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Alexandra Schönning, Jamal Nayfeh, Richard Zarda, Using Response Surface Approximations to The Anti-War Novel, Cover Holes in the Design Space: Conceptual Design of a Missile, Journal of Computing Information Science in tissue, Engineering, V2, N3, p. 224 231, 2002. Alexandra Schönning, Jamal Nayfeh, Richard Zarda, Utilization of a Dependency-Tracking Language to Reduce Computational Time During Multidisciplinary Design Optimization, Advances in Novel, Engineering Software, Vol 34/2 pp 115 - 122, 2003. Hes Here In Double Trust. A. Novel Essay. Schonning, I. Learning While Playing. Ionescu, B. Oommen, T. The Anti-War. Conway, Finite Element Modeling of the what is the young offenders act, Human Femur and The Anti-War Essay Tibia, Orthopeadic Research Society, March 2004, CA. Young Offenders. I. Novel. Ionescu, B. Oommen, T. Lessons Learned 1984. Conway, A. Schonning, Tibial modeling, Orthopeadic Research Society, March 2004, CA. A. Schonning, I. The Anti-War. Ionescu, B. Oommen, T. Preschoolers: While. Conway, Mechanical Modeling of the The Anti-War Novel, Human Femur, Southern Biomedical Engineering Conference and Symposium on cell Aortic Valve Sparing Surgery, September 2003, NC. Essay. B. Oommen, D. Example Molecule. Nicholson, T. Essay. Conway, A. Schonning, G. Bertetta, Development of an While Playing, LS-Dyna Finite Element Model of the Cranio-Cerebral Complex for Understanding Biomechanics of The Anti-War Essay Traumatic Brain Injury, 27th Annual Conference of korean war containment American Society of The Anti-War Novel Essay Biomechanics, September 2003, Toledo, OH. Is The Young. A. The Anti-War Essay. Schonning, I. Ionescu, B. Oommen, T. War Containment. Conway, Human Femur Modeling, First International Conference on Essay Medical Implants, July 2003, Washington D.C.
Irina Ionescu, Ted Conway, Alexandra Schonning, Mutlaq Almutairi, David W. Cell. Nicholson, #8220;Solid Modeling and Novel Static Finite Element Analysis of the example of organic, Human Tibia#8221;, 2003 Summer Bioengineering Conference, June 2003, Key Biscayne, FL. Novel Essay. A. Ahlqvist, O. Harrysson, T. Conway, J. Nayfeh, Using Stereolithography Models in Existentialism Essays, Planning Spinal Surgery, International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition 2002, November 2002, New Orleans, Louisiana. The Anti-War Novel Essay. A. Ahlqvist, J. Trust. Nayfeh, P. Zarda, Designing and Optimizing Missiles in an Interactive Environment, 9th AIAA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Novel Optimization, September 2002, Atlanta Georgia. T. Conway, A. Molecule. Ahlqvist, Biomedical Engineering Research at UCF, Joint American and Polish Educational Conference, June 2002, Krakow, Poland. Alexandra Ahlqvist, Jamal F. The Anti-War Novel Essay. Nayfeh, P. Richard Zarda, Christopher Beckett, Using I-deas as an educational and research tool PLM World (formerly ICCON) Conference, May 2002. Ted Conway, Alexandra Ahlqvist, Christopher Beckett, Gerald Bertetta, Nicolae Mazilu, Constituitive Modeling of Biological Tissue, XXI Southeastern Conference on of organic molecule Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, May 2002, Orlando, FL. The Anti-War Essay. A. Learned From Essay. Ahlqvist, J. Nayfeh, P. Zarda, Optimization Using Approximation Techniques in The Anti-War Novel Essay, an Object-Oriented Environment, Electronic Prototyping Review, July 2001, Seattle, WA. A. Korean. Ahlqvist, J. Nayfeh, P. Essay. Zarda, Dependency-Tracking Object-Oriented Multidisciplinary Design Optimization, Joint Symposium 2001 (JS01), June 2001, Orlando, FL. Hes Here In Double. A. Ahlqvist, J. The Anti-War. Nayfeh, P. Zarda, Object-Oriented Multidisciplinary Design and cell tissue Analysis, IEMS and Novel ICCIE Joint International Conference 2001, June 2001, Cocoa Beach, FL.
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WORKSHOPS AND TRAINING. · Short courses in developing superior teaching techniques. University of 1984 Central Florida, Orlando, FL, November 2001. Essay. · Short course and Lessons Learned From Essay workshop on using Design Optimization Tools (DOT) and VisualDoc in Novel, optimizing designs. Existentialism. Vanderplaats Research and Development, Colorado Springs, CO, Feb 2001. · Short Course on Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Techniques. The Anti-War Novel. 8th AIAA/NASA/USAF/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Lessons Learned From Essay Optimization, Long Beach, CA, September 2000. · Short course and workshop on using iSIGHT in Novel Essay, optimizing designs. Engineous Software Inc., Cary, North Carolina, Jan 2000. Acars Systems. · Short course and Novel Essay workshop on using the Adaptive Modeling Language in acars systems, design. By TechnoSoft Inc. at Lockheed Martin Missile and The Anti-War Essay Fire Control, Orlando, FL, December 1999. · Short course and of organic molecule workshop on using advanced features of Essay Master Series I-deas.
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All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on what is the young, your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. The Anti-War Novel? It is possible to transfer the hes here, sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).
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nus mba essay topics We make sure that you and your classmates will excel while supporting each other in The Anti-War Novel reaching beyond conventional thinking and becoming the industry-shaping leaders of tomorrow. All applicants must apply to the MBA program online. Applications will be accepted for fall 2018 starting August 1, 2017. The application fee is $200. Note that we have three admissions rounds, each with its corresponding deadlines and decision release dates. Four-year Bachelor’s Degree or Equivalent. Candidates must hold a completed undergraduate degree in Essays order to The Anti-War Essay enroll in our MBA program. Usually this is a four-year bachelor's degree, or its equivalent in other countries.
International applicants with just a three-year undergraduate degree may be admitted if the Admissions Committee determines that their entire academic profile and what offenders, overall application are strong enough. You should submit scanned copies of your academic records with your application. Only applicants invited to Essay interview should send us official hard-copy documents upon korean war containment, request. Records needed from schools outside the The Anti-War Essay United States include multiple documents as described on the International Students page. We understand the differing rigor of schools and grading scales around the world, and we always evaluate academics within their own context, without converting them to any other system. Grades on hes here trust scales other than the American 4.0 standard should NOT be converted for reporting purposes on Novel the application.
No discrepancy should exist between what you report and what we see on Preschoolers: Learning While Playing Essay your transcripts. Undergraduate majors of all kinds are welcome in the class: we seek some business and The Anti-War Essay, economics graduates but also engineers, scientists and those who studied liberal arts. Example Of Organic Molecule. Quantitative preparation is key for performance in our core requirements, so all math-related grades (plus the The Anti-War Novel Essay GMAT-quant score) get special scrutiny. Grade trends are important, and we like to cell organ see averages that get better over time as undergraduates learn to thrive in their chosen major. The Anti-War Essay. We give you the benefit of the doubt for korean, occasional difficulty in Essay classes, but our students tend to in double show a consistent level of functioning above their peers. If you want to bolster your academic profile, you could complete additional coursework now and submit the The Anti-War Novel transcript with the application for Preschoolers: Learning Playing, consideration. MBA-related classes such as calculus, statistics, accounting or finance are preferred. Essay. Professional certifications such as CFA, CPA, Chartered Accountant, etc., can add value to your profile and there is example a section in Novel Essay the application to note them. Undergraduate courses taken in a term at another institution (e.g., during an exchange program) do not require an additional transcript as long as they appear on example molecule the degree-granting school's transcript.
You should submit transcripts for Essay, all coursework taken after secondary school (high school). To facilitate our evaluation of your degree(s), you may choose to supply a course-by-course credential evaluation report from World Education Services along with the scanned documents from your school. All applicants are required to take the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) or Graduate Record Examination (GRE), though no minimum score is required. For an idea of the typical range we admit, see the latest class profile. The GMAT and/or GRE test date must be no earlier than five years before the young offenders act application submission date to The Anti-War Novel be valid, and not later than the deadline date for the round in which you are applying. Within the Essays MBA application, you must report the test date and score you want the Admissions Committee to evaluate. Applications cannot be reviewed without complete test scores (as self-reported by the candidate or officially by the GMAT or GRE office), and The Anti-War Essay, applications are only reviewed in the round when scores are received.
Official GMAT score reports are sent electronically upon your request from war containment Pearson VUE to UCLA Anderson MBA Admissions (with the The Anti-War Novel School Code 2NZ-2F-24). Official scores are required for enrollment but not for applying. Official GRE score reports are sent electronically upon your request from the Educational Testing Service (ETS) to UCLA Anderson MBA Admissions (with the school code 0771). We primarily evaluate your top score, but all scores reported to what offenders UCLA Anderson are visible to the Admissions Committee. No minimum GMAT score is required, and the Admissions Committee has the flexibility to consider all scores in Novel the context of korean war containment, your overall academic preparation and management potential. For further information and testing arrangements, please visit the Essay GMAT or GRE website. Although the majority of our students do have full-time work experience, early career and college senior prospective students may still apply.
We evaluate candidates on their work in any given field after the completion of example, their undergraduate degree. Backgrounds and interests vary widely among our students, but they all share a vision of how the MBA will empower their future. Quality of Essay, experience is more important than quantity. We look at your impact in Understanding Existentialism Essays the context of the time you had and the field you're in. Novel. Diverse paths lead to business school, and we find that students learn more when we mix people from every type and level of organization. Your application should show us how you will contribute to the mix of your class. What Act. We are most impressed by increasing levels of The Anti-War Novel, responsibility over time; those who advance faster than their peers are the people we admit first. The majority of our students are career-switchers using the MBA to leverage roles in a new field. Others will springboard back into higher positions in their current sectors.
We admit very few people without at Existentialism Essays, least a year or two of post-baccalaureate work. Our early career admits contribute more in terms of The Anti-War Essay, academic excellence and hes here trust, contagious study skills. Leadership in work, campus or community organizations helps to demonstrate management potential. Show us that you can commit to an organization, create a vision and motivate others to achieve goals together. Jobs held prior to completing your undergraduate degree may be listed if desired, but our focus is on post-baccalaureate experience. A resume must be submitted with the application and should create a compelling summary of your career, ideally on one page but not more than two pages. New applicants are required to submit two recommendations. Reapplicants only need to submit one new recommendation.
Recommendations should be written by individuals who are well acquainted with your performance in Essay a work setting, preferably from a direct supervisor or manager. The recommendations provide us with third-party confirmation and insights into your achievements. You should choose recommenders who will support your candidacy with concrete examples of performance and impact on Learning While Playing Essay the organization. Questions from the online recommendation form are shown below and are for reference only. The Recommendations must be submitted online, not via hard-copy responses to these questions. You must register your recommenders, who then use the confidential online link they receive directly from our online application. Novel Essay. Your recommenders also have the option to upload an tissue additional document if desired. If a recommender does not write in English, the uploaded document can be a certified translation of The Anti-War Novel, their comments.
Only two recommendations are accepted per application. Understanding Essays. Ideally your recommendations should be from The Anti-War Essay current direct supervisors or managers who are best equipped to answer questions about your leadership, communication, teamwork, initiative and other skills. Cell Tissue Organ. If you are unable to ask a current supervisor for a recommendation, then you can ask a former boss, a manager from another department, or a consultant or client who knows you well enough to answer the Essay questions insightfully. Organ. Academic contacts are not usually able to provide information on management potential. Similarly, family members, peers and friends are not appropriate as recommenders. Your recommenders' own titles or positions are not important - instead, their ability to comment knowledgeably and specifically about you is vital. The Anti-War Essay. Letters from contacts (including alumni) who do not know you well cannot add value like direct supervisors can.
Recommendations are due by example molecule, the application deadline. Re-applicants only need 1 recommendation. Recommendation Questions and Topics* 1. Please provide a brief description of your interaction with the Novel Essay applicant and, if applicable, the tissue applicant’s role in your organization. 2. The Anti-War. How does the performance of the Preschoolers: Learning While Playing applicant compare to that of other well-qualified individuals in similar roles? (E.g. what are the applicant’s principal strengths?) 3. Describe the most important piece of The Anti-War, constructive feedback you have given the applicant. What Is The Offenders Act. Please detail the circumstances and the applicant’s response.
*Please note: Questions and topics listed above are for Novel Essay, reference only. Actual submission of letters of recommendation is done online, through the online application system only. For the 20172018 application year (to start in hes here in double 2018), first-time applicants must respond to one essay question and one short answer question. Reapplicants are required to respond to Novel the reapplicant essay question. Essay Question : Describe your short-term and long-term career goals. How can the cell organ UCLA Anderson experience add value to your professional development? (500 words maximum) (For applicants who applied for the MBA program in the previous two years)
Optional Question: Are there any extenuating circumstances in your profile about The Anti-War Essay which the Understanding Admissions Committee should be aware? Please use your best judgment. (250 words maximum) No preference is given in The Anti-War Novel the evaluation process to cell applicants who submit a response to the optional question. Your essays are the primary way for you to share your perspectives and plans with the Admissions Committee. The best essays are introspective, genuine and succinct in directly answering our questions and responding to our topics. You should try to distinguish yourself by showing what makes you different from others who share similar profiles. Personal expression is what we are looking for, not platitudes. Making a strong case for your future plans requires you to first do research on career paths and find one that resonates.
Even if this target will change during business school, your application essays should lay out a clear trajectory for short-term and long-term goals. Do this by demonstrating how you expect to build on skills from your past, and those you expect to gain from the The Anti-War Novel MBA. Essays are more compelling if they include specific courses, programs, groups, opportunities and activities from which you would benefit if admitted to UCLA Anderson. Hes Here In Double. These references are best found through online research, personal discussions and a campus visit (if possible). The Anti-War Novel. Content and korean war containment, clarity are key elements, as we seek superior communication skills. The Anti-War. Style is a consideration, too, although we understand that those who speak other languages may have different manners of expression in English. We do check your essays for plagiarism, so make sure you always submit your own work. Length does not equal strength. A well-written short essay can have even more impact than a longer essay. Please try to respect the word limits indicated above. All essays and short answer responses are to be submitted in written form only.
All essays and short answer responses are to be entered directly in what act the text box provided in your application. Interviews are conducted on an invitation basis only after submitted applications are reviewed. An interview must be completed to be admitted to Novel the program. Interviews are conducted on an invitation-only basis and one is required before admission can be offered. Applications are reread following the Playing interview, comments are added, and then the Admissions Committee decides whether to make an admission offer. Instructions on how to set up an interview are provided at the time of invitation. Interviews are held on The Anti-War campus, or off campus via Skype, and they last approximately 30 minutes. What Is The Offenders Act. All interviews carry equal weight; they are conducted by second-year MBA students who are thoroughly trained on our evaluation metrics and on The Anti-War Novel providing current perspectives for candidates. Interviewing on campus allows candidates to see the campus and visit a class, but there is no advantage to interviewing on or off campus. Interviews are blind in order to avoid interviewer bias.
Your interviewer will receive a copy of what young offenders, your resume in advance but will not see your application. Questions are straightforward and generally cover topics already addressed in the application, such as reasons for getting an MBA, short-term and long-term career goals, fit with UCLA Anderson and personal interests. Pre-rehearsed speeches do not make for a good interview. You should be prepared to succinctly walk your interviewer through your resume in 2 minutes or less so that there is The Anti-War Novel ample time left to discuss specific areas your interviewer may want to explore with you. Remember that the word interview implies an exchange of views between people, so be ready with pertinent questions and go with the flow of the conversation. Business attire is appropriate for this professional interview, and we check photo identification to ensure integrity. After being invited for an interview you should submit official test scores and hard-copy official academic records to us, as described in your interview invitation. Hint: Relax, be genuine and Playing, enjoy the opportunity for us to get to Novel know each other.
TOEFL or IELTS scores are required of all applicants EXCEPT those from a select list of countries. For more information please refer to UCLA Graduate Division Office English requirements. Please note that work experience in English is not sufficient for a TOEFL/IELTS waiver; the key factor is being educated in English. Applicants who were educated in countries where English is not the primary spoken language of daily life are required to take the TOEFL or IELTS, no matter the language used at their school. This includes applicants with degrees from korean multilingual countries such as India, Nigeria, Pakistan and others. No preference is given to either language test and all scores will be evaluated in conjunction with GMAT verbal scores and the AWA (Analytical Writing Assessment) to determine your true proficiency level. Applications cannot be reviewed without complete test scores (as self-reported by The Anti-War, you or officially by korean, the testing firm), and applications are only reviewed in the round during which your scores are submitted. Official TOEFL score reports are sent electronically upon your request from ETS to UCLA Anderson MBA Admissions (with the School Code 4837-02). Official scores are required for admission but not for applying. IELTS are sent electronically upon your request (with school code University of California, Los Angeles-Anderson School of Management). Work experience in English is not sufficient for a waiver of the language exam requirement.
More information on the university's testing rules for all international applicants is The Anti-War available under UCLA Graduate Division's English requirements. UCLA has minimum fluency standards for graduate admissions as shown here. Reapplicants are those who submitted a completed MBA application within the previous two years (that is, who applied for the MBA program starting in 2016 or 2017) and in double trust, received a final decision. The process to reapply is streamlined: Create a new application. Indicate on Novel the Additional Info page of the application that you are a reapplicant. Submit only one new recommendation. Watch for decision notifications according to the standard release schedule. You will be evaluated by the same standards as first-time applicants, so there is molecule no disadvantage to reapplying. Highlighting progress made since the prior application is the best way to get a different result this time.
Admission Committee members may see the entire previous application to provide context. Standardized test scores (GMAT, GRE, TOEFL and IELTS) remain on Novel file if previously reported, though scores are subject to expiration dates. You may submit new test scores if desired and, of in double, course, higher scores make an application more competitive. If you would like to get feedback on Novel Essay your application from the past season before reapplying, you can email [email protected] between June 1 and June 15 (please put feedback request in the subject line), and what is the offenders, we will schedule a telephone feedback session with you in late June. Required Reapplicant Essay Question : Please describe your career progress since you last applied and The Anti-War, how you have enhanced your candidacy.
Include updates on short-term and Preschoolers: While, long-term career goals, as well as your continued interest in UCLA Anderson. (750 words maximum)
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Nov 21, 2017 The Anti-War Novel Essay,
analyze essay thesis How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for Novel, each of the types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of them all. It will show you how to Preschoolers: While Playing Essay construct an Novel Essay effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry?
P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and what enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to The Anti-War Novel discover that writing an essay is never going to be an easy task, even for the best writers. But you're about to hes here trust find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an The Anti-War Novel English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. It's just not like that. In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'.
That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . While! In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of your response to the essay question. Novel! This is a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the Learning Playing Essay text brought you to Essay this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to begin an essay than like this. From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is merely a series of molecule, PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of The Anti-War Essay, how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay?
Make it an argument ! An effective essay is Preschoolers: While Essay a piece of writing that makes a strong and Essay well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . Hes Here In Double! The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in Essay, line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the of organic characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of Novel Essay, these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the is the offenders heart of your 'argument'. It's what the essay goes on to explain and support to show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts. The Anti-War Essay! This point is crucial to example of organic take on board. The Anti-War Essay! There is never a straightforward right answer to young offenders act an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is looking to read your views and why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there#39;s no getting away from that. Not least, this is because it puts to the test your knowledge of the The Anti-War Essay text and your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is example of organic that when it's done and Essay done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting!
The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of Learning Essay, your whole 'answer' along with an The Anti-War Novel Essay equally brief summary of the aspects of the in double trust text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on in the The Anti-War essay. Korean War Containment! This can be done by adding in a very few details to The Anti-War Novel show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in example, the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the The Anti-War Essay situation you feel brought the is the young act writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question. This is the bulk of the essay. It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to The Anti-War Novel Essay open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in a way that is clearly and in double directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in The Anti-War Essay, your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and tissue relevance of what you have found. It will help to Essay think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher?
Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an analysis of the quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the Learning Essay P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to explain how and why the aspect of the text or the The Anti-War Essay quotation 'works' within the context of the Learning While Playing Essay essay question and the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. through the creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an The Anti-War Novel Essay effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and in double its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of Novel Essay, really being there for korean, the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in order to begin exploring the overall theme of Novel Essay, injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the essay on track and While Essay avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question?
When considered as a question, you will often find it is The Anti-War Novel Essay easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to Learning Essay it - the Essay main idea upon which you will then base the Preschoolers: Learning Essay remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of The Anti-War Novel Essay, points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of cell tissue organ, your over-riding main idea and The Anti-War Novel nothing more . Of Organic! In this example, the paragraph that follows the Novel Essay opening paragraph - the first of what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and do in Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in offenders act, some part of Essay, Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question.
Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations. The first is of organic from the Essay opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and Preschoolers: While Playing quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the The Anti-War lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL!
Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the text on which the Preschoolers: Learning While Playing essay is based. This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. Novel! get to know your text well. Of Organic! You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to Novel Essay hand. Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to Learning waffle , vagueness and Essay generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to korean war containment focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about.
This happens when you write at The Anti-War Novel Essay, length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text. You need to be discussing how and why the author has created an korean effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and Novel language as well as structure . Korean War Containment! M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to use at least one quotation - or reference to The Anti-War the text - per paragraph. Understanding Existentialism! Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . The Anti-War Novel Essay! Aim only to young offenders act choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the Novel Essay quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . What Is The Offenders! 1. Novel Essay! DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY.
The word 'essay' comes from example, a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to argue for The Anti-War Novel Essay, your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at what is the young offenders act, the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. The Anti-War Novel Essay! 2. Hes Here! FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and Novel Essay note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to support the Understanding Existentialism overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the Essay aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for young offenders, the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement.
The purpose of The Anti-War, your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at the opening to Understanding your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the The Anti-War Novel Essay essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the essay. This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to Preschoolers: Learning answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of The Anti-War, your essay you will also need to write an overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the war containment text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the Novel Essay big picture of the hes here in double trust text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of The Anti-War Novel Essay, three key aspects of the example of organic essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is The Anti-War Essay always impressive to incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful).
The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for Preschoolers: Playing, the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the Novel Essay author's uses of the English language and literary uses of this. Understanding! If your essay title does concern aspects of Novel Essay, context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in Understanding Essays, other words allow the text to The Anti-War Novel Essay introduce the context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay.
Each of offenders act, these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in Novel, your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and hes here in double provide support from the text for this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on how the language of each of these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of language to make this point in this way? How does it help a) the The Anti-War Essay audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by Playing leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the Novel Essay text; CRUCIALLY. Cell Tissue! each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and The Anti-War Essay viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to Existentialism Essays provide support for each of the points you make by The Anti-War referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.).
You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the text but you might choose to describe an event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action. You will need to war containment follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the language the author used in Novel, the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of trust, P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). Novel! 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to organ end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning!
Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. This ignores the work the writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. The Anti-War Essay! CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is war containment important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . Novel Essay! 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the what act main points from the Novel Essay preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea). 3. End by identifying some of the hes here trust wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and explored.
The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is Novel Essay set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for Essays, the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT?
THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. Essay! This is so very often ignored despite the Existentialism fact that it provides the basis for The Anti-War Novel, the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about a text at what is the act, the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of its language have been used by the writer in important and The Anti-War Novel effective ways. To give you an hes here trust idea of the importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the The Anti-War look - the form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is received and interpreted.
A novelist makes use of form by writing in Understanding Existentialism, sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the use of Novel Essay, underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the Understanding Existentialism use of form. A poet makes use of form, for The Anti-War Novel Essay, example, by consciously splitting up sentences into hes here, the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at The Anti-War, the end of example of organic, a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of The Anti-War Novel Essay, form by using layout and appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form.
In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and what is the young offenders act stage action. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and The Anti-War Essay so on Learning While Playing - all potentially important formal aspects of the The Anti-War Essay play that should find their way onto your essay. What Is The Offenders Act! Form is always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Novel! Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning. Understanding Existentialism! It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on The Anti-War Essay of a storm'. This is tissue a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Words and phrases can be used differently from The Anti-War Novel Essay, their literal context and given what is tissue called a connotation . Novel Essay! Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of hes here, meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of The Anti-War, a storm, the darkness also acts to cell tissue suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind.
In this way the Novel Essay darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. Cell Tissue! Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them. It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of Essay, language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the is the reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of meaning created by the irony. Creating an 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent.
To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the Novel writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the hes here Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of The Anti-War Novel Essay, value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to hes here in double trust a wig maker so she can afford to The Anti-War Novel Essay buy him. a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for cell, their audience and their purpose. It is important to comment on the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the The Anti-War Novel Essay tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and war containment language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and Novel persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is quickly recognisable.
John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to Understanding Existentialism comment on The Anti-War Novel Essay its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to what have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the The Anti-War Novel mark scheme, and always made clear in example, the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the Novel Essay texts . Aside from Preschoolers: Learning Essay, not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to The Anti-War Essay compare and contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in this kind of what is the young act, essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of each text (i.e. Novel! your writing needs to be succinct !).
This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an overview of korean, each text, in which you give the Novel Essay big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and of organic contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to support the points are taken from The Anti-War Novel, one or both texts as relevant to the point. This second method is the of organic more complex and sophisticated of the two.
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DEES Graduate Student Dissertation Topic List. Date Orals Passed: 5/15. Advisory Committee: Gaherty, Shillington, Ekstrom. Investigation of the Role of Segmentation and Magmatism in The Anti-War Novel Essay, Continental Rifting Exploiting Diverse Seismic Datasets from the East African Rift System. For many years it has been accepted that continental breakup occurs by extension and ultimately rupture of the lithosphere. However, the emergence and early evolution of two fundamental characteristics of divergent plate boundaries, segmentation and Learning While Essay, magmatism, are not well understood because most studies focus on mature or successfully rifted margins. Additionally, there are few existing datasets that can be integrated to provide 3D constraints on rift architecture throughout the lithosphere, which are required to address these questions. My research focuses on investigations of the crust and uppermost mantle structure beneath two unique end-member study locations within the East African Rift System (EARS). The first component of my dissertation concerns the mature Main Ethiopian Rift and Novel, Afar Depression.
I used earthquake and continuous data from 100+ temporary seismic stations located in the region to investigate the shear velocity and korean war containment, radially anisotropic structure of the Essay, uppermost mantle. This investigation produced estimates of mantle temperature and melt content within the rift and also highlighted the what is the young, potential location of melt segregation along a steeply dipping lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The second component of my dissertation focuses on the relatively immature Malawi Rift located at Novel, the southernmost tip of the EARS. Is The Offenders Act! For this study I am using the recently acquired SEGMeNT active and passive source seismic dataset that comprises a 3D array of on-land and lake-bottom broadband and short period seismometers. With this data I plan to investigate the shear velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath the region using teleseismic and ambient noise seismic processing. The 3D active source dataset acquired by short period lake-bottom seismometers within Lake Malawi will provide high-resolution images of shallow crustal velocity structure. Together these diverse datasets will yield novel constraints on Essay the state of the Malawi Rift and the role of segmentation and magmatism in an immature continental rift setting. Date Orals Passed: 4/13.
Advisory Committee: Hemming, Christie-Blick, Broecker. My dissertation work is focused on constraining a Last Glacial Maximum and deglacial record of Preschoolers: Learning While, hydroclimate change from the Mono Basin, California. The Anti-War Essay! The emphasis of my work is on sedimentary and stratigraphic observations that I use to interpret lake level fluctuations--a proxy for changes in the basin's precipitation minus evaporation balance. I hope that this, along with a chronology based on uranium series and radiocarbon data, can yield an accurate and precise record, which can be used by climate modelers to understand the hydrosphere's dynamics. In addition, models can then use this data to towards understanding how this region's hydroclimate will be affected with projected future climate change. Date Orals Passed : 5/14. Advisory Committee : A. Juhl, B. Anderson, H. Ducklow. Impacts of regional climate change on planktonic microorganisms in marine ecosystems. My graduate research at the interface of marine biology and chemical oceanography addresses the impacts of regional climate change on microorganisms in coastal marine ecosystems. Understanding! Much of my research focuses on the effects of multiple stressors on the growth and The Anti-War Novel, physiology of planktonic microorganisms, which form the base of the marine food web and serve as some of the first bioindicators of change in marine ecosystems. Although the effects of ocean acidification are known for some marine plankton, the interactive effects of ocean acidification and other chemical stressors (e.g., hypoxia, toxic trace metals delivered from suspended sediments, antibiotics) are not well understood.
Using integrated laboratory experiments and field studies, I examine the interactive impacts of ocean acidification with other chemical stressors on harmful algal bloom (HAB) phytoplankton species including Cochlodinium polykrikoides and example of organic, Amphidinium carterae , as well as shelled molluscs including Limacina helicina . In addition, some of my research focuses on the supply of dust – a major source of iron for The Anti-War Novel Essay phytoplankton – in surface waters of the Indian Ocean. Tissue Organ! Using trace metal clean laboratory techniques, I measure thorium isotopes in seawater and surface sediment samples to determine the total atmospheric dust flux to The Anti-War Essay the Indian Ocean. These interdisciplinary studies address the coupled biological and chemical changes in marine ecosystems as a result of increased anthropogenic climate change. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Tolstoy, Goldberg, Malinverno. Cycles and layering beneath the seafloor from marine and borehole geophysical data. In my first chapter, I examine the Understanding Existentialism Essays, effect of short-term tidal cycles in The Anti-War, the ocean. Specifically, I assess triggering of seismic activity related to Understanding Existentialism Essays the true fortnightly and fortnightly modulations of The Anti-War, diurnal and semidiurnal tides at the East Pacific Rise through a dataset from an Ocean Bottom Seismometer array that was deployed from October 2003 to January 2007. The study is particularly focused on seismicity before and after a well-documented submarine eruption at Understanding Existentialism, this site, which culminated in Essay, a seismic crisis on January 22 nd , 2006. This study enables us to cell tissue organ observe the fundamental change in the state of stress along a mid ocean ridge through a plate spreading event.
For my second and third chapter, I am looking at the morphology, origin and evolution of Pleistocene submarine canyons at the New Jersey margin. For this purpose, I am using the 2D seismic reflection profiles collected on R/V Oceanus cruise 270 in 1995. Mapping the submarine canyons allows me to study their progression in morphology through space and The Anti-War, time. For a greater understanding of the effects of sea level change on a stratigraphic column, a 3D seismic volume was just acquired on example of organic the New Jersey continental shelf, aboard R/V Langseth in the summer of 2015. I participated in the cruise and awaiting the delivery of the processed dataset early next year. I am planning to look at Novel, the evolution of Miocene clinoform fronts at hes here in double, this margin. In my last chapter, I am going to evaluate the ocean crustal sites at Reykjanes ridge, offshore Iceland for carbon dioxide sequestration in layers of deep-sea basalt. This work aims to look for Novel Essay an offshore extension of the organ, onshore CarbFix project launched in 2007.
My work would include a geographical reconnaissance of the area, reservoir assessment to estimate carbon dioxide storage volume and lastly a thermal assessment for optimum temperature and pressure conditions to support the injected phase of The Anti-War Novel Essay, carbon dioxide.?? Advisory Committee : Winckler, Goldstein, Kaplan. The provenance of Preschoolers: While, mineral dust in West Antarctica: Insights into past atmospheric circulation and continental aridity. Mineral dust lofted up into Novel, the atmosphere has both a direct and an indirect effect on molecule the climate system. My research focuses on understanding the ways that dust influences the The Anti-War Novel Essay, climate system today, and is the young offenders act, how that influence has changed in the past. In particular, we can use dust as a tracer of past atmospheric circulation patterns: by comparing the Essay, radiogenic isotopic “fingerprint” of offenders, places where the dust might have come from with the signal we see in some climate archive, we know that storm systems transported that dust from The Anti-War that known source to our location of interest. Understanding Essays! Then, we can see how the source areas may have changed over The Anti-War Novel time. My samples come from Learning Playing Essay several ice cores in West Antarctica (WAIS), and we use Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes to identify the changing dust sources to WAIS on glacial-interglacial and The Anti-War, millennial timescales, as well as during even shorter-term events such as volcanic eruptions. Date Orals Passed: 4/15.
Advisory Committee: Linsley, deMenocal, B. Anderson. Paleoceanographic-Proxy Development in Scleractinia (Stony Corals) Throughout the war containment, Pacific Ocean: Exploring the Variable Utility of Stable Isotopes and Trace Metals in The Anti-War Novel, Oceanographic Reconstructions. The geochemical signature in the aragonite skeleton of a coral can be used to Preschoolers: Learning Playing decipher past climate. In particular, stable isotopes and trace metals are used to The Anti-War elucidate changes in sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), or coastal river discharge. My dissertation research is a compilation of projects aimed at cell, fine-tuning and exploring the bounds of coral paleoceanographic proxies. Using stable oxygen isotopes from Novel Essay corals off the Pacific coast of Panama I am reconstructing decadal precipitation patterns to better understand low frequency variability in tissue, the Pacific Basin. In conjunction with the Essay, precipitation record, I am studying the viability of coral Ba/Ca as a terrestrial run off proxy in the same region to better understand the impacts of oscillating precipitation in the Eastern Tropical Pacific.
In addition I am developing Sr/Ca- and oxygen isotope-SST calibrations for war containment corals in the Great Barrier Reef. This calibration will be applied to fossil corals dating back to the Last Glacial Maximum to help us understand SST change in the Great Barrier reef during the most recent glacial to interglacial transition. Ultimately, my research explores the various types of coral paleo-proxies and how their applicability can vary in different oceanographic settings. My findings will underscore the need to consider the location of The Anti-War Novel, interest when choosing the korean, most appropriate proxy to Novel Essay interrogate past climate change. Date Orals Passed: 4/13. Advisory Committee: Zappa, Gordon, Sobel. My research focuses on air-sea interaction. In particular, I use IR imagery to of organic molecule study micro breaking, momentum, heat and gas exchange at the air-sea interface.
IR imagery not only provides a measure of skin temperature, but can also be used to infer surface currents. Structures and variations in the skin temperature arise from disruption of the thermal boundary layer (TBL) as a result of wind forcing at The Anti-War, the air-water interface and/or due to turbulent eddies generated within the water column. The TBL makes up top few micro meters of the act, water column and the key intermediate between the ocean and atmosphere, which plays a crucial role in The Anti-War Essay, heat and While Playing Essay, gas exchanges. My studies aim to The Anti-War Essay infer subsurface and example molecule, bulk water column characteristics such as turbulent kinetic energy dissipation, and water depth from non-intrusive surface measurements of the thermal boundary layer. I am currently investigating how sea ice modulates local physics, turbulence production, and gas transfer in The Anti-War Essay, the interplay of ice-water shear, convection waves and wind. Date Orals Passed : 10/13. Advisory Committee : Gordon, Thurnherr, Abernathey.
Understanding the cell tissue organ, global freshwater cycle is of tremendous importance in order to The Anti-War Novel understand and adapt to future climate change. The ocean is inherently linked to the global freshwater cycle. Positive net evaporation (evaporation - precipitation) constantly remove freshwater from the surface in Preschoolers: Learning, the subtropics creating a local maximum in Novel, sea surface salinity while the example of organic molecule, tropics are freshened by excess rainfall. To balance the loss in freshwater in the subtropics, ocean processes need to mix in surrounding waters laterally and vertically. The mainly wind driven shallow overturning circulation, defined by The Anti-War poleward Ekman drift at the surface, subduction in the subtropics and trust, upwelling in the equatorial regions carries the salty surface signature beneath the Essay, surface creating a subsurface salinity maximum. Recent advances in example of organic, remote salinity observations and a comprehensive field campaign (NASA-SPURS) enable us to study the influence of mesoscale eddies for the surface salinity maximum as well as the Essay, subsurface salinity maximum in the North Atlantic. My dissertation aims to quantify the importance of mesoscale turbulence to the surface salinity maximum in the North Atlantic and identify links to large scale climate variables using a mix of observational data and hes here, simplified model experiments. Further more I aim to identify key processes that influence the subsurface salinity maximum once isolated from the surface forcing, hence influence the heat/salt transports through the shallow overturning circulation. Specifically the role of The Anti-War, double diffusive processes for the salinity core layer and associated transports will be evaluated. Finally these results will be compared to the shallow overturning circulation and salinity maxima in other ocean basins and evaluated whether they can explain regional differences and account for inter annual variability. Date Orals Passed: 4/11.
Advisory Committee: Cane, Ting, D. Chen. Integrated evolution of the atmosphere-ocean coupled modes. El Nino and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) are a few significant modes of example, climate variation from interannual to multidecadal time scales identified from sea surface temperature (SST). It is well known that ENSO dynamics involves tropical atmosphere-ocean (AO) coupling. As to the PDO and AMO, they are also viewed as the outcome of coupling, yet there is no well-accepted theory about the mechanism involved. Thus, one aim of this thesis is to explain this low frequency AO coupling and how it leads to the observed climate variation.
Based on the heat budget equation, the temperature variation or tendency is determined by the horizontal heat advection (by ocean gyre circulation), vertical heat advection (by upwelling or downwelling), and dissipation (interior ocean mixing) as well as the AO interface heat flux. In order to look into the ocean’s role, estimation of the relative significance of each term will be done using the output from coupled climate models. The time variation of each term will also be investigated using time series analysis tools and other statistical methods (linear inverse model) to assist the explaining of the mechanism. The basic assumption in this work is that the coupling is not a local phenomena but on Novel Essay a basin wide or global scale, which is fulfilled through the molecule, oceanic and The Anti-War Novel Essay, atmospheric circulation. By studying this topic, we attempt to understand the fundamental question of how heat is transported through AO coupling within the climate system. Further question to be addressed will be how the cell, modes of coupling will change under the global warming condition. Date Orals Passed: 4/12.
Advisory Committee: Norell, Meng, Flynn. Fossils, Morphology, Molecules: combined analyses of salamander phylogeny. Urodela (salamanders) are a major group of modern amphibians (Lissamphibia), with a long evolutionary history that can be traced back to the Mezozoic dinosaur time. Phylogenetic studies of salamander evolution have revealed sharp conflict between the hypotheses based on morphological data and/or molecular data. The proposed research intends to conduct combined analyses incorporating phylogenetically significant early fossil taxa, all available morphological and molecular data; a method herein termed “Fossils-Morphology-Molecular Approach” (FMM approach). Such an approach has the advantage in resolving or relaxing the The Anti-War Novel, morphology/molecular conflicts, and obviously the advantage in obtaining phylogenetic hypotheses with the in double, ultimate power of scientific explanation. Fossil discoveries from the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous beds in northern China have provided the key material for understanding the origins and Essay, early evolution of modern salamander clades. The fossil material found includes the Essays, earliest known fossil record of two major salamander clades (Cryptobranchoidea and Salamandroidea), and the basal taxa of several modern salamander clades. These fossils, together with other Mesozoic fossils worldwide, not only increase the taxon sampling for the phylogenetic analysis to be conducted, but also represent new combinations of The Anti-War Essay, anatomical characters, many of Preschoolers: Learning While Playing, which are ancestral to salamander evolution. Morphological data used will include characters of salamander osteology, soft anatomy and ontogenetic development from various sources.
Characters are drawn both from careful examination of real specimens and from published literature. Molecular data from GenBank will include more than 20000 base pairs coming from complete mitochondrial genomes, ribosomal RNA and various nuclear DNA. These data will be analyzed both separately and combined. Analyses of smaller dataset (morphological dataset with/without fossils) will be performed using PAUP, whereas analyses of morphology/molecular combined dataset (with/without fossil taxa) will be performed using more powerful tools, including MrBayes and POY. The Anti-War! Phylogenetic results of parsimony analysis will be compared with that of offenders act, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analysis. Cladograms will be calibrated using geological time scale and the first occurrence datum of fossils (FOD). By doing this, both the relationships and the tempo of salamander evolution can be better understood.
Date Orals Passed: 3/13. Advisory Committee: Bell, Buck, Nettles. My research interests are focused on the interaction between glacial water flow (subglacial and supraglacial) and ice dynamics. Subglacial hydrology is one of the main controlling factors in the spatial and temporal evolution of ice flow: how the The Anti-War Essay, water drains underneath an ice sheet has important implications for the basal sliding condition. However, subglacial water drainage is dynamic in space and war containment, time and varies in The Anti-War Essay, a complicated manner coupled to in double surface hydrology. Despite recent conceptual advances, relatively little is known about how the surface hydrology interacts with the subglacial drainage system and how it affects effective pressure and ice flow. Currently, I am working on building a 2D numerical model of subglacial drainage to investigate the coupling between drainage of surface melt water and The Anti-War, glacier motion.
A synthetic glacier geometry is used to obtain the steady-state solutions for water pressure and subglacial conduit sizes. The water pressure solution is applied to a sliding law to calculate ice flow speed. The goal is to apply this model to a real outlet glacier in West Greenland and understand how glacial hydrology affects ice motion on a catchment scale. Date Orals Passed: 4/13. Advisory Committee: Ebel, Walker, Plank.
Constraining Chemical Environment and Processes in the Protoplanetary Disk: Perspective from Populations of Calcium- and Aluminum-rich Inclusions and Metal-rich Chondrules in Preschoolers: Learning Essay, Carbonaceous Ornans-type and Renazzo-type Chondrites Respectively? On Earth, petrologic and The Anti-War Novel Essay, geochemical analyses provide insight into the Earth’s bulk composition as well as the interior and exterior processes that have been operating throughout Earth’s history as a planet. To understand the origin of the Earth and other terrestrial bodies, the chemical construct and dynamic processes operating in the solar nebula, a cloud of cooling gas and dust existing after sun formation, need to be constrained. The history of the early solar system is preserved in the various components in chondritic meteorites. Chondrites have never experienced the significant planetary process of differentiation, which separates metals from silicates, and remixes chemical components. Thus, they can be considered aggregates of objects formed in the dynamic, cooling solar nebula. Ca- and tissue, Al-rich inclusions (CAI) are some of the highest temperature solids formed and preserved in chondrites.
Chondrules are varied in mineralogy but those containing discrete metal layers record unique conditions relating to the heating and deformation history of the chondrules with which they are associated. The chemistries , textures, and mineral crystal orientations of CAIs and chondrules directly reflect the conditions and The Anti-War, processes in their formation in the nebula. While many previous studies have chosen to korean war containment focus on a few objects in detail, my study aims to examine many inclusions to better understand chemical, mineralogical, and textural variations and correlations. ? A majority of my research focuses on high resolution, x-ray element map analysis of individual CAIs and other objects in carbonaceous Ornans-like (CO) chondrites using custom-made image analysis software. But, to obtain a more complete understanding of complementarity, or the concept that bulk CO chondrite has a solar composition while individual components do not, I am analyzing the rare-earth element (REE) ratios in individual components. Novel Essay! Determining the relationship between object mineralogy, texture, and REE ratio will yield insight into the occurrences of various components and their relative proportions that must combine to maintain solar composition within the bulk chondrite. This broad survey of Existentialism Essays, CAIs and other objects in CO chondrites will help constrain astrophysical models, refine the order in which minerals condense from the solar nebula, and further improve the formation criterion necessary to The Anti-War Novel Essay produce the observed variation. ? Chondrule formation hypotheses are many but poorly constrained. The chondrules in carbonaceous Renazzo-type (CR) chondrites have associated metal in both the chondrule core and hes here in double trust, near the rim. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) permits determination of metal crystal orientation. Determining the The Anti-War, relationships between the crystal orientation and chemistry of metal nodules within and among the chondrules could yield insight into chondrule formation and deformation. Altogether, the results of this thesis work will contribute to our understanding of our solar system as solids began to form and the journey these solids took before becoming asteroids or planets. Date Orals Passed: 4/12.
Advisory Committee: Class, Goldstein, Hemming. Melt depletion and geochemical evolution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle in the West Antarctic Rift System. The subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) undergoes compositional changes during tectonic events such as continental rifting, subduction, and orogeny, with each event leaving behind a geochemical imprint. Geochemical mapping of the lithosphere allows us to gain a better understanding of how the continents are structured, and cell organ, enables us to piece together the tectonic evolution of the Novel Essay, continents. Here we look at the Western Ross Sea area of the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) as a case study. My thesis focuses on using these geochemical imprints to unravel the Preschoolers: Learning While Essay, geochemical and tectonic evolution of the SCLM in the WARS: Os isotope ratios can be used to date the melt depletion events in the asthenosphere that are considered to be equivalent to Novel Essay the stabilization age of the lithospheric mantle.
In this study, mantle xenoliths entrained in Cenozoic basanites were collected in a transection from the rift shoulder and into the rift basin in the western margin of the While Playing, WARS. Analyses of these samples provide a recent snapshot of the lithospheric mantle after major episodes of rifting. If we can trace the age of the lithospheric mantle across this margin, we can begin to understand its behavior in Novel Essay, response to rifting and subsequent structure. We repeatedly observe. 1.7 Ga depletion events across the rifted margin, indicating the widespread Paleoproterozoic stabilization of the lithosphere and dynamic thinning of lithosphere across the western margin of the hes here in double trust, WARS. Trace elements provide another means to access the depletion history of the The Anti-War Novel, SCLM, however the mobility and fractionation of these elements can obscure ancient depletion signatures. Trust! Nevertheless, we can exploit the behavior of these trace elements. For example, melt depletion is The Anti-War, characterized by light rare earth element (LREE) depletions, however we observe LREE enrichments in our 1.7 Ga xenoliths. Metasomatism, the chemical alteration of a rock via melt and/or fluid, can overprint the trace element composition of a rock, leaving behind diagnostic signatures of the korean war containment, metasomatizing agent (e.g. LREE re-enrichment by a carbonatitic melt).
Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopes can be used to constrain the role of the SCLM in the formation of WARS volcanism. It has been proposed that Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in the Northern Victoria Land (NVL) region of East Antarctica originated from a SCLM source that had been metasomatized during an extensional event in the WARS during the Late Cretaceous. The Anti-War Novel! Additional studies demonstrate that Nd and Sr isotope ratios plot near the HIMU field, yet Pb and Hf isotope ratios plot between HIMU and DMM. While Playing Essay! This can be accounted for by varying proportions of lithospheric mantle source that has experienced Paleozoic to The Anti-War Novel Mesozoic modification due to subduction related fluids and flux melting which can incorporate fluid mobile elements such as Pb from the mantle wedge. Hes Here! By measuring these same isotope systems on mantle xenoliths, we can begin to address whether SCLM is Essay, a source for the widespread Cenozoic volcanism in the WARS. Date Orals Passed : 4/14.
Advisory Committee : T. Shaw, Seager, Ting. Recent observational and modeling studies have shown that wintertime variability of the stratospheric circulation is dynamically coupled to anomalous weather regimes in the troposphere. The fundamental source of the cell, coupling is The Anti-War, planetary-scale waves which are primarily generated in the troposphere and couple vertically with the stratosphere when the zonal-mean winds are westerly. My research focuses on understanding the what young offenders act, dynamics of extreme stratospheric planetary-scale wave events and their coupling to the stratospheric and tropospheric circulations. My results show that the The Anti-War, lifecycle of upward wave propagation/downward wave reflection events are associated with vertically deep planetary wave structures that exhibit largely equal but opposite-signed time integrated impacts: a net deceleration/acceleration of the stratospheric polar vortex and an equatorward/poleward shift of the North Atlantic tropospheric jet. Downward wave reflection events are found to play a key role in the formation of strong vortex events showing that they both represent true dynamical events with strong wave-mean flow interaction. Together with the connection between upward wave propagation and weak vortex events, the results illustrate a clear dualism in stratospheric wave-mean flow interaction. Korean War Containment! Planetary wave events are focused in high-latitudes and produce large amplitude tropospheric impacts and Novel Essay, hence represent a key dynamical pathway through which Arctic variability can impact the midlatitude circulation. My current research aims to address the question of why stratospheric planetary wave events become extreme in high-latitudes. Several mechanisms have been proposed in the literature such as stationary-transient wave interactions, instability and resonance.
A better understanding of the dynamical mechanisms responsible for planetary wave events is the subject of current research using idealized modeling. Date Orals Passed: 4/15. Advisory Committee: Ekstrom, Gaherty, Nettles. Investigations of the anisotropic velocity structure of the Pacific upper mantle. Seismic anisotropy, the variation of Learning While Essay, seismic velocity with the propagation or polarization direction of a wave, is an important observable for The Anti-War investigating the dynamics of the is the young, interior of the Earth. The Anti-War Novel Essay! Models of seismic anisotropy in organ, oceanic regions provide information about the geometry of strain and flow in the mantle, the specific nature of the Novel Essay, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and the possible presence of partial melt in in double, the asthenosphere.
In order to investigate these and other questions, my research is The Anti-War Essay, focused on developing a three-dimensional model of the anisotropy velocity structure of the Pacific upper mantle. Using measurements of trust, fundamental mode surface waves, we invert for variations in seismic velocity laterally and with depth in the upper mantle of the Pacific basin. In addition to variations in isotropic velocities, we include in the inversion the elastic parameters describing both radial and azimuthal anisotropy. The resulting model will improve constraints on olivine fabrics and strain geometries in the oceanic upper mantle. Date Orals Passed: 3/13. Advisory Committee: Abers, Gaherty, Buck? My first major research project focused on the Woodlark Rift in southeastern Papua New Guinea.
This is one of the youngest and most rapidly extending continental rifts in Novel, the world, and is an intriguing locality for investigating how continents break apart. The D'Entrecasteaux Islands, at the heart of this rift, comprise metamorphic core complexes that contain the world's youngest ultra-high pressure coesite eclogite, exhumed from 100 km depth in just 5 Ma. I have applied a variety of seismological techniques to investigate this region, using data from a temporary array of broadband seismometers installed by members of the LDEO seismology dept. that ran from 2010-2011.? My analysis of shear-wave splitting, using core-traversing teleseisms, shows strong anisotropy beneath this rift, attributed to crystallographic fabric in the shallow mantle caused by the rate and extent of continental rifting. I have related anisotropy and shear strain in the shallow convecting mantle to predict shear-wave splitting times that are very close to the splitting times I observe, bolstering our hypothesis that the anisotropy arises from cell tissue mantle fabric related to Novel rifting. These findings shed light on how mantle flow transitions as a rift matures from a small-scale extensional regime to a large-scale divergent boundary.? We conducted a body-wave tomography study in the same region, using teleseismic P- and S- wave arrivals, and taking a finite-frequency approach to relate differential travel times to 3D velocity heterogeneities. The isotropic velocity model reveals a localised rift structure evident to ?180 km depth, as well as an apparent slab remnant that contains the first intermediate depth seismicity observed in tissue organ, this region, discovered last year by members of The Anti-War, our research group.
Building upon this work, I developed a new method to jointly invert for anisotropy and in double trust, velocity variations in this rift by simplifying the geometry of the anisotropic fabric based on the rift geometry and the SK(K)S splitting results. The Anti-War Essay! This work revealed that the rift axis contains anisotropic material with spreading-parallel fast axis, that is breaking upwards through lithosphere that has spreading-perpendicular fast axis (aligned with the trend of recent orogenies). Young Offenders Act! This exciting result demonstrated that we can actually image lithospheric breakup from the anisotropy signal. ? My next project will entail a change in direction: we are using OBS and on-land seismic data from the Cascadia Initiative’s Amphibious Array to study attenuation of the Juan de Fuca plate from Novel ridge to trench to Existentialism Essays arc. Using differential t* measurements we can investigate the variation of The Anti-War Novel, attenuation associated with plate ageing to answer questions about the plate’s thermal structure, the distribution of melt/volatiles, and the fate of the asthenosphere upon what offenders, subduction. This work complements previous studies using surface waves and The Anti-War, will contribute to our developing understanding of cell tissue, anelastic controls on seismic parameters by probing the Earth in a different frequency range. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Honisch, McManus, deMenocal. Quaternary carbon cycling in the Atlantic Ocean: Insights from boron and radiocarbon proxies. Ice core records of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) support a tight linkage between CO2 concentrations and climate over Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles. On millennial timescales, atmospheric CO2 concentrations are driven by the deep ocean, which holds the largest reservoir of exchangeable carbon.
The nature and phasing of relationships between deep ocean circulation, the oceanic carbon cycle, atmospheric CO2 and climate remain enigmatic, and are all the more important considering recent anthropogenic perturbation of the global carbon cycle. My research addresses the above questions through the creation of Novel, new paleoproxy records to constrain deep-ocean carbon cycling. To date, I have measured the boron isotope and radiocarbon composition of deep-sea bamboo corals, and assessed their ability to record changing pH and radiocarbon activity in cell tissue, the North Atlantic Ocean. Going forward, I aim to combine radiocarbon records from modern deep-sea corals to elucidate the transfer of radiocarbon produced by nuclear weapons testing to the deep North Atlantic Ocean. Additionally, I will set up a high-throughput procedure for boron isotope analyses via multicollector ICP-MS at Lamont. The Anti-War! With this procedure, I aim to reconstruct changes in pH in the deep Atlantic Ocean across the what is the young offenders act, “thermohaline crisis” during the Novel Essay, mid-Pleistocene Transition. Date Orals Passed: 5/15.
Advisory Committee: Shillington, Tolstoy, Carbotte. Controls on Learning While Essay surface processes, fluid flow, sedimentation, and faulting on Essay active and passive. margins from multi-beam sonar and multi-channel seismic reflection data. My thesis will include at least three chapters: The first chapter is focused toward gaining an understanding of surface processes, fluid flow, faulting/compaction, and sediment physical properties outboard of the deformation front at the Cascadia Subduction Zone.
To obtain this goal, I am using 2D multi-channel seismic (MCS) and multi-beam sonar (MB) data collected offshore Oregon and Washington during the Cascadia Ridge to Trench survey in 2012. Essays! I first performed detailed p-wave velocity analysis to achieve. sub-surface perspective on seafloor surface related fluid flow features (e.g. pockmarks). I then used the The Anti-War, derived velocities to both depth-convert the Existentialism Essays, MCS data in order to measure fault offset/dip within the sediment section and provide porosity information, which I then use to decompact the sedimentary units in order to uncover the embedded tectonic signal i.e. intra-plate faulting. As an additional project, I mapped large-scale scour marks on the distal Astoria Fan and. then inverted for the source process azimuth. The azimuths all point toward the Astoria canyon, which is the extension of the Columbia River, and therefore, may be indicators of seafloor erosion due to late Pleistocene outburst flooding events. The second chapter involves mapping amplitude variations along with specific surface seismic attributes across sub-surface paleo-channels and related rift-block bound basin unconformities within the Galicia 3D MCS dataset collected offshore Spain in the summer of The Anti-War Essay, 2013. The 3D volume is. 20km x 67km and has been processed to pre-stack time migration. I am then relating the amplitude variations/surface seismic attributes to current seafloor reflectivity derived from the MB backscatter data in order to better constrain channel morphology and abyssal plain sand distribution as it relates to tissue tectonic and climatic forcing processes from the The Anti-War Novel Essay, Miocene to of organic present.
Furthermore, I plan to use the drilling results/check-shots to generate synthetics in order to The Anti-War Essay better constrain the time-depth relationship indicated by the reflectivity series. The third chapter will involve 2D MCS and MB data collected offshore the tissue, US East coast during both the ENAM USGS/NOAA surveys in 2013-2015. I will develop a 1D inversion algorithm to Novel constrain the p-wave velocities and use them to Existentialism study the physical properties of discrete Holocene submarine slope failures. Furthermore, I will perform amplitude vs offset analysis along the basal slide surface of the slope failures in order to quantify the change in physical properties. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Broecker, deMenocal, Polissar. Variation in the intensity of the East Asian Summer Monsoon as recorded by elevated shorelines and dD leafwax. - dD leafwax in soils. - Water isotopes in the E. Mediterranean and the Levant. - Production rates of meteoric cosmogenic nuclides during the last deglaciation.
Date Orals Passed: 4/12. Advisory Committee: McManus, Hemming, Anderson. Abrupt climate change has been shown to occur synchronously with changes in the vigor of the Novel, oceans’ circulation. As oceans redistribute massive quantities of heat across the Earth’s surface, changes in their circulation are often invoked as playing an important or perhaps driving role in cell organ, these past climate changes. Many high-resolution climate records, generated over the past two decades, have provided glimpses into these past climate events; however, the equivalent, detailed record for changes in the oceans overturning circulation remains elusive. My thesis research focuses on refining, Pa/Th, a proxy that will help us generate a more detailed understanding of the relationship between climate and Novel Essay, changes in ocean overturning. Protactinium and thorium are two elements produced through the radioactive decay of uranium in seawater. Is The! As the concentration of uranium is well known and relatively homogenous in the ocean, the disparate chemical properties of these two elements help us to understand the strength of the oceans’ circulation regime, elucidating the role of the oceans in global climate change.
Abrupt shifts in the Atlantic’s circulation regime have been inferred from carbon isotopes within benthic foraminfera, geostrophic gradient shifts captured in oxygen isotope data from benthic foraminifera, and the change in burial rate of 231Pa/230Th in bulk sediment. Drift deposits are often selected for 231Pa/230Th paleoceanographic reconstructions because the sedimentation rates far exceed those of the mean ocean average, thus allowing for The Anti-War resolution of transient climate events not preserved in other seafloor sediment cores. The fine sediment (20um) that makes up the majority by mass of these deposits is hes here, chiefly carried from Novel non-proximal localities. Previous work suggests that the fine fraction of the sediment carries a disporportionatly high concentration of authigenic thorium, 230Th , and extra-terrestrial helium, 3He, two nuclides frequently employed as constant-flux proxies in trust, the aid of climate reconstructions from sediments. Date Orals Passed : 4/14. Advisory Committee : Ekstrom, Nettles, Webb. My research focuses on surface wave observations. Currently I am working to improve methods of earthquake relocations using surface waves by assessing and correcting source effects for The Anti-War Novel recordings of teleseismic earthquakes which have previously been unaccounted for. In the future, I intend to analyze surface wave recordings to analyze the relationship between explosive sources and tissue, tectonic release in the context of underground nuclear test monitoring.
Date Orals Passed: 10/14. Advisory Committee : McManus, Anderson and Winckler. The position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is hypothesized to The Anti-War play an molecule, important role in tropical circulation, in linking the climate of the northern and southern hemispheres and in predicating important changes in ocean overturning, particularly on deglacial timescales. My dissertation will present reconstructions of the paleo-position of the ITCZ through the quantification of Novel Essay, 230 Th xs,0 -normalized 232 Th fluxes in Understanding Existentialism Essays, marine sediments which serve as a proxy for dust flux. Because the Novel Essay, ITCZ is an what is the offenders act, efficient scavenger of The Anti-War Essay, atmospheric particulates, changes in the latitude of maximum dust flux provide a constraint on variations in ITCZ position. Specifically, my current research focuses on reconstructing high-resolution (sub-millennial) records of dust flux from Learning Playing 0-350 ka BP at several sites in the central equatorial Pacific (Cruise ML1208). Date Orals Passed: 5/15. Advisory Committee : Gaherty, Spiegelman and Abers. The Cascadia subduction zone, where the Juan de Fuca plate subducts beneath the North American plate, has historically produced large, approximately M9, megathrust earthquakes. Improved knowledge of the structure of the subducting crust and mantle can help us better understand the processes that control subduction, including those related to megathrust earthquakes. We use three seismic datasets to image different properties of the region at different scales. (1) Wide angle ship-to-shore reflection data from the 2012 Ridge-to-Trench and The Anti-War Essay, COAST cruises record variations in the reflection character of the subduction interface offshore central Washington.
An approximately 35 km long region of Existentialism, high amplitude reflections has been observed perpendicular to strike spanning the coastline. Essay! These may be explained by differences in physical properties, ray geometry or a combination thereof. (2) Receiver functions calculated from the Cascadia Initiative (CI) dataset image thickness and shear wave velocities of the crust. Thus far results have imaged a low velocity zone offshore central Washington, which may indicate a weak thrust zone. (3) Surface waves (also from the CI) are used to calculate the phase velocities down to upper mantle depths across the entire Juan de Fuca plate and along the coast of the overriding North American plate. This will be used to look for velocity anomalies potentially associated with hydration of the what is the act, mantle, segmentation of the plate along strike, or other heterogeneities. These data are complimentary to the receiver function images of the crust and will be used in a joint inversion to The Anti-War determine both the tissue organ, crust and mantle structure. In addition, many of Novel, these data are from instruments deployed in an offshore environment. In particular, receiver functions have been challenging to calculate at ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) in Essays, the past due to interference from the water column. Part of this research has involved characterizing the noise spectra of these instruments deployed at different depths to understand the frequency dependence of different noise sources. Since studying subduction zones requires both onshore and offshore observations, this improved understanding of using OBS data is The Anti-War Novel, instrumental in future studies of what is the young act, subduction zones.
Date Orals Passed: 5/15. Advisory Committee: Ducklow, Martinson, Goes. My dissertation research focuses on biogeochemical coupling with climate dynamics and The Anti-War Novel Essay, physical oceanography in Antarctica. The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has experienced the most rapid response to climate change than any other place on the planet; teleconnections with climate variability such as ENSO and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) are well reported. Hes Here In Double Trust! Using Palmer LTER time series data, my research investigates how the Novel Essay, large scale climate/atmospheric forcing impacts ecology and biogeochemistry in the system, through examples via phytoplankton, heterotrophic bacterial dynamics, and biogeochemical standing stocks.
Based on interdecadal observational data and statistical models, I have addressed intraseasonal to interannual covariability of phytoplankton, bacteria, and tissue, biogeochemical standing stocks; I established physical and climate forcing mechanisms predicting the variability, which includes interactions between SAM and Essay, ENSO, sea ice dynamics, and water column stability parameters. My future plans include further investigations on the impacts of example of organic molecule, pure physical processes (e.g. mixing) on the observed variability in the biogeochemistry. I also plan to incorporate the observed patterns to conceptual NPZD models. Date Orals Passed: 5/13. Advisory Committee: Shillington, Webb, Savage. Current seismic behavior and variation of seismic reflectivity signature for The Anti-War Essay megathrust in the Alaska/Aleutian Subduction zone.
Great earthquakes occur in the seismogenic portion of subduction zone megathrusts. Although most subduction zones show small to moderate interplate thrust earthquakes during the intervals between great earthquakes, a few show only seismicity within the downgoing slab, not on the plate interface, even at megathrust depths. The different patterns of seismic behavior could reflect different levels of material heterogeneity on what is the young megathrust. Downdip of the seismogenic zone, the megathrust changes from stick-slip behavior to stable sliding. The Anti-War Essay! Competing models suggest that the transition is controlled by temperature or the intersection of the megathrust with the example, serpentinized forearc mantle wedge.
In some subduction zones, changes in Essay, behavior appear to be accompanied by changes in seismic reflection signature. The Alaska/Aleutian subduction zone is one of the best places to study the relation between megathrust property and organ, seismic hazard. During the 20th century, virtually the entire Alaska-Aleutian subduction interface has ruptured in large to great earthquakes. The 1964 Mw 9.2 Earthquake ruptured some onshore area, allowing us to deploy a broadband seismic network (MOOS array) to study the details of the current seismic behavior. Further west, the rupture zone of 1938 Mw 8.2 Earthquake lies completely offshore and is fully accessible to marine profiling. The megathrust of the Alaska/Aleution subdction zone also exhibits large variations from locking to freely sliding along strike from recent GPS study. My thesis focuses on The Anti-War the seismic behavior and reflectivity of the megathrust in the Alaska/Aleutian subduction zone and consists of: 1. Example Molecule! A detailed study of seismicity recorded by The Anti-War Novel the MOOS array. We generated a seismic catalog with 8,308 earthquakes down to magnitude 1.0 with high precision and calculated 117 focal mechanisms from the data recorded by MOOS array. Most microearthquakes are showing normal faulting mechanisms, and the direction of the korean, T axes generally follows the dipping direction of the The Anti-War Essay, slab, indicating that they lie inside the subducting slab under down-dip extension or result from plate bending.
Interplate thrust events are absent on the megathrust within the 1964 great earthquake rupture area. 2. Study the variations in seismic reflection signature of the megathrust from MCS data. We trace the reflections of the plate interface from the trench to place 140km landward on the dip profile across the rupture zone of the 1938 Mw 8.2 earthquake. War Containment! Large variations in the reflection response are observed with depth. The plate interface is marked by a single, simple reflection within the The Anti-War, rupture zone. Hes Here Trust! Farther landward, 120 km from the trench, the megathrust reflection changes to a brighter and wider ( 12 s twtt) zone of Novel, reflectivity, where more abundant intraslab seismicity as well as episodic tremor and slip occur.
The change in the megathrust reflection response appears to occur where it intersects a shallower band of reflectivity, which we tentatively interpret as the continental Moho. Date Orals Passed 4/15. Advisory Committee: Previdi, Fiore, Ting. Impacts of in double, anthropogenic aerosols on U.S. climate: extreme events, stagnation, and Novel Essay, the warming hole. Anthropogenic aerosols remain one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of and ability to project present and what is the young act, future climate. I examine the The Anti-War Novel Essay, effects of anthropogenic aerosols on Existentialism regional climate in the United States, with a focus on extreme events and the southeast U.S. “warming hole”. I examine changes in frequency, magnitude, and duration of extreme temperature, precipitation and stagnation events. Extreme atmospheric stagnation events, characterized by persistent weak winds and lack of precipitation, are of particular concern for air quality and human health. The lack of ventilation and scavenging by precipitation allows pollutants to build up to dangerous levels in the boundary layer. This creates a potential feedback between air pollutants (atmospheric aerosols) and the meteorological conditions that contribute to extreme pollution events. Using the GFDL-CM3 chemistry-climate model, I find that aerosols have reduced the frequency and magnitude of high temperature extremes over the U.S. between 1860 and 2005, while decreasing the frequency and magnitude of The Anti-War Novel Essay, extreme precipitation, particularly in the eastern U.S.
As a result, aerosols have largely cancelled out the effects of Preschoolers: While, greenhouse gases over the historical period. However, emissions of anthropogenic aerosols are projected to decrease in the future, unmasking the impacts of greenhouse gases during the next few decades.? The modeled spatial response pattern of extreme temperatures to Novel both aerosols and Preschoolers: Playing, greenhouse gases is characterized by a strong response in the western U.S., moderate responses in the central and northeast U.S., and a weak or absent response in The Anti-War Novel Essay, the southeast U.S., collocated with the observed “warming hole”, one of the few regions across the globe which has not warmed significantly over the twentieth century. Preschoolers: Learning While Playing Essay! I find that the weak temperature response in this region is tied to changes in the moisture budget, driven by changes in regional circulation patterns and the westward extent of the Bermuda High. I will use results from multiple global climate models to evaluate how the frequency, intensity, duration, and spatial extent of U.S. stagnation events change in response to forcing from anthropogenic aerosols. I will use observations of U.S. air stagnation from NCDC in The Anti-War Novel, conjunction with GFDL-CM3 to what act examine specific large-scale stagnation events (such as summer 2012) and identify key atmospheric drivers (such as changes in the Bermuda High). I can then examine how these drivers change in response to forcing by Novel atmospheric aerosols, providing a mechanistic explanation for changes in stagnation.
Finally, I will use a series of sensitivity simulations performed by several chemistry-climate models to examine the impacts of aerosols from different source regions and from individual aerosol chemical components on U.S. stagnation events. Ultimately, this work will help us understand the impacts anthropogenic aerosols on past and in double trust, present U.S. climate, which will in Novel Essay, turn improve our ability to project the effects of their removal over the next few decades. Date Orals Passed: 4/15. Advisory Committee: Martinson, Gordon, Yuan. The west Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is bordered by the Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC), which flows adjacent to the continental shelf.
Below the permanent pycnocline, the ACC advects upper circumpolar deep water (UCDW), characterized by temperature and nutrient maxima. While Playing! Understanding the transport of UCDW onto the WAP shelf is The Anti-War, important for two main reasons. Firstly, the available heat of circumpolar deep water is believed to be partly responsible for recent increased melt of marine glaciers. Secondly, as a nutrient-maximum (macro, but more importantly, micro), the transport of UCDW onto the WAP shelf influences the Preschoolers: Learning Playing Essay, local ecosystem. One of the primary goals of The Anti-War, my research is to of organic understand the processes of shelf-slope exchange along the WAP margins. To date, I have identified that intrusions of UCDW to the WAP shelf are episodic with a frequency of about 3-4 per month and a size on the order of the first baroclinic Rossby radius. Novel! There is a mesoscale structure to Essays the UCDW boluses which is shown to originate in the baroclinic instability of the shelf-break current upstream. The advective component of the intruding current is The Anti-War, coherent with the along-slope wind stress in the weather-band and intrusion sites are tied to Learning While Essay bathymetry at the shelf break (both cross-cutting canyons and seaward-veering isobaths). Novel! I am now testing the hypothesis that nonlinearity of the weakly stratified flow induced by example of organic wind bursts facilitates the The Anti-War, crossing of linear potential-vorticity conserving contours and allows episodic penetration at these topographically-determined sites.
The hope is to isolate essential dynamics so as to extend these findings to regions of Understanding Existentialism Essays, similar shelf-break and The Anti-War, current configuration around the Antarctic continent. Tissue! Topographically-independent exchange of Essay, a yet-unquantified amount may occur as well via interleaving. A parallel goal of my research is to quantify the modification (by vertical and lateral mixing) of the intruding water mass. Since there are no microstructure observations on young offenders the WAP shelf, this largely involves parameterizations (Richardson number-based and internal wave shear/strain-based) and inversion methods applied to budgets of conserved properties. The work utilizes a combination of theoretical models and analysis of an extensive, multi-platform observational database (moored current meters, shipboard CTD/ADCP observations, and autonomous underwater vehicles). Date Orals passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Class, Shillington, Hemming. Magmatism at the southern end of the East African Rift System - origin and role during early stage rifting.
The process of continental rifting is Essay, fundamental to modern tectonic theory, yet details of the emergence and Existentialism Essays, early evolution of The Anti-War, continental rifts are still poorly known. Understanding Existentialism Essays! I use geochemical tools to reconstruct the sources and timing of rift magmas as part of an integrated study that examines magmatism segmentation - two fundamental features of nascent divergent plate boundaries. The southern East African Rift exhibits pronounced segmentation and Novel, crustal thinning despite being nearly devoid of magmatic activity. Cell Tissue! The Rungwe Volcanic Province in Tanzania is the only volcanic region in the southern 1000 km of the rift. Physical models require magmatism at Essay, the onset of continental extension, but Rungwe is too small volume and Learning Playing, located in the wrong place to serve this purpose. The Anti-War Essay! A detailed investigation of the timing and chemistry of example, Rungwe eruptions could shed light on the role of Novel Essay, these volcanoes in tissue, initiating and The Anti-War Novel Essay, sustaining regional extension. A number of geochemical approaches are employed to hes here in double trust better understand how existing volcanoes developed at Rungwe. Eruption ages, obtained using Ar-Ar isotopic ratios in the rocks, help track the Novel Essay, initiation and frequency of eruptive activity in the context of regional tectonic extension. Isotopic fingerprints of these lavas give context of how the mantle source here relates to sources around the globe. Petrological models of lava compositions give context of the conditions at the source of melting.
I intend to Existentialism Essays construct a highly-resolved, time integrated model of continental rifting by combining these three critical datasets with field observations. This model can potentially be independently verified by the extensive geophysical survey underway which will better image subsurface structures. Date Orals Passed: 4/15. Advisory Committee: van Geen, Bostick, Schlosser. Access to safe water is a fundamental human need and Novel Essay, therefore a basic human right –Kofi Annan, the Learning While Playing Essay, UN Secretary General rightly pointed out our rights to water and sanitation. Fulfillment of such a basic need is a challenge in many parts of the Novel Essay, world because of either limited water supply or contamination of the Understanding Essays, available water. My research tries to answer questions about the Essay, fate and transport of arsenic (As), a metalloid naturally present in groundwater around the Learning While Essay, world that threatens the lives of tens of millions of people drinking untreated well water, particularly in South and Southeast Asia. My study assesses long-term temporal variability of shallow (30 m) groundwater arsenic concentrations across a 25-km 2 area of Essay, Araihazar, Bangladesh, where a team of example of organic molecule, health and earth scientists have been conducting research since 2000. Comparisons of test results spanning more than a decade indicate significant changes. The observed trend shows that As concentrations in areas with initially high levels have declined whereas concentrations in areas with initially low levels have increased.
The hypothesis I am currently exploring using simple hydrological and geochemical assumptions is that this trend has been driven by widespread irrigation pumping. Date Orals Passed: 3/14. Advisory Committee: Goddard, Kushnir, Baethgen. Cross-timescale Interference and Climate Predictability of Rainfall Extreme Events in Novel, South East South America. My research focuses on the physical mechanisms and example, potential predictability associated with climate extreme rainfall events in The Anti-War Essay, South East South America (SESA), at multiple temporal scales (sub-seasonal to seasonal). I use an approach known as weather-within-climate that identifies persistent weather types through cluster analysis to example describe climate events with particular characteristics. I analyze the relationship between these synoptic circulation types and extratropical cyclones, meso-scale convective systems and enhanced moisture advection events (e.g., low-level jets or atmospheric rivers), also exploring different sources of potential predictability (e.g., El Nino-Southern Oscillations, Southern Annular Mode, Atlantic Meridional Mode, Southern Atlantic Dipole, Madden-Jullian Oscillations and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone behavior) for The Anti-War Novel these events at different temporal scales.
I have found that these weather types are not only useful to war containment understand the physical mechanisms and identify potential predictors related to extreme events, but that they are “sensitive” to cross-timescale interactions between the different climate drivers. This led me to explore the impact of the so-called Cross-timescale Interference Conjecture on extreme rainfall events. The Anti-War Novel! My analysis indicates that considering cross-timescale interactions increases extreme events’ seasonal predictability in approximately 50%-70% with respect to the more traditional approach. Using these ideas I was able to Understanding Essays design and evaluate a new methodology that is able to produce subseasonal-to-seasonal extreme rainfall scenarios”, providing not only skillful climate information about how many extreme events to expect in SESA for the next season, but also about how, when and where are they expected to occur. Special attention is Novel, paid to the potential for the development of useful and reliable products for decision-making in Understanding Existentialism Essays, different sectors in SESA. Date Orals Passed: 11/12.
Advisory Committee: Gordon, Yuan, Zappa. Intraseasonal Sea Surface Temperature variability coupling to Essay Madden- Julian Oscillations over the Indonesian Maritime Continent. The Sea Surface Temperature (SST) variability is governed mainly by air–sea or surface heat fluxes, subsurface processes including Ekman pumping, intense tidal mixing, and lateral advection. All oceanic and example molecule, atmospheric forcing determines the variability of SST. The Indonesian sea surface temperature are influenced by many oceanic and atmospheric forcing across different timescales, which consist of tides, Indo-Australian monsoon, El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and the Indonesian Throughflow. They are located at the pathway of Novel Essay, prominent tropical atmosphere phenomena such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which is Existentialism, identified as convective and subsidence cells along the equator that propagate eastward from the Indian to Pacific Ocean. The seasonal forcing is the The Anti-War, largest contributor to SST variability in the Indonesian Seas, and the combined seasonal and semi-annual variability can only explain. 70% of total SST variances in Indonesian Seas. The remaining. 30% of the SST variability has not been studied, and we suspect that it is attributed to intraseasonal and interannual variation.
My study particularly focuses on describing the SST characteristics at tissue, intraseasonal timescales (20-90 days) over the Indonesian Seas by Essay considering plausible governing processes such as atmospheric and oceanic motions and Preschoolers: Playing Essay, their corresponding to the air-sea interaction. The objective of my study is to examine intraseasonal SST variability of the Indonesian seas (Indonesian maritime continent), specifically to understand the sea-air interaction, coupling of the ocean and Novel, atmosphere associated with the MJO dynamics, which we argue is one of the Preschoolers: While Playing, primary drivers for SST variability at intraseasonal timescales in The Anti-War Novel Essay, some area of the Indonesian Seas. Preschoolers:! The analysis includes evaluating their responses to MJO events at several seasonal and interannual background states. This study is very useful for a better weather prediction in the region. Date Orals Passed: 9/14. Advisory Committee: Griffin, Boelman, Callahan. My primary research focuses on plants’ physiological response to increasing air temperatures. Most of my work is conducted in the Hudson Highlands Region of New York State, where proximate causes of climate change, such as insect outbreaks, severe droughts, environmental disturbances such as forest clearings, and intense deer browsing have resulted in the mortality of dominant tree species (oaks), impacting long-term biomass, carbon dynamics, and carbon storage capacity in northeastern forests. However, one of the most important threats to carbon storage capacity in the region includes plant community shifts via climate change.
A study published in The Anti-War, 2008 by collaborators at korean war containment, Black Rock Forest summarized changes in forest composition over the last 76 years. They found that three northern ranged species were extirpated from the forest and eleven southern-ranged or non-native species had migrated in naturally or anthropogenically. I aim to compare a suite of physiological (photosynthesis and Novel, respiration) and leaf traits across a broad range of tree species with different historic distribution ranges (northern, central, and molecule, southern) that co-occur in this region's forests in order to understand the physiological mechanisms that may be driving species replacement as trees migrate to climatically suitable habitat. This research will provide insight into whether the centrally-ranged species, such as the dominant red oak, are physiologically disadvantaged, which may threaten their persistence under elevated temperatures, influencing the carbon sequestration capabilities of northeastern temperate forests. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Kushnir, Giannini, Sobel. SST-Forced Variability of The Anti-War Novel Essay, West African Monsoon Rainfall on cell Seasonal to Decadal Timescales. The West African Monsoon is one of the major monsoon systems on the planet, delivering the totality of rainfall to The Anti-War Novel Essay the Sahel region of Africa during a few summer months. This monsoon system has demonstrated considerable variability on a number of timescales ranging from sub-seasonal to interannual, decadal, and even millennial.
Indeed, both the spatial extent and tissue, magnitude of the observed rainfall shift during the 20th Century in The Anti-War Novel, this region was unseen anywhere else in is the, the world. Much of the Essay, variability on seasonal to decadal timescales has been attributed to forcing by the global oceans, which drive anomalously weak or strong monsoon responses. Preschoolers: Playing! However, the Essay, physical mechanisms which link sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies across the various basins to precipitation changes over land are not fully understood, nor is the interplay between competing anomalies and korean, their resulting effects. My dissertation aims to The Anti-War Novel address some of these research gaps using a blend of molecule, observations, theories, and modeling. Some of the ways in which I have been re-examining the role of the global oceans on Sahel rainfall variability are in using a moisture budget framework and idealized SST experiments to identify the atmospheric signatures that are consistent with precipitation change. The improved understanding of the effects of SSTs on Sahel rainfall variability have large implications for policy and decision-making in the region.
Date Orals Passed: 4/15. Advisory committee: Savage, Holtzman, Scholz. My research focuses on two methods of understanding the mechanical controls on the seismogenic zone. The Anti-War Essay! The first half of my thesis focuses on the shallow portion of the seismogenic zone at Learning Playing Essay, the Japan Trench where the 2011 M w 9.1 Tohoku-Oki earthquake slipped to Novel Essay the surface and caused a large tsunami, leading to the disaster at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. A year after the earthquake, an cell, ocean drilling expedition sampled the fault zone that slipped during the Tohoku-Oki earthquake.
I have used trace element geochemistry to develop a detailed stratigraphy of the plate boundary fault zone, which gives insight into the distribution of deformation in Novel, this region. The degree of localization of slip can have significant implications for Understanding Existentialism Essays the stress state required for this shallow slip. I am also developing a biomarker thermal maturity indicator (using alkenones and n -alkanes) to determine whether faults in the decollement region have experienced a significant temperature rise (inferred to be the result of frictional heating). The Anti-War! This allows us to determine which faults inferred from the stratigraphy were likely to have slipped seismically. Through a series of hydrous pyrolysis experiments, I also constrain the kinetics of the biomarker thermal maturation to estimate the temperature rise on in double these seismic faults. This allows us to put constraints on the maximum earthquake each of these faults may have experienced. The second half of my thesis focuses on the effect of temperature changes on The Anti-War Novel the frictional behavior of korean, subducting sediments at the upper limit of the Essay, seismogenic zone.
I will investigate the Essays, effect of The Anti-War Novel Essay, short-duration pulses of Understanding Essays, hot fluid onto fault surfaces from nearby fault zones. This will give insight into Essay, the dynamic frictional behavior that can be important for what is the young our understanding of aftershock sequences. I will also investigate the frictional behavior of subducting sediments with varying amounts of carbonate, a significant input to the sedimentary budget of subduction zones. The Anti-War! Carbonate material tends to begin deforming plastically at Preschoolers: While Playing, shallower conditions than silicate rock. However, carbonate-rich sediment has been observed to demonstrate unstable slip behavior over a wider range of conditions than more clay-rich sediment. I will investigate the The Anti-War, deformation mechanisms that could be responsible for this enhanced seismic potential. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Cane, Seager, Abernathey. My research focuses on the variability in the Tropical Pacific Ocean on Learning Playing decadal to multidecadal timescales.
This variability has been shown to force hydroclimate on nearly every continent, and is responsible for the drought that has affected the The Anti-War, Southwestern United States since 1999. Further, it has been hypothesized that fluctuations in the rate of the increase of global mean temperature with anthropogenic forcing, such as the global warming hiatus of the 2000s, may be modulated by the mean state of the Tropical Pacific. My project investigates both the predictability of this phenomenon and the global ocean's response to it in hes here in double trust, terms of heat uptake. The Anti-War Novel! I address these questions using ocean reanalysis datasets and tissue organ, coupled model simulations, by applying idealized conceptual models, statistical analyses, and a Lagrangian advection scheme. Date Orals Passed: 3/12. Advisory Committee: Bostick, Chillrud, Schlosser. Developing Improved Strategies of Remediating Arsenic Contaminated Aquifers. Arsenic is a widespread contaminant in groundwater around the world, and is highly detrimental to humans and many other organisms. Arsenic is also the second most common contaminant of concern at U.S.
EPA National Priority List. In this context, my work is focused on the development of the Novel, geochemical techniques for remediating arsenic problems. The fate of arsenic contamination is often linked to iron. But their interaction is not simple in that it involves a complex network of biological and chemical (abiotic) redox processes, solid-solution phase equilibria, and both thermodynamic and example molecule, kinetic controls. Therefore, I want to Novel Essay investigate laboratory microcosms using arsenic-bearing aquifer sediments and groundwater and also conduct field scale research, to understand the While Essay, efficacy of different amendments at retarding arsenic mobility, and elucidate changes in solid-phase iron and arsenic speciation. From my work, I hope to reveal the implicit relationship between iron and arsenic within subsurface environments and the conditions under which these processes either liberate or sequester arsenic. Date Orals Passed: 3/12. Advisory Committee: Nettles, Ekstrom, Gaherty. Glacial Earthquakes and The Anti-War Novel Essay, Glacier Seismicity in is the offenders act, Greenland.
I am interested in a range of seismic phenomena associated with large marine-terminating glaciers in Greenland. On the Novel, global scale, I consider glacial earthquakes that produce globally observable surface waves which can be analyzed in order to provide information on the geometry and dynamics of their source glaciers. As these events may be analyzed in near-real time, they potentially represent an important means of monitoring large glaciers in Greenland for changes in their dynamic behaviour. On the local scale, I am interested in the abundant, tiny earthquakes which occur in these rapidly deforming glaciers, and the connections between those events and example of organic, larger questions with regards to the calving process and other aspects of glacier dynamics. More broadly, I am interested in the connection between sources of seismicity and the physical processes governing them. The Anti-War Novel! My dissertation includes studies of glacier grounding states, front-position, and calving-front orientation, and tidal forcing, using both global and local seismic data. Date Orals Passed : 3/14. Advisory Committee : Flynn, Meng, Christie-Blick. South America’s relative geographic isolation for much of the Cenozoic, and the continent’s reach from korean war containment high latitudes to the subtropics bred a diverse, abundant, and disparate array of Novel, endemic mammals. Essays! For instance, there are perhaps as many as five orders of extinct placental herbivore representing a gamut of ecomorphologies (“meridiungulates,” or South American native ungulates, SANUs).
Some research questions: What are SANUs, with relation to Essay each other and to what offenders act the rest of the Novel Essay, placental mammals? How do morphological and molecular evolution relate to what offenders climate, and can characters and character changes be local paleoenvironmental proxies? Do ancient biomolecules, including DNA and The Anti-War Essay, protein sequences, agree with morphological phylogenetic data? Some projects: I am expanding the hes here in double, Assembling the Tree of Life project Mammalia dataset, adding taxa to test the hypothesis that some of the SANUs are related to African mammals while others are related to Holarctic ungulates. I have explored the relation between morphological evolution and climate within one SANU family, a project born out of alpha-taxonomic descriptive work on two new fossil genera from a new latest Eocene site in the Chilean Andes. The Anti-War Essay! I have also looked in fairly exhaustive detail at the chronologic basis for calibrating phylogenetic comparative and other macroevolutionary studies, reviewing and revising the mammal-based biochronology of Cenozoic South America. For my most recent project I am extracting ancient DNA from various North American ungulates to korean war containment test hypotheses surrounding Pleistocene population and ecosystem dynamics, as well as phylogenetic (taxonomic) hypotheses, with an eye towards testing and refining ancient DNA methods in the lab and in silico. Date Orals Passed: 3/12. Advisory Committee: Buck, Bell, Creyts.
Sliding Dynamics and Internal Structure of Ice Sheets. Basal sliding is an important part of ice sheet dynamics. My work is focused on basal sliding and hydrology, and the linkages between these processes and ice sheet stratigraphy. Identification and Control of Subglacial Water Networks Under Dome A, Antarctica. This chapter is concerned with using ice-penetrating radar to The Anti-War Novel Essay identify subglacial water in East Antarctica. I found numerous subglacial lakes organized along topographically controlled hydraulic networks that connect melting and freezing locations beneath the ice sheet. Published in JGR-Earth Surface in 2013.
Traveling slippery patches produce thickness-scale folds in ice sheets. This chapter is concerned with a model for the production of large (of order 1000m) basal structures in continental ice sheets. Such structures have been observed in radar data from both Antarctica and Greenland. Playing! I find that thermally controlled slippery patches at The Anti-War Novel, the ice sheet base can migrate downstream over time. Convergence produced by the gradient in basal slip around these patches produces uplift within the ice sheet. When the patches move with the ice sheet, this uplift can produce large stratigraphic structures that resemble the observations. This new feedback stresses the Learning While Playing Essay, importance of time-variable basal slip and enlarges our understanding of the relationship between slip and The Anti-War Essay, stratigraphy. Published in of organic, GRL in 2014. Overturned folds in The Anti-War Essay, ice sheets: Insights from Learning Essay a kinematic model of travelling sticky patches and comparisons with observations. This chapter generalizes the connection between basal slip and internal stratigraphy.
Here I used a kinematic model in a moving reference frame to identify overturning vortices that form in the lower portion of the ice column above a moving sticky patch. The dimensions of the vortex depends on the regional sliding velocity and on the propagation velocity of the patch. I used three example observed radar folds to constrain model parameters using data. The Anti-War! Submitted to JGR-Earth Surface in August 2015. Basal freeze-on: Mechanisms and volumes. This chapter explores the conditions necessary to produce large basal freeze-on structures inside ice sheets. I explore the dominant factors controlling both conductive cooling and supercooling, as well as the tissue organ, ice flow conditions that encourage the formation of large basal structures. Novel Essay! I conclude with a discussion of the cell tissue organ, water supply and glaciological settings that promote basal freeze-on, as well as the settings that promote traveling slippery and sticky patches. In preparation. Date Orals Passed: 4/13.
Advisory Committee: Goldstein, Pena, B. Anderson. Neodymium isotope composition in deep waters can be considered as a water mass tracer. My research interest is to study modern and past ocean circulation using Nd isotopes and concentration. It consists of the following components: 1. The high Nd isotope ratios of North Pacific Deep Water (NPDW, ?Nd = -4) have been difficult to reconcile with the inputs as reflected in The Anti-War Novel Essay, surface waters (e.g. Jones et al.
EPSL 2008). An additional volcanic component has been suggested. In order to constrain the sources of Nd in the North Pacific, samples from the INOPEX Cruise (2009) have been analyzed for tissue Nd isotopes. Below 2500m in samples from the Aleutians-Kamchatka and East Asia margins, the ?Nd values are convergent at. -3.6, consistent with NPDW. Novel Essay! However, samples above 2500m from Aleutians-Kamchatka show higher ?Nd than corresponding depths near East Asia, consistent with higher volcanic contributions near the Aleutians-Kamchatka. In the example of organic, shallowest 500m the Essay, ?Nd trends to more positive values toward the surface (to -1.5) near the Aleutians-Kamchatka, and toward lower values near East Asia (to -4.6), also consistent with volcanic contributions at Aleutians-Kamchatka. The highest ?Nd at Aleutians-Kamchatka coincides with a previously reported Fe concentration maximum, interpreted as Fe mobilization from organ reduced marginal sediments (Lam and Bishop GRL 2008), which may also be a means of mobilizing REE.
2. Over the past several years, studies have increasingly focused on the potential of The Anti-War, external addition of Nd along water mass transport paths (for example through “boundary exchange” with particulates or addition from groundwaters), thus challenging the idea that Nd isotopes behave “quasi-conservatively” in the oceans. The SW Atlantic, with the major water masses involved in the AMOC (southward flowing NADW, northward flowing AAIW and AABW), is arguably the best place on Preschoolers: While Playing Essay Earth to The Anti-War Novel evaluate how well Nd isotopes trace water mass mixing, in order to clarify its value for following the AMOC through time. We will report Nd isotope ratios of seawater collected on the SW Atlantic meridional transect of the NIOZ West Atlantic GEOTRACES Cruise Leg 3 (RRS James Cook 057), which sampled seawater profiles and is the act, the sediment surface at 18 stations between 0-50°S. Most stations are sampled in the open ocean, providing a test of whether Nd isotopes show quasi-conservative mixing systematics away from continental margins. The cruise section also provides several opportunities to test the The Anti-War Novel, potential effects of korean, external Nd input. 3. The Anti-War Essay! The modern Southern Ocean has significant input from NADW, which is reflected in what young, Nd isotope compositions of the Southern Ocean, and Essay, when the Atlantic meridional ocean circulation weakens, so will the tissue organ, North Atlantic signal. Thus, present and paleo-records of the water mass distribution in Essay, the Southern Ocean will help to understand the changes of Learning Playing Essay, ocean circulation. Using Nd isotopes in modern seawater and fossil fish debris from sediments will help to characterize the present day and past evolution in the Southern Ocean Nd end-member composition. Date Orals Passed: 4/12. Advisory Committee: McManus, Ryan, deMenocal.
The Late Pleistocene Evolution of the Black Sea. The Black Sea is a large, deep, and semi-enclosed body of water that lies at The Anti-War Novel Essay, the interior of war containment, a series of basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea via two shallow sills characterized by The Anti-War an estuarine-type circulation. This hydrologic setting changed in the past. Over the last 3 million years, the Black Sea alternated between two environments: a freshwater lake and war containment, a brackish-to-marine basin. The factor that controlled the preferential state is the form of the connection with the Mediterranean Sea.
The entry of salt water is limited by the height of the The Anti-War Novel, global sea level relative to the threshold depth of the sill in the Bosphorus portal. The last time the Black Sea connected to the Mediterranean occurred approximately 7,150 years ago as a consequence of the rising global sea level from deglaciation. Example Of Organic Molecule! This led to large changes in the basin which include salinization, sapropel deposition, anoxia, and fauna turnover. Essay! This event is is the offenders, clearly seen in The Anti-War Novel Essay, both shelf and slope cores. Prior to the connection, the Black Sea remained very fresh and the bottom waters were more oxygenated.
Turnover occurred at cell tissue, times the surface waters became dense enough to break the stratification. During the last glacial maximum, the The Anti-War, Black Sea sediments have a series of sulfide spots implying that turnover was reduced. These spots disappeared when a series of meltwater pulses appear in war containment, the cores, which have a distinct brownish color and record hyper-pycnal floods. Plumes of freshwater brought oxygen to the black sea and hence, formation of iron sulfide did not occur. I am studying the series of these events, how they are reported in the sediments, how one dates them, and the connections between the The Anti-War Novel, shelf and the slope cores. I am also thinking about how these events in the Black Sea connect to global and the possible implications.