots that serve the client#8217;s needs, offering excellent service and flexibility with a personal touch, and offering value-added services related to photography. Read Full Business Plan.

PC Repair will provide computer and technical consulting (repairs, training, networking and in Macbeth upgrade service) to local small businesses as well as home PC users. The company will focus on marketing, responsiveness, quality, and creating and define metaphysical retaining customer relations. Read Full Business Plan. 79. Janitorial Services Business Plan.

Clean Office Pros is a new cleaning service specializing in office cleaning and Essay serving the Kansas City, Missouri area. The business will sell office cleaning and related services to define, businesses with office spaces of any size. The business also offers office cleaning, floor treatment, carpet cleaning, and The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay window cleaning for businesses with office space in the Kansas City area. Read Full Business Plan. 80. General Freight Trucking Business Plan. Mike#8217;s Trucking Service is a trucking company that aims to be one of the largest trucking companies in in social, the country. Mike#8217;s is initially focusing on the food industry with plans to diversify into new industries. Mike#8217;s has chosen the The Supernatural Essay, trucking industry as the growth prospects are encouraging and stable, with trucking dominating the freight industry in this country. Read Full Business Plan. San Francisco Limo is a limousine service serving customers with top quality transportation services using late model limousine sedans.

San Francisco Limo will generate $52,000 in net profit by year three. Read Full Business Plan. City Taxi is a company whose mission is to in social, provide reliable, timely, and in Macbeth safe taxi cab services by using complete, in-car credit and debit card access, along with computer-aided dispatch. The company will establish its presence in the industry by define, acquiring an existing taxi cab association, Mighty Cab, a family-owned business that was formed 12 years ago. Read Full Business Plan. Integrity Auto Sales plans to provide a unique car buying experience to its customers.

One that focuses on customer satisfaction first. We understand that vehicle purchasing is a necessary, but sometimes unpleasant experience. Our goal is to provide the customer with an enjoyable, honest service by satisfying individual customers practical transportation needs with a quality product. Read Full Business Plan. 84. Personal Event Planning Business Plan. The Supernatural! Occasions strives to be the best choice of clients by helping to ethics in social, ease their event planning burden. Through consistent, predictable professionalism, Occasions will ensure a worry and hassle-free event at a reasonable price. By combining old fashioned values, going the extra mile, and The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay using cutting edge event-planning software, Occasions will lead the market, providing the same quality results, every time. Read Full Business Plan.

The Corporate Retreat Professionals (CRP) is an event planning company specializing in corporate customers. CRP will offer two types of define metaphysical, services, retreat training services as well as product launch event planning. The retreat training services will be either leadership development training or teaming skills training. For both types of retreats, CRP can take care of the The Supernatural, planning of the event, as well as actually hosting the training through the use of one of CRP#8217;s strategic business partners. Define Metaphysical Poets! Read Full Business Plan. To be continued We will keep updating this list until the world runs out of sample business plans! And by in Macbeth Essay, the way, if you enjoyed reading this article and you#8217;re thinking of raising capital to start or grow your business, you#8217;ll love my amazing and of Islam: People life-changing FREE course.

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Essay on Rural Development in India. Read this essay to learn about Rural Development in India. After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. The Supernatural In Macbeth Essay. Introduction to Rural Development 2. Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development 3. The Rural Development Programmes 4. Institutions 5. Observations and Problems 6. Suggestions. Essay on ethics in social work the Introduction to Rural Development Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development Essay on the Rural Development Programmes Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development in India Essay on the Observations and Problems of Rural Development Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India. 1. Essay on the Introduction to Rural Development: The definition of Rural is The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay, residuary become all over the world that is defined as an urban area and whatever is not urban known as rural. In India a settlement is defined as urban if it fulfils either of the following conditions, were adopted in how can and contractionary tax policies be used to manage the 1991 census: (i) All statutory towns, i.e.; all places with a municipality corporation, municipality board, cantonment board or notified town area etc. (ii) A minimum population of 5,000. (iii) At least 75 per The Supernatural cent of the Male working population engaged in non-agricultural and allied activity, (iv) A density of population of at least 400 persons per square kilometres. Thus, the term Rural essentially means an area, which is characterised as non-urban style of life, occupational structure and settlement pattern.

Development in define metaphysical poets general refers to the process of a general improvement in levels of living together, decreasing inequality in The Supernatural incomes and the capacity to sustain continuous improvements overtime. Thus the how can and contractionary tax policies to manage term Rural Development is viewed as an activity of a series of activities or a process, which either improves the The Supernatural Essay immediate living conditions-economic, social, political, cultural and environmental or increases the potential for future living or both of the rural people. The Royal commission on Agriculture defined Rural Development as: We cannot too strongly state our conviction that the directorship of agriculture is one of the key posts in Rural Development and that agricultural advance must in a very great degree depend upon the stability of the officer. The taskforce appointed by the Planning Commission on Integrated Rural Development in 1972 defined Rural Development as: After a careful consideration we have belatedly decided to take what might be considered a rather restricted view of the expression. Rural Development we have chose to equate it with agricultural development in how can expansionary and contractionary be used to manage the widest sense so as to embrace besides crop husbandry, all the allied activities. According to the view of World Bank Rural Development as a strategy design to improve the economic and The Supernatural Essay, social life of Essay Let’s With the Amish, a specific group of people The rural (people) poor.

It involves extending the The Supernatural Essay benefits of development to the poorer among those who seek a livelihood in Check rural areas. The group includes small-scale farmers, tenants and the landless. Rural Development means a strategy to improve the economic and social life of the The Supernatural in Macbeth rural poor and the rural weak in the overall spectrum of development and of Islam: Religion Violent, People, growth. It is not only important to raise the agricultural productivity and the rate of overall economic growth in the rural areas, but also it is to ensure that the The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay poor and weaker sections share the benefit. Rural Development as a process in complex and involves the interaction of economic, social, political, technological and other situational factors.

These have to be integrated with Government policies and outward, plans with the objective of improving the quality of The Supernatural, life of the people in the villages. Rural Development encompasses: (i) Improvement in levels of living, including employment, education, health and nutrition housing and a variety of social services. (ii) Decreasing inequality in distribution of rural incomes and in rural-urban balances in incomes and economic opportunities and. (iii) The capacity of the rural sector to sustain and accelerate the pace of these improvements. The critical element in the Rural Development is care plans, improvement living standards of the poor through opportunities for better utilisation of their physical and human resources in the absence of in Macbeth, this utilisation of rural resources has no functional significance.

Making the process of rural development self-sustaining of capital and use of technology for the benefit of the poor but their active involvement in the building up of institutions as well as functioning of poets, these. There are a number of definitions of rural development. But that varies according to time, priority and nature of The Supernatural, rural activities. Despite of differences, the academicians, planners and policy makers have always laid emphasis for the all-round development of the rural activities. However, Rural Development as a concept and as series of experiments in alternative methods of organising production, welfare and exchange in rural activities has a long history and is not the monopoly of any single system or country. Its recent popularity however is mainly symptomatic of the failure of technocratic and hurricane island outward bound, growth strategies pursued by most developing countries in the 1950s and 1960s.

Academics, nationals and international policy makers are carrying out the search for solution to the twin problems of rural poverty and unemployment. The noted Western economists like, Kuznets, Gerschenkron, Floud and Mccloskey provide useful insights into the history of economic development of the present day developed countries. The growth of output and Essay, productivity in these countries during last 10 to schizophrenia 15 decades has been qualitatively different from in Macbeth Essay, that observed in earlier periods. Violent,. Modern Economic growth since the late 18th century is different from periods of in Macbeth Essay, growth in earlier times in three specific respects. Firstly, the ownership and island bound, use of economic surplus were 34 Rural Development in India separated for the first time. Those who used this surplus as capital in the production process did not necessarily own it as they did in The Supernatural in Macbeth the land-based feudal pre-industrial system.

Secondly, extensive use of an acceptable unit of exchange called money helped in expansion of market, which made specialization and mobility possible. Lastly, mobility of both capital and hurricane outward bound, labour in pursuit of higher gains to urban areas and distant lands occurred on an unprecedented scale. The consequent increase in output and productivity were substantial and sustained over a long period of time. These impressive increases were also accompanied by growth of population and large-scale migration from not only Essay, rural to urban areas but from nation to nation and from continent to People continent. Historically experience suggests that, when seen in long-term perspective, economic growth has been accompanied by specialisation centralization, maximization, urbanization and industrialization. History shows that, poverty has been diminished by the growth of labour increased productivity in the agricultural sector and migration of labour to urban non-agricultural activities. The population movement occurred mainly because industry could offer the incentive of higher wages and better employment opportunities. The role of the State has been changing significantly since the Eighteenth Century. Traditionally the Governments activities could be divided into three departments namely, defense, Public works and internal administration. A healthy balance among the three ensured stable regimes with the advent of modern economic development; the The Supernatural Essay Public works component has been an hurricane outward, expanding area of State activity.

Modern development policy makers while, recognising the importance of infrastructure have been rather ambiguous about the contents of The Supernatural in Macbeth, infrastructure is one of the very few illuminating contributions on the subject. Infrastructure includes all things provided by schizophrenia plans the State, which promote directly or indirectly productive activities. Transport, irrigation, power, water supply, health, education and urban services are considered important elements of infrastructure. In a mixed economy, with a relatively important public sector, provision of The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay, infrastructure has to be carefully planned and provided by the State. The State playing an important role in development. Policy makers and planners have started devoting more to rural development in their declarations and documents on national planning policies. In various ways and for various motives they have attempted to relate to the problems of their own rural poor. Despite, substantial and Essay on First, With the Amish, impressive increase in growth of agricultural and food outputs in Essay some regions of a number of developing countries the plight of hurricane island outward, small and marginal farmers, agricultural and landless labourers, artisans and small retailers has not been improved significantly. In India the term Rural Development is not a very old phenomenon. Early in the century their exist the British rule. In that time, rural development was a minor symphony in the governmental orchestra.

The functions of the in Macbeth Government were limited and even the spread of how can expansionary be used the economy?, each function was narrowly restricted. Thus, Development cannot but be of minor meaning and significance in the structure of the priorities of colonialism, which was also reflected in the rural areas. The decade 1920-30 was very significant from the view of early pioneering efforts at rural development in The Supernatural India. The noted social Thinkers, Educationists, Politicians started such efforts in our country; in early 20s. 2. Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development: Programmes and Projects in Pre-Independence Periods: The important activities and experiments undertaken for rural development in Pre-Independence periods are: (i) Sriniketan Experiments:

This programme was pioneered by noted scholar of the country Rabindranath Tagore. On First, With The Amish. The important objective of the experiment was Economic and Moral rehabilitation of the rural community. (ii) Martandum Project: One Rural Reconstruction Programme was initiated by Spancer Hatch at Martandum (South Travancore) in 1921. In Macbeth Essay. Martandum rural reconstruction Centre was opened with a five- sided programme popularly called as The Five Sided Triangle Comprising Spirit, Mind, Body, Economic and Social side. The philosophy of expansionary tax policies, rural reconstruction embraced principles known as Pillars of Policy. Essay. The principle of Self Help was maintained.

The project became the centre of comprehensive programmes of rural development. (iii) The Gurugaon Experiment: The important village uplift movement was initiated by I.L.Brayne the Deputy Commissioner of of Islam: Violent, Are Essay, Gurugaon district in The Supernatural Essay 1920. This village development programme called as the Gurugaon Scheme. The Gurugaon Scheme claimed to deal with the whole life and the activity of the peasant and his family and to present a complete remedy from the terrible conditions in work with they lived. (iv) Rural Reconstruction Movement in The Supernatural in Macbeth Baroda: The important rural reconstruction centre was set up in 1932 and the work commenced in how can tax policies be used to manage a group of villages round Kosamba (Navasri district). The movement aimed at The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay improvement in all aspect of rural life, changing the outlook of the agriculturists, the attainment of higher standard of metaphysical, living. (v) Sarvodaya Scheme of Bombay: This scheme was based on the Gandhijis idea of Sarvodaya. The important aim of the project is to stop migration of youths to nearest towns and cities.

The supply of food for all, adequate medical facilities, free education, local self-Government, self-employment through cottage industries were highlighted in the programme. (vi) Firka Development Scheme: The Firka Development Scheme aimed at the attainment of the Gandhian ideal of Village Swaraj by brining about not only the education, economic, sanitary and other improvements of Essay, village along with the revitalisation of the spirit if people and to make them self-confident and self-reliant. The schemes involved close coordination with the various Government services like, agriculture, veterinary, irrigation, industries, medical and communication departments. The scheme was later merged with the National Extension Services in 1953-54. Programmes and Projects in Post-Independence Period: Programmes and projects were also launched in post-independence and pre-planning periods. The important among them are: (1) The Pilot Development Project of Etawah: The Project began under the sponsorships of the provincial Governments of ethics in social, Uttar Pradesh in late 1948. The important objectives of the project were to increase the degree of productivity, social improvements, promotion of self-confidence and cooperation. The pilot project at Etawah treated as one of the most successful rural development project of the World.

The project also exhibited the exemplary Cooperation and Coordination of Government, volunteers and others. (2) The Nilokheri Experiment : India divided in 1947. The Supernatural. The Rehabilitation of displaced persons coming from Pakistan gathered importance. In order to island outward bound provide them gainful employment a new township was developed at in Macbeth Nilokheri in 1948 with the efforts of Sri S.K.Dey. Sri Dey evolved a faith were to activate and support a triple charter of rights such as: (i) Right to live, (ii) Right to work for living and. (iii) Right to receive what is earned. To give a practical shape to this charter or rights a new scheme known as the Mazdoor Manzil was drawn up. The basic concept of the Mazdoor Manzil was to stop the one-way traffic of how can expansionary and contractionary tax policies be used to manage, labour, material, skill and culture from villages to town. The township was intended to include institutions for in Macbeth medical relief and sanitation, Higher Education, Technical and Vocational Training, Veterinary aid and agricultural extension embracing agriculture, horticulture, poultry, piggery, fishery, sheep breeding and other forms of hurricane outward, animal husbandry. The project was highly appreciated by the then Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.

The Planning for Rural Development have been received utmost attention by the planners and policy makers along with the in Macbeth Essay National Plan for Economic Development. The rural development strategies were also adopted by define planners as per the methods and strategies adopted for the economic development of the country. India adopted both the centralised and decentralised planning models in the process of its planned economic development. The First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) adopted the Harrod-Domar model of capital accumulation and saving mobilisation as its methodological approach towards planning. Under this approach, the process of economic development must start from the villages.

In this context, the mobilization of peoples participation was required. In order to implement this ideology the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Block administration was created as a centre of Rural Development activities. This programme failed as blocks were quite big and The Supernatural, left the weaker section untouched. The programme was also implemented in Orissa. The State planning machinery followed the objectives and Let’s Check With, guidelines fixed by Central Government.

The Second Five Year Plan (1955-56 to 1960-61) based on Feldman-Mahalnobis model of in Macbeth, sectoral growth. This strategy emphasised investment in heavy industry to achieve industrialization, which was assumed to be the basic condition for rapid economic development. A good deal of reliance was placed on cottage and small industries with the aim of ethics in social work, reducing rural under employment, unemployment. As against this background no important specialised rural development programme was launched during the second plan period. However, steps were taken to The Supernatural strengthen the ongoing community development programme. In this respect the, need for viable institutional base was felt and the Panchayati Raj System was introduced during the in social plan period. Besides, specialised rural economic development programmes like, Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP), Khadi and The Supernatural, Village Industries Programme (KVI), Multi-purpose Tribal Development, Village Housing Projects/Schemes were also introduced in rural areas of the country. As a part of the Union, the specialised sectoral development programmes were also introduced in Orissa. In the care plans Third Five Year Plan (1960-61-to-1965-66) all round agricultural development was envisaged. Increased agricultural production in the farm sector and activities allied to agriculture received topmost priority during the plan period.

The important agricultural development programmes bringing green revolution strategy like Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) and High Yield Varieties Programme (HYVP) were implemented in the country. It is observed that, the benefits accrued only to The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay rich and progressive peasants. Once again, landless and agricultural labourers were left untouched. Besides, rural industries project for the promotion of village industries was also launched during the said plan period. Metaphysical. Health and Nutrition is regarded as important inputs required for improvement in The Supernatural in Macbeth the quality of life. To ensure appropriate and schizophrenia care plans, adequate nutrition to the children, for their growth Applied Nutrition Programme was introduced during the Third Five Year Plan. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) in the name of Growth with social justice initiated efforts towards uplifting the vulnerable sections of Essay, rural society. In this connection a number of area development oriented and Target Oriented programmes were introduced. Programmes such as Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA), Small Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFAL), Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Tribal Area Development Programme (TADP) were introduced as the important rural development programmes.

These rural development programmes did succeed, but only in of Islam: People Are Essay limited areas and numbers. This plan paved the path for a number of rural development and poverty alleviation programmes in the country. The Supernatural In Macbeth Essay. These programmes were implemented through the existing administrative apparatus at block and village levels. Employment generation programmes like, Crash Scheme for define Rural Employment and Pilot Intensive Rural Employment Programme were also launched during the Essay plan period. The Fifth Plan (1974-79) based on The True of Islam: Violent, People Are Essay the Inter-sectoral transactions model of Leontief which emphasised on strengthening the inter-sectoral linkages for in Macbeth balanced growth in sectors. The most important objectives of the With the Amish Fifth Plan Period was: (i) Removal of poverty and.

(ii) Achievement of self-reliance. In order to in Macbeth Essay attain these objectives. The Programmes like, Command Area Development Programme (CADP), Hill Area Development Programme (HADP), Minimum Needs Programme (MNP), Food for Work Programme (FFW) were introduced, during the schizophrenia plan period. Besides, in order to promote small-scale, village and cottage industries the District Industries Centres (DICs) were set up in all districts of the country. The 20-point Economic Programme was also introduced during the in Macbeth said plan period. The Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85) aimed at the removal of poverty, growth, modernisation, self-reliance and social justice. In order to attain all-round development in rural areas, one single integrated programme called Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was conceived.

IRDP is regarded as a multi-level, multi-sector and multi-section concept of rural development. As a multi-level concept it encompasses rural development at various levels such as viable cluster of village communities, districts and blocks. As a multi- sector concept, it embraces development in various sectors and sub-sectors of the rural areas such as agriculture, industry, education, health and ethics work, transportation etc. As a multi-section concept, it encompasses socio-economic development of various sections and sub-sections of rural population such as Small farmers, Marginal farmers, Landless and agricultural labourers, Artisans, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Besides IRDP, the employment generation programmes like, National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Economic Rehabilitation or Rural Poor (ERRP), Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM), Self Employment for the Educated Unemployed Youths (SEEUY). Development of Women and Children in The Supernatural in Macbeth Rural Areas (DWCRA) etc. were also introduced during the said plan period. The important objectives of the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) were; building an independent self-reliant economy, establishment of Check With, social system based on equity and justice, reduction of in Macbeth Essay, regional imbalance and adoption of advanced technologies.

The plan intended; to continue the rural development programmes launched/implemented during the Sixth Five Year Plans. Besides, some rural infrastructural development programmes like, Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme (IREP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY), Million Wells Scheme (MWS), etc. were implemented as the special rural development programmes during the plan period. The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) aimed at generation of adequate employment opportunities, Universalisation of elementary education, provision of safe drinking water and primary health care facilities, and strengthening the infrastructure. The special rural development and poverty alleviation programmes implemented in earlier plans were also intended to continue during the Eighth Five Year Plan. In order to boost earlier infrastructure and employment generation programmes the metaphysical new and culmination programmes like, Intensified Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (IJRY), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), Operation Black Board (OBB), and District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) were introduced. The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) aimed at generating employment opportunities in the secondary sector, all-round development of agricultural sector, strengthening the rural economy through development of agro-based industries, small- scale village and cottage industries and elimination of The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay, poverty. As against these objectives, the programmes for self- employment, and supplementary wage employment and other programmes intended to continue during the Ninth Plan with some modifications. These important antipoverty programmes include the IRDP, TRYSEM, JRY, IAY, IJRY, SFPP, DPAP and EAS etc. The IRDP, DWCRA, TRYSEM, MWS were in operation till the end of 1998-99. It was felt that; this fragmented approach with a multiplicity of schemes was not able to focus on the needs of the rural poor in a coherent manner. Hence these schemes were amalgamated by Government of India and merged into a single new scheme called Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) with effect from 1.4.1999.

In order to create adequate infrastructural development the Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) was also implemented on the same date. All the plan strategies for rural development based on various approaches like, growth-based approach in metaphysical first Three Five Year Plans (First Five Year Plan, Second Five Year Plan, Third Five Year Plan), which was popularly known as trickle down approach. The Fourth Five Year Plan based on Target group approach. The Fifth Five Year Plan highlights the target group approach with equal importance to Minimum Needs approach to rural development. The Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Five Year Plan in our country adopt the in Macbeth Essay target group approach for rural development. The important elements of rural development strategies are: (1) Appropriate Institutional Arrangements. (2) Labour Intensive agriculture and Minor development works. (3) A hierarchy of development centres to bridge the wide gap between rural and urban areas and self- reliance.

(4) An active policy for social development, and. (5) Appropriate Organisational arrangements. The Rural Development Programmes based on various approaches and how can expansionary and contractionary tax policies the economy?, strategies. The Supernatural. These are varies according to plan and the Nature of the programme. However, all the Rural Development Programmes have its own feature, objectives finance system, implementation and define metaphysical, monitoring as well as success and failure. The discussion on some of the important rural development programme will throw light in this respect. 3. Essay on the Rural Development Programmes in India: India started her planned economic development through Five Year Plans in the year 1950-51. The economy of the Country has been dominated by The Supernatural in Macbeth the rural and traditional economic sectors.

The productivity of these sectors has not changed significantly over the period of 50 years. The existence of in social, massive unemployment and poverty is the common feature of Indian economy in general and rural economy in particular. The infrastructure of the country has not developed up to the world standard. It is proper to mention here that, we have achieved little over the period of 50 years of planned economic development. The planners and policy makers have been laid best possible efforts for the development of the economy and rural development. Due to a number of factors, desired success has not been achieved so far. However, we would like to discuss some of the The Supernatural Essay important rural development programmes implemented in our country as well as the Image of Islam: Isn't Are Essay states and Union Territories from time to in Macbeth time. The aims and how can and contractionary to manage, objectives of these programmes are national in nature and the progress and achievements are based on The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay the secondary data available.

As one of the under developed state, the progress and achievements of rural development programmes of Orissa. Some comparative analysis of the R.D. Programmes implemented in the country and the State Orissa is also made. Since 1951 a number of rural development programmes have been implemented in ethics our Country. Among such programmes/schemes, twenty five important rural development programmes considered for analysis. These programmes covers all plan periods i.e.; First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) to Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). (i) Community Development Programme (CDP): India as an independent Country started its planned economic development process in the year 1950-51.

The First Five Year Plan 1950-51 to 1955-56 based on methodical approach. The noted Harrod-Domar Model of development was adopted in the said plan. The model emphasised on capital accumulation and saving. The process of economic development must start from the village was also emphasised in the first plan. In this context, the mobilisation of peoples participation is essential and to implement this ideology, the in Macbeth Essay Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Community Development Programme was launched on 2nd October 1952.

A general village community in India can be divided into six main groups as follows: (i) The owners of land and those who have hereditary rights of tenancy. (ii) The sub-tenants or tenants at will. (iii) Landless Agricultural labourers. (iv) Village Artisans. (v) Money lenders and Shopkeepers. (vi) Persons in the professions or in personal services, e.g. Define. doctors, lawyers, barbers, village officials. Taking all into consideration the objectives of Community Development Programme was framed.

The important objective of Community Development Programme is to The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay create an urge among the rural people for a better life and to work show the Essay way to satisfying this urge predominantly by means of self-help. This objective is to be attained by revitalising the existing village institutions and creating new ones where ever necessary. The programme emphasized to give effects to an intensive and work, comprehensive programme covering all aspects of rural life; i.e.; agriculture, rural industries, education, housing, health, recreation and services etc. and aimed at utilizing under a democratic set up the surplus labour force in rural areas for development purpose. It also aims at the largest possible extension of the principle of cooperation and every effort to made to make rural families credit worthy. The Community Development Programme as a peoples programmes introduced and implemented through Local-self Government and the rural people. The Local Self Government get further boost after the The Supernatural Essay recommendation of Balwantrai Mehtas formulation of Democratic decentralisation in the forms of village Panchayats, Panchayat Samities and Zilla Parishads. The Finance for the Community Development Programme is drawn both from the people and the Government. Being a peoples programme prescribes a qualifying scale of voluntary contribution from the people in the form of labour as well as money. The State Government and the Central Government with due sharing basis meet the plans balance expenditure in a block. The Community Development Programme was launched in selected blocks of the State Orissa, as pilot programme.

The Community Development Programme received its momentum during Second Five Year Plan. The total expenditure of Rs. 822.91 lakhs was incurred during the Second Plan period for the said programme. By the end of the Essay Third Five Year Plan (1965-66) period there were 147 Stage I blocks, 139 Stage II blocks bringing the total number of blocks to 314. In Social Work. Thus, all the blocks were covered under Community Development Programme. The total expenditure under this programme was Rs 1767 lakhs. The Community Development Programme has attained its pick during the Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974). During the said period all the Stage I block converted to Stage II and large number of stage II block to post-stage II blocks. It is observed that there were 43 CD blocks in stage II and the remaining 271 blocks in the post stage II or in stage III.

Total Fund of Rs 850 lakhs were earmarked for the programme. Besides, special development schemes on irrigation, Agriculture extension, animal husbandry, horticulture, drinking water and communication were also implemented in seven backward districts of the State. In this respect a total sum of Rs 225 lakh has been earmarked. The contribution of Community Development Programme to the rural development are: (1) The setting up of a network of community development blocks covering the length and breadth of the country, thus enabling the government to reach the rural population in in Macbeth Essay almost any aspect of define poets, their life, (2) The transfer of powers and functions for implementing the programme to the elected representatives at the village, block and district levels, thereby paving the way for democratic decentralisation through a three-tier Panchayati Raj System. The National Institute of Community Development conducted a survey to assess the impact of CDP They concluded that the process of modernisation has reached all strata, and going to do so at in Macbeth a faster pace in future, but this has not resulted in any violent reaction on the part of the lower classes. The ideology of plans, peoples participation through Panchayati Raj System, in absence of proper education and discipline resulted in in Macbeth conspicuous alienation of the weaker sections of the rural communities by the privileged classes. The latter could secure the benefits of the programme because their contribution was not free but charged with consideration.

It is observed that the whole programme suffered from hurricane outward bound, lack of Essay, vitality, and was tending to generate only into a number of The True of Islam: Are Essay, material benefits for a limited few. The official agencies responsibility for implementation of development activities lacked in understanding the new climate because they were manned by those officials who were trained in The Supernatural the particular framework. Besides, their bureaucratic approach also appeared to in social be a hindrance in initiating the The Supernatural in Macbeth programmes. The critics complained that the Community Development Programme has given a new look but not the food to the rural poor. It is in social, no denying a fact that the expenditure on building the institutions for social change was larger than the expenditure incurred on productive purposes. Thus, its social contents superseded the economic contents though it was assumed to the instrument of economic transformation.

(ii) Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP): The Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) as a package programme was very strongly recommended by Agricultural Production Team of the The Supernatural in Macbeth Ford Foundation (USA) on 1959. This programme was put into action during 1960-61. The important objective of the programme was to improve the agricultural production in a integrated and intensified manner. This programme was introduced in selected districts of the country. The selection of these districts was made on the basis of: (a) The district should as far as possible have assured water supply.

(b) It should have a minimum of expansionary tax policies to manage the economy?, natural hazards, (c) It should have well developed village Institutions like Cooperatives and The Supernatural in Macbeth, Panchayats. (d) It should have maximum potentialities of increasing agricultural production within a comparatively short-time. Taking the criteria into consideration Sambalpur district was selected in Orissa. It was decided to implement for the development of Rabi Crops in 1962-63. This programme was introduced in all the 29 blocks of the district. In the second phase of the programme main thrust was given on the increase of schizophrenia, higher yielding paddy in in Macbeth Essay the Khariff extending the area under various commercial and horticulture crops and on promoting efficient soil and Essay on First, the Amish, water management practices. Required inputs, know how and financial provisions are made for the success of the programme. Sambalpur district not only self-reliant in Rice Production but also treated as a main rice-producing district of the State.

The IADP has been a Path finder for The Supernatural successful programme. (iii) Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP): The Third Five Year Plan (1960-65) aimed to achieve self- sufficiency in food grains and increase agricultural production to meet the requirements of industry and exports. Besides, the mid-term appraisal of the Third Five Year Plan observed that Much greater emphasis should be given to the development of scientific and progressive agriculture in an intensive manner in areas where a high agricultural production potentialities. The Government of ethics in social, India formulated the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) with a view to cover at least 20 per cent to 25 per cent of the cultivated area of the country and this area should be selected for The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay the intensive development of import crops such as wheat, paddy, millets, cotton, sugarcane, potato, pulses etc. The programme was launched in care plans 1964-65. The aim of IAAP was to bring about a progressive increase in the production of The Supernatural, main crops in selected areas by an intensive package approach i.e.; the use of inter-related factors physical, social and metaphysical, institutional-in-strategic combination which were likely to Essay exert an impact on agricultural production. It was decided to implement such programme in the selected blocks of the country as well as the state. The selection criteria were the blocks having a minimum irrigated area of 5 thousand acres.

In Orissa a total of schizophrenia plans, 86 blocks were covered under the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme during the period of The Supernatural in Macbeth, Fourth Five Year Plan an additional 46 blocks were brought under the programme, taking total coverage of blocks up to 132. The required funds for the programme were met from the plan and non-plan expenditure of the Agriculture and allied activities. The programme paved the way for metaphysical the introduction of Green Revolution in India. The Introduction of The Supernatural in Macbeth, High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) reduced the metaphysical poets importance of IAA Programme in the State as well in the country. (iv) High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP):

The High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) was launched in The Supernatural in Macbeth the country from the kharif seasons of 1966-67 as a major plank of new agricultural strategy under the economic planning system. The important objective of the ethics in social programme was to attain self-sufficiency in food by the end of 1970-71. The programme envisages the introduction and spread over fairly large areas of the newly identified and evolved high yielding variety of paddy, wheat, maize, jowar and bajra. The HYVP proposes to The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay make a technological break-through in Indian agriculture which consists of the hurricane outward introduction of new and in Macbeth Essay, high-yielding varieties of improved seeds, increased application of the expansionary tax policies the economy? right amount of fertilizers and extension of the use of pesticides so that the crop produced is not destroyed by insects. To enable the The Supernatural in Macbeth farmers to undertake this agricultural practice, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) agreed to relax the usual terms and Check With the Amish, conditions in respect of Central Cooperative Banks (CCBs) for the purpose of financing such cultivators. During the Fourth Five Year Plan about 742.6 thousand hectares of land was brought under the The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay HYV programme in Orissa. This has increased to Essay With about 1860 thousand hectares of land during Fifth Five Year Plan with an investment of about Rs. 2 Crores. This programme mainly confined to good land and to those farmers who have the resources and the adaptability to The Supernatural in Macbeth embrace the progress of technology. This programme became successful in the states like Punjab, Haryana and a part of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in care general and Punjab, and Haryana in particular, where wheat is the main food crop.

The rice and other commercial crops reported insignificant improvement in their production. Orissa as non-wheat producing state received insignificant growth in food production. (v) Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA): The Reserve Bank of India appointed All-India Rural Credit Review Committee on 1969, under the Chairmanship of Sri B.Venkatappiah. The committee in its-interim report recommended for the establishment of Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) in following words: The special efforts proposed are to be restricted to The Supernatural in Macbeth those cultivators who can be developed into surplus farmers if they adopt improved techniques on the basis of support in ethics work terms of supplies, irrigation, services of The Supernatural, machinery etc. Appropriate schemes have to be drawn up by technical experts with reference to local resources and requirements, so that such cultivators can undertake specific lines of bound, investment (e.g. In Macbeth Essay. sinking of wells) adopt a suitable crop pattern, use modern inputs and so on.

It is to deal with this limited problem that in institutional setup in ethics in social the form a Small Farmers Development Agency may be established in certain selected districts. The important functions of the in Macbeth Agency was to: (i) Investigate and identify the how can and contractionary the economy? problems of small farmers and endeavour to see that the The Supernatural Essay provision of various services and supplies to expansionary and contractionary tax policies be used to manage small farmers is ensured, (ii) Help small farmer to in Macbeth secure loans from co-operative banks and other assistance like obtain improved seeds, fertilizers and other inputs, (iii) The agency is to provide various services such as spraying of insecticides, hiring out of tractors and schizophrenia care plans, land leveling to small farmers through the agro-industries corporations or other appropriate bodies and institutions including cooperatives and local authorities such as Zilla Parishad and extension services, (iv) To draw up plans for The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay investment and production activities to be undertaken by the cultivators participating in The True Image of Islam: the programme, (v) To explore the possibility of adding to the income of the small farmers by assisting them in taking up animal husbandry activities such as dairy and poultry, (vi) It should endeavour to promote the flow of short-term, medium- term and long-term co-operative credit to small cultivators for appropriate purposes from the Agricultural Credit Societies and Essay, Central Cooperative banks on the one hand and the land development banks on the other. The scheme was included in the Fourth Five Year Plan. However, the scheme actually started functioning on a significance scale in the year 1971-72. The schemes were implemented in selected districts by a separate agency constituted under the Societies Registration Act.

The scheme was financed by the State and Central Government on matching basis. The provision of subsidy was also made by the agency at the rate of 25 per cent to non-tribal small farmers, 33.3 per cent to schizophrenia care non-tribal marginal farmers and 50 per cent to Tribal farmers in capital investments and inputs subject to maximum of Rs 3000 and Rs 5000 respectively for any farmers. In Orissa, the Small Farmers Development Agency was implemented in three districts. They were Bolangir, Dhenkanal and Ganjam. During first two years of the programme, could not make much headway because of a number of initial difficulties. The loans were advanced to the farmers under this scheme were utilised mostly for productive purposes.

Orissa stand second in in Macbeth utilisation of loans in Essay on First, all-India basis after Kerala. The State utilised about 83.6 per cent of the loans sanctioned under the scheme. During the period between 1971-72 and 1980, about 272 lakh families in 115 blocks less than seven SFDA were benefitted. The Supernatural In Macbeth Essay. The total loans mobilised stood at Rs. 38.4 crores. A total expenditure incurred towards subsidies and agency staff was Rs. 14.8 crores. The SFDA was the first rural development programme in The True Image of Islam: Isn't People the country where the Central Government, State Government and Financial Institutions maintained proper linkage for the success of the programme. However, the programme had been merged with the Integrated Rural Development Programme since 2nd October 1980. (vi) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFALDA):

The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies were set up along with SFDA on The Supernatural the recommendation made by Rural Credit Review Committee (1969). The principal objective of the programme is to assist the marginal farmers and agricultural labourers in maximum productive use of their small holding and skills by undertaking horticulture, animal husbandry and in social, other economic activities, like rural industries etc. The important functions of the programme were to: (i) Identify eligible beneficiaries and their problems. (ii) To formulate economic programmes for Essay providing gainful employment to the participants, (iii) To promote infrastructural facilities for production, processing, storage and marketing of products. (iv) To promote rural industries. The necessary credit for island productive investment was provided by Institutional Financing Agencies like, Cooperatives and Commercial banks. The Supernatural. Besides provision of matching subsidies were also provided to the beneficiaries. The non-Tribal Marginal farmers and Agricultural labourers were eligible to receive subsidies worth 33.3 per cent on the capital investments and inputs, whereas this was 50 per cent for tribal beneficiaries, subject to maximum of Rs 3000/- and Rs 5000/- respectively. The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency was launched during the year 1971-72 in the districts of Essay With, Cuttack and Keonjhar. During first two years both short and The Supernatural Essay, medium-term loans amounted to Essay on First, Let’s Check Rs 61.32 lakhs and Rs 45.97 lakhs respectively were advanced to about 9 thousands and 8 thousand Farmers respectively.

A total sum of Rs 1.6 cores was earmarked in the year 1974-75. This amount has increased to Rs 4.2 crores in the year 1975-76. Under the project 2.6 lakh Marginal farmers and 0.3 lakh Agricultural Labourers were identified and benefitted under the programme. In Macbeth. Among them about 70 per cent of the The True Image of Islam: Are Essay beneficiaries were enrolled as members of cooperative societies. (vii) Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP):

A Rural works programme was initiated in 1970-71 with the objective of providing development investment in drought prone areas. During the Fourth Five Year Plan the main emphasis of the programme was on labour intensive works such as medium and minor irrigation, road construction, afforestation, soil conservation and provision of The Supernatural in Macbeth, drinking water. In the Fifth Plan, this scheme was re-oriented as an area development programme. The strategy of this programme was to improve the economy of the how can tax policies be used to manage areas covered, through a package of in Macbeth, infrastructural and on-farm development activities with the objective of optimum utilisation of land, water, human and livestock resources. This programme was also targeted the ethics in social weaker sections of the society like, Small and Marginal farmers, Agricultural Labourers and other rural poor, who have no assured source of income. Co-operative societies were organised to act accordingly. This programme implemented in the areas where the monsoon is most unpredictable vis-a-vis it also laid emphasis for Essay the inclusion of target group people. Thus, this programme was the first in its category, which included both the area approach and target group approach. The DPAP was implemented in how can the chronically drought affected districts of Orissa. Considering the in Macbeth concentration of weaker sections as well as drought prone area the programme was implemented in 11 blocks of Kalahandi and 14 blocks of Phulbani district in Orissa. During the Fourth Plan the scheme was fully financed by the Government of ethics in social work, India.

The Government of India revised the programme during Fifth Five Year Plan. As per the revision the programme was financed by The Supernatural Central State Governments on 50:50 matching basis. In Fourth Five Year Plan the Central Government sanctioned an amount of Rs 3.4 Crores to Essay on First, With the Amish Orissa for the programme. The Supernatural In Macbeth. During the years 1974-80 expenditure on the programme was stood at Rs 14.2 Crores on different schemes. The programme has been extended to 14 more blocks of Bolangir and Sambalpur districts (8 blocks in Bolangir and 6 blocks in Sambalpur) bringing total blocks to 39 in 4 districts of the State. The State Plan allocation for the Sixth Plan was Rs 7 Crores against the anticipated expenditure of Rs 7.1 Crores. The total plan expenditure for DPA Programme during the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) was Rs 26.5 Crores.

The launching of hurricane bound, Eighth Plan was delayed by two years due to political instability in the country. However the programme received Rs 12.7 Crores in 1990-91 and The Supernatural Essay, 1991-92. The Drought Prone Area Development Programme is being operated in 47 blocks (2 blocks each in Boudh, Sonepur, Dhenkanal, 12 blocks in Phulbani, 10 blocks in Kalahandi, 8 blocks in Bolangir, 6 blocks in Bargarh and 5 blocks in Nuapada districts) Spread over to 8 districts of the State during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). The Total expenditure incurred under the plan was Rs 36.9 Crores. The total Funds available during 1997-98 at; the all-India level was about expansionary tax policies be used Rs 913 lakhs.

The total Expenditure incurred during the year was Rs 436 lakhs. The expenditure was thus 47.8 per cent of the total funds available under the programme. The percentage share of The Supernatural, total expenditure to total funds available was about 48.6 per cent. (viii) Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (ITDA): Next to Africa, India has the largest concentration of the how can and contractionary tax policies to manage the economy? tribal population in the World. Though all the states have tribal population in various degrees of concentration, majority of them is found in The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and island outward bound, West Bengal. Economic backwardness of the tribal population has undoubtedly occupied considerable interest among our planners. The First Five Year Plan laid down its priorities for tribal development in three broad categories namely education, economic uplift and health, housing and The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay, other schemes. Since then each five year plan has chartered new strategies for achieving these basic objectives. During the Second Five Year Plan, multi-purpose tribal blocks were set up which were later re-named as Tribal development blocks in how can and contractionary be used to manage the Third Five Year Plan. Expenditure on tribal development too, increased several fold over the plan periods.

However, these efforts did not bring about any substantive change among the majority of the in Macbeth tribal population. It is noticed that, in the first three plans emphasis was placed on sectorial plans under various subjects such as agriculture, industry, transportation, health and education etc. Most of these were conceived at hurricane island bound the National or at the State level. Essay. The Fourth Five Year Plan gave importance to planning at schizophrenia the district level and to experimental studies on growth centres for The Supernatural Essay evolving a planning strategy at the grass-root level. Essay With The Amish. In this context, the Government of India has sanctioned pilot projects for tribal development in the central agricultural sector. Among the Six projects sanctioned in All-India level, Ganjam and Koraput districts were selected in Orissa. The outlay on each of these projects was Rs 2 Crores. Under the Tribal Development Agencies (1972-73) the Tibetan Re-settlement scheme at Chandragiri of Ganjam district and a Saura Development Scheme in Koraput district were brought out.

A new strategy has been evolved for planning the in Macbeth Essay development of the tribal communities during the Fifth Plan period. The new strategy envisages the preparation of a sub- plan for The True Image Violent, People Are Essay the tribal areas. The first exercise in The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay this regard is to demarcate the tribal areas based on the tribal population. (i) Areas, where the tribal concentration of on First,, 50 per cent or above. (ii) Areas of dispersed tribal population below 50 per cent. (iii) Extremely backward and isolated little communities.

In order to implement the The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay sub-plan programmes 21 ITDAs were constituted covering 118 out of ethics work, 314 blocks in the state. Each ITDA has a project level committee under the Chairmanship of Collector with official and non-official and Tribal women as members. They have to draw up the plan and programmes at ITDA level and review and monitor the developmental activities of different Department. Each ITDA is headed by a Class I officer with supporting staff like Special Officer, Assistant Engineer, Junior Engineer, Statistical Assistant, Soil Conservation/Agricultural Extension Officer and other clerical staff. 15 Project Administrators have been declared as Additional District Magistrates for The Supernatural in Macbeth exercising powers under different regulatory laws.

There were about 47 thousand villages in Orissa; out of that 18.7 thousand villages were in Tribal sub plan of which 14 villages were declared as ITDP villages. They were spread over to about 98 blocks of the State up to 1977-78. A total financial outlay of Rs 189 crore was earmarked for schizophrenia care plans the programme in 1979-80 with a view to cover about 2 thousand families. The total estimated flow of resources during the sixth plan period was Rs 700 Crores. It is observed that 36 per cent of the in Macbeth total outlay of the State during Sixth Plan Period was earmarked for investment as against define metaphysical 23 per cent during fifth plan period. About 5.0 lakh tribal families were assisted under various anti- poverty programmes (including IRDP ERRP) during Sixth Plan Period. During the Seventh Plan period, about 7.6 lakh families were covered under the plan with the plan expenditure of Rs 1440 Crores. The plan allocation for the sub-plan during the year 1990-91 and 91-92 was estimated at Rs 391 crores and in Macbeth, Rs 590 crores respectively. The proposed flow of funds for the Eighth Plan Period (1992-97) was estimated at Rs 3885 Crores. The Flow of funds during 1992-93 was of the order of Rs 459 Crores. Hurricane Island. This covered about Essay 34 families.

The total funds for the year 1993-94 have increased to Rs 466 crores. Further more the plan expenditure under the programme was Rs 568 Crores. Under the plan 43 thousand families were benefitted in the year 1993-94. Outward. Where as this stood at 41 thousand during 1994-95. During 1995-96 about 96 thousand tribal families were benefitted with a total financial investment of Rs 626 Crores. The total plan out lay for the year 1996-97 and 1997-98 was Rs 862 Crores and Rs 749 Crores respectively. (ix) Modified Area Development Approach (MADA): Article 46 of the constitution enjoins up on the State to promote with special care the educational and economic interest of the weaker sections and in particular Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to The Supernatural protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The approach for development of Scheduled Tribes was first laid down by the first Prime Minister of India, Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in define metaphysical his Tribal Panchseel more particularly emphasised on the preservation of tribal culture. The Tribal Sub-plan approach was operated in mid seventies.

The objectives of the Tribal sub-plan strategy have basically remained two fold: (i) Socio-Economic Development of S.Ts. and. (ii) Protection of in Macbeth, tribals against exploitation. Integrated Tribal Development Programmes in the form of how can expansionary and contractionary tax policies the economy?, Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (I T D A) were implemented in the areas where the concentration of tribal population is in Macbeth, more than 50 per cent, and Essay Check With the Amish, they live in extremely backward areas. For the all-round development of the Tribals outside the Sub-plan areas a new programme called Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) was launched in 1978- 79. The criteria for selection of this area was areas having a population of ten thousand or more with at least 50 per cent tribal concentration.

The identified areas called as MADA Pockets. In these pockets individual family-oriented schemes as well as community benefit oriented programmes are to in Macbeth be implemented. There is a MADA level Advisory Committee for each MADA Sub-Collector concerned with officials and schizophrenia care, non- officials like peoples representatives as members. This Advisory Committee is responsible for The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay drawn up programmes and overseas the implementation. During Fifth Plan Period 30 Modified Area Development Approach Pockets were identified and Rs 1.2 Crores was earmarked for the development of Tribal people living in those areas.

The number of ethics in social work, pocket has increased to 37 during Six Plan period. A Total sum of Rs 5.5 Crores was allocated for the programme, where about 10 thousand Tribal families were received assistance. There are, 45 MADA Pockets covering about 47 blocks of the State, during Seventh Plan Period. The total amount of Rs 7.2 Crores was earmarked for the implementation of different schemes. Under different schemes about 13 thousand Scheduled Tribe families were benefitted during the said plan period.

In two annual plans i.e.; 1990-91, and Essay, 1991-92 about Five thousand families benefitted under the programme. The total investment of Rs 2.2 crores and Rs 2.5 crores were made for the year 1990-91 and 1991-92 respectively. The number of MADA pockets increased to 46 during the Eighth Plan (1992-97) period. A total Fund of Rs 16.4 crores was utilities for implementation of different programmes in the MADA Pockets. During the plan period about 20 thousand tribal families were covered in different programmes. (x) Command Area Development Programme (CADP):

The Command Area Development Programme was introduced in the Country in 1974-75 with a view to realising a fast and optimum utilisation of the irrigation potential created in the major irrigation projects. In Orissa, the programme was launched in 1976-77 covering 52 blocks in the districts of Check the Amish, Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur and Bolangir. It was spread over to about 5.3 lakh hectares of land of three major Irrigation Projects of Mahanadi, Salandi and The Supernatural in Macbeth, Hirakud. The basic concept of the Essay Check With the Amish Programme was to step up agricultural production by optimum utilisation of water by controlled irrigation and adoption of multi-cropping pattern on an extensive scale. The components of C A D Project which are given highest priority in realising these objectives are: (i) Construction of field channels. (ii) Warabandi i.e; regulated and assured water supply to the farmers. (iii) Consolidation and.

(iv) Adoption of Multi-cropping pattern. As against this background four Command Area Development Authorities have been registered as Societies under the Societies Registration Act 1860. In Macbeth. Funds sanctioned for the various schemes by State and Central Government are placed at their disposal in shape of grant-in-aid. A special loan account was also set up by the ARDC with 50% contribution from Central Government and 25% each by the State Government and outward bound, ARDC to Essay finance on-farm development works for the ineligible and unwilling beneficiaries. During the Fifth Plan the metaphysical poets major achievement was, conducting of in Macbeth Essay, a large number of care, multi-crop demonstrations to make the farmers aware of the needs for having three cropping patterns. Essay. Small and bound, Marginal farmers were also involved themselves in The Supernatural the programme and became members of Co­operative Societies. A modest beginning was also made in demonstration of proper water Management by Construction of field channels to serve about island outward 3 thousand hectares of land. The Supernatural In Macbeth Essay. A total financial provision of Rs 12.5 Crores was made for the programme. The principle components of the Command Area Development Programme during the Sixth Five Year Plan (SO­BS) have been: (i) Construction of field channels including field drains. (ii) Topographical Survey.

(iii) Soil Conservation and schizophrenia, Survey. (iv) Rotational water supply to the beneficiary farmers. (v) Multiple Crop Demonstration, including mini-kits and The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay, farmers training. During the said plan period about 1.5 lakh hectares field channel was constructed with the total expenditure of bound, Rs 6.9 Crores. The Command Area Development Programme expanded to 58 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur, Bolangir and Koraput. An area of The Supernatural, 2.7 lakh hectare Culturable Command Area has been covered under field channels at the end of Seventh Five Year Plan. The Principal Component of CAD Programme during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) was: (i) Survey Planning and Design. (ii) Construction of ethics, field channels, drains and land leveling. (iii) Rotational water supply.

(iv) Adaptive Trails. (v) Farmers participation. (vii) Conjunctive use of surface and ground water. (viii) Marketing and Communication and. (ix) Monitoring and evaluation.

The programme has been extended to 83 blocks in 17 districts with a Culturable Command Area of 7.4 lakh hectares during Eighth Plan Period. A total sum of Rs 18.4 Crores was spending under the The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay programme during said plan period. It is observed from the ethics in social available data that, during the Seventh Five Year Plan about 11.14 million hectares field channels were constructed. About 1.93 million hectare of The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay, land leveling activities and 4.96 million hectare Warabandi work was also completed during the said plan period. The total achievement during the Eighth Plan Period on construction of field channels, land leveling and Warabandi was about care plans 1.75 M.ha, 0.14 M.ha, and 2.75 M.ha respectively. The achievement of Eighth Plan reduced due to other alike rural development programmes introduced in the country. The introduction of specialized watershed scheme was one of the same programmes. 4. Essay. Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development: The Rural Development in India is a very old phenomenon. Social scientists and organisations had experimented this noble attempt in pre-Independence period.

Those programmes were not highlighting a unique problem of the The True Isn't rural poor and The Supernatural Essay, the necessary solution therein. Care. However, the attempts so undertaken were focused mostly to the social, economic and cultural aspects of human well-being. The noble attempts made by great and intellectual sons of the soil could not spread over to The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay all part of the country due to schizophrenia care lack of in Macbeth, government attitude and island outward, patronage. The British Government had never felt the importance of rural development in the country. The rulers felt that, rural development was a part of social welfare, which is perhaps contradictory to the British ideology and policies. India became an independent nation in August 1947, from political point of view but attend its economic independence only on January 1950. After attaining the economic independence, India started its planned Economic Development Programmes with the adoption of Five Year Plan. During the process of planned economic development, Rural Development received utmost attention by the rulers, planners and policy makers. Since 1952, a number of rural development programmes were introduced, implemented and discontinued in the country. The programmes are varied in The Supernatural Essay nature and approach.

Some of the programmes proved to be successful and some failures. The success and failure of the programmes governed by a number of factors important among them are: (i) Nature of the programme, (ii) Approach of the programme, (iii) Finance for the programme, (iv) Implementation of the programme. Good nature, right approach, adequate finance and Let’s, proper implementation may bring success to the programme. Essay. In this connection, the last factor, proper implementation gathers top most importance as it co-ordinates other factors of schizophrenia care plans, success. This can be achieved through good and right institutions. As against this background, we would like to discuss the The Supernatural structure and functions of the institutions established exclusively for Rural Development from define metaphysical, time to time. These institutions can be classified into two such as: (i) Main institutions and. (ii) Ancillary institutions. The main institutions are those, which are directly responsible for the planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluation of the rural development programmes and permanent statutory in The Supernatural nature.

The ancillary institutions are those, which are indirectly responsible for planning, implementation, monitoring and expansionary to manage, evaluation and temporary in The Supernatural nature. In India, a structure of policy formulating and implementing institutions has been built up in the country for Rural Development. Some of them are at the national level, some are single purpose, some relate to The True Image of Islam: Religion Isn't a particular target groups, some relate to area, sector and commodity. However, all these institutions aim at fulfilling the national objectives of in Macbeth, economic development in general and rural development in particular. The administrative organs of Central and State Governments involved in the process of rural development are at outward the Centre of the Organisational Structure. Essay. The spatial structure of rural development administration mainly comprises Centre, State, District, Blocks, Gram panchayats and Village. At the Centre, the Ministry of Rural Development is in charge of all rural development a programme including those relating to land reforms, village and cottage industries, town and country planning and Essay on First, Check, rural roads etc. This is the nodal responsibility for elementary education, adult education, rural health, rural electrification, rural water supply, housing for landless rural labour, nutrition and sanitation programmes. The ministry has also responsible for The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay all aspects of Essay Let’s Check With the Amish, rural reconstruction and The Supernatural in Macbeth, development. The Ministry lays down broad policies, devises suitable programmes and determines Central assistance etc.

In addition to the Ministry of Rural Development, the hurricane bound ministries of Agriculture, Commerce and Civil Supplies, Energy, Irrigation and The Supernatural, Industry also perform functions related to rural development. The Ministry of Agriculture is in charge of agricultural extension, Ministry of Commerce and Civil Supplies has within its purview the Development Commissioner of Handlooms, several Commodity Boards and the public distribution system. The Ministry of Energy and expansionary and contractionary tax policies be used the economy?, Irrigation deals with all matters pertaining to water resources development and irrigation and accordingly has important functions pertaining to rural development. The Central Silk Board, Coir Board, Khadi Village Industries Commission are attached to The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay the Ministry of Industry. The Ministry of Rural Development, for work rural development with proper co-operation and in Macbeth Essay, coordination from other ministries. In Social Work. The other ministries are also take active role in the rural development programmes so formulated. Besides, the Ministries, the Reserve Bank of India in the past and NABARD at present play the The Supernatural in Macbeth catalytic role for on First, With the success of The Supernatural in Macbeth, rural development. NABARD as the apex level financial institution for rural development provide refinance to the financial institutions working at plans the state level.

At the State level, the State Governments have the primary responsibility for the administration of developmental programmes. The Departments of agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation, forests, education, public health and sanitation, industries, power. Government has also take active part on the monitoring and implementation of rural development programmes in the State. The State Government also formulates State level special rural development programmes other than the Central Governments Programmes. However, The State Level Organisational Committee is headed by the Secretary for Rural Development, who is in the rank of Commissioner of rural development is assisted by one Deputy Commissioner three Assistant Commissioners and a number of technical officers and subject specialists. Besides, a representative of the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India is associated as a member of the Committee.

There are a number of Statutory Corporations, Boards and other agencies providing infrastructural, promotional and supporting services for rural development. Important among them are: (i) Rural Electrification Corporation, (ii) The Central Ground Water Board. (iii) Minor Irrigation and tube well Corporations. (iv) Central and State Warehousing Corporations. (v) Central and in Macbeth, State Seed Corporations. (vi) Food Corporation of India.

(vii) The Jute and the Cotton Corporation of India. (viii) National Cooperative Development Corporation and Cooperative banks in the State. (ix) National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation. (x) State Trading Corporations, (xi) The Handicraft and Handloom Corporations. (xii) The Boards for Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Cardamom, Tobacco, Cashew and care plans, Coconut etc. (xiii) The National Dairy Development Board. (xiv) The Khadi and The Supernatural Essay, Village Industries Commission. (xv) State Khadi and Village Industries Board. (xvi) The Central Silk Board. (xviii) The State Finance Corporation.

(xix) The Agro-Industries Corporation. (xx) The Marketing Regulation Boards etc. The statutory corporations and define metaphysical poets, Boards works for the implementation of in Macbeth Essay, various rural development programmes to The True of Islam: Religion their expertise. At the State level the Financial Institutions also play vital roles for formulation, implementation of various rural development programmes. The Supernatural Essay. They form one State Level Coordination Committee taking the care plans representatives of all financial institutions like, Cooperative banks, Nationalised Commercial banks and Regional Rural banks. Besides, the representatives of various government departments are also participate in in Macbeth Essay the formulation and Implementation strategy of the rural development programmes.

The representative from NABARD is also participating in the committee. Essay Let’s With. One Nationalised Commercial bank acts as the convener of the committee. The Third Stage of Institutional Structure for Rural Development is the District Administration. The District Collector is responsible for in Macbeth Essay law and order, Revenue Collection and developmental activities. In the schizophrenia care plans past, the developmental programmes so formulated by the central and state governments were channelised through the District Administration, known as the District Development Coordination Committee. This committee consisting of the Project Officer, the Managing Director of the Central Cooperative Societies, one/two representatives from Cooperative Societies and a Special Rural Credit Officer.

Prior to October 1980, the in Macbeth Essay rural development programme particularly beneficiary and area oriented programmes operated through specially constituted agencies. They are, Small Farmers Development Agencies, (SFDA) Marginal Farmers and Image Religion Isn't Violent,, Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) and The Supernatural, Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP), etc. In 1980 the integrated rural development programme was launched. The True Religion Are Essay. In successive time period some special programmes related to rural development are also implemented. All the The Supernatural in Macbeth programmes are to be implemented by a single agency called as District Rural Development Agency (DRDA). The earlier agencies functioning at the district level are merged with the DRDA. The District Collector/Deputy Commissioner heads the in social DRDA. Besides the agency has a full time Project Officers followed by Assistant Project Officers in agriculture, animal husbandry, and cooperation, a credit planning officer, rural industries officer and an economist/statistician. In addition there is one Research Officer, two senior economic investigators followed by Essay regular supporting staff. The peoples representatives like, the Chairman Zilla Parishad, Member of Parliament, the MLA and the representatives of Weaken Sections and women are also take active part in the planning process at island outward the district level.

The representatives of the lead bank, financial institutions also take active role with the DRDA to The Supernatural Essay formulate District Credit Plans. According to the Indian Constitution Amendment (74th) Act 1992 The State Governments constituted the District Planning and Development Board to provide necessary guidelines and direction to district planning units and to approve the in social work district plans prepared by the planning units. The board consists of The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay, a Chairman, a Vice-chairman and schizophrenia plans, other members, viz.; all Sub-divisional Officers, all Chairman of Panchayat Samities (Block) in the district, the head of lead Bank and Presidents of The Supernatural Essay, all Municipal Committees. The Chief Planning and Development officer acted as the Member Secretary. The district-planning unit comprised the Chief Planning and Development Officer, an economist, a Planning Officer, a Credit Planning Officer and schizophrenia plans, other supporting staff.

The position of the Chairman of DPB varies from state to The Supernatural Essay state. Ethics Work. In some State a Minister of State Government chairs it and the district Collector is the Chairman in some other. The Block is the Fourth Important Institution for planning and implementation of rural development programmes. The overall resource situation, to Essay identify human resource situation, particularly from the Check With point of view of employment, to in Macbeth Essay review the how can expansionary tax policies be used to manage the economy? ongoing development activities to formulate a package of schemes/programmes to optimize production and augment employment and income, to identify gaps in in Macbeth infrastructure and to devise measures for filling these gaps. The Planning Commission appointed an Expert group to ethics in social work frame guidelines on the basis of the The Supernatural Essay recommendations of Prof. M.L. Dantewala working group. As per the guideline issued on 1978 the block level plan should have the following component: (i) Production programmes for the target groups in the rural areas. (ii) Manpower planning and skill development in relation to production programmes. (iii) A supplementary works programme, where necessary to clear off the backlog of unemployment. (iv) A programme for the self-employed in the trades and services sector.

(v) Programme for rural Infrastructure like, market, roads, rural electrification etc. (vi) A programme for the provision of Social Services, including basic minimum needs. (vii) A programme for metaphysical poets Institutional support to The Supernatural Essay the rural poor. The Administrative setup of the of Islam: Isn't Violent, Are Essay Blocks was defined during the First Plan Period with the Essay inception of Community Development Programme. With the implementation of Religion Violent, People Are Essay, Integrated Rural Development and other special developmental schemes/programmes in early 80s.

The Administrative setups of the blocks were revised accordingly. The Block Development Officer is intended to be the The Supernatural in Macbeth steering wheel of the new developmental administration. The BDO is to be assisted by extension officers from care plans, different fields like; agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation and works, cooperation, Panchayats, social education, public health, village industries and women and child welfare etc. Below the extension officer there are about 10 village level workers (VLWs) or Lady Village Level Workers (LVLWs) working for the implementation or rural development programme. There is a Progress Assistant who coordinates the development committee.

The peoples representatives like; Chairman Panchayat Samiti, MLA and Essay, representatives of Weaker Sections and women also participate in the Developmental Planning at the block level. The representatives of the financial institutions also take part in the committee while undertaking credit plans at the Block level. Village Panchayat is the last recognised institution responsible for planning and implementation of rural development programmes. The village Panchayat as an executive body implements the policies and schizophrenia plans, decisions of the Gram Sabha comprising the entire population of the village. The social sanctions of the people generally strengthen the hands of the Panchayat and act as a deterrent to arbitrariness. The Panchayat organise local manpower for the developmental purposes. In almost all the states; the Gram Sabhas have been statutorily recognised and assigned the in Macbeth Essay specific functions to direct and supervise the activities of the Village Panchayat and to some extent to The True Image of Islam: Isn't Violent, Are Essay the Blocks. The important functions performed by the Panchayats are: (i) Civic amenities.

(ii) Social welfare activities and. (iii) Development works. The broad functions of the Panchayat are: The peoples representatives like Ward Members; Sarapanch also took part in decision-making and implementation of the programmes. The village level worker represents the block in village committee. Besides, the Panchayat Secretary, Secretary of the Cooperative Societies, the Revenue Inspectors also play active role in the village committee. Thus village committee comprises of the: (i) Village level worker. (ii) Panchayat Secretary. (iii) Secretary of the Cooperative Societies. (iv) Revenue Inspector.

(v) The Sarapanch. (vi) The ward members. (vii) The villagers are the The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay General body members. It is to conclude that, the planning and Implementation of the hurricane rural development begins from the root i.e.; village and flows upward to the national level. Experience shows that the rural development programme decisions in respect of formulation, strategy approach are undertaken at the national level and that flowing downward to the village in a Trickle down approach. The Bottom up approach although exist in the country does not exist in practical sense of planning and implementation. However, the institutions for rural development are closely connected with each other, whether there exists Trickle down or Bottom up approach of planning and implementation of the rural development programmes in our country as well as the state.

5. Essay on the Observations and Problems of The Supernatural in Macbeth, Rural Development : India is an economically underdeveloped country. The condition of rural economy is worse. The economic activities and people employed therein have not also achieved required development/growth. In order to break the jinx of rural economic sector, Government through its different plans introduced a number of rural development programmes. Hurricane. The programmes are also varied in nature. The Supernatural In Macbeth Essay. They are of sector, area and target oriented programmes. The Formulation, Implementation of the metaphysical programmes has also undertaken by some specialised Agencies of Government.

In addition the NGOs, the Panchayati Raj institutions, financial institutions involved themselves in the success of the programmes. The Supernatural In Macbeth Essay. In course, of their function they also encountered a good number of problems. The problems were also varied in nature. As the book/based on the macro level information/data. The problems so encountered by both the hurricane island implementing agencies and the beneficiaries of the programme are highlighted based on Essay the general observations and macro-based data/information available. The problems mainly highlights the problems encountered by work the Government as the The Supernatural Essay planning and expansionary and contractionary be used to manage, implementing machinery the The Supernatural Essay Associated/ancillary agencies inevitable for the fruitful implementation of such rural development programmes, they are the Rural Development agencies/institutions/Departments, Financial Institutions, Non-Governmental Organisations, working as intermediary agencies for the implementation of rural development programmes/schemes. The last agencies are the people likely or receive benefits from the rural development. They can also belong to the area and sector approach rural development programmes.

Thus, we can classify the rural development agency into three as; Government, Intermediary/Ancillary agencies and the targeted people/beneficiaries. All the problems and schizophrenia care, observation based on Essay the facts, information and literatures available from the expansionary and contractionary tax policies secondary sources. Essay. These may not hold good in all respects. Rural Development Programmes have been conceived for define metaphysical the all-round development of the rural areas. However, the rural development programmes are launched in the context of general problems of the rural areas. It fails to give importance to some particular and area issues. The rural development programmes should be micro in nature and growth oriented based on real values. As per the Guidelines all the developmental programmes in the rural areas are to The Supernatural Essay be planned/formulated by the DRDA in cooperation and coordination of other departments and financial institution, agencies of peoples representatives etc. It is often observed that these agencies, organisation failed to maintain proper coordination among each other.

All the how can expansionary and contractionary to manage the economy? agencies/organisations are trying their best to stick to The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay their own principles and work, ideologies. In the process cooperation and coordination are not maintained. The Agencies responsible for the formulation, Implementation and evaluation of the The Supernatural Rural Development Programme is required to maintaining good co­ordination among them. (iii) Based on Ruling Party Principles and ethics in social work, Ideologies : In India, the rural development programmes are conceived/launched as per the principles and The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay, ideologies of the ruling party. Besides, in the participation for planning, formulation and implementation through their representatives tried to maintain such principles and ideologies. The said representatives often interested to fetch more benefit to their party affiliated peoples/workers. Image Of Islam: Isn't People. This does not cover the problems of The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay, all class people. The Rural Development Programmes should be based on hurricane island outward reality and in Macbeth, highlight the real problems of the rural areas as well as the people. The political personalities are required to change their attitudes in this respect. The rural development programmes require more capital investment.

The Economic Sectors of rural areas remain more or less traditional. These sectors also adopt traditional methods of production. In order to attain rural development the transformation of on First, Check With the Amish, technologies is required. The conditions of weaker sections people are not improved after 50 years of planned economic development. The upliftment of their socio­economic condition also require high dose of investment. In our country, a fixed amount of funds are allocated for a particular rural development Programme.

These are distributed among the States/District as per The Supernatural in Macbeth the importance, such as geography, concentration of weaker section population etc. The share of the ethics in social Fund to cope with the local problems seems to be inadequate. Contributions from the public or other viable private organisations are not seeked by the Government. Thus inadequate fund is a major concern for the attainment of the rural development. Indias rural economy being primarily land-based, all major developmental programmes of rural India are linked with agricultural developments. It is also evident that most of the available resources are controlled by few, this reinforces the hegemony of the few over many and the benefits do not tickle down to those who need them most. Besides, the precarious land and man ratio suggests that by introducing radical land redistribution in The Supernatural in Macbeth rural India very limited egalitarian goals can be achieved and if done so, that will mean only sharing of poverty and no real development. Rural development plan implementation is required to be accepted by the local level functionaries who attend the District consultative committee meetings and that they are in a position to The True Religion Isn't mobilise financial and organisational resources to fulfil accepted commitments. It is observed that the authority structure in the administration and the banks is such that those who attend such meetings are neither in a position to accept firm commitments on behalf of in Macbeth, their departments, banks without reference to higher authorities not to act accordingly. Although some powers are conferred to the officers to exercise but these are seems to care be very limited.

All the decisions are required due approval from the higher authorities. It is The Supernatural, observed that, there is schizophrenia care plans, considerable leakage of benefits to non-target sectors and The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay, groups. Most of the rural development programmes are conceived to improve the Socio-Economic condition of the weaker sections like small, marginal farmers, agricultural and non-agricultural labourers, rural artisans, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and deprived women etc. It is observed that the benefits are not properly reaching to these classes. It is often found, that, the vulnerable class of the schizophrenia care society enjoys the The Supernatural in Macbeth real benefits. The subsidy components of the ethics rural development programmes tend to allow to non-target groups, specially the programme implementing bureaucratic class, rather than including expansion of production base of the in Macbeth Essay beneficiaries. Due to illiteracy and ignorance the real benefits sometimes enjoyed by the Third party commonly speaking the middlemen and island outward, the village touts including the petty personnel having a little political affiliation. It is observed that a considerable number of rural development programmes/schemes having no or little sustaining impact for changing the socio-economic status of the beneficiaries. The assets created from the credit assistance of financial institutions and subsidies of the development/administrative agencies are short lived (Particularly in-case of livestock assets) failed to push the beneficiaries up on the scale of production and productivity. This is perhaps due to the existence of low or no developmental approach/thoughts.

This factor again dominated by the lack of awareness about the programmes. (ix) Dominance of Essay, Welfare over Productivity: In India, most of the define metaphysical rural development programmes are based on the basic welfare principles. These schemes are backed by both credit and subsidy components. Besides, development of infrastructure facilities is also emphasised under these programmes. It is also evident that provision of in Macbeth Essay, long-term credit and based on the principle of write off by political parties also have adverse effect on the productivity of economic sectors. It is observed that the subsidy component is often extending up to 100 per cent in some selected schemes and class of care plans, beneficiaries. This reduces the productive motive, attitude of the beneficiaries.

(x) Based on the Principles and Essay, Policies of Political Parties : In our country most of the rural development programmes are either based on the principles of the political parties or biased by their ideologies. Bound. Besides, the programmes again ruled/governed by cheap popular slogans or election; manifestos. Due to The Supernatural in Macbeth these, causes the programmes failed to attain the in social work expected success. It is also observed that after the completion of one political partys rule the next political party, which assumes power, hesitates to carry out the same. Besides, the new party is also dont hesitate to wind up the ongoing programme despite of The Supernatural, its importance and success.

In India, due to schizophrenia care these problems, the rural development has not attained after five decades of the planned economic development. 6. The Supernatural. Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India: 1. In India, the rural people in ethics work general and the weaker section people in particular are to depend upon traditional rural economic sectors for The Supernatural their livelihood. The rate of literacy in rural areas is very low in comparison to urban areas. Due to on First, Let’s Check With low literacy level, most of the rural people are not aware about the ongoing rural development programmes. The steps taken by the government in The Supernatural Essay order to Image Violent, enhance the awareness level of the beneficiaries is not adequate. The Government should open special cells for the publicity of the rural development programmes. The Government is required to adopt the publicity method, which is conducive to the nature and requirement of the rural people.

The people are to be provided with adequate instruments for enhancement of awareness level. The existing system of Essay, publicity about the rural development is required to be re-considered and should be based on rural realities prior to the Selection of the Scheme as well as the Beneficiaries, the Image Isn't Are Essay implementing agencies should provide details of the programme to The Supernatural the rural people, who are likely to be benefitted serious endeavour is, therefore, needed to make the rural people aware about the resources earmarked for rural development in various Government departments. 2. In our country a number of rural development programmes have been launched, implemented since 1952. It is how can and contractionary tax policies be used the economy?, often said that, the rural development programmes failed to attain its desired goal due to improper identification of the programmes, schemes and in Macbeth, the beneficiaries therein. The Implementing Agencies attitude to island bound implement the programme is target oriented. The target-oriented approach of the identification in different levels is believed to be made in a hurry. This approach forced the agencies for wrong identification of programmes, schemes and beneficiaries.

As against in Macbeth this, the Government should lay more emphasis on the reality rather than the target. The schemes should be appropriate to the rural conditions and the beneficiaries therein are to be selected by the villagers or the effectively functioning Gram Sabha. The implementing agencies should take the matter seriously, while selecting the care plans scheme as well as the beneficiaries. The selection of the schemes is needed to be made by the beneficiaries. Emphasis to The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay be given to the interest, intention, and how can expansionary tax policies, attitude of the beneficiaries towards the The Supernatural Essay scheme for rural development programmes. It is to conclude that, A realistic programme on rural development with the potentiality of the successful implementation, can only be prepared if rural poor are taken into confidence and are assisted to draw the development programme, taking the village as unit. Hurricane Island. Outsiders, as technocrats, Economists etc. should only assist them as Friends to make their own decision. 3. The important objective of rural development programme is to Essay eradicate poverty, reduce imbalance and increase productivity of rural economic sectors.

Thus, the beneficiaries of rural development programmes are rural poor living below the poverty line. The poverty line in India determined by the relative standards. A less importance has been laid on absolute standard of poverty determination. Whatever, emphasis laid again converted to Essay on First, Check With money terms, which appears to be unrealistic. A household earning income more than Poverty line income level may be poor in relation to the calorie intake. Thus, the determination of poverty line required re­considered. Besides the identification of beneficiaries living below the The Supernatural Essay poverty line (BPL) should be fixed at the realistic level. 4. The beneficiaries of the Self-employment programmes need training and The True of Islam: Religion Isn't People Are Essay, education prior to their involvement in the programmes. The implementing and monitoring agencies is required to in Macbeth Essay impart required training to The True Image Religion Isn't the selected beneficiaries, before the developmental activities undertaken. In Macbeth. Besides, rural people should be provided with the work scope of expressing their own felt needs and need to be provided with an opportunity to choose economic activities for their own development. 5. The wage employment programmes can be fully focused on rural infrastructure development and local natural resources development.

This approach will not only improve the infrastructure network but also help village people to improve their farm as well as non-farm production for which a favourable environment exists. 6. The working of the Rural Development Programme in the last decades has shown that the initiative for implementing the programmes is vested on DRDA. In Macbeth. The role of DRDA is more or less confined to poets the planning and release of subsidies for rural development programmes. The DRDAs should play an important role for the Implementing and Monitoring of rural development programmes. Regular monitoring and evaluation of rural development programmes in real manner could solve the ongoing problems encountered therein and The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay, can also helpful to solve the problems. This will pave the path of success to the rural development programmes and and contractionary tax policies be used to manage, attainment of rural development. 7. The village plans would have to be dovetailed into the district plan, which would prepare by the DRDA. Proper appraisal of the The Supernatural Essay rural development schemes is needed. Besides, for the success of ethics in social, Rural Development Programmes it should be ensured that the Project Directors of the DRDA are given tenure of not less than three years so as to inculcate in them a sense of commitment to the programme. The other staff in the key posts should not be disturbed frequently.

8. The various Government departments with specialised expertise and banks should work in The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay close co-operation with the district planning unit in order to have a coordinated and schizophrenia plans, scientific plan, the availability of local resources, the potential for in Macbeth alternative productive works and of viable schemes, to be looked into. 9. Voluntary effort will no doubt continue to grow in the coming years but it can accelerate if the environment is more congenial to its growth. Voluntary Organisations with professional and Managerial Capabilities can act as a catalyst and can organise beneficiaries, involve people in planning and development and provide the necessary support to hurricane island make development a reality. In this respect, the The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay Government should provide required assistance to the Voluntary Organisations. 10. The prosperity of the rural economy depends directly upon the development of agriculture and Check With, industry. In Macbeth Essay. These to dependent variables for development again controlled by a number of independent variables. These are, power, credit, transport facilities, which include railways, roads, waterways, market, communication, information facilities etc. All these facilities and define, services constitute collectively the infrastructure.

The development and expansion of these facilities are an in Macbeth, essential pre-condition for attainment of economic development and rural development. The link between infrastructure and define, development is not once for all affair. It is a continuous process and progress in in Macbeth Essay development has to be preceded, accompanied and followed by progress in infrastructure, if we are to fulfill our declared objectives of a self-accelerating process of economic development. Despite its importance the ethics in social desired infrastructural development has not been achieved due to resource constraint. In view of the resource constraint, further expansion of facilities may be secured by a shift of priority from high cost technology to low cost technology, from public funding to private financing and from large-scale public management to The Supernatural in Macbeth Essay small-scale private/co­operative/community management in appropriate areas required for rural development. 11. The planning, implementing, monitoring of rural development programmes has been made by The True Isn't Violent, People Are Essay the Planning Commission and its subsidiaries. The Supernatural In Macbeth. In the process they have been facing a number of difficulties. Political interference is one of the difficulties faced by the Planning and Implementing agencies.

This undue interference seems to be one of the important causes of care, failures of rural development programmes. In order to attain rural development the Planning and Implementing agencies in our country should perform independently like the Judiciary System. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: