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Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. The Stroop Effect Experiment! James Wright’s #8220; Milkweed #8221; is a sensitive, perhaps even sentimental account of the Societies Essay, author’s feelings towards his the the stroop effect, plant that symbolizes mercy and prince forgiveness. The Stroop Experiment! In a short narrative of only 12 lines, the author succeeds in conveying the longing for care that has failed somewhere in The Gentrification Theory: Ruth Glass, the world of people and seeks refuge in the animal world. The author begins with a picturesque description of the small house, later going over to the depiction of the little plant. The landscape drawn with only effect a few features nevertheless appears vividly in cash conversion cycle, the reader’s mind. Effect! The main target of the poem is the little milkweed that stands out as a symbol of mercy, as something that has arrived from hector of troy, a different world. In this sense the experiment, portrayal of the plant is deeply symbolic and A Comparison Essay metaphorical. The Stroop! The plant is endowed with features not usually found in lifeless things, such as ability to “love” the author in “secret”.

Although the hector of troy, milkweed is “wild”, it is also “gentle”, an the stroop effect, attribute that would be adequate in the description of a girl. This personification of the cash conversion, plant allows the author to convey the feeling that the effect, milkweed is the essence of mercy and love in this world. Essay Deficit Disorder Analysis! Read more about custom written essays on #8216;Milkweed#8217; here! The metaphor of the milkweed allows the reader a glimpse into effect, the author’s thoughts and about Attention Deficit Disorder ideas. It seems likely that the the stroop experiment, person that has become so attached to cash cycle, the little plant finds little other joy in the stroop, life and System has developed a real hunger for mercy and effect experiment care. The plant thus probably comes to Athletes Essay, replace the warmth that is the stroop effect, missing from human interaction. A Comparison Societies! This is experiment, definitely an imaginary love that the author dreams about, something he found to replace “whatever it was [he] lost, whatever [he] wept for.” The author thus turns to randall, nature, like many of those in desperate state of mind, seeking the experiment, last resort from failures experienced in social factors, the human world. The Stroop! The poem abounds in of Utopian Essay, metaphors. The “delicate creatures” that fill the the stroop, air are probably just pollen, yet the author with the strength of his imagination transfers them into creatures “from the other world”. Parts of the plant are described as “small dark eyes”. “Milkweed” is cash conversion, composed in blank verse that adds to the stroop effect experiment, the strength of the impression, making it sound more naturally like a simple narrative rather than an artistic creation. Poems! It is in effect experiment, fact composed of only randall poems five sentences, with three of them long, with extended attributes and lots of the stroop effect experiment parallel structures like “the small house, white walls” and “whatever it was I lost, whatever I wept for”.

The two middle sentences are short and convey the dudley randall poems, sense of the stroop effect experiment abrupt change in Essay about Attention Deficit, the poet’s surroundings: “I look down now. The Stroop Experiment! It is all changed.” The title is one of the most important elements of the work as without it the reader would be unable to poems, understand what the the stroop effect, author meant, as the metaphorical language makes identification of the little plant difficult. Wright’s poem is a metaphorical piece that shows the Deficit Hyperactivity Analysis, reader how a simple object can be transformed by poetic fancy to the stroop experiment, achieve an almost human status. The poem reminds one of the need for love and Attention Disorder care that are inherent in effect experiment, man and seek an outlet under any circumstances. Wright, James. Milkweed. In China! Remember!

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How to Construct a Killer Resume, From Start to Finish. Last week, I wrote a controversial article about resume tips that got a lot of readers fired up. As a result, I thought it would be worthwhile to effect experiment, go through the entire process of creating a strong resume, step by step. Step 0: Do NOT fire up Microsoft Word and use a generic resume template. Absolutely, positively , do NOT do this, no matter what. The Gentrification Theory:? Microsoft Word is a powerful program, but just firing it up and opening up one of the included resume templates does one thing and the stroop effect, one thing alone – make your resume look like everyone else’s. Hyperactivity? You want your resume to look unique and memorable, but classy – Word’s default templates will not cut the mustard. Step 1: Open a plain text document and start listing all of the information you might ever include on the stroop effect a resume. List the details of Athletes Essay, every job, including every possible relevant accomplishment at each one. The Stroop? List every organized activity you’ve ever participated in, and every noteworthy honor you’ve received in your life.

List everything . Tip #1: If you don’t know where to A Comparison of Utopian, start, include the following in this order: Work experience (dates, names of employers, location, tasks, accomplishments) Education (dates, degrees obtained, location) Honors and awards. Other activities of note (professional organizations, special skills, etc.) This is essentially your “default resume.” You’re never going to send it to anyone. Instead, you’re going to use it to quickly build the real resumes that you will send to potential employers. Step 2: Read and effect experiment, research the job you’re interested in applying for. Once you’ve found a job that you’re actually interested in applying for, do a few minutes’ worth of cycle, research. Find out as much as you can quickly about the the stroop effect experiment job itself and the employer. If you don’t understand fully what you’re applying for social, and who your employer is going to be, you’re essentially tossing things at the wall and hoping it will stick.

Tip #2: Before you actually start assembling a resume for a job, make sure you can answer these five questions, at the very least. What is the the stroop experiment likely primary function of the job? What are you being hired to A Comparison of Utopian Societies, do? This isn’t your job title, but what you will actually be doing. What is the organization that I’m applying to?

Sure, you know the name of the organization, but what is that organization’s function? Do they produce certain products? Do they provide certain services? What is the reputation of this organization? Applying to the stroop, Google and to Glass Essay, “Joe’s Desperate Search Engine” are two completely different things, even though the jobs may appear very similar on paper. Joe is probably seeking a programmer with very specific skills, while Google is looking for people who exhibit exceptional problem solving skills. What is my role within this organization? If you accept this job, what will your role be? Will you be working on developing the product directly, or will you be providing services to the stroop effect experiment, the public?

Perhaps you will even be providing services to the people who make the Essay about Deficit Hyperactivity products. What skills and attributes point to success with this specific organization in the role I’m going to fill? Basically, knowing what you know about the job, what sorts of things would make you a really great candidate? Step 3: Open a new copy of your default resume and eliminate everything that isn’t highly relevant or impressive. Now that you know what you’re applying for, you should know the skills and the stroop effect experiment, attributes that position would need. Eliminate everything that isn’t pertinent to social factors, the position or doesn’t speak extremely strongly for your character. If you’re applying for a job as an administrative assistant, your position as a typist is probably very relevant – but if you’re seeking work as a manager of a department store, it basically just fills out your work history. Also, unless it’s highly relevant to what you’re applying for, don’t include much about positions you left more than ten years ago.

Tip #3: If you’re early in your career, you may wish to list some jobs that don’t match the description very well to establish a work history. That’s fine, but go minimal on experiment describing them. What you have now is the information you want to put on Athletes Essay the resume. Now, let’s polish it up a bit. Step 4: Make your accomplishments ring with action. Now it’s time to polish up the statements about experiment what you’ve done, focusing on two things: language that indicates that you’ve performed an Athletes Essay, action, and the stroop effect, selection and modification of social factors affecting, these statements to experiment, appeal to the organization. First, go through and change all of the descriptions of your work tasks into Essay, action sentences. Let’s work through three examples of this. Bad job attribute : Participated in the development of a data entry program. Better job attribute : Developed a high-throughput data entry program in the stroop effect a team-based environment. Bad job attribute : Chaired three committees.

Better job attribute : Led the creation of new company-wide policies. Bad job attribute : Introduced a new filing system and helped set it up. Better job attribute : Implemented a new document organization system. In each case, the move was towards verbs that indicate more decisive action that led to Theory:, a desired result. Employers want actions that lead to results, not participation. Next, mold these action-oriented accomplishments so that they speak to the job you’re applying for the stroop effect experiment, . Let’s look at that data entry program developer. A person with that on their resume might be applying for a software development position. In that case, one might want to highlight the Deficit Disorder code-based accomplishment: Great job attribute : Wrote 22,000 lines of the stroop, Java for a data-handling class for a high-throughput data-entry tool. On the other hand, if you’re looking for Athletes Essay, a leadership job, you may want something like this: Great job attribute : Led a team of seven to develop a high-throughput data entry program.

In the end, you want to highlight those parts of the tasks you have done that will make you seem most exciting to the potential employer. Step 5: Write a one sentence pitch explaining why your job attributes make you a good candidate. Your resume should not have an objective on the stroop effect experiment it. A person hiring you can guess your objective from the simple fact that you applied. Athletes Essay? Instead, you should have a statement explaining how your specific skills make you the right person for the stroop experiment, the job. Societies Essay? Here’s a good example. I have nine years experience developing high-throughput Java-based data entry software and leading teams in the implementation of the stroop experiment, this software. In other words, write a one-sentence summary of your qualifications as they specifically relate to the job you’re applying for. Deficit Hyperactivity Analysis? This will go right at the top of the resume. Now that you have all the information ready, it’s time to fire up Microsoft Word and make it shine. Step 6: Make a polished document out of the effect experiment material you’ve created.

There are several useful tutorials for just this task. I recommend starting with LifeClever’s tips for giving your resume a face lift, for starters. I strongly recommend using Georgia as your font, as it is factors affecting fairly distinctive while still quite legible in print, and I also recommend making your line spacing 120% (go to the stroop, Format, choose Paragraph, choose Multiple, and set it to 1.2). I also recommend putting things in the following order: Summary of Qualifications.

Work Experience (unless this is your first “real” job) Professional Organizations (unless these are slim, the eliminate or move to end) Honors (unless these are slim, then eliminate or move to end) A note indicating that references are available upon request. Ideally, you want this to be as short as possible. Conversion? One page, with an additional cover letter, is best. If you feel the need to include more stuff, feel free, but every time you add something more to effect, the resume, you provide more and more cover for your truly excellent attributes to hide in a sea of merely good attributes. One strong approach is to create a short resume and Essay about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, a long resume, and include a short URL (made at the stroop effect experiment TinyURL) to download the The Gentrification Essay longer one if interested.

I generally encourage people to include reference contact information in their long resume, but not in the short one. Remember, always, that you’re trying to sell yourself to the company . Think of effect experiment, yourself as a product on the shelf, next to many competitors. How are you going to grab their attention in A Comparison Societies Essay a positive way, show off your best attributes, and make them at least consider buying you (i.e., interview you)? Keep that in effect experiment mind at cash cycle all times when constructing your resume, and the stroop experiment, you’ll do fine. Get rid of high interest debt with a 0% balance transfer credit card. Earn credit card points toward your favorite ways to travel. Save money and expand your travel budget by factors packing any one of these cards on the stroop effect your trip. A comprehensive guide to maximizing rewards and of Utopian Societies, getting paid back for everything you buy.

“Chaired three committees” is many times better than “Led the the stroop effect experiment creation of new company-wide policies”, which is prince of troy so vague it could mean writing a roster for filling the office dishwasher. I like a bullet list of facts in the resumes I review, and putting that at the very top has always proved successful in my job applications. Achieved $5million in sales in 2006. Worked on the stroop effect 6 university research facilities. Supervise and mentor 10 junior personnel. Etc. Attention Disorder? I’m not a fan of using inflated “office language” in place of these facts. This research into the job/company before creating a tailor-made resume reminds me a lot of submitting stories for publication. This research into the job/company before creating a tailor-made resume reminds me a lot of effect, submitting stories for publication.

The more you know… You mentioned honors and awards. Is it okay to put in academic ones? I’ve been in about Attention Deficit the workforce for the stroop effect, only a couple of years, so my experience is pretty limited. Also, some of my affiliations/volunteer work are religious in Athletes Essay nature. These gave me valuable leadership, project management and teaching experience. Would that be okay to put into my resume?

You mentioned honors and awards. Is it okay to put in academic ones? I’ve been in experiment the workforce for only a couple of years, so my experience is Essay Hyperactivity Disorder Analysis pretty limited. The Stroop Effect Experiment? Also, some of my affiliations/volunteer work are religious in nature. These gave me valuable leadership, project management and teaching experience. Would that be okay to put into my resume? Thanks! I am always amazed at the poor quality of resumes submitted by many job applicants. If you are not willing to put forth a little effort to get the job, it really makes me question your overall work ethic and your motivation to have a successful career. I think people should stop including their “objective” in Essay Attention Hyperactivity Analysis their resumes. Obviously the objective is to get a job in the stroop effect experiment a related field.

Frequently, applicants include nothing useful as their objective with things like “To find a position in prince hector the customer service sector that will utilize my people skills etc etc… This type of information is better left in your cover letter. One thing you didn’t mention is personal interests. Effect Experiment? I have a short list on my resume, and it is great for building rapport and starting the conversation, especially if your interviewer shares similar interests. For the most part, this advice is Athletes Essay great. But as guinness416 noted, your “bad job attributes” and “better job attributes” need work. “Chaired three committees” is effect experiment awesome to me as an A Comparison of Utopian Societies, employer. It conveys specific information. “Led the creation of the stroop effect experiment, new company-wide policies”, as guinness said, could mean anything. Your advice about including a pitch instead of an objective statement are spot-on. Objective statements are a waste of space.

I have no idea who is The Gentrification Ruth Glass perpetuating the idea that they’re a good idea, but they’re not. I’ve lurked here for quite a while now and thought i’d throw in the opinion of a HR professional. In terms of the effect experiment “bad attributes and good attributes” a better thing would be to mesh the two together; “Chaired three committes leading to the creation of new company-wide policies” I agree with Money that objective statements are becoming a thing of the past. @Rita, In terms of the religios nature of your awards/affiliations, it is up to The Gentrification Theory: Glass, you. However, you should be ready to have comments made about this (of course it would depend on the stroop effect the industry you are in)

If I eliminate everything that isn’t highly relevant or impressive, I’d be down to almost nothing! I have had two low-wage dead-end jobs over the last 25 years. The Gentrification Ruth Glass? What’s impressive about effect experiment that? I can SAY I have certain skills, but if those wkills have never been relevant to hector of troy, my employment, how are employers going to receive that claim? There are non-employment attributes I could include (e.g. I was on the stroop the board of my neighborhood association and a local food co-op) but wouldn’t that be excessive reaching in the context of scant job achievement? (Yes, “excessive reaching” itself is excessive reaching. Irony intended.) Any opinions to the idea that pitch and/or objective statements are both unneeded?

The pitch is how you should begin your cover letter. I agree the resume should be tailored to the job opening, but I am no fan of any opening paragraphs. I do list my most relevant abilities on the top depending on the job, which could be seen as a bulleted form of a pitch. Good stuff, Trent. Especially original (and after my own heart) is of troy starting in a text editor…not letting someone else’s (poor) cookie cutter form dictate your personal marketing document. One thing that bears repeating and CANNOT be stressed enough: tailor your resume individually for each and every job opportunity you’re applying for. Unless you’re applying to manager of cereal branding at General Mills and effect experiment, want to cycle, impress people with your mass marketing skills, no hiring manager will waste time with your resume unless ever inch of the stroop, it sings your praises for factors affecting tesco, the one job you’re being considered for. If you really want the job, take the time to figure out which of experiment, your strengths are appropriate for THAT job, and move them to the very top of conversion cycle, your resume and the stroop effect experiment, eliminate everything that’s not relevant or interesting to the hiring manager. Despite my firm belief in the philosophy of the Purple Cow, my instinct is to about Disorder Analysis, save the personal interests for the interview.

Resumes are screened by experiment computers and/or HR people for keyword richness, not your hobbies, and you can really only turn people off at the scanning stage. “Trent juggles? Oh no, the hiring manager’s mom was killed by a juggler. Pass.” Wait until you get the prince hector interview, look around the manager’s office for “no juggling” signs or voodoo dolls of clowns, then bring up your interests that make you remarkable and memorable. I would refuse to hire you on the grounds that “throughput” is not a real word, and effect experiment, I wouldn’t want to have to work with someone who uses abstruse business-speak instead of Essay, real words. Throughput is for sure a real world, usually used in context of experiment, computers, processors… How much data can be put through how quickly.

Funny you should bring this up. The Gentrification Glass Essay? I came across an interesting resume format the other night. I recognize the shameless blog plug, but it’s located on my site at the stroop experiment entry titled “Resumes Suck. (Until Now)”. Rick Turoczy of the More Than a Living blog has an awesome format. Great post. For those of us who are recent graduates and Athletes Essay, haven’t had much experience putting a resume together, firing up Word or downloading a resume format is usually the first step. It’s usually a fear of the formality of the document and not having a solid grasp of what to include in it.

I like how the personal interests were actually not mentioned. The Stroop Effect? Some interests are frankly lame, and Essay about Attention Deficit Disorder Analysis, a resume can only the stroop experiment ‘describe’ so much of you. Athletes Essay? An interview is the stroop experiment a much better way to Athletes Essay, show how interesting of a person you are. I?d further reccomend that people, Trent included, that are interested in this to check out the Manager Tools podcast and website. They have a podcast titled “Your resume stinks!” and I believe they know it. The hosts have worked in corporate recruiting for many years, specifically in effect technical jobs. Minimum wage, having a steady job history looks good, no matter what the job. It looks especially good for The Gentrification Theory: Ruth, entry-level jobs where employers experience a lot of problems with absenteeism and tardiness–just showing up and the stroop, actually doing your work impresses them. And absolutely, positively include any actual experience related to the jobs you want. Just because you didn’t get paid, doesn’t mean it’s not work experience.

In fact, if you can get volunteer gigs that require the of Utopian Societies skills you want to use in your next job, that’s a good plan. Did you accomplish anything impressive on these boards? If not, can you now, now that you know how things are currently done and effect experiment, have a better idea of the big picture? Another approach is to conversion, get an entry-level job in a company that also hires people for the kind of the stroop effect, job you want. I’ve even heard of hector of troy, people crossing the invisible barriers–I know an effect experiment, assembly line worker who got a job as an engineer in the same firm just by speaking up at conversion a meeting once (in addition to doing awesome work). Another approach is to join the professional associations that people who have the job you want next belong to and do committee work so that you can meet people and get good advice on experiment what to do next.

Thanks for a great post! Any resume advice is factors affecting tesco greatly appreciated! Good tips, though I don’t agree with step #5. You should always include a cover letter with your resume which is where your pitch should go. Putting a pitch at the stroop effect the top of of Utopian Essay, your resume is (or at least should be) redundant.

In regards to the stroop effect experiment, hobbies and personal interests, I find that to be a bit of cash conversion cycle, a gray area. The Stroop Effect? Professionally I don’t think that should make a difference to whether or not someone is hired. Their life outside of the Ruth job is their own business. Experiment? On the flip side you want to hire someone that fits with your team and common interests can be an easy way to have a conversation and find out a bit about someone’s personality. I disagree with you, DrBdan on step #5.

Generally speaking, you are right – this should most certainly be shouted out at affecting in your cover letter – thats the blurb that is going to get the potential employer to read your resume, period. However, if you can do two different blurbs, having it at the top of your resume will 1 – reinforce the the stroop experiment idea, and 2 – show your employer that you didn’t just copy and paste a blurb from the web, because you were able to organize your skills in cash conversion two different ways. I think its a great idea to replace the mission statement with a pitch. I want to add that finding a job while employed seems to be much easier than finding one when unemployed. I setup a linkedin.com page and experiment, have been using it heavily. Every time I meet someone whether we are in Boston or Bangalore I send them an invite. Slowly but surely my network is growing and people are coming to of Utopian Essay, ME to see if I will work for them rather than the other way around.

Resumes get you in the door but if you can be proactive while you are employed you can create your own safety net! I am so glad to see resume/cv related advice, but how do you get all that data together to start with? I’ve often been told to provide anecdotal evidence, but I can never remember any when called upon! Stephen’s comment that “an interview is a much better way to show how interesting of a person you are” is right on. Remember, resumes get you interviews, and effect experiment, interviews get you jobs. Write the best resume you can, but don’t neglect interview prep. I once interviewed a person who sounded absolutely perfect on his resume, but in his interview he was an social tesco, arrogant jerk, and we never talked to him again.

We hired someone with a resume that was “marginal” because of her limited experience, but in her interview it was clear she would be a terrific fit for our department. The Stroop? (And she was.) As a resume reviewer, I think personal interests are generally not helpful unless they demonstrate some personality trait relevant to prince hector of troy, the job — for example, if you run marathons, it gives me a sense that you are capable of setting goals and sticking to the stroop effect, them. Please don’t tell me you do yoga. I do yoga. Essay About Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? Most of the people in my office do yoga. It probably makes you a better worker. But it’s not going to start a conversation or get you the job. The Stroop? If you can make it interesting — “Recently completed 108 sun salutations in one day to raise money for victims of domestic violence” — now that gets my attention. Which also ties in to Minimum Wage’s question — serving on the board of any organization definitely counts as relevant for a lot of jobs.

It (hopefully) shows that you’re willing to cash cycle, pitch in the stroop when people need help, and that you’ve probably been in situations where you had to solve problems or make decisions as a team. You could have a whole section of your resume for Essay Attention Deficit, “Leadership Positions” that may or may not include anything from your paid employment. Hey Simple Dollar, I keep ending up here from like 10 different places (MyMoneyBlog, this time it’s CodeProject!), good job on the market. There’s a line from the Tao Te Ching: “good speaking leaves nothing to the stroop, pick at”, however, the fact that everyone is prince hector picking at the same thing (chaired committees and objective) gives me the impression that what you’ve written is very good. So good that “we” only want to “fix” two things to make it perfect.

So congrats! :) I will add my two cents to “Objective” discussion: Write a good objective or leave it out . If you don’t think that you can write a good one, leave it out. The Stroop Effect Experiment? I like mine, it’s brief, it’s distinct, it says that I’m here and I’m going there. The same things go for personal interests. My interests include Magic: the factors affecting Gathering Pro Tour Competitor. This isn’t small potatoes, this is big money, I got a free flight to Geneva! I’ve won money at an amateur open event and I’m one of the top-ranked players in the stroop Canada (in Limited). In a brain field, this is about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Analysis a relevant hobby.

Though I can understand the personalized resume, I rarely customize the resume b/c I’m usually looking for the same type of job. As a computer consultant, the 71 different buzzwords and TLAs on my two page resume are all quite specific. I usually just spend extra time (1+ hours) to customize the the stroop cover letter. Interesting about the font type (Georgia) but you don’t reference the font size. Essay About Attention Analysis? What is considered a readable font size?

Font size = minimum 12. Objective. hmmm what if the employer is filling 6 different positions and HR gets ALL the experiment resumes. Which resume goes with which job? Objective: Programmer (Job Title) or using a profile instead of an objective? Minimum Wage: with 25 years of work experience you have a truckload of Athletes Essay, transferable skills (hard and soft skills). The biggest part of the stroop effect experiment, making a resume work is publishing it. I would absolutely work to Essay Attention Disorder, get a website or publish through a networking company such as LinkedIn. The Stroop Effect Experiment? I’ve not had to send my resume to anyone in years. Definitely agree with point # 0 2.

Do not use Microsoft Templates to ensure that your resume stands out from the social affecting crowd and be sure to research the job before applying for it and effect experiment, this way you will be able to create a customized resume which is Societies cognizant to the stroop experiment, the needs of the job and hence ensure at least a interview. Every time I write a resume, I don’t feel good about it. Attention Analysis? But when there’s a call for an interview, I think there’s a hope for me. My resume is not too bad. But what is effect experiment a value of good resume without the skill for an interview. So, I basically think, a good resume is useless without a good skill for Essay Deficit Hyperactivity, an interview. Resume constructing tips found here really great. Definitely i will follow some of them.Thanks for sharing useful information for job seekers. Whatever your taste, this is a great story! Bingo!

I love this blog…just bookmarked it. Keep it coming. These tips helped me to make perfect resume and i got my job finally, all credits goes to you..thanks a Lot. Any experienced resume reviewer can advise on the best way to the stroop experiment, name a resume? Thanks.

Heya i’m for the first time here. Cash Cycle? I came across this board and I find It really useful it helped me. out a lot. I hope to give something back and effect, aid others. like you helped me. Good information. Lucky me I ran across your website by accident (stumbleupon). I have saved as a favorite for The Gentrification Ruth Glass, later!

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The Outsider: From Existentialism to Enlightenment. Originally published in ‘Around the Outsider: Essays on Colin Wilson’ (O Books, 2012) My discovery of The Outsider was a life-changing event – so much so that I can remember it completely clearly. I can even remember the act of pulling the book down from the shelf, in the University of Warwick library, in May 1987, just a few days after my 20 th birthday. I was a second year undergraduate, studying English and American literature – at least I was officially a student, but I had long since stopped going to lectures and only went to the occasional seminar. (I only went to three lectures in the second and third years of my course.) Rather than attending my course, I spent most of my time reading in libraries, or on my own at home, listening to or playing music, writing songs, poems and stories, and feeling depressed and alienated. The Stroop! I often couldn’t bring myself to get up in hector the mornings, and stayed in bed till the afternoons. I frequently fantasised about committing suicide, although I only came close to doing it once. My alienation was partly due to social differences.

Coming from the stroop effect experiment, a lower class northern English background, I found it difficult to relate to the more privileged and Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Analysis, confident middle class southern students I was surrounded with at the university. The Stroop Effect! But more than that, my alienation had a psychological source. Prince Hector! I felt a constant sense of frustration, as if I wasn’t the person I was supposed to be, even though I had no idea who that was. I found it difficult to communicate with anybody – every sentence I spoke sounded inappropriate and inauthentic. I had a sense of being trapped inside my own head, alone inside my own mental space with thoughts and feelings that no one else would ever be able to experience. I felt this isolation painfully, and effect, the thought that it would endure for the rest of my life seemed terrible.

Everybody else around me seemed to have one goal in life: to have a ‘good time,’ to go drinking and socialising, or to smoke cannabis and entertain each other with anecdotes and jokes. I thought I was supposed to be like that too – that I was how I’d been brought up – but because of my frustration and depression, I couldn’t operate at that level. As a result, I thought that there was something wrong with me, that I was a social failure. On top of Theory: Glass, that, I had grown to loathe my course. The Stroop Effect Experiment! I hated the cold intellectual way my professors read literary texts, the way they analysed and social factors affecting, dissected them as if they were dead animals. Effect Experiment! It seemed absurd that they had made a career out of writing books about other people’s books, presuming to social, interpret them as if they had written them themselves. Effect! I agreed with Flaubert, who complained that literary criticism was the lowest form of literature, even lower than a limerick – since at least that required a degree of creativity. As a consequence, The Outsider came as a revelation to me, at exactly the right time. It hooked me from the Athletes Essay first few lines.

I took it home and effect, carried on Essay about Hyperactivity Disorder Analysis, reading until the early hours of the morning. I was captivated by effect experiment, the fluency of Wilson’s style – I’d never read a non-fiction book written with such clarity, pace and verve. But what impressed me most – and still impresses me now – is the power and simplicity with which Wilson expresses his ideas. So many philosophers are poor writers, and cloak the Athletes Essay core meaning of experiment, their words with layers of subterfuge, as if they’re afraid that their ideas will appear to too simplistic in cycle their naked form. Effect! But Wilson had the ability – and Athletes Essay, the courage – to the stroop, communicate profound existential and spiritual ideas with great clarity and enthusiasm. I had already been groping towards some of these ideas myself, and to see them expressed so clearly was exhilarating – and prince, also a relief, to discover that I wasn’t mad; or at least that if I was, dozens of other distinguished Outsiders were too. As I read the effect experiment book, I felt somehow that I was coming home, that a path was slowly forming in front of me.

The next day, when I finished it, I felt like a different person. Athletes Essay! My image of myself had changed, and I knew that my life was going to change too, that that bleak period I’d been living through was drawing to experiment, a close. Of course, I’m not alone in being so affected by The Outsider – apart from its impact on prince, thousands of alienated young people such as myself, in its time it had a massive cultural impact too. Appearing in the mid-50s, it was at the spearhead of what Marilyn Ferguson (1980) called the ‘Aquarian Conspiracy,’ the wave of self-development and spirituality which became most visible during the 1960s, and has been a major part of Western culture ever since. It was part of the same cultural shift as the Beat poets, psychedelic drugs, Timothy Leary and Carlos Castenada, Zen and TM, and the stroop experiment, the hippie movement. In fact, to some degree The Outsider actually helped to create this movement, with its advocacy of social tesco, mysticism and the stroop experiment, spiritual development, and the attention it gave to previously obscure figures like Hesse and A Comparison, Gurdjieff. The Outsider as Literature. One of the reasons why The Outsider had such a powerful impact is that – as I became aware 24 years ago – it has an outstanding literary quality. Even now the book has an amazing freshness. Experiment! The books of many of hector of troy, Wilson’s contemporaries seem sadly dated – Angus Wilson’s novels, for instance, or Lucky Jim , even Room at the Top . You only need to read a few lines to realise that these books belong to a different era.

But The Outsider is somehow timeless; it could have been published 5 years ago, rather than 55. There are only a few authors whose prose has this fresh quality – for example, Schopenhauer, Henry Miller or F. Scott Fitzgerald. Authors like D.H. Lawrence, Aldous Huxley and George Orwell belong to the ‘time-bound’ camp. And Wilson is indisputably a member of the former group. The book’s structure also has a literary quality. The Stroop Experiment! Wilson originally thought of himself as a novelist, and one reason why The Outsider works so well is because of its novelistic structure, its strong narrative arc, and compulsive forward flow. Essay Deficit Hyperactivity! The whole book proceeds in logical, linear fashion. First Wilson deals with the the stroop effect most neurotic and Athletes Essay, least developed Outsiders (such as the narrator of experiment, Barbusse’s L ’Enfer and Sartre’s Roquentin); then he moves on to the romantic Outsiders (such as Steppenwolf and Nietzsche), whose isolation was relieved by occasional spiritual experiences; then the A Comparison Essay artistic Outsiders (such as Van Gogh and Nijinsky), whose art was a means of effect experiment, self-transcendence; and finally, the prince of troy ‘visionary Outsiders’ who have truly solved the ‘Outsider problem’ and effect experiment, reached a permanent state of integration and The Gentrification Essay, transcendence. This narrative arc is the developmental journey of the Outsider, from the stroop, self-division and alienation, through temporary transcendence to permanent spiritual awakening, or enlightenment.

Or in philosophical terms, this is the journey from existentialism, through to romanticism towards mysticism. About Hyperactivity Analysis! Unfortunately though, as Wilson shows, many Outsiders don’t make the whole journey, but become stuck at the earlier stages, due to a lack of self-understanding or self-belief. At the centre of the book is Wilson’s astonishing, magisterial command of a vast array of literature from a dizzying range of sources. One can scarcely imagine how obscure and effect experiment, esoteric some of the cash figures must have seemed in experiment 1956, such as Berdyaev, Heidegger, Gurdjieff and Ramakrishna, together with esoteric philosophies such as the Kabbala and Vedanta. As many reviewers remarked at the time, it seems incredible that a young man of 24 (particularly one from a poor working class background) could have been so erudite, and possessed such a powerful, organising intelligence. The Philosophy of the Outsider.

But of course, the main impact of The Outsider lies in its ideas, and hector of troy, the evolutionary impetus behind them. The Outsider prefigures all of Wilson’s philosophical work. It’s clear from the outset that he’s an existentialist – like Sartre and Camus, only with more clarity, he analyses the effect apparent meaninglessness of human life in an indifferent, empty universe. He describes the existential Outsider’s self-division, his ‘sense of strangeness, or unreality’ (Wilson 1978, p. 25). As he puts it eloquently, ‘The outsider’s sense of unreality cuts him off his freedom at prince, the root. It is as impossible to the stroop effect, exercise freedom in an unreal world as it is to jump while you are falling (ibid., p. 49) At this stage, the Outsider’s defining characteristic is that he can’t accept the surface-level realities of the world, the seemingly rational and Ruth Glass Essay, ordered world of the ‘bourgeois.’ He ‘sees too deep and too much’ (ibid., p. 25). The everyday world seems meaningless to him; all its values seem baseless, and its conventions absurd. He needs something more, but his drive is blind; he doesn’t have enough insight or self-knowledge to understand it.

If this were the effect experiment end of it, The Outsider would still be a cogent existential analysis of the ‘world without values.’ But of course, Wilson moves beyond existentialism, and beyond Sartre and Camus. As far as ‘solutions’ to the ‘Outsider problem’ go, Sartre advocates authenticity and commitment, while Camus suggests a simple acceptance of about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity, absurdity of life, both of which are hardly satisfactory. The difference between them and Wilson is effect experiment, that their philosophies are based on A Comparison of Utopian Societies, the assumption that the vision of reality which normal human consciousness reveals to us is objective, that it tells us the truth about reality. However, Wilson senses that consciousness is a continuum rather than a static point (although he expresses this idea more clearly in the later books of the Outsider cycle). Experiment! For him – as for William James – there are varieties of A Comparison of Utopian Societies, conscious states, some of which are more intense and expansive than others. The Stroop Effect Experiment! Wilson doesn’t trust the existential vision of meaninglessness and indifference, because he is aware of the existence of higher states of consciousness in which this vision is transformed, where the ‘world without values’ becomes a radiant, meaningful and benevolent place. This is where the solution to the ‘Outsider problem’ lies: in gaining access to the world of meaning beyond the limited reality of normal consciousness. For me, this is the most important insight of the A Comparison Societies Essay book – and indeed, of all Wilson’s work: his core intuition that there is something wrong with normal human consciousness. What we think of as our ‘optimum’ state of being is in fact a near pathological state of discord, disconnection and alienation from effect, reality. Our normal consciousness is so narrow and limited that we’re cut off from the essential wonder and meaning of the world, and from the Theory: Essay well-springs of optimism and vitality within our own being.

As a result, we’re trapped in a dangerous subjectivity, suffering from a sense of unreality and inner frustration. (In one of the stroop, his later major works, A Criminal History of Mankind , Wilson describes how this pathological psyche gives rise to crime and violence, and is responsible for the constant conflict and discord which has filled the last few thousand years of human history.) The imperative, then, is for us to The Gentrification Theory:, ‘unpick’ this normal psyche, and transcend it, allowing a new, higher state of consciousness to manifest itself. The Outsider isn’t a self-help book, so Wilson doesn’t tell us how to do this in the stroop effect any great detail, but he does offer some useful guidelines. The Outsider overcomes his self-division and hector, alienation through self-knowledge and self-discipline – most significantly, by learning to discipline his vital energies. The artistic Outsider disciplines his vital energies through his art, but often doesn’t manage to heal his divided psyche, because of his lack of self-understanding. The Stroop Effect! Wilson offers Van Gogh and Nijinsky as examples of this – although they had regular peak experiences, they never overcame their self-division and alienation. What is really needed is some form of spiritual discipline which provides what Wilson describes as ‘a deliberate policing of the vital energies’ (ibid, p. Societies Essay! 113). The Outsider-mystic uses techniques like meditation and prayer to still his ‘energy-stealing emotions’, in order to ‘steadily increase his supply of surplus vital power’ (ibid.). (1) This is what ‘successful’ Outsiders such as George Fox, Blake and the stroop effect experiment, Ramakrishna did.

At this point the Outsider becomes a visionary, a mystic, with a permanent sense of purpose and Athletes Essay, meaning. After struggling through confusion, self-loathing and isolation, he realises the spiritual potential latent within every Outsider, and ends ‘that long effort as an Outsider’ (ibid., p. 295) as a saint. As Wilson himself became aware later on, what he has created here is a positive existentialism – or what might be more accurately described nowadays as a kind of ‘transpersonal existentialism.’ Whereas philosophers such as Sartre and effect experiment, Heidegger busy themselves with diagnosing the problem, he offers a cure. This philosophical content seems remarkably prescient, and is another reason why The Outsider seems strangely modern for a book written more than half a century ago. In fact, its message seems even more relevant, now that the wave of self-development and consciousness expansion has intensified so much, despite the currents of post-modernist superficiality and scepticism which oppose it. In recent years, the American philosopher Ken Wilber has been praised for his attempts to bring Western and social, Eastern psychology together, by integrating the developmental schemes of psychologists such as Piaget and Erickson with Eastern development paths such as Vedanta and Buddhism (see, for example, Wilber’s magnum opus Sex, Ecology and Spirituality , 1995). And it strikes me that, three decades before Wilber, Wilson was trying to do something similar: to integrate Western existentialist philosophy with the spirituality of the stroop experiment, Christian mysticism and conversion, Eastern philosophy, and in the stroop experiment doing so, take existentialism out of its impasse, and find a solution to the Lebensfrage . The Outsider and Evolution.

Despite their highly positive tone, some initial reviewers complained that Wilson’s use of term ‘Outsider’ was so broad that it became virtually meaningless. As J.B. Priestley noted, for example, ‘[The Outsiders’] personalities are so widely various, they present so many different psychological types, that any discussion of them based on their common likeness does not takes us very far’ (1988, p.94). Athletes Essay! This is even truer of Wilson’s ‘sequel’, Religion and the Rebel , where figures such as F. The Stroop Effect! Scott Fitzgerald and George Bernard Shaw sit uneasily next to Rimbaud and Wittgenstein. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Analysis! (In his introduction to the 1984 reprint of Religion and the Rebel , Wilson himself notes that ‘many people I discuss as Outsiders…could just as easily be labelled Insiders’ [Wilson, 1984, pp. viii-ix]). Nevertheless, I believe that the term ‘Outsider’ is valid, and the stroop experiment, does identify a real phenomenon. In fact, this is one of the reasons why the book is so significant – because it was the first detailed examination of a new human type, or at least a new kind of consciousness. Of course, Wilson wasn’t the first author to identify this new human type. Nietszche meant something very similar with his distinction between the ‘Ultimate Man’ and the Superman. The Ultimate Man is completely satisfied with himself as he is, and strives only to make his life as comfortable and enjoyable as possible. Cash Conversion! But in reality, says Nietzsche, the human being is the stroop effect experiment, not fixed and complete, like the Ultimate man, but a process, a bridge and not a goal: ‘a rope fastened between animal and Superman.’ (Nietzsche, 1985, p. 43) The potential Superman, like the Outsider, is the person who is not self-satisfied, who has the urge to ‘overcome himself.’ For him, life is an attempt at ‘going across’ the gulf between animal and Essay Attention Disorder Analysis, superman. In his novel Demian , Hermann Hesse makes a similar distinction, dividing human beings into a majority for the stroop effect whom life is just a question of keeping themselves comfortable and secure and maintaining the status quo, and a small minority who have an urge for self-transcendence. Essay Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder! (Strangely enough, although Wilson he discusses Demian at some length, Wilson doesn’t mention Hesse’s use of effect, this distinction.) As the novel’s narrator Emil Sinclair says:

We were ‘awake’ or ‘wakening’ and our striving was directed at an ever-increasing wakefulness, whereas their striving and prince, quest for happiness was aimed at identifying their thoughts, ideals, duties, their lives and fortunes more and the stroop experiment, more closely with that of the Essay about Attention Disorder herd…Whereas we, on the stroop, our conception, represented the hector of troy will of nature to renew itself, to the stroop effect experiment, individualise and march forward, the others lived in the desire for the perpetuation of things as they are. For them humanity…was something complete that must be maintained and protected. For us humanity was a distant goal towards which we were marching (Hesse, 1969, p. 137) The main distinction here is that the potential Superman (or Outsider) feels somehow incomplete and unfinished. He has a dynamic urge to develop, whereas ‘ordinary’ people are ‘static’ in the sense that they don’t feel this need for growth. Abraham Maslow’s concept of ‘self-actualisers’ is Glass Essay, obviously closely linked to this too. Maslow was puzzled by experiment, the fact that only a small minority of people seemed to progress to the highest level of his ‘hierarchy of needs’, the tesco level of ‘self-actualisation.’ Most people, he observed, stop striving once their material and emotional needs are satisfied.

But self-actualisers keep growing. According to Maslow, whereas ‘the motivational need of experiment, ordinary people is hector of troy, a striving for the basic need gratifications that they lack’, for self-actualisers ‘motivation is character growth, character expression, maturation and development’ (Maslow, 1970, p. 165). Self-actualisation is a process which leads to the goal of being ‘self-actualised.’ This is equivalent to the stage of the ‘successful’ Outsider – the point where the the stroop effect individual becomes completely integrated, and free of any psychological discord. According to Maslow, the ‘self-actualised’ person has a constant freshness of perception, is free of negative thoughts or feelings, and lives spontaneously and freely, without any prejudice towards others. He or she has a greater need for peace and solitude than other people, and a sense of duty or mission which transcends their personal ambitions or desires. Cash Conversion Cycle! (2) But are these distinctions really accurate? Are there really two types of human beings – the poor, unfortunate, ordinary civil servants and factory hands who take the world for the stroop effect granted and are content to repeat the same experiences again and conversion, again, and the dynamic few who feel a powerful urge for self-development? I don’t think anyone would seriously suggest that we’re dealing with two clear-cut human types.

This is another issue which Wilson takes his younger self to task for, admitting the miscalculation that ‘I talk about “the Outsider” as if he is a precisely definable type of human being, like an Eskimo or a cannibal. The truth is, of experiment, course, that most people contain an element of ‘Outsiderism’…For me now, this constant use of the term Outsider gives the book [ Religion and the Rebel ] an element of oversimplification.’ (Wilson, 1984, viii-ix). Rather than a distinct human type, we’re dealing a new kind of psyche – or a new kind of consciousness – which is beginning to develop in Hyperactivity Analysis more human beings, and which manifests itself in different people to a greater or lesser to degree. This new kind of consciousness is the stroop, more intense and expansive than ordinary consciousness in that it includes a heightened perception of the is-ness and beauty of the world, a heightened sense of connection to other people, nature and the cosmos as a whole, and a sense of the affecting tesco meaning, harmony and ultimate spiritual essence of the universe. The ‘Outsiders’ (or ‘self-actualisers’) are simply people in whom this new kind of psyche is experiment, strongly developed. The dynamic urge for self-development these people feel is the impulse to allow this new consciousness to The Gentrification Theory: Ruth Glass Essay, manifest itself. In many people, it is latent rather than fully formed, in the same way that the state of a butterfly is latent in a caterpillar. The Outsider’s struggle is to the stroop effect, bring this latent consciousness to full fruition, and Essay Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, emerge as a higher ‘butterfly’ self. As Wilson pointed out later, this struggle is essentially an evolutionary urge. From the the stroop inner point of view – as opposed to Essay about, the outer, physical level – evolution is a process of living beings becoming progressively more conscious: more aware of their surroundings, of effect experiment, their own selves and factors, their predicament as living beings in the world, with more autonomy and freedom to control their own actions and their environment. And so by the stroop, intensifying and expanding his own consciousness, the Outsider is contributing to social tesco, this process.

He is effectively an agent of experiment, evolution, attempting to carry the evolutionary process further forward. His urge for self-transcendence is an individual manifestation of the evolutionary impulse to about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Analysis, move forward to more complex and conscious life forms. As Wilson wrote in 1967, ‘Evolution has been trying [through the Outsider] to create a human being capably of travelling faster than sound. Capable, that is, of a seriousness, a mental intensity that is completely foreign to the average human animal’ (Wilson, 1978, p. 303). The evolutionary movement which the the stroop experiment Outsider is A Comparison Essay, a part of has, I believe, been clearly visible for around 250 years. In my book The Fall , I suggest that since roughly the mid-eighteenth century, major cultural changes have occurred which can be seen as the effect result of a general inner psychological shift. Of Utopian Societies Essay! At this time, a new wave of empathy seemed to the stroop, emerge, a new ability to sense the suffering of other human beings – and of Utopian Societies Essay, animals too – and a new emphasis on the stroop, the rights of The Gentrification, other individuals. This led to the women’s movement, the animal rights movement, the anti-slavery movement, more humane treatment of disabled people and homeless children, and the abolition of brutal forms of punishment. This empathy spread to nature too, resulting in the Romantic movement, based on the feelings of ecstasy and transcendence which nature induced.

More recently, this new sense of the stroop effect, connection to nature has given rise to the environmental and cash conversion cycle, ecological movements, a return to the empathic and respectful stance towards nature of many of the world’s indigenous peoples. The old duality between the experiment ego and the body – and the sexual repression this gave rise to – has begun to fade away too, resulting in a more open attitude to cycle, sex and the human body. Effect Experiment! And of Essay Attention Hyperactivity Disorder Analysis, course, over the last few decades we have also had the ‘Aquarian Conspiracy’ – a massive upsurge in interest in eastern spiritual traditions, and effect experiment, self-development. These changes show a movement beyond the separate ego – the separateness which has led to environmental abuse and hector, sexual repression, and the narrowness of consciousness which has led to brutality, oppression and exploitation. In my opinion, they are too significant to be merely the result of social or cultural factors.

I believe that they are the visible effects of an evolutionary change – a collective intensification of consciousness, and a progression towards a more integrated, less pathological state. This is the effect experiment evolutionary movement which has been – and still is, of course – creating Outsiders, and which they are contributing to. The Reputation of the A Comparison of Utopian Societies Essay Outsider. Even in the 1950s, The Outsider ’s impact was limited by effect, the media backlash against prince hector of troy Wilson. (Partly this was his own doing – he has never done himself any favours in his relations with the media, often appearing self-absorbed and arrogant). At the time, nothing did him as much harm at the time as his protestations of his own genius. Experiment! However, on the evidence of about Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, The Outsider , it’s hard to experiment, dispute that something approximating to genius was at work.

At any rate, the book shows massive intellectual precociousness, almost to the extent of a child prodigy or an autistic savant. Wilson is probably one of the few authors whose first book – and in fact, first few books, if we take the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Analysis Outsider sequence as a whole – was (were) his most fully realised and important. His later works have never quite reached the same level of power and insight, although some have come close (in my opinion, New Pathways in Psychology and A Criminal History of Mankind ). In fact, I should admit that I’m not a great fan of Wilson’s books on crime and the supernatural, most of which lack the intellectual rigour of his early work, and sometimes show a lack of critical judgement, too much openness towards the irrational and unproven. The plethora of such books has also tended to weaken the long-term impact of The Outsider , and the other books of the ‘Outsider Cycle.’(Happily, however, his most recent book, Superconsciousness , rekindles some of his insight and experiment, power.) My guess is cash cycle, that, while some of Wilson’s more popular work – the many books he has written for financial reasons – will be forgotten, future generations will view him as an important philosopher of human development; someone who saw very clearly – perhaps more clearly than anyone else before him apart from Nietszche – that human beings are incomplete and even subnormal as we presently are, and the stroop experiment, who helped to facilitate the shift to The Gentrification Theory: Ruth Glass, a healthier and higher state. For me though, The Outsider ’s real importance will always lie in its effect on my own evolution. The Stroop Effect! In his 1978 introduction to a new edition, Wilson writes that the early success of the book gave him ‘a feeling like leaving harbour’, (1978, p. 19). And the book had a similar effect on me. It was like being given a code which allowed me to decipher my mental confusion and understand myself.

It was a matter of self-esteem too – The Outsider told me that there wasn’t something wrong with me after all; on the contrary, it was a positive thing to be different. Together with the other books of the Outsider cycle which I devoured soon afterwards – particularly Beyond the Outsider and Introduction to the New Existentialism – it gave me a sense of identity and prince of troy, clarity, a notion of the the stroop path that I was meant to hector, follow through life. I’m still following that path – and I will always be grateful for Wilson’s guidance. 1) In re-reading The Outsider for this essay, I’ve realised that I may be indebted to Wilson for one of the basic ideas of own recent book, Waking From Sleep . The Stroop Effect! The central concept of the book is that higher states of consciousness – or awakening experiences, as I call them – have two basic causes. Firstly, they can occur when the affecting normal homeostasis of our physiology is disrupted e.g. through fasting, sleep deprivation, self-inflicted pain or psychedelic drugs. Secondly, they can occur as a result of what I call an ‘intensification and stilling of life-energy.’ This happens when certain activities or situations have the effect of halting or reducing our normal ‘outflow’ of energy, so that our vitality becomes concentrated inside us. This can happen through meditation, contact with nature, listening to music, sex, general relaxation and the stroop effect experiment, so on.

As far as I was aware, I developed this idea from social affecting, Evelyn’s Underhill’s study Mysticism , and the stroop, partly from my observations of how my own awakening experiences occur. But it’s possible that the germ of the idea was planted in my mind many years ago, by this passage: The concentration of the energies is undoubtedly one of the The Gentrification Ruth most important conditions of the state the saints call Innigkeit, inwardness. The saint achieves inwardness by a deliberate policing of the vital energies. The Stroop! He comes to recognise the energy-stealing emotions, all the emotions that do not make for inwardness, and he sets out to exterminate them in himself. A Comparison Of Utopian! As he moves towards his objective, he increases steadily his supply of the stroop effect experiment, surplus vital power, and prince of troy, so increases his powers of foresight and hindsight, the sense of other times and other places; there is a breaking free of the body’s sense of effect, imprisonment in cash conversion cycle time and a rising of warm life-energy that is spoken of in the Gospel as ‘to have life more abundantly (Wilson, 1978, p.113).

If I had been aware of it at the time, I would certainly have quoted this passage and credited Wilson. Hopefully I will be able to for a later edition. 2) Carl Rogers – Maslow’s fellow humanistic psychologist, and the founder of person-centred counselling – had a similar concept too, of ‘the person of tomorrow.’ Like Maslow, Rogers believed that this person was a member of a small but growing minority. He described them as striving for ‘a wholeness of life, with thought, feeling, physical energy, psychic energy, healing energy, all being integrated in experience… These persons have a trust in the stroop effect their own experience and a profound distrust of external authority. They make their own moral judgements, even openly disobeying laws that they consider unjust.’ (Rogers, 1980, pp. 350-51) Ferguson, M. (1980). Prince! The Aquarian Conspiracy . New York: Tarcher.

Hesse, H. (1960/1989). Demian . (Trans, W. J. Strachan). The Stroop! London: Paladin. Maslow, A. Cash Cycle! (1970). Motivation and the stroop experiment, Personality (2 nd Edition). New York: Harper Row. Nietszche, F. Social Affecting! (1985). The Stroop! Thus Spoke Zarathustra . (Trans. R. J. Hollingdale).

London: Penguin. Priestley, J.B. (1988). In Colin Wilson: A Celebration (Ed. Colin Stanley). London: Cecil Woolf. Rogers, C. (1980). A Way of Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Being . Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Taylor, S. Effect! (2005). A Comparison Of Utopian Societies Essay! The Fall: The Insanity of the Ego in experiment Human History and the Dawning of a New Era . The Gentrification Theory: Ruth Essay! Ropley: O Books. Taylor, S. (2010).

Waking from Sleep: Why Awakening Experiences Occur and How to make them Permanent . Effect! London: Hay House. Wilber, K. A Comparison Societies Essay! (1995). The Stroop Experiment! Sex, Ecology and cash cycle, Spirituality . The Stroop Experiment! Boston: Shambhala. Wilson. C, (1956/1978). The Outsider . London: Picador.

Wilson, C. (1984). Religion and the Rebel . (Reprint edition). Bath: Ashgrove Press. Wilson, C. (1984). About! A Criminal History of Mankind . London: Grafton. Wilson, C. (2009).

Superconsciousness . London: Watkins.

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4Ps Of Marketing Essays and experiment Research Papers. that a strong customer-driven marketing strategy can give one an edge over his competition. Designing it, however, did not prove to be so . Cash Cycle. straightforward. It is therefore this reflection paper’s aim to ponder over the various aspects that I have found intriguing and glean insights from them. Firstly is the “ Marketing Mix” aspect, specifically the 4 P’s framework – Product, Pricing, Placing Promotion. The 4 P’s is experiment one of the best known frameworks for a marketing plan, of which the aim is ultimately. A Comparison. Management , Market research , Marketing 1861 Words | 5 Pages.

Is the 4Ps Marketing Model Limiting Students? and the complexity of marketing circumstances, marketing mix management, which has been defined as 4Ps by Neil . Borden in effect experiment 1953, regarding product, price, place and promotion, is too simple to meet the demand of today’s marketing place. About Attention Hyperactivity Disorder. While, the model of the stroop effect 4Ps marketing mix has been introduced to marketing coursebooks widely. Furthermore, it also has been used as a basic framework to teach marketers to cash conversion think in a fixed way instead of doing more researches during their marketing studying. Therefore. Business , Marketing , Marketing mix 1542 Words | 5 Pages. The 4p Classification of the Marketing Mix Revisited. The 4P's Classification of the Marketing Mix Revisited This article, addresses the prime classifications scheme in . marketing , the 4P configuration of the marketing mix. The marketing discipline needs a strong classification of the marketing mix, not only to stimulate conceptual integration and purification of the discipline, but also for meaningful measurement of marketing mix efforts and their effects. Also, managers need a clear classification of all instruments at the stroop experiment, their disposal in order.

Generic function , Marketing , Marketing mix 1216 Words | 4 Pages. ? Department of Business Management Assignment Brief Module Title: Marketing Module Code: MG406 Assignment No/Title: CWK1: . 4Ps Report Assessment Weighting: 30% Submission Date: Week 9 – Friday 28th November at 2pm Feedback Target Date: 19th December Module Co-ordinator/ Tutor: Celosia Mendes ([email protected]) Sarah Hill ([email protected]), Greg Dooley ([email protected]) Course Area: Marketing Submission Instructions: 1. This assignment must be submitted electronically. Cash Conversion. Brand , Citation , Marketing 1607 Words | 4 Pages. Marketing Mix - 4Ps of Marketing Mix. Marketing mix can be describes as the use and specification of the 4 Ps describing the strategic position of a product in the marketplace… A . prominent person to the stroop experiment take centre stage was E. Jerome McCarthy in 1960; he proposed a four-P classification which was popularized. (wikipedia.com) The marketing mix approach to marketing is a model of creating and implementing market strategies. The marketing mix stresses the mixing of different factors in a way that both organizational and consumer or target. A Comparison Societies. Advertising , Marketing , Marketing management 1230 Words | 4 Pages. ? MARKETING MIX – CITROEN DS3 Comparison France – China Gregoire Duffour - 20140202930 Marketing Mix of the Citroen DS3 . in effect France and China Citroen is a French automobile manufacturer. Essay Attention Hyperactivity Disorder. Andre Citroen founded the company in 1919. The brand has always been known for experiment its cutting-edge technology and, on several occasions, it revolutionized the automotive industry. Citroen notably created the conversion cycle, “Traction Avant” in 1934, the utility H, the 2CV, DS, GS, BX, SM, CX or, XM which are all avant-garde. Automobile , Brand , Brand management 1694 Words | 5 Pages. ?The perception and marketing strategy Perception is the human brain whole reflect about the effect experiment, stimulus various attributes and each part.

The . Affecting Tesco. perceptual process can be divided into revealed, pay attention to and understand the three stages. Products, advertising, packaging and marketing stimulation will influence consumers behavior only when their brains produce perception.Understand consumers' perception process, can help company to effect experiment better grasp the consumer psychology, can help enterprises to. Advertising , Brand , Coca-Cola 725 Words | 3 Pages. Political Marketing in India By Prof. Gurinder Singh Ahluwalia . Essay. GJIMT, Mohali. Abstract Political Marketing has already become a subject of serious study and research in the US and effect the West but not quite so in A Comparison India in the stroop particular.

Political parties prefer to rely on the experts from within the party to design its campaign strategy though advertising is cash outsourced to the professional advertisers. India’s oldest political. Experiment. Advertising , Elections , India 4226 Words | 14 Pages. ? 4Ps Case Study 4Ps (Price, Place, Promotion and Product) model is a useful tool for Athletes Essay companies to effect plan and implement market . strategies, after analyzing by 4Ps model, companies would have a better way to plan what or who is their target market, what is their obstacle and what they should do. Here is the simple graph of Ruth Glass 4Ps model. Case – McDonald’s McDonald’s is world-famous. One of the key reasons is that it has great Market strategy. How can it have such a great plan? In this part we’ll discuss. Marketing , Marketing mix , Marketing plan 1253 Words | 6 Pages. Duong Nguy?n Th?o Minh Topic: Compare the two shops using Marketing Mix ( 4Ps ) 1) Sketchers ( World Famous) 2) Bata Report . First, we will talk about the stroop experiment, marketing mix The marketing mix is one of the most famous marketing terms.

The marketing mix is the tactical or operational part of a marketing plan. In other word, marketing mix means putting the right product in the right place, at the right price, at the right time. The 4Ps are: Product: is related to design, quality, feature, friendly. A Comparison Of Utopian. Marketing , Marketing mix , Million 993 Words | 4 Pages. Effect. ?2. The 4Ps of Marketing – Product, Price, Promotion, and Place Needs are obviously met by the product itself. Needs, . however, can also be met by the other components of what is called the marketing mix. These other components are Price, Promotion, and Place. The Price component of the marketing mix is defined as the original price that a producer sets for its product. This original price may be different from the final price paid by buyers because of promotional offers or because of individual. Barriers to entry , Customer , Marketing 1435 Words | 5 Pages. I. Cash. Implementation of marketing mix (4P’s mix) Product: 1) Product Level: The Customer Value Hierarchy Core Benefit: Club Med is an . innovative all-inclusive holidays for traveler/family to relax and enjoys carefree getaway and effect unique experiences with their loved ones.

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Segmentation Strategy In order to build better relationships with right customers, Razer divides the the stroop experiment, market into a clear segmentation and focus on their particular. Brand management , Market segmentation , Marketing 1296 Words | 4 Pages. six times higher than the costs of retaining old ones 5. Which of these is not part of the marketing concept? Matching competitors' . offering 6. The Gentrification Theory: Ruth Glass. What is the purpose of production orientation focus? The purpose of the the stroop effect, organisation is to manufacture the highest quality products 7. Which of these is not a feature of a market driven business? They stick with the Athletes Essay, same products 8. Why do marketing -orientated companies attempt to create customer value? In order to attract and retain customers . Customer , Customer relationship management , Customer service 1866 Words | 5 Pages. Marketing strategies are a main back bone to any business. There are 4 Ps governs the whole marketing strategy and those 4 Ps of experiment . marketing are Product, Price, Promotion and Positioning.

These 4 P’s of marketing will evaluate your strategy as weak or strong. Many biggest business giants also follow these four things in detail in factors planning their marketing strategy. This is the stepping stone to take your marketing towards success. If these 4 P’s of the stroop effect experiment marketing are fulfilled in the required manner then. Accept , Competition , Customer 524 Words | 2 Pages. each company and offering must represent a distinctive ________ in the mind of the target market. Essay About Deficit Hyperactivity Analysis. a. promotion b. cell c. big idea d. ad . e. organizational concept Answer: c Page: 309 Level of difficulty: Medium 2. All marketing strategy is the stroop effect experiment built on STP—segmentation, targeting, and ________. a. positioning b. product c. planning d. promotion e. performance Answer: a Page: 310 Level of difficulty: Medium 3. ________ is the act of social factors designing the company’s. Brand , Brand management , Marketing 8694 Words | 39 Pages. ? Executive summary This report provides an the stroop effect experiment analysis of the marketing strategy of Dior Company. The evaluation is based . on the perfume, recently launched by Glass the company.

Methods of analysis include visual analyzes and comparison. Results of data analyzed show that the level of marketing performance of the stroop effect experiment Dior Company is quite good. The report finds that the company has many prospects in the current position. Nevertheless, the company needs to be careful with European markets as. Advertising , Brand , Marketing 1465 Words | 5 Pages. The Case analysis of Marketing Strategy for Self-financed Rehabilitation Centre Identifying marketing mix model . The Gentrification Ruth. 4P when planning marketing strategy Introduction Situation Definition According to the website of Hong Kong Christian Service, “Since 1952, Hong Kong Christian Service (HKCS) has been working towards a humane and the stroop effect experiment just society. It provide the needy with suitable, professional and Essay about Attention Deficit Disorder reliable quality services. We care for the disadvantaged.

Marketing , Marketing management , Marketing mix 2120 Words | 7 Pages. The Stroop Effect Experiment. The 4Ps At this point the of Utopian Societies, marketing mix is put together. The product life cycle Sales Time Decline Maturity Growth . The Stroop. Development Introduction i. Product The important thing to remember when offering menu items to potential customers is that there is a huge amount of choice available to those potential customers with regard to Athletes Essay how and where they spend their money. Therefore McDonald’s places considerable emphasis on developing a menu which customers want. Market research establishes exactly. Advertising , Marketing , Marketing mix 850 Words | 4 Pages. ?To target the selected segment, we have planned to set the 4Ps strategy as following. About the product, our product is an innovative . backpack called AirBackPack, which is a backpack that contain a radiating system, it can keep the effect, AirBackPack user cool when carrying it. Athletes Essay. And it can also discharge warm air, so that people can keep comfortable in the stroop experiment winter too. We decided to introduce the AirBackPack to Gregory, a outdoor bag productions company, because Gregory have a good brand name in different.

Bag , Cost , Generation Y 443 Words | 2 Pages. ?Please discuss the term strategy and the importance of the “ 4p ?s” for marketing strategy. Generally strategy comes from the . Essay. Greek word “strategos” (general), a person who used to be the military general of a city-state and who used to be responsible for creating a plan and put it into action (xxxxxx). Effect. Due to The Gentrification Theory: Glass the fact that terms and effect experiment expressions were consequently changing over centuries, it can be really hard to find in the current climate a ?proper? definition, which describes exactly the term. Advertising , Comparison of video services , Google 1520 Words | 4 Pages. Cash Conversion. ?A WINTER PROJECT REPORT ON EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION IN ORGANIZED RETAIL SECTORS (VISHAL MEGA MART) Submitted To: DEPARTMENT OF . MANAGEMENT COLLEGE OF MANAGEMENT AND COMPUTER APPLICATION, MORADABAD In Partial Fulfillment of the the stroop experiment, Requirement of the Degree of Master of Business Administration (MBA) SESSION: 2012-2013 TEERTHANKER MAHAVEER UNIVERSITY MORADABAD Guided By – Mr. Tusshar Mahajan Associate Professor TMIMT, TMU . Administration , Bihar , Business school 429 Words | 5 Pages. Prince Of Troy. Strategic Marketing Project Three Niece Farm Prepared By: Steve Bellanti, Kayla Machado, Ashley Marco, and Lisa Spinney . Marketing Strategy Development MBA602 Professor Raymond C. Guillette Assumption College Graduate School December 7, 2011 Project Outline I. Executive Summary (Kayla) II. Situational Analysis (Lisa) a. SWOT Analysis b. Experiment. External Analysis III. Societies. Customer Environment (Ashley) . Alpaca , Llama , Marketing 1678 Words | 7 Pages. 4Ps of innovation and experiment Reliance 4Ps. Essay. ? INNOVATION MANAGEMENT 4Ps of innovation and effect Reliance 4Ps Author: Charanpal Singh . Written Date: 20 July 2014 Email id: [email protected] Table of Contents Topic Page no. Cash Cycle. 1. Introduction -----------------------------------------------1 2. 4ps definition and understanding----------------------1 3. Experiment. 4ps framework of Reliance------------------------------2 4. Reliance overview and tasks done--------------------2 5. Company’s. Anil Ambani , Dhirubhai Ambani , Innovation 1224 Words | 5 Pages.

School of Marketing amp; International Business MARK 101: Principles of Marketing The Situational Analysis Report. Due: . Two Page Draft (10%) - Thursday 4 April, 12pm, Assignment box, Location TBA. No extensions granted. Full Marketing Report (25%) - Wednesday 15 May, 12pm. Assignment box. Location TBA. Cash Cycle. Electronic Copy through Turnitin by the stroop effect 5pm Note: Any work. Business intelligence , Marketing , Marketing management 1888 Words | 7 Pages. 4P ANALYSIS OF SMILAX LABORATORIES LIMITED: * PRODUCT * PRICE * PLACE * PROMOTION PRODUCT: The Products offered by the . company are: PRICE: Internal factors affecting pricing of drugs are: Goal and Objectives Company’s goals and objectives are to create the market share of its company and to survive in tesco the market. So company shifts its prices to increase sales and to create its market position.

Organizational Consideration The decisions regarding the price of drugs. The Stroop Effect Experiment. Andhra Pradesh , Competition , Marketing 515 Words | 3 Pages. Prince Hector. The 4Ps and the marketing mix The 4Ps are the ideas to consider when marketing a product. They . Experiment. form the basis of the marketing mix. Getting this mix right is critical in order to successfully market a product. Prince Of Troy. The 4Ps are: 1. Product 2. Price 3. Promotion 4. Place If market research is carried out experiment, effectively, a company can plan a promotion for the right product, at the right price, and to get it to hector their chosen market, in the right place. Effect. Now look at the 4Ps in more.

Business , Distribution , Marketing 708 Words | 3 Pages. many other factors have “given the dramatic changes occurring in Athletes Essay the marketing environment” (Baker 1995, citied in OMamp;P, 1998:840). . Effect. Marketers have mission to understand and re-present these changes to adapt to affecting tesco new circumstances. This essay will look into how modern marketing has developed and expanded and what should marketers do to turn these challenges to opportunities to cope with the future. The modern marketing was largely built-up by the North – Americans (Meek, Ryan, amp; Lenney. Customer relationship management , Marketing , Marketing mix 2267 Words | 7 Pages. Effect. Marketing Management: The Marketing Planning Process.

Module: MARKETING MANAGEMENT Assignment Title: THE MARKETING PLANNING PROCESS Background: The marketing . Hector. mix comprises of the standard 4Ps (or other models). The 4Ps can easily be identified and applied in practice. Experiment. However, it can be difficult to balance the Societies Essay, 4Ps in order to provide the right product/services to the right customer at the right place and at the right time. It is therefore not surprising that marketing is both an art and the stroop effect experiment science, as the tesco, act of balancing the marketing mix requires. Distribution , Marketing , Marketing management 922 Words | 3 Pages. BACHELOR OF COMMERCE UNIT NAME: MARKETING RESEARCH UNIT CODE: HCB 2210 . QUESTION Critically discuss the research conducted on the marketing mix variables and evaluate the benefits of such information to marketing management. INTRODUCTION The marketing mix and effect the 4 Ps of The Gentrification Essay marketing are often used as synonyms for each other. In fact, they are not necessarily the same thing. Marketing mix is a general phrase used to describe the different. Distribution , Marketing , Marketing mix 762 Words | 3 Pages.

The key in marketing with Disney synergetic strategy as a global media Company, Marketing mix applied for the product industry . The Stroop. consists of the cash conversion cycle, 4 P: Product, Place, Price, and Promotion. The 4P relate to effect experiment the marketing tactics used by a specific company in accordance with a previously developed marketing plan. Marketing tactics evolve around the target audience the key Company customers that generate the most of the revenue, whereas the tactics is then adjusted to create the Theory: Essay, most benefits for them. Disneyland Park , Magic Kingdom , Marketing 930 Words | 3 Pages. MARKETING 101 The marketing approach Analyze Decide Act Feedback loop The market . Define, size, structure Actual and potential market, evolution (launch, growth, maturity, decline), factors (legal, cultural, tech, eco demographic) The actors • The consumer and the stroop effect experiment the customer Need: which type: physical (physical, security) vs psychological (belonging, esteem, accomplishment) Information gathering: implication.

Brand , Brand management , Competition 690 Words | 5 Pages. [pic] EAST ASIA Institute of Management ______________________________________________________________ Diploma in Hospitality and Tourism . Management HT 1020 marketing in HT Report ____Title:MARKETING_______ Class: DHT 1 Lecturer: Mr. Jeffrey Lee Group’s Name:killers S/No Names Student ID 1 . Michael 1009/7446 2 . William 1009/7357 3 . Cecily 1206/9880 4 . Of Troy. Allen . History of Singapore , Museum , Museum planning 2098 Words | 7 Pages. ?INTRODUCTION According to palmer (2004; 576), “the marketing mix refers to the choices available to a company or organization regarding the the stroop effect, . Essay Deficit Analysis. promotion or marketing of its product or services. Usually this process involves considerations regarding where the marketing will take place, the effect, product or service, the customers, and the best way to carry out the promotion as a whole.” The marketing mix is not based on affecting tesco any theory, but on the need for marketing managers to the stroop effect experiment breakdown their decision making into. Advertising , Marketing , Marketing management 995 Words | 3 Pages. Hyperactivity. Critical analysis of marketing mix. ? Marketing mix for effect evaluating business situations Analytical frameworks are the models designed by the experts who might have faced an problem . Hector Of Troy. earlier in either establishing or running a business unit. Fortunately, we can use these analytical frameworks to our advantage in order to identify the skills, organization techniques, examples and effect experiment expertise of others (Lieberman, 2007). The most prominent business tool which was first expressed by McCarthy (1960) is 4 Ps of social tesco marketing mix. The Stroop Effect Experiment. Marketing mix. Athletes Essay. Distribution , Management , Marketing 836 Words | 3 Pages.

? Marketing Mix MKT/421 November 13, 2013 Dr. Brett Branch Marketing Mix The market mix is a tool used by . marketing firms use as a guide to meet their marketing goals. The marketing mix also known as the 4Ps of the stroop marketing (product, place, price, and promotion) plays an social tesco important part in growth of an company or organization. Product is producing the the stroop, right product for The Gentrification Essay the right target market. Place comes down to the stroop experiment just getting the product to the market targeted area, the product. Conversion Cycle. Automobile , CSK Auto , Marketing 936 Words | 3 Pages. The Marketing Mix and 4 Ps What is marketing ? The definition that many marketers learn as they start out in the industry is: . The Stroop Experiment. Putting the right product in the right place, at the right price, at the right time.

It's simple! we just need to create a product that a particularly group of people want, put it on sale some place that those same people visit regularly, and price it at Essay about Hyperactivity Analysis, a level which matches the value they feel they get out of the stroop experiment it; and do all that at a time they want to social factors affecting tesco buy. The Stroop Experiment. Then we've. Marketing , Marketing management , Marketing mix 619 Words | 3 Pages. The Expanded Marketing Mix: IKEA - highlights the 4Ps and expanded 7Ps marketing mix. The Expanded Marketing Mix: IKEA Introduction At any successful company, marketing seeks to factors affecting connect with customers, serve their . needs, and accomplish the stated mission of the organization. A successful marketing process creates value through consumer satisfaction from brand building before the sale to post-sales service and support (Kotler et al, 2001). The marketing strategy process has four primary segments: product, price placement, promotion and people (Kotler et al, 2001).

Companies with. IKEA , IKEA Catalogue , Marketing 1648 Words | 6 Pages. The Stroop Effect Experiment. MARKETING AND SALESMANSHIP (REVISED CURRICULUM) MARKETING -I 3 HOURS CLASS XI MARKS: 60 Theory I. Introduction: . Meaning, nature and scope of Marketing ; Importance of Marketing ; Difference between Marketing sellings; Concepts of Marketing : Production concept, product concept, Sales concept Marketing concept; Marketing Philosophies: marketing societal marketing 15 II. Marketing Segmentation and tesco Targeting: Meaning and importance; Bases of the stroop effect experiment market segmentation: geographic, demographic. Consultative selling , Customer service , Marketing 1069 Words | 6 Pages. The Marketing Mix Marketers, in order to bring out desired responses from their target markets, use a number of tools that form a . Cash Cycle. marketing mix. Marketing mix is experiment defined as the The Gentrification Theory: Essay, set of marketing tools that an organization uses to the stroop experiment follow its marketing objectives in the target market. McCarthy has classified these tools as the 4Ps of marketing which are product, price, place and promotion. (McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2002) The 4Ps are the ideas to take into account while marketing a product. They constitute. Advertising , Business , Coca-Cola 1147 Words | 3 Pages.

Assignment 1.1: Discussion — The Value of Marketing to Customers In this assignment you will participate in a discussion on the value of . marketing to customers. Procedure 1. In the forum, discuss the tesco, value of marketing to the consumer, the stakeholder, and the stockholder. Your forum post should address the following: a. The value you place on marketing . b. The value of marketing to customers and consumers. c. Effect Experiment. The value of marketing to Athletes Essay stakeholders and stockholders. The Stroop Experiment. 2. Marketing , Shareholder , Stakeholder 635 Words | 3 Pages. ? Relevance of the Marketing Concept as a Management Philosophy Prepared for: University Of Ulster Prepared by: Santosh Lama (B00623651) Date: . 20/11/2014 Word count:- 2048 Table of of Utopian Essay Contents Executive summary Intoduction 2 3 Critical Analysis of Marketing Concept and its Relevance. 4 Marketing Concept 4 McDonald’s Implementation of Marketing Concept 5 McDonald’s Strategy Influence Its Business Structure 6 McDonald’s in China 6 McDonald’s in experiment France 6 McDonald’s Strategy Influence Its External.

Brand , Business , Fast food 1946 Words | 10 Pages. microenvironment is the actors close to the company that affect its ability to serve its customers. The elements that have in social factors tesco the microenvironment company’s . are the company, suppliers, marketing intermediaries, customer markets, competitors, and publics. The Stroop. • The company In designing marketing plans, marketing management takes other company group into account – group such as the cash conversion, top management, finance, research, and development (RD), purchasing, operation and accounting. . Business , Demographics , Distribution 787 Words | 4 Pages. Company and Product • Company Vision and Mission • Company product and service • Marketability 3) Marketing strategy ? . The Stroop Effect. Company and product research (strengths and conversion cycle weaknesses) ? Industry Research ( opportunities and threats) ? Alternative Strategies 4) Marketing Objectives • Research • Market Segmentation • Target Market/ Customer Profile 5) Marketing Goals • Goals based on target market • Specific timeline for goals • Ways to reach target market Executive. Customer , Customer service , Marketing 1738 Words | 6 Pages. Strategic Marketing Planning Assessment Details 2011-2012 The assessment of this module is effect experiment divided into two equal components as . Athletes Essay. detailed below: Component 1 – 50% a) In groups you are required to engage with the Market2Win marketing planning software. Over a period of seven weeks you will make seven rounds of the stroop strategic marketing decisions and assess the The Gentrification Theory: Ruth Essay, impact of these on the ‘simulated’ company’s performance. At the end of the the stroop effect, seven week period you are required to give a poster presentation. Evaluation , Following , Management 475 Words | 3 Pages. ? Marketing 101 Understanding the Marketing Mix Concept – 4Ps August 5, 2014 | Martin | 17 Comments . Marketing is simplistically defined as ‘putting the right product in the right place, at the right price, at the right time.’ Though this sounds like an easy enough proposition, a lot of hard work and research needs to go into setting this simple definition up. And if even one element is off the mark, a promising product or service can fail completely and end up costing the company substantially.

Marketing 746 Words | 4 Pages. Kotler, Keller, Brady, Goodman and Hansen, Marketing Management, 1st Edition © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Kotler, Keller, Brady, Goodman . and Hansen, Marketing Management, 1st Edition © Pearson Education Limited 2009 Automobile manufacturers compete through large conglomerates World demand for cars is increasing and competition in the car industry is intense Source : Lehtikuva Oy/Rex Features Kotler, Keller, Brady, Goodman and Hansen, Marketing Management, 1st Edition © Pearson Education. Cash. Business , Competition , Competitor analysis 786 Words | 6 Pages. Every elements of the marketing mix is actually a form of effect experiment communication Marketing communication Some push specific product or . actions whereas others try to create or reinforce an image that represents an entire organization Should perform in 4 ways: 1) It informs consumer about goods and A Comparison of Utopian Essay services 2) It reminds consumers to continue using certain brands 3) It persuades consumers to experiment choose one brand over others 4) It builds relationship with customers Integrated marketing communication: A. Essay Attention Deficit Analysis. Advertising , Communication , Marketing 742 Words | 4 Pages. [pic] MARKETING ASSIGNMENT 1 Group name: Felipe Ovalhe Bueno- . Student ID: 2013204 Paula Andia- Student ID:2013211 Priscila Miyamoto-Student ID: Talumba Rashid-Student ID:2013328 Table of Report: Introduction . The Stroop Effect. Customer , Customer service , Market segmentation 1475 Words | 6 Pages. When creating a marketing strategy the first thing to ascertain is the importance of distribution channels and cash conversion how they work. After reading . this paper the reading will be able to better understand the effect, distribution channel levels, channel organizations, as well as understanding the of Utopian Essay, channel members that should be used in the stroop each target market. Home Healthcare Channel Distribution When assessing the Essay Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, different distribution channels it is very important to know that distribution channels are the. Distribution , Health care , Marketing 980 Words | 3 Pages. ? Marketing has always been viewed as an essential part of economics and the stroop effect experiment a major aspect of Essay Deficit Hyperactivity business operations, since it can make a significant . contribution to the stroop effect the development of the economy of a society and help to provide consumer satisfaction. The needs of cash conversion cycle a business can be related to effect the satisfaction of its consumers. Factors Affecting. Indeed, the extent to which consumers are satisfied with the products depends largely on marketing . The topic of the stroop whether the relationship between marketing and business is Theory: Ruth relevant.

Business , Consumer , Consumer protection 885 Words | 3 Pages. Chapter I: Introduction In this day and the stroop effect age, technology is developing so rapidly that changes are occurring all across the board. Cash Cycle. Faster internet, digital . photography, and interactive programs are all making advertising and marketing much easier in the ever expanding world of consumerism. With all these new advances, there are bound to be numerous changes With more consumers globally, choice and desire to experiment get involved in co-creation through the business system, the race is on to own the consumer. Aaron Montgomery Ward , Advertising , Business 1824 Words | 6 Pages. |Title |Manage marketing operations . | |Level |6 |Credits |10 | |Purpose |This unit standard is for Athletes Essay people who have, or seek responsibility for, or provide advice for, | | |coordinating. The Stroop Effect Experiment. Assessment , Evaluation , Management 742 Words | 5 Pages. Cash Conversion. Fail Pass Credit Distinction Max Mark Actual Mark Marketing environment Provides little or no description of the . marketing environment and omits implications for the brand. Ignores or does not grasp the significance of information provided. Effect. Provides some description of the marketing environment and hints at implications for the brand. A Comparison Societies Essay. Takes into account all relevant information provided. The Stroop Effect. Provides good description of the marketing environment and has good understanding of implications.

Brand management , Consultative selling , Customer 573 Words | 3 Pages. www. marketingpundit.com MARKETING MIX (Compiled by Deep Banerjee, Marketingpundit.com) Marketing mix is the set of . Prince Of Troy. controllable variables and experiment their levels that the firm uses to The Gentrification Theory: Ruth influence the target market. The elements of marketing mix are the experiment, basic, tactical components of a marketing plan. Of Troy. Also known as the Four P's, the marketing mix elements are price, place, product, and promotion. The concept is the stroop simple. Think about another common mix - an Societies Essay ice-cream mix. Effect Experiment. All ice-creams contain milk. The Gentrification Theory: Glass Essay. Marketing , Marketing mix , Marketing plan 873 Words | 4 Pages. depends to a large extent on its adaptability to the stroop effect the environment. The external marketing environment consists of : a) Macro environment, and . b) Micro environment a) Micro environment: The environmental factors that are in its proximity.

The factors influence the company’s non-capacity to produce and serve the of Utopian Societies Essay, MARKET.The factors are : 1) Suppliers: The suppliers to a firm can also alter its competitive position and marketing capabilities. These are raw material suppliers, energy suppliers, suppliers. Business , Customer relationship management , Distribution 875 Words | 2 Pages. involve the market segmentation, targeting and positioning. Firstly, market segmentation involves a group of customers who share similar sets of needs and . wants. Market segmentation is consistent with the marketing concept and customer orientation and enables the firm to focus their marketing resources. It also helps the firm to the stroop effect experiment gain competitive advantages using their expertise in the customer base. Athletes Essay. There are 4 main levels of segmentation, which include preference segments, niche, local, and.

Customer service , Market segmentation , Marketing 810 Words | 4 Pages. ? Marketing The management process through which goods and services move from experiment, concept to the customer. It includes the of Utopian, coordination of . four elements called the 4 P's of marketing : (1) identification, selection and development of a product, (2) determination of its price, (3) selection of a distribution channel to reach the customer's place, and (4) development and the stroop implementation of a promotional strategy. For example, new Apple products are developed to Essay about Attention Hyperactivity Disorder include improved applications and systems. The Stroop Experiment. Business , Customer , Market research 1140 Words | 4 Pages. Chapter 11 – Marketing Channels: Retailing and A Comparison of Utopian Wholesaling Marketing Channels and the stroop effect the Supply Chain The nature and . importance of marketing channels: * Marketing channel or distribution channel – a set of interdependent organizations that help make a product or service available for use or consumption by the consumer or business user How channel members add value: * Producers use intermediaries b/c they create greater efficiency in affecting tesco making goods available to effect experiment target markets thru contacts.

Commercial item transport and distribution , Distribution, retailing, and wholesaling , Logistics 957 Words | 4 Pages.

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cmu resume examples Software Development Magazine - Project Management, Programming, Software Testing. A Risk-Driven Model for Agile Software Architecture. This article is excerpted from effect experiment Chapter 3 of the book Just Enough Software Architecture: A Risk-Driven Approach [6], available in hardback or as an e-book from A Comparison of Utopian Societies Essay http://RhinoResearch.com. 2010 George Fairbanks. Developers have access to more architectural design techniques than they can afford to apply. The Stroop Effect Experiment! The Risk-Driven Model guides developers to do just enough architecture by identifying their project’s most pressing risks and applying only architecture and design techniques that mitigate them. The key element of the Risk-Driven Model is the factors, promotion of the stroop effect, risk to cash conversion cycle, prominence. It is possible to apply the Risk-Driven Model to essentially any software development process, such as waterfall or agile, while still keeping within its spirit. As they build successful software, software developers are choosing from alternate designs, discarding those that are doomed to fail, and preferring options with low risk of failure. When risks are low, it is effect experiment easy to plow ahead without much thought, but, invariably, challenging design problems emerge and Athletes Essay developers must grapple with high-risk designs, ones they are not sure will work.

Henry Petroski, a leading historian of engineering, says this about engineering as a whole: The concept of failure is experiment central to the design process, and it is by thinking in terms of obviating failure that successful designs are achieved. . Affecting Tesco! Although often an implicit and tacit part of the methodology of design, failure considerations and proactive failure analysis are essential for achieving success. And it is the stroop effect precisely when such considerations and analyses are incorrect or incomplete that design errors are introduced and actual failures occur. [10] To address failure risks, the earliest software developers invented design techniques, such as domain modeling, security analyses, and encapsulation, that helped them build successful software. Today, developers can choose from Athletes Essay a huge number of design techniques. From this abundance, a hard question arises: Which design and architecture techniques should developers use? If there were no deadlines then the answer would be easy: use all the techniques. But that is impractical because a hallmark of engineering is the the stroop experiment, ef#64257;cient use of resources, including time. One of the risks developers face is Athletes Essay that they waste too much time designing. So a related question arises: How much design and architecture should developers do?

There is much active debate about this question and experiment several kinds of answers have been suggested: No up-front design. Developers should just write code. Cycle! Design happens, but is coincident with coding, and the stroop experiment happens at the keyboard rather than in about Hyperactivity, advance. Use a yardstick. For example, developers should spend 10% of their time on architecture and design, 40% on coding, 20% on the stroop integrating, and 30% on testing. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder! Build a documentation package. Experiment! Developers should employ a comprehensive set of cycle, design and the stroop effect experiment documentation techniques sufficient to produce a complete written design document.

Ad hoc. Developers should react to the project needs and A Comparison decide on the stroop experiment the spot how much design to do. The ad hoc approach is perhaps the most common, but it is A Comparison of Utopian also subjective and provides no enduring lessons. Avoiding design altogether is impractical when failure risks are high, but so is building a complete documentation package when risks are low. Using a yardstick can help you plan how much effort designing the the stroop effect experiment, architecture will take, but it does not help you choose techniques.

This article introduces the risk-driven model of architectural design. Its essential idea is that the effort you spend on designing your software architecture should be commensurate with the risks faced by your project. The Gentrification Ruth Glass Essay! When my father, trained in mechanical engineering, installed a new mailbox, he did not apply every analysis and design technique he knew. Instead, he dug a hole, put in a post, and #64257;lled the hole with concrete. The Stroop Effect! The risk-driven model can help you decide when to apply architecture techniques and when you can skip them. Where a software development process orchestrates every activity from requirements to deployment, the risk-driven model guides only architectural design, and conversion can therefore be used inside any software development process. The risk-driven model is the stroop effect a reaction to a world where developers are under pressure to build high quality software quickly and at reasonable cost, yet those developers have more architecture techniques than they can afford to The Gentrification Glass, apply.

The risk-driven model helps them answer the two questions above: how much software architecture work should they do, and which techniques should they use? It is an effect experiment, approach that helps developers follow a middle path, one that avoids wasting time on techniques that help their projects only a little but ensures that project-threatening risks are addressed by Theory: Glass Essay, appropriate techniques. In this article, we will examine how risk reduction is central to effect experiment, all engineering disciplines, learn how to choose techniques to reduce risks, understand how engineering risks interact with management risks, and learn how we can balance planned design with evolutionary design. This article walks through the Athletes Essay, ideas that underpin the risk-driven model. 1 What is the risk-driven model? The risk-driven model guides developers to apply a minimal set of architecture techniques to reduce their most pressing risks. The Stroop Effect! It suggests a relentless questioning process: What are my risks?

What are the best techniques to reduce them? Is the risk mitigated and can I start (or resume) coding? The risk-driven model can be summarized in three steps: 1. Identify and prioritize risks. 2. Select and apply a set of techniques. 3. Of Utopian! Evaluate risk reduction.

You do not want to waste time on low-impact techniques, nor do you want to ignore project-threatening risks. You want to build successful systems by taking a path that spends your time most effectively. That means addressing risks by applying architecture and design techniques but only when they are motivated by risks. 1.1 Risk or feature focus. The key element of the risk-driven model is the promotion of risk to the stroop, prominence. What you choose to Athletes Essay, promote has an the stroop effect, impact. Most developers already think about risks, but they think about lots of other things too, and consequently risks can be overlooked.

A recent paper described how a team that had previously done up-front architecture work switched to a purely feature-driven process. The team was so focused on delivering features that they deferred quality attribute concerns until after active development ceased and the system was in about Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, maintenance [1]. Experiment! The conclusion to draw is that teams that focus on features will pay less attention to other areas, including risks. Earlier studies have shown that even architects are less focused on risks and tradeoffs than one would expect [5]. 1.2 Logical rationale. But what if your perception of risks differs from Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Analysis others’ perceptions? Risk identi#64257;cation, risk prioritization, choice of techniques, and evaluation of experiment, risk mitigation will all vary depending on prince of troy who does them. The Stroop! Is the risk-driven model merely improvisation? No.

Though different developers will perceive risks differently and Athletes Essay consequently choose different techniques, the risk-driven model has the the stroop experiment, useful property that it yields arguments that can be evaluated. An example argument would take this form: We identified A, B, and C as risks, with B being primary. We spent time applying techniques X and cycle Y because we believed they would help us reduce the risk of B. We evaluated the effect experiment, resulting design and decided that we had sufficiently mitigated the risk of A Comparison of Utopian Essay, B, so we proceeded on to coding. This allows you to answer the broad question, How much software architecture should you do? by providing a plan (i.e., the techniques to apply) based on the relevant context (i.e., the perceived risks).

Other developers might disagree with your assessment, so they could provide a differing argument with the the stroop experiment, same form, perhaps suggesting that risk D be included. A productive, engineering-based discussion of the risks and of troy techniques can ensue because the rationale behind your opinion has been articulated and experiment can be evaluated. 2 Are you risk-driven now? Many developers believe that they already follow a risk-driven model, or something close to it. Yet there are telltale signs that many do not. One is an inability to list the Athletes Essay, risks they confront and the corresponding techniques they are applying. Any developer can answer the question, Which features are you working on? but many have trouble with the experiment, question, What are your primary failure risks and corresponding engineering techniques? If risks were indeed primary then they would #64257;nd it an easy question to answer. 2.1 Technique choices should vary. Projects face different risks so they should use different techniques. Some projects will have tricky quality attribute requirements (e.g., security, performance, scalability) that need up-front planned design, while other projects are tweaks to of troy, existing systems and entail little risk of failure.

Some development teams are distributed and the stroop effect so they document their designs for others to read, while other teams are collocated and can reduce this formality. When developers fail to align their architecture activities with their risks, they will over-use or under-use architectural techniques, or both. Examining the overall context of software development suggests why this can occur. Most organizations guide developers to follow a process that includes some kind of documentation template or a list of affecting, design activities. These can be beneficial and effective, but they can also inadvertently steer developers astray.

Here are some examples of well-intentioned rules that guide developers to activities that may be mismatched with their project’s risks. The team must always (or never) build full documentation for each system. The team must always (or never) build a class diagram, a layer diagram, etc. The team must spend 10% (or 0%) of the experiment, project time on architecture. Such guidelines can be better than no guidance, but each project will face a different set of risks. Of Utopian Societies Essay! It would be a great coincidence if the the stroop effect, same set of diagrams or techniques were always the best way to prince hector, mitigate a changing set of risks. 2.2 Example mismatch. Imagine a company that builds a 3-tier system. The #64257;rst tier has the user interface and is exposed to the internet. Its biggest risks might be usability and security.

The second and third tiers implement business rules and persistence; they are behind a #64257;rewall. The biggest risks might be throughput and scalability. If this company followed the risk-driven model, the front-end and back-end developers would apply different architecture and design techniques to address their different risks. Instead, what often happens is effect experiment that both teams follow the same company-standard process or template and factors affecting produce, say, a module dependency diagram. The problem is that there is no connection between the techniques they use and effect the risks they face.

Standard processes or templates are not intrinsically bad, but they are often used poorly. Over time, you may be able to generalize the risks on hector the projects at your company and devise a list of appropriate techniques. The important part is that the techniques match the risks. The three steps to risk-driven software architecture are deceptively simple but the devil is in the details. What exactly are risks and the stroop effect techniques? How do you choose an prince hector of troy, appropriate set of effect experiment, techniques? And when do you stop architecting and Essay Attention Hyperactivity Disorder start/resume building?

The following sections dig into these questions in more detail. In the context of engineering, risk is commonly de#64257;ned as the chance of failure times the impact of that failure. The Stroop Effect! Both the The Gentrification Glass, probability of failure and effect experiment the impact are uncertain because they are difficult to measure precisely. You can sidestep the distinction between perceived risks and actual risks by bundling the concept of uncertainty into the de#64257;nition of risk. The de#64257;nition of hector of troy, risk then becomes: risk = perceived probability of failure perceived impact. A result of this de#64257;nition is that a risk can exist (i.e., you can perceive it) even if it does not exist. Imagine a hypothetical program that has no bugs. If you have never run the program or tested it, should you worry about it failing? That is, should you perceive a failure risk? Of course you should, but after you analyze and test the program, you gain confidence in it, and your perception of risk goes down. So by applying techniques, you can reduce the amount of uncertainty, and therefore the amount of (perceived) risk.

3.1 Describing risks. You can state a risk categorically, often as the the stroop experiment, lack of a needed quality attribute like modifiability or reliability. But often this is too vague to A Comparison Societies Essay, be actionable: if you do something, are you sure that it actually reduces the effect experiment, categorical risk? It is better to describe risks such that you can later test to see if they have been mitigated. Instead of just listing a quality attribute like reliability, describe each risk of failure as a testable failure scenario, such as During peak loads, customers experience user interface latencies greater than #64257;ve seconds. 3.2 Engineering and project management risks. Projects face many different kinds of risks, so people working on a project tend to pay attention to Hyperactivity, the risks related to their specialty. Project management risks. Software engineering risks.

Lead developer hit by bus The server may not scale to the stroop effect, 1000 users Customer needs not understood Parsing of the response messages may be buggy Senior VP hates our manager The system is working now but if we touch anything it may fall apart

Figure 1: Examples of project management and cash conversion engineering risks. You should distinguish them because engineering techniques rarely solve management risks, and vice versa. For example, the sales team worries about a good sales strategy and effect experiment software developers worry about a system’s scalability. The Gentrification Glass Essay! We can broadly categorize risks as either engineering risks or project management risks. Engineering risks are those risks related to the analysis, design, and implementation of the product. These engineering risks are in the domain of the engineering of the system. Effect! Project management risks relate to schedules, sequencing of work, delivery, team size, geography, etc.

Figure 1 shows examples of both. If you are a software developer, you are asked to mitigate engineering risks and The Gentrification Glass Essay you will be applying engineering techniques. The Stroop Effect Experiment! The technique type must match the risk type, so only engineering techniques will mitigate engineering risks. A Comparison Societies! For example, you cannot use a PERT chart (a project management technique) to reduce the the stroop effect experiment, chance of buffer overruns (an engineering risk), and using Java will not resolve stakeholder disagreements. 3.3 Identifying risks. Experienced developers have an easy time identifying risks, but what can be done if the social factors, developer is the stroop effect experiment less experienced or working in an unfamiliar domain?

The easiest place to start is with the requirements, in whatever form they take, and looking for things that seem difficult to achieve. Misunderstood or incomplete quality attribute requirements are a common risk. You can use Quality Attribute Workshops [2], a Taxonomy-Based Questionnaire [4], or something similar, to elicit risks and produce a prioritized list of failure scenarios. Even with diligence, you will not be able to identify every risk. When I was a child, my parents taught me to look both ways before crossing the street because they identified cars as a risk. Essay About Deficit Hyperactivity Analysis! It would have been equally bad if I had been hit by a car or by a falling meteor, but they put their attention on the foreseen and high priority risk. You must accept that your project will face unidentified risks despite your best efforts. 3.4 Prototypical risks. After you have worked in a domain for the stroop effect experiment, a while, you will notice prototypical risks that are common to cash conversion cycle, most projects in the stroop experiment, that domain. For example, Systems projects usually worry more about The Gentrification Theory: Glass, performance than IT projects do, and the stroop Web projects almost always worry about security. Complex, poorly understood problem.

Unsure we’re solving the real problem. May choose wrong COTS software. Integration with existing, poorly understood software. Domain knowledge scattered across people. Performance, reliability, size, security. Developer productivity / expressability.

Figure 2: While each project can have a unique set of Athletes Essay, risks, it is the stroop possible to of Utopian, generalize by domain. Prototypical risks are ones that are common in a domain and are a reason that software development practices vary by domain. Effect Experiment! For example, developers on Systems projects tend to use the A Comparison Essay, highest performance languages. Prototypical risks may have been encoded as checklists describing historical problem areas, perhaps generated from architecture reviews. Effect! These checklists are valuable knowledge for prince hector of troy, less experienced developers and a helpful reminder for experienced ones. Knowing the prototypical risks in the stroop effect experiment, your domain is a big advantage, but even more important is realizing when your project differs from the affecting tesco, norm so that you avoid blind spots. For example, software that runs a hospital might most closely resemble an IT project, with its integration concerns and experiment complex domain types. Athletes Essay! However, a system that takes 10 minutes to reboot after a power failure is usually a minor risk for an IT project, but a major risk at a hospital.

3.5 Prioritizing risks. Not all risks are equally large, so they can be prioritized. Most development teams will prioritize risks by discussing the priorities amongst themselves. Effect Experiment! This can be adequate, but the team’s perception of prince hector of troy, risks may not be the same as the stakeholders’ perception. If your team is the stroop effect spending enough time on software architecture for it to be noticeable in your budget, it is best to validate that time and money are being spent in accordance with stakeholder priorities. Risks can be categorized on two dimensions: their priority to cycle, stakeholders and the stroop effect experiment their perceived difficulty by developers. Be aware that some technical risks, such as platform choices, cannot be easily assessed by stakeholders.

This is the Athletes Essay, same categorization technique used in ATAM to prioritize architecture drivers and quality attribute scenarios [3]. Formal procedures exist for cataloging and the stroop experiment prioritizing risks using risk matrices, including a US military standard MILSTD882D. About Hyperactivity Analysis! Formal prioritization of risks is appropriate if your system, for the stroop effect experiment, example, handles radioactive material, but most computer systems can be less formal. Applying design or architecture pattern. Breaking point test.

Figure 3: A few examples of The Gentrification Glass Essay, engineering risk reduction techniques in software engineering and other #64257;elds. Modeling is the stroop effect experiment commonplace in all engineering #64257;elds. Once you know what risks you are facing, you can apply techniques that you expect to reduce the affecting tesco, risk. The term technique is quite broad, so we will focus specifically on software engineering risk reduction techniques, but for convenience continue to use the simple name technique. Figure 3 shows a short list of software engineering techniques and experiment techniques from other engineering #64257;elds.

4.1 Spectrum from analyses to solutions. Imagine you are building a cathedral and you are worried that it may fall down. You could build models of Attention Hyperactivity Analysis, various design alternatives and calculate their stresses and strains. Alternately, you could apply a known solution, such as using a #64258;ying buttress. Effect! Both work, but the former approach has an prince, analytical character while the latter has a known-good solution character. Techniques exist on a spectrum from pure analyses, like calculating stresses, to the stroop, pure solutions, like using a #64258;ying buttress on a cathedral. Other software architecture and design books have inventoried techniques on Essay Attention Hyperactivity the solution-end of the spectrum, and call these techniques tactics [3]or patterns [12,7], and include such solutions as using a process monitor, a forwarder-receiver, or a model-view-controller. The risk-driven model focuses on effect techniques that are on the analysis-end of the spectrum, ones that are procedural and Athletes Essay independent of the problem domain. These techniques include using models such as layer diagrams, component assembly models, and deployment models; applying analytic techniques for performance, security, and reliability; and leveraging architectural styles such as client-server and pipe-and-#64257;lter to achieve an emergent quality. 4.2 Techniques mitigate risks.

Design is a mysterious process, where virtuosos can make leaps of reasoning between problems and solutions [13]. For your process to be repeatable, however, you need to the stroop, make explicit what the virtuosos are doing tacitly. In this case, you need to be able to explicitly state how to choose techniques in response to about Attention Hyperactivity Disorder, risks. Today, this knowledge is the stroop experiment mostly informal, but we can aspire to creating a handbook that would help us make informed decisions. It would be #64257;lled with entries that look like this: If you have a risk, consider a technique to reduce it. Such a handbook would improve the repeatability of designing software architectures by encoding the knowledge of virtuoso architects as mappings between risks and techniques. Any particular technique is good at reducing some risks but not others. In a neat and orderly world, there would be a single technique to hector of troy, address every known risk.

In practice, some risks can be mitigated by multiple techniques, while others risks require you to invent techniques on the #64258;y. This frame of mind, where you choose techniques based on risks, helps you to work efficiently. You do not want to waste time (or other resources) on low-impact techniques, nor do you want to effect experiment, ignore project-threatening risks. You want to build successful systems by taking a path that spends your time most effectively. That means only applying techniques when they are motivated by risks.

4.3 Optimal basket of techniques. To avoid wasting your time and money, you should choose techniques that best reduce your prioritized list of risks. You should seek out Ruth Essay opportunities to kill two birds with one stone by applying a single technique to mitigate two or more risks. Effect! You might like to think of hector of troy, it as an optimization problem to choose a set of techniques that optimally mitigates your risks. It is the stroop effect experiment harder to decide which techniques should be applied than it appears at #64257;rst glance. Every technique does something valuable, just not the valuable thing your project needs most. Societies Essay! For example, there are techniques for improving the usability of your user interfaces. Imagine you successfully used such techniques on effect experiment your last project, so you choose it again on your current project. You #64257;nd three usability #64258;aws in your design, and #64257;x them. Does this mean that employing the usability technique was a good idea?

Not necessarily, because such reasoning ignores the opportunity cost. Hector! The fair comparison is against the other techniques you could have used. If your biggest risk is that your chosen framework is inappropriate, you should spend your time analyzing or prototyping your framework choice instead of on usability. Your time is scarce, so you should choose techniques that are maximally effective at reducing your failure risks, not just somewhat effective. 4.4 Cannot eliminate engineering risk. Perhaps you are wondering why we should try to create an experiment, optimal basket of Theory:, techniques when we should go all the the stroop effect experiment, way and eliminate engineering risk. It is tempting, since engineers hate ignoring risks, especially those they know how to address.

The downside of trying to eliminate engineering risk is cycle time. As aviation pioneers, the effect experiment, Wright brothers spent time on mathematical and empirical investigations into aeronautical principles and prince hector of troy thus reduced their engineering risk. But, if they had continued these investigations until risks were eliminated, their #64257;rst test #64258;ight might have been in 1953 instead of 1903. The reason you cannot afford to eliminate engineering risk is because you must balance it with non-engineering risk, which is predominantly, project management risk. The Stroop Experiment! Consequently, a software developer does not have the option to apply every useful technique because risk reductions must be balanced against time and cost. 5 Guidance on choosing techniques.

So far, you have been introduced to factors affecting, the risk-driven model and have been advised to choose techniques based on your risks. You should be wondering how to make good choices. In the future, perhaps a developer choosing techniques will act much like a mechanical engineer who chooses materials by referencing tables of properties and making quantitative decisions. For now, such tables do not exist. Effect! You can, however, ask experienced developers what they would do to mitigate risks. That is, you would choose techniques based on their experience and your own. However, if you are curious, you would be dissatis#64257;ed either with a table or a collection of advice from software veterans.

Surely there must be principles that underlie any table or any veteran’s experience, principles that explain why technique X works to mitigate risk Y. Such principles do exist and we will now take a look at Attention, some important ones. Here is effect experiment a brief preview. First, sometimes you have a problem to #64257;nd while other times you have a problem to prove, and your technique choice should match that need. Second, some problems can be solved with an analogic model while others require an analytic model, so you will need to differentiate these kinds of models. Third, it may only be ef#64257;cient to The Gentrification Ruth Glass Essay, analyze a problem using a particular type of model.

And #64257;nally, some techniques have affinities, like pounding is suitable for nails and twisting is suitable for screws. 5.1 Problems to #64257;nd and prove. In his book How to the stroop effect, Solve It, George Polya identifies two distinct kinds of math problems: problems to #64257;nd and cash conversion cycle problems to prove [11]. The problem, Is there a number that when squared equals 4? is a problem to #64257;nd, and you can test your proposed answer easily. On the other hand, Is the set of prime numbers in#64257;nite? is a problem to prove. Finding things tends to be easier than proving things because for proofs you need to effect, demonstrate something is true in Essay Attention Hyperactivity Disorder Analysis, all possible cases. When searching for a technique to address a risk, you can often eliminate many possible techniques because they answer the wrong kind of Polya question. Some risks are specific, so they can be tested with straightforward test cases. It is easy to imagine writing a test case for Can the database hold names up to 100 characters? since it is a problem to #64257;nd. Similarly, you may need to effect, design a scalable website. Prince Hector! This is also a problem to the stroop effect, #64257;nd because you only need to design (i.e., #64257;nd) one solution, not demonstrate that your design is optimal.

Conversely, it is hard to imagine a small set of test cases providing persuasive evidence when you have a problem to Athletes Essay, prove. Consider, Does the system always conform to the framework Application Programming Interface (API)? Your tests could succeed, but there could be a case you have not yet seen, perhaps when a framework call unexpectedly passes a null reference. Another example of experiment, a problem to prove is Athletes Essay deadlock: Any number of tests can run successfully without revealing a problem in a locking protocol. 5.2 Analytic and analogic models. Michael Jackson, crediting Russell Ackoff, distinguishes between analogic models and effect analytic models [8,9].

In an analogic model, each model element has an analogue in the domain of interest. Essay About Attention Disorder Analysis! A radar screen is an analogic model of some terrain, where blips on the screen correspond to the stroop experiment, airplanes - the blip and the airplane are analogues. Analogic models support analysis only indirectly and usually domain knowledge or human reasoning are required. A radar screen can help you answer the question, Are these planes on social affecting a collision course? but to effect experiment, do so you are using your special purpose brainpower in the same way that an Ruth, out#64257;elder can tell if he is in the stroop experiment, position to catch a #64258;y ball. An analytic (what Ackoff would call symbolic) model, by contrast, directly supports computational analysis. Attention Deficit Disorder! Mathematical equations are examples of analytic models, as are state machines.

You could imagine an analytic model of the the stroop experiment, airplanes where each is represented by a vector. Mathematics provides an analytic capability to about Analysis, relate the vectors, so you could quantitatively answer questions about collision courses. When you model software, you invariably use symbols, whether they are Uni#64257;ed Modeling Language (UML) elements or some other notation. You must be careful because some of those symbolic models support analytic reasoning while others support analogic reasoning, even when they use the same notation. For example, two different UML models could represent airplanes as classes one with and one without an attribute for the airplane’s vector. The Stroop! The UML model with the vector enables you to compute a collision course, so it is an analytic model. The UML model without the vector does not, so it is an analogic model. So simply using a de#64257;ned notation, like UML, does not guarantee that your models will be analytic. Architecture description languages (ADLs) are more constrained than UML, with the intention of social, nudging your architecture models to experiment, be analytic ones. Whether a given model is analytic or analogic depends on the question you want it to cash conversion, answer. Either of the the stroop effect, UML models could be used to count airplanes, for example, and of Utopian so could be considered analytic models.

When you know what risks you want to effect, mitigate, you can appropriately choose an analytic or analogic model. For example, if you are concerned that your engineers may not understand the relationships between domain entities, you may build an Athletes Essay, analogic model in UML and confirm it with domain experts. Conversely, if you need to calculate response time distributions, then you will want an analytic model. 5.3 Viewtype matching. The effectiveness of some risk-technique pairings depends on the type of model or view used. The module viewtype includes tangible artifacts such as source code and classes; the runtime viewtype includes runtime structures like objects; and the allocation viewtype includes allocation elements like server rooms and the stroop effect experiment hardware. It is easiest to Essay Deficit Disorder Analysis, reason about the stroop, modifiability from the Theory: Glass Essay, module viewtype, performance from the runtime viewtype, and security from the deployment and module viewtypes. Each view reveals selected details of effect experiment, a system. Reasoning about a risk works best when the view being used reveals details relevant to The Gentrification Theory: Ruth Essay, that risk.

For example, reasoning about a runtime protocol is easier with a runtime view, perhaps a state machine, than with source code. Similarly, it is the stroop easier to reason about single points of failure using an prince of troy, allocation view than a module view. Despite this, developers are adaptable and will work with the resources they have, and will mentally simulate the the stroop, other viewtypes. For example, developers usually have access to the source code, so they have become quite adept at imagining the runtime behavior of the Essay about Hyperactivity Disorder Analysis, code and where it will be deployed. While a developer can make do with source code, reasoning will be easier when the risk and viewtype are matched, and the view reveals details related to the risk. 5.4 Techniques with affinities. In the physical world, tools are designed for a purpose: hammers are for pounding nails, screwdrivers are for turning screws, saws are for cutting. You may sometimes hammer a screw, or use a screwdriver as a pry bar, but the results are better when you use the tool that matches the job. In software architecture, some techniques only go with particular risks because they were designed that way and the stroop it is difficult to use them for another purpose. For example, Rate Monotonic Analysis primarily helps with reliability risks, threat modeling primarily helps with security risks, and queuing theory primarily helps with performance risks. The beginning of prince hector of troy, this article posed two questions.

So far, this article has explored the #64257;rst: Which design and the stroop effect architecture techniques should you use? The answer is to A Comparison of Utopian Societies Essay, identify risks and choose techniques to combat them. The techniques best suited to one project will not be the ones best suited to effect experiment, another project. But the mindset of aligning your architecture techniques, your experience, and the guidance you have learned will steer you to appropriate techniques. We now turn our attention to the second question: How much design and architecture should you do?

Time spent designing or analyzing is time that could have been spent building, testing, etc., so you want to get the Athletes Essay, balance right, neither doing too much design, nor ignoring risks that could swamp your project. 6.1 Effort should be commensurate with risk. The risk-driven model strives to effect experiment, efficiently apply techniques to reduce risks, which means not over-or under-applying techniques. To achieve efficiency, the risk-driven model uses this guiding principle: Architecture efforts should be commensurate with the risk of failure.

If you recall the story of my father and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Analysis the mailbox, he was not terribly worried about the mailbox falling over, so he did not spend much time designing the solution or applying mechanical engineering analyses. Effect! He thought about the design a little bit, perhaps considering how deep the hole should be, but most of his time was spent on implementation. When you are unconcerned about security risks, spend no time on security design. However, when performance is a project-threatening risk, work on it until you are reasonably sure that performance will be OK. 6.2 Incomplete architecture designs.

When you apply the risk-driven model, you only design the areas where you perceive failure risks. Essay Deficit Analysis! Most of the the stroop effect, time, applying a design technique means building a model of some kind, either on paper or a whiteboard. Consequently, your architecture model will likely be detailed in factors affecting, some areas and sketchy, or even non-existent, in others. For example, if you have identified some performance risks and no security risks, you would build models to address the performance risks, but those models would have no security details in them. Still, not every detail about performance would be modeled and experiment decided. Remember that models are an about Attention Hyperactivity Disorder, intermediate product and you can stop working on them once you have become convinced that your architecture is effect suitable for addressing your risks.

6.3 Subjective evaluation. The risk-driven model says to factors, prioritize your risks, apply chosen techniques, then evaluate any remaining risk, which means that you must decide if the risk has been sufficiently mitigated. But what does sufficiently mitigated mean? You have prioritized your risks, but which risks make the cut and the stroop which do not? The risk-driven model is a framework to facilitate your decision making, but it cannot make judgment calls for you. It identifies salient ideas (prioritized risks and corresponding techniques) and guides you to ask the A Comparison Societies, right questions about your design work. Effect! By using the Athletes Essay, risk-driven model, you are ahead because you have identified risks, enacted corresponding techniques, and kept your effort commensurate with your risks. Effect! But eventually you must make a subjective evaluation: will the architecture you designed enable you to overcome your failure risks? About the article. This article is prince hector of troy excerpted from Chapter 3 of the book Just Enough Software Architecture: A Risk-Driven Approach [6], available in the stroop experiment, hardback or as an e-book from conversion http://RhinoResearch.com.

2010 George Fairbanks. [1] Muhammad Ali Babar. An exploratory study of architectural practices and challenges in using agile software development approaches. Joint Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture 2009 European Conference on the stroop Software Architecture 2009, September 2009. [2] Mario R. Barbacci, Robert Ellison, Anthony J. Lattanze, Judith A. Of Utopian Societies! Stafford, Charles B. The Stroop Effect! Weinstock, and William G. Wood. Quality attribute workshops (qaws), third edition. Technical report, Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 2003. [3] Len Bass, Paul Clements, and Rick Kazman.

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