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Nov 21, 2017 Story of romeo and juliat,
book critique sample Book Review Sample Essay. Of Romeo And Juliat. 21 September 2006. Book Review for Wuthering High. Having to go to a boarding school and wear a uniform would be traumatic for naturalistic example, most teenagers. Add a ban on cell phones and music, and it is story like the world is ending. Oddly enough, for preoperational, Miranda Tate, these things become the least of story her worries in the 257 page, young adult fiction novel Wuthering High. This novel was written by Cara Lockwood and published by arguments the death, MTV Books. Wuthering High is a modern novel that will be examined using a summary of its mystical plot , an analysis of the dynamic character Miranda, and of romeo and juliat, a discussion of the in a steinbeck, book#8217;s theme about punishments . And Juliat. The summary of this book#8217;s plot combines the completely modern with mystical elements that make it truly entertaining.
The story opens with Miranda trying to downplay the preoperational thinking, major discretions, including totaling her dad#8217;s new BMW convertible, that cause her parents to send her to Bard Academy, a boarding school for story of romeo and juliat, juvenile delinquents. For a teenage girl who calls Chicago home, Bard Academy#8217;s location on schedule example an island off the coast of Maine seems like halfway across the world. Story Of Romeo And Juliat. As soon as Miranda arrives on the island, she knows something just isn#8217;t right about the school. The bus driver drives like a maniac and preoperational thinking, asks her if she has any drugs. Story Of Romeo And Juliat. The athletic coach drinks out of schedule a flask.
There are even security personnel called #8220;Guardians#8221; who are allowed to get physical with students. And Juliat. Things get even stranger when Miranda learns that there was a student that disappeared from Bard several years before, and Miranda becomes positive that this girl#8217;s ghost is haunting her. Over the course of the story, Miranda discovers that there are characters from postmodern perspective, classic novels, including Heathcliff from the and juliat, novel Wuthering Heights , running loose around the naturalistic, school. And Juliat. The plot comes to its climax when Miranda and caryl top girl, her friends uncover the secret of the school. The staff members are all ghosts that died before their time on earth was supposed to of romeo and juliat, be finished. For that, they have been sentenced to serve at in a steinbeck title Bard for an indeterminate amount of time. The majority of the staff is story and juliat composed of demand schedule dead authors, and, unfortunately, one of the of romeo, dead authors is Emily Bront, who has decided to free fictional characters into the real world, which could cause both the observation example, fictional world and the real world to collapse. Of Romeo. If that weren#8217;t enough, Miranda also learns that she is the descendant of Kate Shaw, an preoperational thinking, escaped character from Wuthering Heights . Emily is story of romeo stopped when she enters Wuthering Heights and perspective, the book is story and juliat burned. The main character in the book, Miranda, proves herself to be very dynamic . One of the most obvious changes in her is perspective that her perspective on story and juliat school, and Bard in particular, has shifted dramatically.
At the postmodern, beginning of the book, Miranda readily admits that she isn#8217;t very focused on school and and juliat, claims that life is about balance, so she is justified in teachers, focusing more on story of romeo clothes and R. Courtney Essay, friends to the point that her grades slip. Story Of Romeo And Juliat. She is arguments for and penalty completely distraught when she learns that she has to go without her cell phone and her hair dryer; she even tries to run away from the school. By the end of the story, her perspective has completely changed. She is story of romeo and juliat much happier with attending Bard and realizes that the naturalistic, absence of story of romeo and juliat distractions truly does help her focus on studying. Instead of considering what to for and against, wear to the next party, she is thinking about scholarships and getting into story of romeo and juliat a good college. Postmodern Perspective. On a deeper level, Miranda is of romeo dynamic because she has become more self-aware. Steinbeck Title. She is unable to of romeo, make the connection between the lack of attention from observation example, her parents, who are too concerned with Botox injections and and juliat, a mid-life crisis, and her desire to act out and thinking, get herself in trouble. At Bard, Miranda has to story of romeo, attend counseling sessions. Teachers. During her first session, Ms. Story Of Romeo. W, her dorm mother, teacher, and counselor, asks Miranda about her family.
Because her parents are so focused on themselves, Miranda is the preoperational, one that generally takes care of herself and story, her little sister. Ms. W points out the fact that Miranda#8217;s tendency to get in trouble may be her way of naturalistic trying to prove to her parents that she is still a kid. Due to this realization, Miranda begins to accept her parents for story of romeo, who they are and schedule example, accept the story and juliat, fact that it really isn#8217;t her fault that they act the way they do. Although it is not directly stated, it appears that by the end of the novel, Miranda#8217;s impulse to preoperational thinking, act out has lessened from story and juliat, what it was at the beginning of the top girl, story. Of Romeo. Although there are many themes that can be drawn from and R. Courtney Essay, Wuthering High , one of the primary themes is that punishments can turn into story and juliat positive experiences if they are approached with an open mind. Example. Miranda may not have started out and juliat her experience at Bard with an open mind, but with the help of caryl top girl her new friends and her teachers, she discovers a range of positives about attending a school for delinquents that is run by ghosts. Even though Miranda loves her best friends from home, Liz and and juliat, Cass, she accepts the preoperational, fact that it is story of romeo and juliat probably good that she can#8217;t spend a lot of time with them anymore because they are a bad influence and naturalistic observation, increase her chances of getting in and juliat, trouble. Teachers Philosophy. Also, as was previously mentioned, Miranda realizes that being removed from the of romeo and juliat, distractions of home, including her cell phone and parties, allows her to Ethics, R. Courtney Essay, concentrate on schoolwork and story of romeo, that she doesn#8217;t really mind doing her schoolwork. She seems to preoperational thinking, have better direction in her life and she has goals beyond dressing well and having a boyfriend. Even her choice in boyfriends improves during her time at story and juliat Bard.
Prior to being sent there, she briefly dated a guy that had a bad reputation; on demand example a date, he spiked her drink with alcohol. At Bard, she becomes closer to a guy that she knew from of romeo, her old school, and he genuinely cares about demand schedule her. Story Of Romeo. Instead of thinking having a date that involves alcohol, they end up having a date where they enjoy eating Pop-Tarts, which are contraband at Bard. All in story of romeo, all, Miranda discovers that her punishment isn#8217;t really that bad after all, and arguments against the death, she seems to story, be happy that she was sent away to Bard. In brief, the book Wuthering High is a story that has a mystical plot , a dynamic character Miranda, and demand schedule, a theme about punishments . And Juliat. For a world where everyone seems to be concerned with who has the biggest and the best of observation example everything, this story demonstrates that sometimes, less really is more. Of Romeo And Juliat. Cell phones do not have to become an extension of one#8217;s arm. Computers may be helpful, but sometimes a pen and paper can work just as well.
All in preoperational, all, people need to learn to place less value on material things and place more value on the things that are priceless: friends, family, and a good education.
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la dissertation es travaux d'criture proposs par les sujets de baccalaurat sont partags entre trois types d'exercices : Ces trois types de travaux relvent tous de l'argumentation. And Juliat. C'est pourquoi, dtaillant les procdures qui prsident l'laboration d'une dissertation, nous examinerons aussi celles que requirent les autres exercices. L A D I S S E R T A T I O N. La dissertation porte sur des genres ou des thmes relatifs aux perspectives d'tude que vous aurez suivies durant l'anne. Naturalistic. Le sujet qui vous est pos vous invite utiliser les documents qui constituent le corpus propos par le sujet. « La dissertation consiste conduire une rflexion personnelle et argumente partir d’une problmatique littraire issue du programme de franais.
Pour dvelopper son argumentation, le candidat s’appuie sur les textes dont il dispose, sur les “objets d’tude” de la classe de premire, ainsi que sur ses lectures et sa culture personnelle. And Juliat. » (B.O. Caryl Churchill. n° 46 du 14.12.06). Les pages qui suivent vous proposent des exercices progressifs qui dcomposent la dmarche classique de la dissertation et prcisent les diffrents types de plans. 'ensemble des sujets porte aujourd'hui sur un corpus de documents. Story. C'est la dissertation qui, nanmoins, aura le plus en profiter, ceux-ci fournissant en effet un certain nombre d'arguments et d'exemples utilisables. Teachers. C'est pourquoi nous ouvrons cette section consacre la dissertation par un exemple de corpus et quelques pistes d'utilisation dans l'optique d'un sujet qui concernerait la peine de mort et l'efficacit de certains discours dans la mobilisation du rcepteur (Objet d'tude : Convaincre, persuader et dlibrer ). Prenez d'abord connaissance des cinq documents suivants : Victor HUGO Lettre Lord Palmerston ( Actes et paroles II, 1875) . [Fortement impressionné, enfant, par la vision d’un condamné conduit à l’échafaud sur une place de Burgos puis, à l’adolescence, par les préparatifs du bourreau dressant la guillotine en place de Grève, Victor Hugo fut toute sa vie un adversaire résolu de la peine de mort. Of Romeo And Juliat. En exil à Guernesey, il assiste en 1854 à l'exécution de John-Charles Tapner, condamné à mort pour assassinat, et fait part aussitôt de son indignation à Lord Palmerston, alors secrétaire à l'Intérieur.] Marine-Terrace, 11 février 1854. Dès le point du jour une multitude immense fourmillait aux abords de la geôle.
Un jardin était attenant à la prison. Arguments For And Against Penalty. On y avait dressé l'échafaud. Story And Juliat. Une brèche avait été faite au mur pour que le condamné passât. Teachers. A huit heures du matin, la foule encombrant les rues voisines, deux cents spectateurs privilégiés étant dans le jardin, l'homme a paru à la brèche. Story And Juliat. Il avait le front haut et le pas ferme ; il était pâle ; le cercle rouge de l'insomnie entourait ses yeux. Caryl. Le mois qui venait de s'écouler venait de le vieillir de vingt années. Story And Juliat. Cet homme de trente ans en paraissait cinquante. Observation. Un bonnet de coton blanc profondément enfoncé sur la tête et relevé sur le front, - dit un témoin oculaire, - vêtu de la redingote brune qu'il portait aux débats, et chaussé de vieilles pantoufles , il a fait le tour d'une partie du jardin dans une allée exprès.
Les bordiers, le shérif, le lieutenant-shérif, le procureur de la reine, le greffier et le sergent de la reine l'entouraient. And Juliat. Il avait les mains liées ; mal, comme vous allez voir. Preoperational. Pourtant, selon l'usage anglais, pendant que les mains étaient croisées par les liens sur la poitrine, une corde rattachait les coudes derrière le dos. Story. Il marchait l'œil fixé sur le gibet. Against The Death. Tout en marchant il disait à voix haute : Ah mes pauvres enfants ! A côté de lui, le chapelain Bouwerie, qui avait refusé de signer la demande en grâce, pleurait. L'allée sablée menait à l'échelle. Story And Juliat. Le nœud pendait. Naturalistic Example. Tapner a monté. Of Romeo. Le bourreau d'en bas tremblait ; les bourreaux d'en bas sont quelquefois émus.
Tapner s'est mis lui-même sous le nœud coulant et y a passé son cou, et, comme il avait les mains peu attachées, voyant que le bourreau, tout égaré, s'y prenait mal, il l'a aidé. Churchill. Puis, comme s'il pressentait ce qui allait suivre, - dit le même témoin, - il a dit : Liez-moi donc mieux les mains. And Juliat. - C'est inutile, a répondu le bourreau. Teachers Philosophy. Tapner étant ainsi debout dans le nœud coulant, les pieds sur la trappe, le bourreau a rabattu le bonnet sur son visage, et l'on n'a plus vu de cette face pâle qu'une bouche qui priait. Of Romeo. La trappe, prête à s'ouvrir sous lui, avait environ deux pieds carrés. Thinking. Après quelques secondes, le temps de se retourner, l'homme des hautes œuvres a pressé le ressort de la trappe. Story Of Romeo And Juliat. Un trou s'est fait sous le condamné, il y est tombé brusquement, la corde s'est tendue, le corps a tourné, on naturalistic, a cru l'homme mort.
On pensa, dit le témoin, que Tapner avait été tué raide par la rupture de la moelle épinière. Of Romeo. Il était tombé de quatre pieds de haut, et de tout son poids, et c'était un homme de haute taille ; et le témoin ajoute : Ce soulagement des cœurs oppressés ne dura pas deux minutes. Top Girl. Tout à coup, l'homme, pas encore cadavre et déjà spectre, a remué ; les jambes se sont élevées et abaissées l'une après l'autre comme si elles essayaient de monter des marches dans le vide, ce qu'on entrevoyait de la face est devenu horrible, les mains, presque déliées, s'éloignaient et se rapprochaient comme pour demander assistance, dit le témoin. Story. Le lien des coudes s'était rompu à la secousse de la chute. Teachers Philosophy. Dans ces convulsions, la corde s'est mise à osciller, les coudes du misérable ont heurté le bord de la trappe, les mains s'y sont cramponnées, le genou droit s'y est appuyé, le corps s'est soulevé, et le pendu s'est penché sur la foule. Of Romeo. Il est retombé, puis a recommencé. Postmodern Perspective. Deux fois, dit le témoin. Of Romeo. La seconde fois il s'est dressé à un pied de hauteur ; la corde a été à un moment lâche. Steinbeck. Puis il a relevé son bonnet et la foule a vu ce visage. Story. Cela durait trop, à ce qu'il paraît.
Il a fallu finir. Top Girl. Le bourreau, qui était descendu, est remonté, et a fait, je cite toujours le témoin oculaire, lâcher prise au patient. Story And Juliat. La corde avait dévié ; elle était sous le menton ; le bourreau l'a remise sous l'oreille : après quoi il a pressé les épaules. Thinking. Le bourreau et le spectre ont lutté un moment ; le bourreau a vaincu. Story And Juliat. Puis cet infortuné, condamné lui-même, s'est précipité dans le trou où pendait Tapner, lui a étreint les deux genoux et s'est suspendu à ses pieds.
La corde s'est balancée à un moment, portant le patient et le bourreau, le crime et la loi. Preoperational Thinking. Enfin, le bourreau a lui-même lâché prise . Story Of Romeo. C'était fait. Preoperational Thinking. L'homme était mort. Vous le voyez, monsieur, les choses se sont bien passées. And Juliat. Cela a été complet. Postmodern. Si c'est un cri d'horreur qu 'on a voulu, on and juliat, l'a. La ville étant bâtie en amphithéâtre, on postmodern, voyait cela de toutes les fenêtres. Story. Les regards plongeaient dans le jardin. La foule criait : shame ! shame ! shame ! Des femmes sont tombées évanouies. Teachers Philosophy. Pendant ce temps-là, Fouquet, le gracié de 1851, se repent. Story Of Romeo And Juliat. Le bourreau a fait de Tapner un cadavre; la clémence a refait de Fouquet un homme.
Dernier détail. Site Title. Entre le moment où Tapner est tombé dans le trou de la trappe et l’instant où le bourreau, ne sentant plus de frémissement, lui a lâché les pieds, il s’est écoulé douze minutes. Story. Douze minutes ! Qu’on calcule combien cela fait de temps, si quelqu’un sait à quelle horloge se comptent les minutes de l’agonie ! Voilà donc, monsieur, de quelle façon Tapner est mort. Observation Example. Cette exécution a coûté cinquante mille francs. Story Of Romeo. C’est un beau luxe. Perspective. Quelques amis de la peine de mort disent qu’on aurait pu avoir cette strangulation pour vingt-cinq livres sterling . Story And Juliat. Pourquoi lésiner ? Cinquante mille francs ! quand on perspective, y pense, ce n’est pas trop cher ; il y a beaucoup de détails dans cette chose-là.
On voit l’hiver, à Londres, dans de certains quartiers, des groupes d’êtres pelotonnés dans les angles des rues, au coin de portes, passant ainsi les jours et les nuits, mouillés, affamés, glacés, sans abri, sans vêtements et sans chaussures, sous le givre et sous la pluie. Of Romeo And Juliat. Ces êtres sont des vieillards, des enfants et des femmes ; presque tous irlandais ; comme vous, monsieur. Site In A Steinbeck. Contre l’hiver ils ont la rue, contre la neige ils ont la nudité, contre la faim ils ont le tas d’ordures voisin. Story Of Romeo And Juliat. C’est sur ces indigences-là que le budget prélève les cinquante mille francs donnés au bourreau Rooks. Churchill. Avec ces cinquante mille francs, on of romeo and juliat, ferait vivre pendant un an postmodern, cent de ces familles. Story And Juliat. Il vaut mieux tuer un homme. Philosophy. Ceux qui croient que le bourreau Rooks a commis quelque maladresse paraissent être dans l’erreur. And Juliat. L’exécution de Tapner n’a rien que de simple. Preoperational. C’est ainsi que cela doit se passer. Story And Juliat. Un nommé Tawel a été pendu récemment par le bourreau de Londres, qu’une relation que j’ai sous les yeux qualifie ainsi : Le maître des exécuteurs, celui qui s’est acquis une célébrité sans rivale dans sa peu enviable profession. Preoperational Thinking. Eh bien, ce qui est arrivé à Tapner était arrivé à Tawel.
On aurait tort de dire qu’aucune précaution n’avait été prise pour Tapner. And Juliat. Le jeudi 9, quelques zélés de la peine capitale avaient visité la potence déjà toute prête dans le jardin. Site Steinbeck. S’y connaissant, ils avaient remarqué que la corde était grosse comme le pouce et le nœud coulant gros comme le poing . Of Romeo. Avis avait été donné au procureur royal, lequel avait fait remplacer la grosse corde par une corde fine. Caryl Churchill. De quoi se plaindrait-on ? Tapner est resté une heure au gibet. Story And Juliat. L’heure écoulée, on philosophy, l’a détaché ; et le soir, à huit heures, on story, l’a enterré dans le cimetière dit des étrangers, à côté du supplicié de 1830, Béasse. Teachers Philosophy. Il y a encore un autre être condamné. Story Of Romeo And Juliat. C’est la femme de Tapner. Thinking. Elle s’est évanouie, deux fois en lui disant adieu ; le second évanouissement a duré une demi-heure ; on story, l’a crue morte. Thinking. Voilà, monsieur, j’y insiste, de quelle façon est mort Tapner. Of Romeo. Un fait que je ne puis vous taire, c’est l’unanimité de la presse locale sur ce point : Il n’y aura plus d’exécution à mort dans ce pays, l’échafaud n’y sera plus toléré.
La Chronique de Jersey du 11 février ajoute : Le supplice a été plus atroce que le crime. Steinbeck Title. J’ai peur que, sans le vouloir, vous n’ayez aboli la peine de mort à Guernesey. Story Of Romeo And Juliat. Je livre en outre à vos réflexions ce passage d’une lettre que m’écrit un des principaux habitants de l’île : L’indignation était au comble, et si tous avaient pu voir ce qui se passait sous le gibet, quelque chose de sérieux serait arrivé, on naturalistic, aurait tâché de sauver celui qu’on torturait. Story And Juliat.  Prenez garde. Postmodern. L’avenir approche. Story Of Romeo. Vous croyez vivant ce qui est mort et vous croyez mort ce qui est vivant. Churchill. La vieille société est debout, mais morte, vous dis-je. And Juliat. Vous vous êtes trompés.
Vous avez mis la main dans les ténèbres sur le spectre et vous en avez fait votre fiancée. Caryl. Vous tournez le dos à la vie ; elle va tout à l’heure se lever derrière vous. Story Of Romeo. Quand nous prononçons ces mots, progrès, révolution, liberté, humanité, vous souriez, homme malheureux, et vous nous montrez la nuit où nous sommes et où vous êtes. For And Against. Vraiment, savez-vous ce qu’est que cette nuit ? Apprenez-le, avant peu les idées en sortiront énormes et rayonnantes. Of Romeo And Juliat. La démocratie, c’était hier la France ; ce sera demain l’Europe. Philosophy. L’éclipse actuelle masque le mystérieux agrandissement de l’astre. Je suis, monsieur, votre serviteur, Complment : Le texte le plus clbre de Hugo concernant la peine de mort est Le Dernier jour d'un condamn . And Juliat. Vous trouverez ce document en deux parties (extrait 1 - extrait 2) dans les pages relatives la rfutation et au rquisitoire. Caryl Top Girl. Écoutez ci-dessous deux autres extraits : DOCUMENT 2 Auguste VILLIERS DE L'ISLE-ADAM Le ralisme dans la peine de mort (1885)
Or, cette guillotine tombe, sournoise, oblique, dpourvue de l'indispensable mesure de solennit qui est inhrente ce qu'elle ose, a simplement l'air d'une embche place sur un chemin. Story Of Romeo And Juliat. Je n'y reconnais que le talion social de la mort, c'est--dire l'quivalent de l'instrument du crime. Bref, on caryl churchill, va se venger ici, c'est--dire quilibrer le meurtre par le meurtre, - voil tout, c'est--dire commettre un nouveau meurtre sur le prisonnier ligot qui va sortir et que nous guettons pour l'gorger son tour . Of Romeo. Cela va se passer en famille. Arguments Penalty. Mais, encore une fois, c'est mconnatre ce qui peut seul confrer le droit de tuer dans cet esprit-l, de cette faon-l. L'ombre que projette cette lame terne sur nos pleurs nous donne tous des airs de complices : pour peu qu'on y touche encore d'une ligne, cela va sentir l'assassinat ! Au nom de tout sens commun, il faut exhausser, hauteur acceptable , notre billot national. Of Romeo. Le devoir de l'tat est d'exiger que l'acte suprme de sa justice se manifeste sous des dehors mieux sants. Churchill Top Girl. Et puis, s'il faut tout avouer, la Loi, pour sa dignit mme, qui rsume celle de tous, n'a pas traiter avec tant de rvoltant ddain cette forme humaine qui nous est commune avec le condamn et en France, dfinitivement, on and juliat, ne peut saigner ainsi, ras de terre, que les pourceaux ! La justice a l'air de parler argot, devant les dalles ; elle ne dit pas : Ici l'on tue ; mais : Ici l'on rogne . Perspective. Que signifient ces deux cyniques ressorts boudins qui amortissent sottement le bruit grave du couteau ? Pourquoi sembler craindre qu'on l'entende ? - Ah ! mieux vaudrait abolir tout fait cette vieille loi que d'en travestir ainsi la manifestation ! Ou restituons la Justice l'chafaud dans toute son horreur salubre et sacre, ou relguons l'abattoir, sans autres atermoiements homicides, cette guillotine dchue et mauvaise, qui humilie la nation, c#156;ure et scandalise tous les esprits et ne fait grand'peur personne. Rapprochons-nous. Of Romeo And Juliat. C'est pour. Postmodern Perspective. dans quelques instants. Me voici tout auprs du sombre instrument : j'ai pris place dans une sorte d'claircie de l'alle vivante dont il a t parl.
Il faut examiner jusqu' la fin tout cet accomplissement. Quatre heures et demie sonnent. And Juliat. Les formalits du rveil et de la hideuse toilette sont termines. Philosophy. A travers la petite porte, scinde dans le portail mme de la prison, je vois qu'on lve la grille de l'intrieur : le condamn est en marche vers nous, dj, sous les galeries - et. Story. avant un instant. For And The Death Penalty. Ah ! les deux vastes battants du noir portail s'entr'ouvrent et roulent silencieusement sur leurs gonds huils. Les voici tout grands ouverts.
A ce signal, vu aux lointains, de tous cts, on story and juliat, se tait ; les c#156;urs se serrent ; j'entends le bruissement des sabres ; je me dcouvre. L'excuteur apparat, - le premier, cette fois ! - puis, un homme, en bras de chemise, les mains lies au dos, - prs de lui, le prtre : - Derrire eux, les aides, le chef de la sret publique et le directeur de la prison. Preoperational Thinking. C'est tout. Of Romeo And Juliat. - Ah ! le malheureux . Preoperational Thinking. - Oui, voil bien une face terrible. Story. La tte haute, blafard, le cou trs nu, les orbites agrandis, le regard errant sur nous une seconde, puis fixe l'aspect de ce qu'il aperoit en face de lui. Caryl Churchill Top Girl. De trs courtes mches de cheveux noirs, ingales, se hrissent par place sur cette tte rsolue et farouche. Story. Son pas ralenti par des entraves, est ferme, car il ne veut pas chanceler. Site In A Steinbeck Title. - Le pauvre prtre, qui, pour lui cacher la vue du couteau et lui montrer l'au-del du ciel, lve son crucifix qui tremble, est aussi blanc que lui. A moiti route, l'infortun toise la mcanique : - a. Of Romeo And Juliat. ? C'est l-dessus . Teachers Philosophy. dit-il d'une voix inoubliable.
Il aperoit la grande manne en treillis, bante, au couvercle soutenu par une pioche. Story. Mais le prtre s'interpose et, sur la licence que lui en octroie celui qui va prir, lui donne le dernier embrassement de l'Humanit. Ah ! lorsque sa mre, autrefois, le berait, tout enfant, le soir, et, souriante, l'embrassait, heureuse et toute fire, - qui lui et montr, cette mre, cet embrassement-ci au fond de l'avenir ! Le voici, debout, en face de la planche. Soudain - pendant qu'il jette un coup d#146;#156;il presque furtif sur le couteau - la pese d'un aide fait basculer le condamn sur cette passerelle de l'abme ; l'autre moiti de la cangue s'abaisse : l'excuteur touche le dclic. Perspective. un clair glisse. Story. plouff ! - Pouah ! quel claboussis ! Deux ou trois grosses gouttes rouges sautent autour de moi. In A. Mais dj le tronc gt, prcipit, dans le panier funbre. Story Of Romeo And Juliat. L'excuteur, s'inclinant trs vite, prend quelque chose dans une espce de baignoire d'enfant, place en dehors , sous la guillotine. La tte que tient, maintenant, par l'oreille gauche, - le bourreau de France - et qu'il nous montre - est immobile, trs ple - et les yeux sont hermtiquement ferms.
Dtournant les regards vers le sol, que vois-je, quelques pouces de ma semelle . La pointe du Couteau-glaive de notre Justice Nationale effleurer piteusement la sanglante boue du matin ! « IL FAUT GUILLOTINER, PARCE QUE. l es robes des Procureurs ont besoin de temps en temps d'tre reteintes en rouge .» J'ai cru longtemps - et je ne sais pas pourquoi - que pour aller la guillotine, il fallait monter sur un chafaud, gravir des marches. Naturalistic. Je crois que c'tait cause de la Rvolution de 1789, je veux dire cause de tout ce qu'on m'avait appris ou fait voir sur ces questions. Story Of Romeo And Juliat. Mais un matin, je me suis souvenu d'une photographie publie par les journaux l'occasion d'une excution retentissante. Naturalistic. En ralit, la machine tait pose mme le sol, le plus simplement du monde.
Elle tait beaucoup plus troite que je ne le pensais. Story. C'tait assez drle que je ne m'en fusse pas avis plus tt. Preoperational Thinking. Cette machine sur le clich m'avait frapp par son aspect d'ouvrage de prcision, fini et tincelant. Of Romeo And Juliat. On se fait toujours des ides exagres de ce qu'on ne connat pas. The Death Penalty. Je devais constater au contraire que tout tait simple : la machine est au mme niveau que l'homme qui marche vers elle. Of Romeo. Il la rejoint comme on arguments against, marche la rencontre d'une personne. Story. Cela aussi tait ennuyeux. Postmodern. La monte vers l'chafaud, l'ascension en plein ciel, l'imagination pouvait s'y raccrocher.
Tandis que, l encore, la mcanique crasait tout : on story of romeo, tait tu discrtement, avec un peu de honte, et beaucoup de prcision. Il y avait aussi deux choses quoi je rflchissais tout le temps : l'aube et mon pourvoi.[. Caryl. ] C'est l'aube qu'ils venaient, je le savais. Story Of Romeo And Juliat. En somme, j'ai occup mes nuits attendre cette aube. Teachers. Je n'ai jamais aim tre surpris. Of Romeo. Quand il m'arrive quelque chose, je prfre tre l. Naturalistic Observation Example. C'est pourquoi j'ai fini par ne plus dormir qu'un peu dans mes journes et, tout le long de mes nuits, j'ai attendu patiemment que la lumire naisse sur la vitre du ciel. Of Romeo. Le plus difficile, c'tait l'heure douteuse o je savais qu'ils opraient d'habitude. Philosophy. Pass minuit, j'attendais et je guettais. Of Romeo And Juliat. Jamais mon oreille n'avait peru tant de bruits, distingu de sons si tnus. Site In A Steinbeck. Je peux dire, d'ailleurs, que d'une certaine faon j'ai eu de la chance pendant toute cette priode, puisque je n'ai jamais entendu de pas.
Maman disait souvent qu'on n'est jamais tout fait malheureux. Story Of Romeo And Juliat. Je l'approuvais dans ma prison, quand le ciel se colorait et qu'un nouveau jour glissait dans ma cellule, parce qu'aussi bien, j'aurais pu entendre des pas et mon c#156;ur aurait pu clater. Site In A Steinbeck. Mme si le moindre glissement me jetait la porte, mme si, l'oreille colle au bois, j'attendais perdument jusqu' ce que j'entende ma propre respiration, effray de la trouver rauque et si pareille au rle d'un chien, au bout du compte, mon c#156;ur n'clatait pas et j'avais encore gagn vingt-quatre heures. En vrit, la question de la peine de mort est simple pour qui veut l'analyser avec lucidit. Of Romeo. Elle ne se pose pas en termes de dissuasion, ni mme de technique rpressive, mais en termes de choix politique ou de choix moral. Je l'ai dj dit, mais je le rpte volontiers au regard du grand silence antrieur : le seul rsultat auquel ont conduit toutes les recherches menes par les criminologues est la constatation de l'absence de lien entre la peine de mort et l'volution de la criminalit sanglante. Arguments For And Against The Death Penalty. [#133;] Il n'est pas difficile d'ailleurs, pour qui veut s'interroger loyalement, de comprendre pourquoi il n'y a pas entre la peine de mort et l'volution de la criminalit sanglante ce rapport dissuasif que l'on s'est si souvent appliqu chercher sans trouver sa source ailleurs, et j'y reviendrai dans un instant. Story. Si vous y rflchissez simplement, les crimes les plus terribles, ceux qui saisissent le plus la sensibilit publique - et on example, le comprend - ceux qu'on appelle les crimes atroces sont commis le plus souvent par des hommes emports par une pulsion de violence et de mort qui abolit jusqu'aux dfenses de la raison. Of Romeo. A cet instant de folie, cet instant de passion meurtrire, l'vocation de la peine, qu'elle soit de mort ou qu'elle soit perptuelle, ne trouve pas sa place chez l'homme qui tue. Teachers Philosophy. [#133;]
En fait, ceux qui croient la valeur dissuasive de la peine de mort mconnaissent la vrit humaine. Of Romeo. La passion criminelle n'est pas plus arrte par la peur de la mort que d'autres passions ne le sont qui, celles-l, sont nobles. Et si la peur de la mort arrtait les hommes, vous n'auriez ni grands soldats, ni grands sportifs. In A Steinbeck Title. Nous les admirons, mais ils n'hsitent pas devant la mort. Story Of Romeo. D'autres, emports par d'autres passions, n'hsitent pas non plus.
C'est seulement pour la peine de mort qu'on invente l'ide que la peur de la mort retient l'homme dans ses passions extrmes. Perspective. Ce n'est pas exact. Of Romeo. [#133;] Pour les partisans de la peine de mort, justice ne serait pas faite si la mort de la victime ne rpondait pas, en cho, la mort du coupable. Soyons clairs. Postmodern Perspective. Cela signifie simplement que la loi du talion demeurerait, travers les millnaires, la loi ncessaire, unique de la justice humaine. Du malheur et de la souffrance des victimes, j'ai, beaucoup plus que ceux qui s'en rclament, souvent mesur dans ma vie l'tendue. Of Romeo. Que le crime soit le point de rencontre, le lieu gomtrique du malheur humain, je le sais mieux que personne.[. Caryl Churchill. ]. Of Romeo And Juliat. Mais ressentir, au profond de soi-mme, le malheur et la douleur des victimes, mais lutter de toutes les manires pour que la violence et le crime reculent dans notre socit, cette sensibilit et ce combat ne sauraient impliquer la ncessaire mise mort du coupable. Philosophy. Que les parents et les proches de la victime souhaitent cette mort, par raction naturelle de l'tre humain bless, je le comprends, je le conois. Of Romeo. Mais c'est une raction humaine, naturelle. Teachers Philosophy. Or tout le progrs historique de la justice a t de dpasser la vengeance prive.
Et comment la dpasser, sinon d'abord en refusant la loi du talion? [. Story Of Romeo And Juliat. ] Le choix qui s'offre vos consciences est donc clair : ou notre socit refuse une justice qui tue et accepte d'assumer, au nom de ses valeurs fondamentales - celles qui l'ont faite grande et respecte entre toutes - la vie de ceux qui font horreur, dments ou criminels ou les deux la fois, et c'est le choix de l'abolition ; ou cette socit croit, en dpit de l'exprience des sicles, faire disparatre le crime avec le criminel, et c'est l'limination. Cette justice d'limination, cette justice d'angoisse et de mort, dcide avec sa marge de hasard, nous la refusons. Arguments For And Against. Nous la refusons parce qu'elle est pour nous l'anti-justice, parce qu'elle est la passion et la peur triomphant de la raison et de l'humanit. Elle est destinée à préparer le travail d'écriture en orientant le candidat sur un aspect déterminant du corpus. Of Romeo And Juliat. Pour les séries technologiques, les sujets proposent deux questions notées sur 6 points. Churchill Top Girl. Ces questions d'analyse posées aux candidats « font appel leurs comptences de lecture et les invitent tablir des relations entre les diffrents documents et en proposer des interprtations. Of Romeo. Ces questions peuvent tre conues de faon aider les candidats laborer l’autre partie de l’preuve crite, la partie principale consacre un travail d’criture. Churchill. » (B.O. Story Of Romeo. n° 46 du 14.12.06). 1. Teachers Philosophy. Identifier la nature du document : Un corpus est constitu de documents varis.
Quelles que soient les questions poses, il convient d'abord d'identifier nettement leur type de discours et leur registre (les questions peuvent d'ailleurs porter sur ces points). Story Of Romeo. Pour cela, aidez-vous du paratexte, des informations livres par le contenu mme, de votre culture personnelle. 2. Arguments Against Penalty. Relever les arguments prsents dans chaque document de manire implicite ou explicite, et classez-les par affinits. Story Of Romeo And Juliat. Vous devriez dans le cas de ce dossier aboutir trois arguments majeurs. Top Girl. Quels sont-ils ? collecte des arguments qui, travers le corpus, permettraient d'tayer l'hostilit des auteurs l'gard de la peine de mort : [Dans l'examen du corpus, et aprs, bien sr, lecture complte, choisissez le document qui vous parat le plus nettement argumentatif : c'est lui, en effet, qui vous permettra le mieux de reprer les arguments et qui vous servira de base pour aligner ceux des autres documents.] Dans ce corpus, le document 5 (texte de Robert Badinter) fait parfaitement l'affaire. Of Romeo. L'auteur y dveloppe quatre arguments nettement articuls : la peine de mort n'a aucune valeur d'exemple le supplice est plus atroce que le crime la socit bafoue son devoir d'humanité en appliquant la loi du talion la pratique de la peine capitale, par sa quasi-clandestinit, rvle la honte et la culpabilit des bourreaux. Vous pourrez sans mal retrouver ces arguments dans les autres documents et rdiger votre rponse et votre rquisitoire.
Vous traiterez un de ces sujets au choix : 1. Philosophy. Commentaire (il pourrait ici porter sur le texte de Camus ou un extrait du texte de Villiers). 2. Story. criture d'invention : composez votre tour un rquisitoire contre la peine de mort en utilisant de manire ordonne les arguments que vous aurez rencontrs dans les documents. « Il y a certaines vrits qu'il ne suffit pas de persuader, mais qu'il faut encore faire sentir. Naturalistic. Telles sont les vrits de morale. And Juliat. Peut-tre qu'[un] morceau d'histoire touchera plus qu'une philosophie subtile.» Vous rflchirez cette affirmation de Montesquieu ( Lettres Persanes ) en vous appuyant sur les atouts respectifs des documents du corpus. collecte des arguments qui, travers le corpus, permettraient d'tayer cette thse : [Il s'agit ici d'une tche plus complexe, puisque les arguments destins tayer la thse de Montesquieu ne sont pas dvelopps explicitement. Preoperational Thinking. C'est votre rponse la premire question (types de discours et registres) qui vous sera la plus utile.] La thse propose affirme la supriorit de l'apologue, du rcit concret, de l'image - donc de la fonction persuasive - sur l'argument pour communiquer des vrits morales. And Juliat. L'examen des divers documents sur la peine de mort montre cette importance des fonctions expressive et impressive.
Il faut dire que le sujet est enclin dchaner les passions. In A. Si l'on prend garde au caractre oratoire des discours, leur vigueur polmique, la force des images et du vocabulaire dans le rcit, on of romeo and juliat, doit convenir qu'en effet c'est par ces moyens-l et non par la clart de la raison que l'on entreprend de nous persuader. Pour tayer la thse, on thinking, pourra ainsi retenir comme arguments essentiels : le caractre concret du rcit : le tmoignage (document 2), l'exemple authentique (document 1), la description de l'horreur (documents 1, 2 et 3). Story Of Romeo And Juliat. le rle du je : l'intriorisation du rcit nous met la place du condamn (document 4), nous rend donc plus enclins la piti (documents 1 et 2) ou plus coupables (document 1). Sur le site Lettres de l'Acadmie de Rouen, Danielle Girard propose une squence sur Victor Hugo contre la peine de mort (textes de Hugo et d'autres auteurs, recensement des arguments de Hugo contre la peine de mort, cinq rquisitoires rdigs par des lves, images).
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This is teachers philosophy, often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the of romeo and juliat list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is churchill, meant by enough is open to debate, and this is and juliat, also where conventions come in. Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the postmodern perspective referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system.
Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the story of romeo and juliat source. You do this by stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the observation author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to story of romeo and juliat, be repeated.
The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. Naturalistic. This may be necessary, for and juliat, example, if only the first half of your sentence is in a steinbeck, based on someone else’s work. Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is included in story of romeo and juliat, brackets, together with the year of publication. Site In A Steinbeck. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002).
Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the story and juliat ampersand ( symbol). Postmodern. Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is of romeo, given, followed by et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999).
If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to give the number of the page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. Philosophy. See the separate section on of romeo and juliat, quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of in a title say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book.
Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for story and juliat, such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the postmodern perspective reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and of romeo and juliat, this includes the year of preoperational thinking publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted.
The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the story and juliat original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 ). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the year to identify which of the site title works you refer to. Story Of Romeo And Juliat. Use the letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for perspective, the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and and juliat, (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the caryl churchill top girl author, followed by story, the year of the publication.
Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the naturalistic observation end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the story of romeo and juliat author and the year of publication. It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in preoperational thinking, the essay is cited once, and listed in and juliat, alphabetical order.
Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same. A bibliography is a list of title relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. Story Of Romeo. References are the caryl churchill top girl sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the of romeo author(s) and example, their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher. And Juliat. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign).
Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by arguments for and the death penalty, adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Story Of Romeo. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press.
Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Thinking. Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in of romeo and juliat, a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. Teachers Philosophy. You give the story of romeo family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in observation example, single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s).
If you cite only story of romeo and juliat one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to postmodern, give the story of romeo and juliat name and year of the editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too. Arguments The Death. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in story of romeo and juliat, Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Arguments The Death Penalty. Hardin, R. Story And Juliat. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990).
Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. Perspective. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Story And Juliat. Hinchliffe, S. Preoperational. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in story of romeo, a book. The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. For example: Jackman, R. Caryl Churchill Top Girl. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to and juliat, chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the perspective volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and story and juliat, initial of the author, the naturalistic example year in brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of story of romeo journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in churchill, brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers.
For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89. Pages on the internet should be cited where used.
You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in story of romeo, brackets, the title of the document in italics, the perspective word online in square brackets, the place of publication, the publisher, the and juliat words available from : followed by the URL, and top girl, the date when the document was accessed in brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at and juliat, the bottom, giving you an indication when the the death content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and story of romeo, Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is observation example, given.
The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of of romeo and juliat publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and against, finally the page where the story of romeo and juliat article was found. For one page it’s customary to for and the death, use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common. For example: Cockburn, P. And Juliat. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and observation, should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the lecture. Story Of Romeo And Juliat. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the postmodern words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. For example:
Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of story of romeo your essay, you should include such conversations. It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation. For example:
Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in philosophy, brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the author. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important. It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. Of Romeo And Juliat. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions.
If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for caryl top girl, others to chase the work. Common problems include the and juliat lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Site Title. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the of romeo name of the organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to philosophy, put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name.
For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006]. UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Of Romeo. Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the example word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for story, example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is easily done by including the word unpublished in brackets at in a title, the end of the reference. With articles sent to story of romeo, you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. For theses it’s common to include the kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites.
Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the preoperational thinking name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is story and juliat, one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example: Peake, S. Arguments The Death. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and story, Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is capitalized. In the case of a book, the main title is that of the book. In the preoperational case of of romeo and juliat journal articles, on postmodern, the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the journal itself.
It might be confusing that within the and juliat journal, the title of an article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to arguments penalty, achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and story of romeo and juliat, put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and teachers, American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in and juliat, the references.
It’s perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at the end. It’s difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism.
Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of in a steinbeck somebody else and of romeo, present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an in a title, idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005).
There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by story, including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. Caryl Churchill Top Girl. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for story, you, too—that is philosophy, something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets.
If you work too closely to of romeo, the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the observation essay with the books in front of story of romeo and juliat you. Perspective. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades. Rather than having the story and juliat original works in title, front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference.
Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to story, notice the triple X; and there is always the search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of churchill top girl writing without interrupting my thoughts. Story Of Romeo. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is hard to example, detect by of romeo, your marker, think again. Perspective. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to story of romeo and juliat, have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to postmodern perspective, find it on a search engine, again. It would, of of romeo course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot. Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the caryl top girl essay yourself. Just to story, give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to in a steinbeck title, the same search engines than you have.
There is of romeo, software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Arguments The Death. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Of Romeo And Juliat. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the naturalistic observation same paragraph twice in the same essay, for of romeo and juliat, example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Many people are unaware of arguments against the death penalty how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001).
Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of story metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the preoperational length of of romeo and juliat sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and teachers philosophy, n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the story of romeo text, but few at arguments for and against the death penalty, the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by of romeo, the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different.
Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and thinking, take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations.
Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from others. Of Romeo And Juliat. Quotations are about the in a title exact words used by others. This is story of romeo and juliat, really the the death penalty whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is story of romeo, a quotation, because I use the perspective exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the of romeo and juliat reader to check the words in the original context. Preoperational. In the list of of romeo and juliat references at the end of the text, there is philosophy, no difference.
Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by speech marks. Story. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and teachers, usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to story and juliat, copy the caryl churchill top girl words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay.
If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the words that I changed in story, square brackets, leaving the rest the postmodern same. This indicates to of romeo, my readers that the words in square brackets are not the preoperational thinking exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms.
Whilst quotations can lighten up an story of romeo, essay, you should not rely on them too much. Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is arguments for and against the death, that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of and juliat style don’t fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the references whilst you write.
This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the author right away. For And. Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Of Romeo And Juliat. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the caryl churchill full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to put references all the story of romeo and juliat time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of site steinbeck software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references.
These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the and juliat referencing process. They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file. For And. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. The next time you cite the and juliat same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the reference.
Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.
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Chemistry/ Chemical Reaction term paper 15274. Chemical reactions are the heart of chemistry. People have always known that they exist. And Juliat. The Ancient Greeks were the firsts to speculate on the death penalty, the composition of of romeo matter. They thought that it was possible that individual particles made up matter. Later, in the Seventeenth Century, a German chemist named Georg Ernst Stahl was the first to postulate on chemical reaction, specifically, combustion. He said that a substance called phlogiston escaped into the air from all substances during combustion. Postmodern Perspective. He explained that a burning candle would go out if a candle snuffer was put over it because the air inside the snuffer became saturated with phlogiston. According to his ideas, wood is made up of phlogiston and ash, because only ash is left after combustion.
His ideas soon came upon some contradiction. Story Of Romeo And Juliat. When metal is burned, its ash has a greater mass than the original substance. Stahl tried to cover himself by saying that phlogiston will take away from a substance's mass or that it had a negative mass, which contradicted his original theories. In the perspective Eighteenth Century Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, in France, discovered an story, important detail in the understanding of the chemical reaction combustion, oxigine (oxygen). He said that combustion was a chemical reaction involving oxygen and another combustible substance, such as wood. John Dalton, in the early Nineteenth Century, discovered the observation atom. It gave way to the idea that a chemical reaction was actually the rearrangement of groups of atoms called molecules. Dalton also said that the appearance and disappearance of story of romeo properties meant that the atomic composition dictated the appearance of different properties. Observation. He also came up with idea that a molecule of one substance is exactly the same as any other molecule of the same substance.
People like Joseph-Lois Gay-Lussac added to Dalton's concepts with the postulate that the volumes of gasses that react with each other are related (14 grams of story of romeo and juliat nitrogen reacted with exactly three grams of hydrogen, eight grams of oxygen reacted to steinbeck title exactly one gram of hydrogen, etc.) Amedeo Avogadro also added to the understanding of and juliat chemical reactions. Perspective. He said that all gasses at the same pressure, volume and temperature contain the same number of particles. This idea took a long time to be accepted. His ideas lead to the subscripts used in the formulas for gasses. From the work of these and many other chemists, we now have a mostly complete knowledge of story of romeo and juliat chemical reactions.
There are now many classification systems to classify the different types of reactions. These include decomposition, polymerization, chain reactions, substitution reactions, elimination reactions, combination reactions, ionic reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions. Decomposition reactions are reactions in which a substance breaks into smaller parts. As an example, ammonium carbonate will decompose into ammonia, carbon dioxide, and water. Polymerization reactions are reactions in which simpler substances combine to form a complex substance. The thing that makes this reaction unusual is that the final product is the death penalty composed of story and juliat hundreds of the simpler reagent (a substance that contributes to a chemical reaction) species.
One example is the polymerization of terephthalic acid with ethylene glycol to form the polymer called Dacron, a fibre, or Mylar, in sheet form. In this reaction n is a large number of moles. A chain reaction is a series of smaller reactions in which the previous reaction forms a reagent for the next reaction. The synthesis of teachers hydrogen bromide is a good example: This is of romeo a simple equation that doesn't properly prove the reaction. It is very complex and starts with this:
The next three reactions are related and caryl, should be grouped together. A substitution, or single and of romeo, double replacement reactions, is a reaction in site in a title which ionic compounds react with an element or another compund to form new ionic compounds. Here is an example of single-replacement when chlorine gas reacts with aqueous sodium bromide: Cl2(g) + 2NaBr(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + Br2(l) A double-replacement reaction between barium chloride and potassium carbonate looks like this:
BaCl2(aq) + K2CO3(aq) 2KCl(aq) + BaCO3(s) An elimination reaction is a reaction in which a compound is broken into of romeo and juliat smaller parts when heated. Here is an example when the same substance is heated and goes through another reaction: 2CHClF2 -* C2F4 + 2HCl. A combination reaction occurs when two or more reactants form a single product. These are grouped into five different categories. One of these categories is associated with the combination of in a a nonmetal and of romeo, a nonmetal to form a molecular compound. Another states that when a nonmetal oxide combines with water to make an acid. For instance when sulfur trioxide and water react sulfuric acid is top girl made:
SO3(s) + H2O(l) H2SO4(aq) Another reaction is called an ionic reaction. It occurs between two ions and of romeo, can happen very quickly. For example, when silver nitrate and the death penalty, sodium chloride are mixed you get silver chloride: AgNO3 + NaCl -* AgCl + NaNO3. The last type of reaction is called oxidation-reduction. These are reactions that involve a change in of romeo and juliat oxidation number. It is an site in a, oxidizing reaction if the of romeo and juliat oxidation number goes up.
It is a reduction reaction if the oxidation number goes down. These two reactions only happen together. The number of electrons remains the same from start to finish in site a redox reaction. This is an example of an and juliat, unbalanced redox equation: Fe2+(aq) + MnO4-(aq) Fe3+(aq) + Mn2+(aq)
It is now known that there are three types of chemical reactions. They are classified into three types: exoergic (exothermic), endoergic (endothermic), and aergic (athermic). In these cases, energy is supplied, but the different types of reactions initiate the energy differently. Exoergic, or exothermic, reactions release energy during the reaction. Caryl Churchill. Combustion is one of the major reactions that do this.
The burning of story of romeo and juliat wood, or any other fuel, gives off heat, and the burning of glucose in our bodies gives off both energy and heat. Endoergic, or endothermic, reactions absorb energy during the reaction. The melting of an ice cube is an example of an endothermic reaction. Aergic, or athermic, reactions neither give off nor absorb energy. There are very few cases in which this happens. There are some things that must be considered in a chemical reaction. Kinetics is one of these things. Kinetics decides The speed of the reaction and naturalistic example, what is happening on a molecular level.
There are a few things that decide the course and speed of the reaction. The first thing is the reactants. Different reactants react at different speeds. Even the position of the reactants will affect the reaction rate. Concentration can have a major impact on reaction rate; the more reactants the faster the rate. Also, if the surface area of substances is increased, for instance grinding a metal into powder, will speed up a reaction. Catalysts contribute a needed substance to the reaction to of romeo control the reaction rate.
They are responsible for lowering the activation energy. The catalyst is an outside substance that is included in the reaction, but is not consumed during the arguments penalty reaction like the reactants are. They cannot make impossible reactions occur, they only contribute to the reaction to increase the story of romeo reaction rate. There are also such things as negative catalysts, or inhibitors. Inhibitors retard the reaction rate. This is also a way to control reactions. Naturalistic Observation Example. A good example in of romeo and juliat nature of a catalyst is in steinbeck title a firefly. The reaction that releases the light is story complex. Lucifern, which the firefly makes naturally, is preoperational thinking oxidized in the presence of luciferase, another natural enzyme, which acts as a catalyst in the reaction. Thus, the reaction makes an excited form of luciferase, which soon returns to story its original state.
Energy as light is released when the lucifrase returns to its normal state. The insect can easily control this reaction with an inhibitor it naturally makes. Another contributor in this consideration is arguments for and the death entropy. And Juliat. It is the measure of energy not available for work in the reaction that becomes energy moved to disorder. Entropy is simply a measurement of unusable energy in a closed thermodynamic system. An acid and base reaction is another thing to thinking consider. Acids and bases react very readily to each other. When an acid and a base react, they form water and a salt.
Acids and bases neutralize each other and form a salt as a byproduct. This reaction reaches what is story of romeo and juliat called equilibria, (When a substance is completely neutral in charge and acidity). One example of how acids and bases react is the reaction of calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid to produce calcium phosphate and water: 3Ca(OH)2 + 2H3PO4 -* Ca3(PO4)2 + 6H2O. The last detail is the reaction conditions. The temperature, humidity, and for and penalty, barometric pressure will affect the reaction. Story And Juliat. Even a slight change in any one of these could change the reaction. Heating a reaction causes the particles to move faster, leading to more collisions and speeding the reaction.
There are many branches of Chemistry that use chemical reactions, infact, almost all of them. For example, Photochemistry is one branch of chemistry that deals with chemical reactions. Teachers Philosophy. It has to do with the radiant energy of all kinds formed during chemical reactions. Photochemists will experiment with chemical reactions. They will perform reactions normally only possible at high temperatures in room temperature under ultra-violet radiation.
The reaction rate can be controlled for story, observation by varying the preoperational thinking intensity of the radiation. Of Romeo And Juliat. X-rays and gamma rays are commonly used in these procedures. The most important photochemical reaction is observation example photosynthesis. Carbon-dioxide and of romeo and juliat, water combine with chlorophyll as a catalyst to give off oxygen. Photochemical reactions are caused by preoperational, photons that are given off by the light source. The reactant molecules absorb the photons and story of romeo, get excited. They are at such an preoperational, excited state, they can decompose, ionize, cause a reaction with other molecules, or give off heat. Another science that uses chemical reactions is story of romeo and juliat Biochemistry.
They use them to produce products that a person either can't produce or cannot do as well as they should. The best example of this the production of insulin. Postmodern Perspective. It was first produced in very tiny beads until someone realized that the body does in a very similar way. The person was Robert B. Merrifeild. He was the first to urge scientists to of romeo study living systems for the answers to problems that could be solved with synthesizing chemical reactions in the body. Arguments For And Penalty. This was actually the first step toward the development of bionics. Scientists today are still toying with chemical reactions. They are trying to control them with lasers. Scientists are trying to use lasers to story of romeo and juliat prod a chemical reaction that could go one way or another, the way they want it to. They want to direct the molecules in one direction. The control of photons to excite molecules and cause reactions has been elusive.
Recently, though, chemist Robert J. Gordon at the University of philosophy Illinois achieved coherent phase control of hydrogen disulfide molecules by firing ultraviolet lasers of different wavelengths at them. Laser chemistry looks promising and is a way that chemistry is still being expanded. Again, chemical reactions are the main part of a branch of chemistry. Here again, scientists are playing with chemical reactions. In April of 1995, a chemist named Peter Schultz and a physicist named Paul McEuen of the University of California at Berkeley announced that they could control chemical reactions molecule by molecule.
The key to the technique is to put a dab of platinum on the microscopic tip of an atomic force microscope. (The tip of such a microscope is a tiny cantilever that rides like a phonograph needle just above the surface of a sample and reacts to forces exerted by the electrons beneath it.) The Platinum acts like a catalyst, stimulating a reaction between two reactants, just stimulating a reaction one molecule at story and juliat a time. The molecules are stimulated in a pattern giving the desired results. Teachers. This discovery opens doors for nanoengineering and material sciences. It gives a good view of story what happens, one molecule at a time. Chemical reactions are a large part of chemistry. Learning more about in a steinbeck, them can have a tremendous effect on what scientists can do in the future. By studying how to manipulate them to make certain products that could revolutionize the story of romeo world. · Chemical Reactions, Encyclopedia Brittanica MACROPEDIA, 1995, Vol.
15. · Eastman, Richard H., General Chemistry: Experimental and Theory, Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston Inc., 1970. · One Molecule at a Time, Discover, January 1996. · Pauling, Linus and Peter, Chemistry , W. H. Freeman and Co., 1975. · Reactions, Chemical, Encyclopedia Americana, 1982, Vol. Site In A Title. 23. · Reactions, Chemical, Academic American Encyclopedia, 1991, Vol. 16. Word Count: 2096. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints.
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