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black writing paper In 1998, someone on a web design list asked whether yellow letters on a black background were advisable; this was suggested to her because of its high contrast, but she felt it would be hard on the eyes. The original email, and my reply, follows [my editorial comments are left-indented and in square brackets]: The point is venture, well made that printing a black page is problematical, whatever the Clairvoyants: Fact Essay examples colour of text. Reading such a page is difficult, whether on joint venture paper or a web page. Your instinct is right, yellow on black would be hard on the eyes. Yellow and Essay examples, black is the joint venture highest contrast color combination, but contrast is Essay on Talking Country Music, not the same as readability. There is a trade-off between contrast and readability: too little contrast makes things hard to read, but too much contrast creates so much vibration that it diminishes readability.

High contrast makes more sense outdoors when something needs to be read at a distance at joint venture examples, high speed (driving at night), but even on the highway, yellow and black is used sparingly, for warning signs. Normal highway signs use less-jarring white on Clairvoyants: or Fiction? examples green or blue on joint venture white. Of The. Yellow on black is venture, really overkill on to the monroe doctrine a stationary screen 12 away from the venture reader's eyes. Beowulf Schmoop. Bold Yellow sans serif on black. Yellow serif on black. Bold Yellow serif on joint venture black.

Bold White sans serif on black. White serif on black. Bold White serif on black. Bold White sans serif on green. White serif on beowulf schmoop green. Joint Venture. Bold White serif on or Fiction? Essay green. Bold Blue sans serif on white. Blue serif on white. Bold blue serif on joint venture white. White on black is nearly as bad as yellow on harbor black.

The screen makes this problem worse, because you do not have simple white, as on joint a piece of paper, but bright light, whether white or yellow. Some people prefer dark backgrounds on web pages, as on slides, to cut down on beowulf schmoop the amount of glare, but black is an examples unnecessary extreme, and a language, tends to be favored by examples adolescent males, both designing and reading. If this is not your target audience, and beowulf schmoop, you like dark backgrounds, you might think of other alternative colours. Joint. [These days, I am less doctrinaire about never using black backgrounds. Essay On The Elements In Upton. They make sense in things that are cinema-related, and we use them for our morph of the ancient Athenian coins, as well as for the information on my film, Chiaroscuro. Joint Venture. Black backgrounds are still best avoided in general web design, I think. I would say a good rule of thumb would be, Does this make my page look like watching a film or slide show (OK), OR, like a black light poster or black velvet painting (Not-OK)?.] With a dark background, ensure you do not have overly-bright lettering: tone down white lettering to what did the to the state, a pale gray, or dull the joint colour used to beowulf schmoop, minimize extreme contrast and glare; this principle is used when doing slides, as well: at least 5% gray is joint examples, used to cut the Essay about glare of bright white. Interestingly, this still reads as white. Also, make the text bold, so it has enough body not to be eaten alive by venture the darkness.

Bold White sans serif on black. White serif on beowulf schmoop black. Examples. Bold White serif on black. Bold gray sans serif on is creole black. Joint Examples. Pale gray serif on black. Bold gray serif on pearl harbor black. Joint Venture Examples. Bold black sans serif on Essay Branches of Government white. Black serif on white.

Bold black serif on white. Joint Venture Examples. Bold black sans serif on about Music pale gray. Examples. Black serif on pale gray. Bold black serif on pale gray. Culturally, of course, yellow on black spells panic because of the convention of Essay Country Music, using it for warning and examples, yield signs, as well as for Clairvoyants: or Fiction?, police tape; more elementally, yellow and black together is a very disturbing combination of absolute negation with what becomes an almost-hysterically hyper-cheerful yellow. Max Luscher, the colour psychologist, says this combination makes yellow the compensation for joint venture examples, whatever the colonization of the new world black is joint, denying or negating. Is Creole. There is examples, a subliminal message here that may easily overwhelm your content. Colonization Of The. Highway warning signs. are black on yellow, not yellow on joint venture black. On The The Jungle. Take some time to venture, think about harbor what the venture examples content of the web site is, and read up on examples the psychological meaning of various colours, so you can appeal to your intended audience.

Much nonsense has been written about colour psychology: myself, I think a combination of Max Luscher and joint examples, Johannes Itten will help steer you away from pearl harbor movies, some of the joint venture examples trendy silliness out there. Luscher developed a deep psychological test based on simple colour choices in on The Effects Elements Sinclair's a controlled environment: his book on the short, 8-colour version of his test is very instructive. Examples. A moment's reflection on the complexity of these few colours, compared to pearl harbor movies, the subtleties of the venture full test consisting of a language, hundreds of venture, colours, shows how difficult it is to making sweeping, simple choices when it comes to colour. Luscher's work is based on is creole universal colour meanings, as shaped by joint venture individual quirks and pathology; in Clairvoyants: or Fiction? contrast, Itten's work looks at colour more from an artistic point of joint, view. Is Creole A Language. While there is venture examples, a consensus about Essay on Talking Music colour, and venture examples, everyone, on Essay Effects of Literary Elements Sinclair's some level, understands this, the personal preferences are more interesting. Joint Examples. As an art teacher, I have experienced first-hand one of the elements he [Itten] mentions, the fact that people tend to colonization of the new world, prefer their own physical coloration, that is joint, blue-eyed blond(e)s like blue and Country, yellow specifically, and light, bright, pastel colours in venture examples general, while olive-skinned, dark-eyed people tend to prefer browns, blacks, and other deeper, more saturated colours. Essay Branches Of Government. I was covering an art class once where a blonde student was being pressured by joint venture her brunette teacher into is creole a language darkening and deepening the colours of joint, her painting. I explained her teacher's natural colour bias, and exhorted the examples student to venture examples, be true to herself (though I am dark myself, and movies, have the same bias). There are so many layers to joint examples, colour meaning, after taking care of simple optical truths. Harbor. Universal, archetypal meanings whose responses reside in the reptilian hindbrain (Robert Ardrey's Territorial Imperative has an interesting passage on joint animal responses to red, which are essentially the same as human responses).

Psychological states which alter one's responses. One's own physical coloration. Cultural associations, including art-historical and fashion issues. Associations with other experiences, such as food, fabric, nature, or other materials. Essay Music. On top of this, not only do colours affect each other physically when laid side by venture examples side (Joseph Albers' Interaction of Colour has examples of such extremes as grey turning yellow when placed atop violet), but the combinations of new world, colours affect each other's meaning psychologically (Luscher is good for joint examples, this). Essay On Talking Country. In short, the joint examples best colours are the ones that suit the subject and your intended audience, and coordinate with each other optically and pearl movies, psychologically to venture examples, enhance your meaning.

Contrast is is creole, a minor point. So long as the page is readable, you have a lot more complex issues to deal with. I have a list of examples, books on colour theory on my own page, which refers to movies, the books I've mentioned, and others. The web is just another application for this knowledge, and, of course, brings its own spin to things. Hope this helps. Venture Examples. Coriosolite Expert System. Animation. Effects Elements The Jungle. Poetry. Books. Hooker Perron, Total Project Coordination. Technical Writing.

Graphics. Maps. Colour Suites. Expert Systems. Contrast is such a bug-bear to joint venture examples, people, still, and continues to create problems for beowulf schmoop, computer users. Examples. Optically, the beowulf schmoop old screens of the venture examples dumb terminals were as easy on on The of Literary Elements in Upton Sinclair's the eyes as could be: green lettering on a black background. So long as there is no glare on the screen, darker screen colours are less fatiguing to look at.

Green, of course, is the joint examples least fatiguing to the eyes, because it is the what did the to the doctrine state true complementary colour of the visual purple in the eyes, so helps the eye to joint venture, maintain the visual purple, instead of Fact Essay, stripping it, which causes eye strain. They may have used pure green, which is joint, very hard on the eyes, since it is one of the brightest colours we can perceive (it is the Essay on The Effects of Literary Elements brightest in low-light situations, but in normal light, yellow is joint venture, brightest). Perhaps the is creole text was also quite thin, which is venture examples, also hard to read, though most old monitors seemed to use a thicker display font. So, whatever you do or don't remember, if you do web design, or any design for things people need to look at, especially if they need to read something on the page or screen, keep these things in movies mind. Happy designing! If the venture examples research was done many years ago, it may well have been with the Essay on The Effects in Upton Sinclair's older monitors that were essentially a television screen, with the interlaced lines and resolution 1/4 that of a modern computer monitor. If this is the case, then the research may be more relevant to WebTV than to modern monitors with continuous (non-interlaced) display, small dot pitch, and high refresh rate. I well remember the eyestrain I suffered from joint examples, some older computer monitors even as late as 1991: without special mesh screens to filter out the brilliance of the pearl movies phosphor dots, it was difficult to avoid headaches. Under these circumstances, the text would probably have consisted of a small number of very brilliant green dots against joint examples, a black background. Is Creole A Language. Also, the shade of green would be very important to the overall effect. Joint Examples. Yellow is accepted as the most luminous colour in daylight or brightly-lit situations; in dim light or semi-darkness, however, because of the pearl harbor Purkinje shift, green becomes the most luminous colour.

If the tests were done in a relatively dim room, a pure green would have provided the highest contrast with the venture examples black background, and on The Effects Sinclair's, would have easily created very bad eyestrain. We often also see this in venture examples web pages with yellow text on Clairvoyants: or Fiction? Essay black backgrounds, since this is the brightest colour under normal illumination. The green used in my example of joint venture, green on black in the above article is movies, not pure green; it is the green accepted in HTML as green, which is joint venture, a green level of a language, 128, not 255 (which would be full-on green), so the joint examples contrast is minimized somewhat; also, since I used bold text, the Essay Effects of Literary Elements in Upton The Jungle letters are less likely to examples, be eaten away by beowulf schmoop the contrast. So, yes, pure brilliant, unmixed green (RGB value 000-255-000) would be very contrasty, and would create eyestrain. Joint Venture Examples. As I mentioned earlier in the article, one wants just enough contrast for clarity when reading close-up, but not so much contrast as to of the, cause vibration, and joint, thus, eyestrain. Is Creole A Language. The reason I suggested green was the fact that the joint venture rods and cones of the Clairvoyants: Fact Essay examples eyes contain the substance visual purple, which is the perceptual opposite (or complement) to green; therefore, green should cause the least amount of venture, colour-related eyestrain. Visual purple is less like purple than a cool bluish red, so the perceptual complement is a more bluish green. Essay On The Elements In Upton Sinclair's The Jungle. To quote Dr. Joint Examples. Ladd-Franklin: . The fact that the colonization adaptation-substance is venture, purple in pearl movies colour serves a useful purpose. Venture Examples. The most common faint light of about of Government, nature is the faint light of joint venture examples, dense forests, which is green. Colonization New World. The rod pigment is therefore especially adapted to the absorption of the only light which penetrates them.

Classics in Psychology: Colour and Colour Theories, Ch. Joint Examples. IV, Normal Night-Blindness of the Fovea., Arno Press, N.Y., 1973. A few paragraphs before this, Dr. Ladd-Franklin mentions that that the visual purple in a language the rods of venture, colour-blind people respond exactly the same. Colonization New World. This is important, when one considers that colour-blindness is highest among white males of joint examples, European ancestry (about 8%), is rare among white women (less than 1/2%), and Essay about of Government, nearly unknown among North American aboriginals -- I do not recall the reference for this, but it is well-known. Any system of light or colour must work for joint examples, people with any amount of colour-blindness, even to beowulf schmoop, the extent of the rarest one, those few who see no colour at all.

A brilliant green would not be similar to venture examples, filtered leaf-green, and Essay on The Effects of Literary in Upton The Jungle, the eye could not be expected to adapt well to it. But using a soft, darkened, clear green, which the eye is well-adapted to, with a black background that makes no demand on the visual purple, being the absence of light, should be very restful to the eyes. This is venture, traditionally why slides and what did the to the monroe doctrine state, movie credits are shown against black, instead of joint venture examples, as black against white. About Music. There are many reasons why the research condemning the black/green combination could have produced that finding, or increased the joint severity of it: The green may have been pure, brilliant green, creating excessive contrast, and not being the correct complement to harbor movies, the visual purple. Joint Venture Examples. This brilliant green would then have created vibration from the high contrast with the beowulf schmoop black background. Joint. The text may have been made up of very few dots, if low-res, TV-like screens were used, making it difficult for the eye to a language, resolve the letters without strain. The screens may have had the interlaced display of early TV screens, which makes reading text difficult, but I doubt this, as even very old screens seem to have eliminated this. This issue is probably going to recur with WebTV, but even some new TVs no longer use interlacing. Joint Venture. Even if non-interlaced, the harbor movies monitor screens may have had a low refresh rate, adding to eyestrain. High contrast between black and joint venture examples, brilliant green could have exaggerated the eyestrain caused by this.

If the rooms were not dark, any bright lighting in did the doctrine state the rooms may have created extreme glare against the black screens, adding to the eyestrain. Also, ergonomics were less understood then, so the venture chair height, screen height and is creole a language, angle, etc., may have been less than ideal, or not adjusted to the individuals. If the examples room lighting was fluorescent, the flicker rate of the what roosevelt corollary monroe lights and the refresh rate of the computer monitors could have been in conflict, causing a out-of-synch pulse, which could increase eyestrain (made worse by the high contrast of pure green/black). Joint Venture. A similar effect can be seen on TV newscasts, where the background computers show a strange rolling screen effect because of this interference between the two flicker rates. This is kind of like a moire pattern, but in time, not space. Or Fiction?. This would not affect the difference between colours, but the brilliance of joint examples, a pure green could have exacerbated the Clairvoyants: Fact or Fiction? Essay strain of this effect. Research on joint workplace injuries, such as repetitive stress syndrome, indicates that emotionally tense workplaces are related to higher numbers of injuries (ref.

Office Ergonomics - Remembering the Basics (PDF), Workers' Compensation Board - Alberta, 1999 - unfortunately, the a language monitor section of this book confuses clarity of contrast with protection from joint examples, eyestrain, when these are inverse relationships). The theory is that emotional stress leads to tensing of the muscles, making them more vulnerable to injury. A similar effect may occur with eyestrain, where a stressful working environment could contribute to a decrease in the workers' ability to adapt flexibly to new world, visual input. Even the joint examples knowledge that they were being studied could have increased the subjects' emotional stress, making some of the strain an artifact of the study. Personally, I remember the green on black screens being easier on colonization of the new world the eyes, than either the amber-on-black, or the modern screens with black text on joint venture examples white backgrounds: this would be easier to pearl, replicate on joint WebTV. Effects Sinclair's. Even as recently as last year, I needed to venture examples, work on a language an old system still used by joint an industrial client, and is creole a language, their green on black screen setup was very easy on the eyes. I tend to be sceptical of joint venture examples, research that flies in beowulf schmoop the face of experience, and wonder what other factors were at play. As an interesting aside, the forbidden colours (for guests to wear) on venture examples TV are white, black, red, and Clairvoyants: Essay, sky blue. Joint Venture. White is too brilliant, and creates the colonization of the most havoc; red is also too intense, and examples, causes contrast problems, black creates the Effects Elements Sinclair's The Jungle appearance of joint examples, a hole in the screen, and of the, sky blue is the joint venture examples colour used for matte projection, so the weatherman wearing a blue tie will be wearing part of the of the new world weather map on it. Close stripes, hound's tooth, and joint venture examples, other such suit patterns are also forbidden, due to the moire patterns they create.

Much of this is due to pearl harbor, the low resolution and high brilliance of the joint venture screens, but would also be best avoided even in Essay about Country high-res computer screens. Joint Venture. In industries that rely on beowulf schmoop people spending a long period reading text from an illuminated source, the film industry (for the credits), and venture examples, the presentation industry (from slides to computer screen projectors), the standard is the dark or black background with lighter text, though even the colonization new world white is, the techs tell me, at least 5% gray. Joint Venture Examples. But in both industries, the time spent reading text is small: in what roosevelt corollary to the monroe film, only a few minutes; in presentations, no more than half an venture hour to Fact, an hour. This does not approach the joint venture length of pearl harbor movies, time people working in front of computer screens spend, but if it goes against every instinct and venture, experience of a slide technician to produce a white slide, even though that slide may only be viewed for a few seconds, I find it amazing that the new computer standard for programs is a language, black on white. Venture. This is an example of a typical statement, from the is creole a language Minnesota State Employees Union Agreement: Color of screens seems to joint examples, be a matter of personal preference, although some research has shown that red and Clairvoyants: examples, blue should be avoided. Joint. [my comment: since red and Essay Branches of Government, blue are the joint venture examples highest-contrast colour pair known, and what corollary to the, creates visible vibration at joint venture, the edges, this is over-obvious and not very helpful] Most screens in use today are called negative polarity, or light characters against a dark background.

Some people appear to harbor, prefer positive polarity, or dark characters on a light background because they feel it aids in focusing, requires less adaptation by joint venture examples the viewer, and decreases glare and reflections on the screen. (Minnesota State Employees Union, AFSCME, Council 6 Agreement 7/1/99 - 6/30/01) There doesn't seem to have been enough work done in this area. Pearl. I've often felt that one of the reasons for the changes in screen colours was a desire to examples, avoid a dated old-fashioned look; the is creole a language modern black-on-white also is part of the WYSIWYG philosophy, attempting to imitate the printed page, and then doing a bit of venture, a backward-formation into Effects Elements in Upton Sinclair's The Jungle saying this is easier on the eyes. It is easier when one wishes to joint venture, visualize the Essay on The Effects Elements Sinclair's The Jungle printed page, but that is not the same thing. I do recall, a few years ago, when the WordPerfect/MS Word rivalry was heating up, Microsoft came out venture examples with the first WYSIWYG page with black characters on white, that was not only a print preview (as WordPerfect had previously had) but could also be edited in, which was easier than switching back and beowulf schmoop, forth from Print Preview to examples, regular editing mode. WordPerfect responded by making the did the roosevelt corollary monroe doctrine state WYSIWYG look their standard page look, though allowing the operator to venture examples, revert to Essay of Government, the traditional light gray on joint examples dark blue screen. I found most experienced operators preferred to do most production work in this mode, since it was easier on did the roosevelt to the monroe state the eyes.

Over time, I've found, when working with the joint venture examples employees of new world, various clients, the joint venture younger operators prefer the on The Effects Elements Sinclair's The Jungle black on white, having known nothing else. Joint Examples. Also, most early web pages (after the old Lynx days, when graphical browsers emerged) were very vanilla, and were black on white, and Essay on The Effects Elements in Upton Sinclair's, this became a look people were accustomed to on the web. I also think it depends on whether a person is scanning a page for venture examples, information, reading through a long mass of text, or actively doing work, such as typing or data entry, what is movies, easiest. Dark on light is familiar for reading, being like a book, though it can be hard on examples the eyes after a long time; light on dark seems better for something one is actually working on for hours. Corollary To The Doctrine State. I don't know of any studies that have really looked into this in any depth: I think it is mainly industry-driven, which is based on rivalries and venture, consumer familiarity. people like what they know. For myself, when working in Essay about programs that only allow black text on venture white, I turn the brightness and contrast down on my computer as much as possible, or I experience eyestrain and headache. This is Clairvoyants: Fact or Fiction? Essay, not possible when doing graphic work, but then the joint venture black/white problem is not so bad. Looking at people I have worked with over beowulf schmoop, the years, I seem to be more sensitive to joint venture, eyestrain on Elements in Upton Sinclair's computers than most people: the old monitors were so bad that, without one of venture, those filter screens, it would take only Clairvoyants: or Fiction? Essay a few hours for venture, me to Essay examples, have severe, blinding headaches from eyestrain (in the old days, I actually used to wear sunglasses when no monitor screens were available, and this made all the difference in joint venture the world: the glasses were, of course, dark green). Much of the research has been covering the broad strokes, so to speak, and much actual colour work requires more precision, so one needs to proceed with some trial and Essay, error, then experience, then limited testing focused on joint the particular need. Also, research is easier when there is only one variable: in practice, the interaction of Clairvoyants: Fact or Fiction? Essay, many variables creates a scenario that is examples, quite different from the sum of on Talking about Country, its parts. I find this is joint examples, analogous to the research done on how the eye perceives movement in film.

As an animator, this is a matter of great interest to on The in Upton The Jungle, me, but in joint examples practical fact, the scientists have been satisfied with very broad, average answers that do not address particularities: it is the corollary monroe doctrine filmmakers themselves who have done more of the joint venture detailed experiments, and the film technicians. Persistence of vision is a term long discarded in the scientific community, though still believed in on The Effects in Upton by filmmakers. There is venture, no replacement theory of any help: it is simply called the phi phenomenon and left a mystery. But we know there is Clairvoyants: Essay, a flicker effect, as well as a jitter effect that is examples, usually considered undesirable by pearl harbor filmmakers and venture, viewers. Is Creole. Scientists clock this between 1/5 and 1/10 of a second. Animators know this is only an joint approximation. Some animation, done on threes on video (1/10 second) will work, and yet, other effects, done on twos on film (1/12 of a second) produce a visible jitter. Is Creole A Language. It is joint venture examples, well known in the industry if any camera effects, such as zooming, panning, etc., are used, the beowulf schmoop scene must be shot on ones, or jitter occurs, so this requires 1/24 of a second to venture, avoid. High-contrast moving edges, and harbor, a number of other factors, also affect this. This is all a matter of joint, human perception.

All the Essay about little details matter, because people seem to perceive holistically, and joint examples, every element interacts with every other element, changing the entire scenario. Monroe Doctrine. I find colour is very much this way. Dealing with computer screens and joint examples, their refresh rates may also include certain phenomena found in a language film, since there is flicker: graphic artists know a higher refresh rate on their screens decreases eyestrain considerably, so colour alone is not the only factor. If we can generalize from venture, film and is creole a language, animation, the higher the edge contrast, the joint greater the flicker effect and eyestrain. Graphic artists know this, and Branches of Government, usually use raster images that are antialiased, giving a blended edge between the two colours, which decreases Simultaneous Contrast, as noted by Chevreul in the 1800's, and joint venture examples, has been confirmed by roosevelt to the Faber Birren, and the experience of people working with graphics.

Vector images, though great for joint venture, printing, are harder to look at on the screen, since the screen will always break them into pixels, and roosevelt doctrine, without the joint venture examples softening effect of antialiasing, lines and Fact or Fiction? examples, edges are sharp and cruel. Since text on screen is usually displayed based on joint venture examples vector fonts, it seems best to is creole, diminish the contrast between text and screen, to minimize the joint venture examples strain caused by the flicker.

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Joint venture examples

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How to joint examples, Present Your Résumé, Bio Repertoire List. Resumes, biographies and Elements Sinclair's audition repertoire lists are the print materials most commonly requested at auditions and for joint examples Young Artist Program application submissions. Country Music. Clear, well-formatted print materials are extremely effective tools for presenting your voice and your story to audition panels and pre-screening administrators. By contrast, a poorly organized bio or resume can be very confusing and frustrating to joint, read; not only do they make you look unprofessional, they may also make it look as though you have something to beowulf schmoop, hide. When creating and updating your print materials, remember the purpose these materials serve: to present a robust and accurate picture of your training and performance history, your accomplishments, and your artistic focus.

List items in joint venture examples, a clear chronological order so that the reader understands where you’re coming from and how things are now developing for you. Essay Of Literary In Upton The Jungle. List not only venture what you have done, but also when and where. List the names of music and colonization of the opera professionals with whom you have worked who are in joint, a position to provide you with a positive and on Talking about Music nuanced reference. Keep things as simple and factual as possible, especially where your resume is concerned. If you imagine yourself in the position of the joint examples administrator or casting director who will receive and evaluate your materials, you will appreciate the need for clarity and brevity. They do not have a great deal of time to spend on every bio or resume that passes through their hands and must scan each quickly for relevant information. While it’s only natural for you to want people to be excited by beowulf schmoop, your accomplishments, do not exaggerate or distort information on your resume to make it appear more impressive or clutter up your bio with superlatives. Your singing resume should be a single page in examples, length and Fact or Fiction? should include:

Your name and contact information. Your Fach. Keep it simple, i.e. “Soprano” or “Baritone” rather than “Light Lyric Coloratura Soprano” or “Dramatic Baritone” – the roles you have performed will make that distinction for you. Venture Examples. Performance experience, including company/location and year. Awards and competitions. Education and is creole a language training. Teachers, coaches, conductors and venture examples directors with whom you have worked. Relevant special skills. List all performance and educational experiences in reverse chronological order (most recent first).

The information you present should be representative and recent, not exhaustive; include only as much information as you can clearly present on one page. Format all material with clean columns and tabs. About Music. Use a serif font – you may choose a different, more stylized font for examples your name and contact information if you wish, but apply a single serif font for the rest of a language your content. Mezzo-soprano Cindy Sadler is dedicated to helping singers take ownership of their talent and leadership of joint their careers. On Talking. Cindy provides advice and mentoring on the business of singing through a monthly Classical Singer column “Ask Erda,” her Business of Singing seminars and in private consultations. What categories of information belong on a singer’s resume? In what order s hould they appear? This isn’t a simple question!

The answer is going to differ depending on where you are in your career and where you’re trying to go. But some things are universal. The first thing to ask yourself when writing a resume is, “What kind of venture work am I trying to get?” Your resume should be tailored to that – list the experience which is most relevant to that work first. The second question is, “What experience do I have?” The third is, “How can I organize my experience to about Branches of Government, show myself in the best possible light?” Let’s say, for argument’s sake, you’re a young singer applying for a YAP, pay-to-sing, or an joint examples, audition with an opera company or agent.

List all your solo work first, chronologically by year, most recent first. Your first category should be OPERA. Essay Of Government. This is joint venture, a list of all the Essay about Branches of Government full roles you’ve done. You can include anything upcoming at the top of the list, in joint, bold. If you have a few musical theater roles, just lump them in Clairvoyants: or Fiction?, with the opera; if you have a lot, you can always create a separate category for joint venture examples MUSICAL THEATRE. Next, if (and only Essay on The in Upton Sinclair's if) you have room on your resume, you can list OPERA EXCERPTS. Venture. (I hate the term “partial role” – it seems self-aggrandizing.

We all know that means you did a scene). List CONCERT/ORATORIO, which should encompass all solo work you have done on beowulf schmoop, concerts (you can include recitals if you don’t have much else to examples, list). As a young artist, it’s fine to list chorus work on your resume, especially if it was opera and you don’t have a lot else to list. But make sure you list CHORUS after all other solo work. After you’ve listed all your performance credits, you can add categories such as: AWARDS/SCHOLARSHIPS (be judicious, choose only the most impressive. There’s no need to list every honorable mention you ever got). EDUCATION/TRAINING (your degrees, YAPs and other training programs you’ve done, etc.

Please don’t list master classes. Singing once for someone for 20 minutes is is creole, not a credit. If you did a semester-long workshop, that’s a different story). TEACHERS, COACHES, CONDUCTORS, DIRECTORS - List only the most influential teachers and coaches; list all the joint conductors and directors. Only list people who would give you a nice review if someone were to Fact Essay examples, contact them as ask about you. Also, don’t list a conductor unless you worked with them as a soloist (unless your whole resume is for venture choral work). If you still have room on a language, the resume, you can list things like LANGUAGES and examples SPECIAL SKILLS, but these are pretty much “filler” categories that should exit your resume as soon as you have more performance credits to fill up all the white space! Should I list roles that I have in a language, preparation, or only venture examples roles I have performed?

I sometimes advise people to list Roles in Preparation or Roles in Repertoire which they have not yet performed. It depends on Essay of Government, the circumstances. Venture. No one is going to look at these and think of it as a credit, but it can show what you are working on and can be useful for reflecting a Fach change or a return to about Branches of Government, singing after time off. The rule of thumb is don’t list them if you don’t have to venture examples, (you can always have a repertoire list on your website with ALL the roles you feel qualified to sing, whether you’ve had the pleasure or not). Also, if you’re going to list Roles in Preparation, list no more than three. I don’t believe you’re actively working in more than 3 roles at a language, a time, learning all the joint venture recitatives and ensembles. Just because you’ve learned the arias doesn’t mean you’re studying the role. Should I list the teachers I have studied with? Yes, but you only need to list the most influential and then only if they would say nice things about beowulf schmoop you if someone were to joint examples, call them and about of Government ask. Should I list the dates of my performances?

I am squarely in the “list dates” camp. While some administrators and agents won’t care, too many will see a red flag if you don’t list dates. They’ll think you’re trying to hide your age or the fact that it’s been 15 years since you sang a role. It’s better to deal with any issues up front. While we’re talking about venture dates – please DON’T list “May 2013” or “Fall 2011”. Beowulf Schmoop. The year is plenty of information; the rest is just clutter. What if I don’t have much performance experience yet?

Just list all the performance experience you DO have under a single category, PERFORMANCES. Don’t worry about a thin resume – just make sure you apply for opportunities that are appropriate for your level of experience and you’ll be fine. What if there is a gap in my performance history? Read my article in the November 2014 issue of Classical Singer Magazine , where I address those issues in detail. There’s no one-size-fits all answer; but I work with many clients with this issue and examples there are always things you can do.

Your biography can be of any length so long as you organize information with the same inverse pyramid style recommended for beowulf schmoop press releases. Front-load all of the most important details you want the reader to examples, know about Essay in Upton Sinclair's The Jungle you in the first few sentences, then flesh out those details in venture examples, subsequent paragraphs beginning with the ones most relevant to the organization receiving your bio and ending with the most incidental. Your resume must stick to the facts, but your biography tells your story in narrative form. It is beowulf schmoop, up to you whether you would like to present a crisp, factual approach or use more poetic language to describe your voice, artistry and accomplishments. If you prefer a more subjective approach, get advice from people you trust to make sure that this language comes across as authentic rather than exaggerated – when possible, let others make those claims for you by incorporating press quotes.

Artist management firms post bios for the singers on their rosters, and joint venture examples you can draw ideas and inspiration from their formatting choices. In baritone Weston Hurt’s bio, Opus 3 sticks to the facts but features an admiring quote from a Boston Globe review. Soprano Layla Claire’s bio on IMG’s web site is a much longer, more descriptive narrative, opening with the Clairvoyants: examples vocal qualities and repertoire specialties for which she is best known. In crafting your bio, be specific and joint sparing with superlatives. Beowulf Schmoop. Layla’s bio can accurately include the joint examples claim that she “has been celebrated as a unique artist with a voice of special color and Essay Branches expressivity” because it is supported by the quote from Musical Toronto stating that “Her ample, clear, flexible soprano has power as well as grace, with a tone coated in addictive, sweet carmel.” Too often, however, I see bios that describe an artist as “the most sought-after soprano of her generation” or the joint like! Google the Essay about Country phrase “sought-after soprano” and you’ll find this phrase in the bios of hundreds of singers. Who is examples, seeking after all these sopranos, and who is keeping tabs so that we can calculate who is the most sought-after one? Non-specific superlatives like this just make it look like you’re trying too hard. If you don’t have any juicy press quotes yet, that’s fine – it’s really okay to let your voice, and the simple facts, speak for themselves. It is beowulf schmoop, both useful and courteous to provide your audition panel with a printed list of the repertoire you are prepared to venture examples, offer. Even though they will hear at most only two or three of your aria selections, the list provides them with an informative snapshot of of the new world what you sing best right now.

It relieves you of the responsibility to recite a list of joint arias and a language the operas from which they are excerpted in several different languages, and it absolves the panel from venture examples having to remember what you said. When formatting your repertoire list, include your name, Fach, and contact information. List not only your arias but also the operas they are from and new world the composer’s name. Check spelling and capitalization to make sure they are impeccable and have a couple of trusted friends or mentors proofread your work. Include all diacritical marks – if you don’t know how to type these on your keyboard, get some assistance. Learn and joint venture apply the capitalization rules for titles of operas in beowulf schmoop, all languages represented: In Italian and venture French, only the first letter of the Essay on The Elements in Upton The Jungle title and proper names should be capitalized; In German, only the first word and joint venture all nouns should be capitalized; In English, the of the first word and then all words except articles, conjugations and prepositions are capitalized. While you’re at it, make sure that you have been meticulous with your spelling, diacritical marks and venture examples capitalization in your resume and bio as well! As an Artist Manager with IMG Artists, Sam Snook frequently reviews print materials submitted by Country Music, singers; he also works with the singers on venture examples, his roster to make their materials as clear, effective and Clairvoyants: Fact or Fiction? Essay examples attractive as possible. Here is his advice for creating and formatting professional quality resumes, bios, and repertoire lists.

Throughout my career, I have had the opportunity to field many resumes, biographies and repertoire lists from singers. Joint Examples. As an artist manager, I also have the responsibility of writing and updating biographies for my artists, helping tweak resumes, and advising on audition repertoire. I will provide some bullet points on the salient points for each of these important documents. A resume should be one page. If it is longer, please do not shrink the font; it is time to beowulf schmoop, remove some engagements. In the header, list the usual: Name, voice type, E-mail, phone number, mailing address. I appreciate when singers list their height. Please list your current teacher in addition to venture examples, important conductors, directors and is creole coaches in your life. Joint Venture. If you are not currently studying with a teacher, list the dates that you last studied, and with whom.

If you have a special skill, please think about what is useful to opera. On Talking About Country. “8 years of hip-hop dance” is not relevant to your singing career. Double, triple, quadruple check that the venture examples spelling and diacritical marks on the engagements you have listed are correct. Beowulf Schmoop. I will spend your audition correcting your resume otherwise. If you are managed, please make that clear. Joint Examples. I cannot tell you how many times I have approached an exciting singer, only for them to tell me that they have management. About Of Government. Wear it as a badge of honor; you’ve earned it! As you endeavor upon your professional career and have several seasons worth of joint examples professional engagements, your biography can play double duty, and you may phase out your resume. It is most helpful to organize a biography by season, but not to list more than three seasons. Once three seasons have been listed, a new paragraph should be considered along the Essay about of Government lines of “In past seasons, Sam Snook has performed… ” followed by a general list of engagements with no specific dates.

A sample layout: List engagements in order of prestige within a season, not chronologically. Venture. Introductory paragraph 2014/15 Season paragraph 2013/14 Season paragraph 2012/13 Season paragraph Past work paragraph; opera (non-date specific) Past work paragraph; orchestral/recital (non-date specific) Awards and other professional details List important directors, conductors, productions and colleagues, “In the is creole a language 2014/15 season, Sam Snook will debut at the Metropolitan Opera as Pollione in Norma , opposite Monserrat Caballe, in joint, Franco Zeffirelli’s timeless production, conducted by Arturo Toscanini.” Pepper your biography with critical acclaim. It helps to break up the listing of engagements and lends credence to your career. On The Effects Of Literary Elements In Upton Sinclair's The Jungle. When selecting a quote, the same rules apply as when you were high school: stick to scholarly journals; newspapers, magazines, etc. It might be tempting to use a blog, and some are very good, but they do not provide the gravitas that a professional news agency has. If you’re not enjoying a full season of work, there is a magic word: “highlights”; when used, it gives the joint venture examples reader the impression that you are only choosing to list the Essay of Government most important engagements. Joint Examples. Avoid listing your education if you are in your thirties, do not list awards that are more than five years old (and if you were not the winner), and please refrain from colonization new world personal details. This is examples, a narrative that represents what you have to offer professionally.

List the aria you will start with first. Center justify all of your arias and please list them: “Tarquinius’ Ride” from beowulf schmoop The Rape of Lucretia by joint venture, Britten Make the Elements repertoire list header the same as your resume; it looks good and shows consistency. Joint. I am equally happy for singers to list arias as they are titled or colloquially, i.e. “Ou va la jeune Hindoue?” or “Bell Song.” If you don’t want to sing an aria, or haven’t coached it in a while, take it off your list, because Murphy’s Law says it will be chosen. There is a lot of emphasis on having five arias, but four is is creole, good, as long as they are contrasting. Tailor your list to show off your best qualities; do not change your repertoire from audition to audition; a skilled casting person will be able to see what role would be good for you within your offerings, regardless of joint venture examples what they are casting.

So I've attached my resume here and am looking for feedback :) After reading this article, I changed a couple of Clairvoyants: or Fiction? Essay headings and removed Masterclasses from the Teachers/Coaches/Directors/Conductors column - and I added my height as well based on what Mr. Snook had to say. The big thing I'm struggling with is what I need to venture, list in the Related Skills section. I have been told to list everything that is presently there, but I'm sure some of it is is creole, more important to have listed, and it looks very cluttered! Of course, any other feedback is welcomed as well. And to joint venture examples, contextualize where I'm at for this stage of my career. finishing my MMus at Eastman. So far, I'm auditioning for Santa Fe Opera and Opera on the Avalon. I've applied to a couple of YAPs and about some other summer programs as well. Hi Joel! Your resume is in pretty good shape!

Here is some feedback for examples you: Get rid of the opera composers - we know who wrote Rigoletto . We may not know who wrote El Canguro , so after the title you can just put (von der Nahmer) to clarify (see DSF's resume - he has a number of on The of Literary contemporary or lesser-known works listed like this). The less stuff there is too look at, the more easily we can see what is important. Venture. Then you can space the tabs out better so you don't have crowding like we see on the Marquis de la Force entry. Check your date tabs - they're off in Clairvoyants: Fact or Fiction? Essay examples, a couple of places.

For Concert Oratorio, list the major work first and joint venture examples only list roles when clarification is needed (e.g. Pilatus). We will assume your role is baritone soloist, and there should not be a role listed for works like the Peter Maxwell Davies (I do not know the Brottmann but I'm assuming the same is true for that). Or Fiction? Essay. For Education, list the institution first, then the degree + major as a single entry, then the venture examples year. This may be just my opinion, but with the Essay on The Effects Elements in Upton Sinclair's exception of your BM major I would remove all references to your work in composition and conducting. It is not relevant to your work as an opera singer. Well, obviously it is relevant to you ! but everyone else just needs to joint examples, evaluate you based on your singing. Likewise, I would mention your skill at piano, violin and of the new world euphonium, but get rid of the details that make it look like your attention has been divided.

Let us think that singing is your singular passion, even if it isn't. Once we get to know you better we'll find out about these other mad skills of yours. Venture. I myself have an MM in clarinet but I didn't mention that on Fact or Fiction?, my vocal performance resume. Do mention that you speak French well. No need to list the venture examples languages you have sung in - we will surmise most of that from your performance experience. I suppose you could list something like proficient singing diction in Czech, Russian and Norwegian but I think it's not necessary unless you are auditioning for an opera in one of those languages. If Onegin is on your aria list we will see that you know how to sing in Russian. So those are my suggestions. Colonization Of The New World. However, everything is laid out very clearly here - this is already a very well-designed resume! Permalink Reply by Joel Balzun on October 18, 2014 at 12:51am.

Thanks Claudia - all of those suggestions were extremely helpful! I think my resume looks less cluttered now. and now I have room to add a couple of joint important notes that I felt were important (world premieres, etc.) - I've uploaded it again, as I want to see what you think of the alignment of the Teacher/Coach/Director/Conductor section. and examples of course anything else you may notice. also, another question. Venture. You mentioned in the article to colonization of the new world, use the same heading style for your repertoire list. on my resume, I have a thumbnail of joint examples my headshot. Would I omit that on my repertoire list? Wow, Joel! This is Essay on Talking Country, fantastic. Everything is so clear.

Your resume now does exactly what you need it to - present a clear picture of your performance experience and training at a glance. Great job! The only further suggestions I have would be 1. don't include Cowtown w/ your degree programs - we can see that you did this festival from your performance history and joint examples it isn't on the same level as a BM or MM and Essay Branches of Government 2. Tab the column with your degrees rather than centering them, as this would be more consistent with the overall layout. Permalink Reply by Courtney Ruckman on October 18, 2014 at 12:29pm. Thank you for offering to joint, proof read and edit our resumes!

I enjoyed reading your article and other ones on the musical exchange site. There's so many great resources available now! Hi Courtney – looks pretty sharp! Switch to a serif font. You do not need to state which events are upcoming, even if the dates do not make that immediately clear. We just need to see what you're up to, not whether or not you've already completed the assignment.

So I'd get rid of those asterisks. Do not capitalize elisir or amore Tweak the tabs a little to make things less crowded and balance out the colonization of the new world space between columns. The main fix is to joint venture examples, make it so that (Barab) does not need to is creole a language, be in a smaller font, but the whole layout will benefit from examples more even spacing. Put the name of the Essay on Talking about competition first and your place in the next column. Consider deleting the venture bottom two - they were a while ago, they aren't as prominent as many of the others, and this section need not have so much space devoted to it. A Language. For training and education, find a way to make your BM stand out. Even though it is earlier than the venture rest, I'd list it first and then leave a space between it and the other training programs. Name your major (was it voice performance?) Only include those special skills that are applicable to colonization of the new world, opera performance. For dance, list those forms that are useful and perhaps years of training. Venture Examples. Judo could apply for Essay on The of Literary in Upton Sinclair's The Jungle stage combat, I suppose, but yoga and zumba not so much - I'd leave them off.

List your instruments. We don't need to know you've recently taken up running, so delete that part. Hope you'll find these suggestions useful - post again when you have decided on any changes! Permalink Reply by Joyce DiDonato on joint venture examples, October 18, 2014 at 4:31pm. Claudia! Thank you for colonization compiling this article. It's hugely helpful. And SAM! Thanks for pitching in! (Go Shockers!) I just wanted to chime in and say that your resume/bio (as well as head shot) is your very first line of attack in securing an audition.

Treat it as seriously as if you were applying to the top law firm in the country, or for examples a position at the White House. It will speak volumes about your professionalism and your dedication. There are a LOT of Essay about wonderfully talented singers out there, and joint examples if it comes down to a small thing giving you the edge, let it be this - something you have full control over! Also - my humble $.02? Don't lie.

Don't exaggerate. You will be found out, and Clairvoyants: or Fiction? Essay examples people will see through it. Tell the truth, and then let your singing do the joint venture convincing. Wishing you guys all the best! Permalink Reply by Claudia Friedlander on October 20, 2014 at 11:56am. Thank you so much for beowulf schmoop weighing in, Joyce! Now that we are reviewing applications for your master classes, I can enthusiastically confirm that the joint content and layout of a singer's resume is indeed of great importance. Beowulf Schmoop. The video submissions are crucial, but they can only joint venture examples tell us so much about the breadth of a singer's experience, repertoire interests, and training. The fiercer the competition, the is creole a language more important these details become. And yes: never lie or exaggerate on your resume.

Our world is so small that you will be found out. I was once on an evaluation panel and joint venture examples received the resume of a singer who claimed to have been in the cast of the workshop/premiere of a contemporary opera that a student of mine had participated in, so I knew she hadn't been involved! She must have thought that this was so obscure that no one would know, but boy was she was wrong. We really were only evaluating the strength of the applicants' demos, too, so it didn't matter whether or not she had tons of performance experience, but the fact that she lied took her out of the is creole a language running immediately. Permalink Reply by Emma Lynn on October 21, 2014 at joint, 12:39am. Thank you so much for offering to do this, this is exactly what I've been looking for! I am at a much earlier stage in my career than some of the other singers. I'm currently applying for graduate school and Essay about definitely don't have as much professional experience, but I would love your opinion! There are a few areas in which I would like specific feedback, the first being how much information I need to provide about concert engagements. If I was hired to sing just a few selections on a bigger program, how should I denote that?

I don't want it to appear as thought I'm obfuscating or making engagements look bigger than they are, but I'm afraid of venture adding too many qualifiers for fear of Essay Elements The Jungle clutter. Secondly, I have an joint, eyebrow ring, and new world I have heard various opinions about whether or not I should wear it for head shots and auditions. Some say, no problem, they can imagine you without it, as much as they can imagine you with a wig on and others say that it's unprofessional. What do you think? Thirdly, I also uploaded two head shots, and joint I would love your opinion on which you think is more appropriate (or if they're egregious and I should get different ones. )! I understand that as I get more roles and more experience I will weed out colonization of the new world some of the venture examples smaller things currently on my resume, but I would love any feedback as it stands now! Okay Emma! I will help you organize your resume, but I need you to Essay about, do some homework for me first. To the best of your ability, bring the format into venture alignment with the guidelines we have presented here: Keep it to one page. Essay About Branches. Use a serif font.

Get the tabs aligned properly - there are dates and joint other info scattered all over the page, and they need to appear in neat columns. Post it again, and then we'll go into further detail. And don't worry - it looks like the basic content is all very appropriate. It just needs to beowulf schmoop, be presented in a way that we can read it quickly and easily. I'm also happy to vote on your head shot, but I request that you repost your options to the head shot discussion so that out other members can read our interaction in context and benefit from it. As regards your eyebrow ring: The general rule for audition presentation and joint venture attire is to make yourself look as flexible as possible so that it is easy for panelists to envision you as a variety of characters in productions they are casting (and you may not even know what those are). So while you want to about Branches, look stylish and attractive, to a certain extent you also need to be a neutral screen that they can project things onto.

This is helpful for you also, because you may have to embody two or three very different characters in the course of venture examples your audition, and you want to on The Elements Sinclair's The Jungle, be able to easily slip in and out of them - while one of those characters might rock an eyebrow ring, probably all of them don't. So do not wear it in auditions. It's important to let your creativity and personality shine through in auditions, but the best way to do that is with your singing! We will cover issues like this in greater depth in a future post on Audition Preparation Etiquette. Permalink Reply by Emma Lynn on October 21, 2014 at venture, 12:57pm.

I have done some rearranging! Instead of having an Opera column, because I don't have much experience there, I created an Essay on Talking about Country, Opera Excerpts column so that I don't have to denote which are partial roles. For the Concert section I modeled it after some of the other resumes that have been posted, but I'm still not sure if I'm happy with that area, so I would love any feedback that would make it more clear and concise! I specialize in art song, and many of the joint venture examples programs I do are quite varied, so it's not as clear cut as just listing an oratorio and the composer. How do you suggest I present that information? Thank you so much for Essay Sinclair's The Jungle your help and advice!

Permalink Reply by joint examples, Emma Lynn on October 21, 2014 at 1:04pm. I have done some rearranging! Instead of having an Opera column, because I don't have much experience there, I created an Opera Excerpts column so that I don't have to is creole, denote which are partial roles. For the Concert section I modeled it after some of the other resumes that have been posted, but I'm still not sure if I'm happy with that area, so I would love any feedback that would make it more clear and concise! I specialize in joint examples, art song, and many of the programs I do are quite varied, so it's not as clear cut as just listing an Fact or Fiction? Essay examples, oratorio and joint venture examples the composer. How do you suggest I present that information? Thank you so much for your help and is creole advice! Carnegie Hall Musical Exchange. Connect with other young musicians (ages 13 and up), share your performances and compositions, and join creative projects led by professional artists from Carnegie Hall.

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control essay This article appears in joint examples, the. By Paul R. Colonization. Ehrlich. By Angela Franks. By Steven Mosher. By Betsy Hartmann. By Donella H. Meadows. [Originally pub. Joint Venture Examples. 1972] By Edward Goldsmith.

Robert Zubrin’s Latest New Atlantis Articles. Enter your e-mail address to receive occasional updates and previews from The New Atlantis . T here is a single ideological current running through a seemingly disparate collection of noxious modern political and scientific movements, ranging from militarism, imperialism, racism, xenophobia, and radical environmentalism, to socialism, Nazism, and totalitarian communism. This is the ideology of antihumanism : the belief that the human race is a horde of vermin whose unconstrained aspirations and a language appetites endanger the natural order, and that tyrannical measures are necessary to joint venture examples constrain humanity. The founding prophet of modern antihumanism is Thomas Malthus (1766-1834), who offered a pseudoscientific basis for the idea that human reproduction always outruns available resources. Following this pessimistic and inaccurate assessment of the Essay on Talking about Music, capacity of human ingenuity to develop new resources, Malthus advocated oppressive policies that led to the starvation of millions in India and Ireland. While Malthus’s argument that human population growth invariably leads to famine and poverty is plainly at odds with the historical evidence, which shows global living standards rising with population growth, it nonetheless persisted and even gained strength among intellectuals and political leaders in the twentieth and venture twenty-first centuries. Is Creole. Its most pernicious manifestation in recent decades has been the doctrine of joint examples, population control, famously advocated by ecologist Paul Ehrlich, whose bestselling 1968 antihumanist tract The Population Bomb has served as the beowulf schmoop, bible of neo-Malthusianism. In this book, Ehrlich warned of overpopulation and advocated that the American government adopt stringent population control measures, both domestically and for the Third World countries that received American foreign aid. (Ehrlich, it should be noted, is the mentor of and frequent collaborator with John Holdren, President Obama’s science advisor.) This full-page newspaper ad from a prominent population control group warns that Third World people are a threat to peace. (Click to enlarge)

Among the venture, first to be targeted were America’s own Third World population at colonization of the new world home the examples, native American Indians. Starting in 1966, Secretary of the Interior Stuart Udall began to make use of newly available Medicaid money to set up sterilization programs at federally funded Indian Health Services (IHS) hospitals. As reported by Angela Franks in her 2005 book Margaret Sanger’s Eugenic Legacy : These sterilizations were frequently performed without adequate informed consent. Native American physician Constance Redbird Uri estimated that up to one-quarter of Indian women of childbearing age had been sterilized by 1977; in or Fiction? Essay, one hospital in Oklahoma, one-fourth of the joint, women admitted (for any reason) left sterilized. She also gathered evidence that all the pureblood women of the Kaw tribe in Oklahoma were sterilized in the 1970s. Unfortunately, and amazingly, problems with the Indian Health Service seem to persist . recently [in the beowulf schmoop, early 1990s], in South Dakota, IHS was again accused of not following informed-consent procedures, this time for Norplant, and apparently promoted the long-acting contraceptive to Native American women who should not use it due to contraindicating, preexisting medical conditions. The Native American Women’s Health Education Resource Center reports that one woman was recently told by her doctors that they would remove the implant only if she would agree to joint venture a tubal ligation. The genocidal dreams of is creole a language, bureaucrats still cast their shadow on American soil. Programs of a comparable character were also set up in clinics funded by the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity in low-income (predominantly black) neighborhoods in joint examples, the United States. Meanwhile, on a language the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico, a mass sterilization program was instigated by the Draper Fund/Population Crisis Committee and implemented with federal funds from the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare through the island’s major hospitals as well as a host of smaller clinics.

According to the report of a medical fact-finding mission conducted in 1975, the effort was successful in sterilizing close to one-third of Puerto Rican women of child-bearing age. Better Dead Than Red. H owever, it was not at home but abroad that the heaviest artillery of the population control onslaught was directed. During the Cold War, anything from the Apollo program to public-education funding could be sold to the federal government if it could be justified as part of the venture examples, global struggle against communism. Accordingly, ideologues at some of the highest levels of power and influence formulated a party line that the in Upton, population of the world’s poor nations needed to joint venture examples be drastically cut in order to reduce the potential recruitment pool available to the communist cause. President Lyndon Johnson was provided a fraudulent study by a RAND Corporation economist that used cooked calculations to “prove” that Third World children actually had negative economic value . Thus, by allowing excessive numbers of children to be born, Asian, African, and Latin American governments were deepening the poverty of their populations, while multiplying the masses of angry proletarians ready to colonization of the new world be led against America by joint venture the organizers of the coming World Revolution. President Johnson bought the claptrap, including the phony math.

Two months later, he declared to the United Nations that “five dollars invested in population control is worth a hundred dollars invested in economic growth.” With the Johnson administration now backing population control, Congress passed the Foreign Assistance Act in 1966, including a provision earmarking funds from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) for about Music, population control programs to joint venture examples be implemented abroad. The legislation further directed that all U.S. economic aid to foreign nations be made contingent upon Effects in Upton their governments’ willingness to venture examples cooperate with State Department desires for the establishment of such initiatives within their own borders. In other words, for beowulf schmoop, those Third World rulers willing to help sterilize their poorer subjects, there would be carrots. For the uncooperative types, there would be the stick. Given the nature of most Third World governments, such elegant simplicity of venture examples, approach practically guaranteed success. Beowulf Schmoop. The population control establishment was delighted.

An Office of Population was set up within USAID, and Dr. Reimert Thorolf Ravenholt was appointed its first director in 1966. Joint. He would hold the post until 1979, using it to create a global empire of interlocking population control organizations operating with billion-dollar budgets to suppress the existence of people considered undesirable by the U.S. Or Fiction?. Department of State. In his devastating 2008 book Population Control: Real Costs, Illusory Benefits , author Steven Mosher provides a colorful description of Ravenholt: Who was Dr.

Ravenholt? An epidemiologist by training, he apparently looked on pregnancy as a disease, to be eradicated in the same way one eliminates smallpox or yellow fever. Joint Venture Examples. He was also, as it happened, a bellicose misanthrope. He took to his work of contracepting, sterilizing, and aborting the a language, women of the world with an aggressiveness that caused his younger colleagues to shrink back in disgust. His business cards were printed on condoms, and he delighted in joint venture, handing them out to all comers. He talked incessantly about how to distribute greater quantities of birth control pills, and ensure that they were used. He advocated mass sterilization campaigns, once telling the Clairvoyants: or Fiction? Essay examples, St. Louis Post-Dispatch that one-quarter of all the venture examples, fertile women in the world must be sterilized in order to meet the new world, U.S. goals of population control and to maintain “the normal operation of U.S. commercial interests around the world.” Such rigorous measures were required, Ravenholt explained, to contain the “population explosion” which would, if left unchecked, so reduce living standards abroad that revolutions would break out “against the strong U.S. commercial presence.”. Charming he was not. To commemorate the bicentennial of the United States in 1976, he came up with the idea of producing “stars and stripes” condoms in joint venture, red, white, and blue colors for distribution around the world.

Another time, at a dinner for beowulf schmoop, population researchers, Ravenholt strolled around the room making pumping motions with his fist as if he were operating a manual vacuum aspirator a hand-held vacuum pump for joint venture, performing abortions to the horror of the other guests. Ravenholt’s view of about, nonwhite people is expressed well enough in a comment he made in 2000 about joint venture examples, slavery: “American blacks should thank their lucky stars that the institution of slavery did exist in earlier centuries; if not, these American blacks would not exist: their ancestors would have been killed by their black enemies, instead of being sold as slaves.” As his method of operation, Ravenholt adopted the practice of distributing his funds aggressively to the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the Population Council, and numerous other privately run organizations of the population control movement, enabling them to Branches implement mass sterilization and abortion campaigns worldwide without U.S. government regulatory interference, and allowing their budgets to balloon first tenfold, then a hundredfold, then even more. Venture Examples. This delighted the is creole, leaders and staff of the population control establishment, who were able to joint embrace a luxurious lifestyle, staying in the best hotels, eating the best food, and flying first class as they jetted around the world to set up programs to eliminate the poor. Ravenholt also had no compunction about buying up huge quantities of unproven, unapproved, defective, or banned contraceptive drugs and intrauterine devices (IUDs) and distributing them for use by his population control movement subcontractors on a language millions of unsuspecting Third World women, many of whom suffered or died in consequence. These included drugs and devices which had been declared unsafe by joint venture the FDA for Essay on The The Jungle, use in America, and had faced successful lawsuits in the U.S. for their damaging results. These practices delighted the manufacturers of such equipment. Having thus secured the unqualified support of joint venture, both the or Fiction? Essay examples, population control establishment and joint venture examples several major pharmaceutical companies, Ravenholt was able to lobby Congress to secure ever-increasing appropriations to further expand his growing empire. His success was remarkable. Before Ravenholt took over, USAID expenditures on a language population control amounted to less than 3 percent of examples, what the agency spent on health programs in Third World nations.

By 1968, Ravenholt had a budget of $36 million, compared to the USAID health programs budget of $130 million. By 1972, Ravenholt’s population control funding had grown to Essay $120 million per venture, year, with funds taken directly at on The of Literary Elements the expense of USAID’s disease prevention and other health care initiatives, which shrank to $38 million in consequence. In just five short years, the U.S. Joint Venture. non-military foreign aid program was transformed from beowulf schmoop a mission of mercy to venture examples an agency for human elimination. In 1968, Robert McNamara, a staunch believer in beowulf schmoop, population control, resigned his post as Secretary of Defense to assume the joint, presidency of the World Bank. From this position he was able to dictate a new policy, making World Bank loans to Third World countries contingent upon their governments’ submission to population control, with yearly sterilization quotas set by World Bank experts. Cash-short and heavily in debt, many poor nations found this pressure very difficult to withstand. This strengthened Ravenholt’s hand immeasurably. Destroying the Village. U pon coming into office in January 1969, the new Nixon administration sought to further advance the on The Elements in Upton The Jungle, population control agenda.

Responding to joint venture examples lobbying by General William H. Draper, Jr., the colonization of the new world, former under secretary of the Army and a leading overpopulation fear monger, Nixon approved U.S. government support for the establishment of the U.N. Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Joint Venture. With this organization as a vehicle, vast additional American funds would be poured into the global population control effort, with their source disguised so as to Clairvoyants: Fact or Fiction? Essay examples ease acceptance by governments whose leaders needed to maintain a populist pose in opposition to “Yankee Imperialism.” While the United States was its primary backer, the UNFPA also served as a channel for significant additional population control funds from European nations, Canada, and Japan, collectively equal to venture about half the American effort. Going still further, President Nixon in Clairvoyants: Fact, 1970 set up a special blue-ribbon Commission on examples Population Growth and the American Future, with longtime population control booster John D. Rockefeller III as its chairman. Reporting back in Essay examples, 1972, Rockefeller predictably cited the menace of U.S. population growth with alarm, and examples called for a large variety of on Talking about, population control measures to avert the putative threat of welfare-dependent, criminalistic, or other financially burdensome populations multiplying out of control. Just as predictably, the report generated scores of newspaper headlines and feature magazine articles serving to cement the joint examples, population control consensus. Nixon’s politically-driven rejection of one of the commission’s recommendations government-funded abortion on demand only Fact Essay served to make Rockefeller’s Malthusian committee seem all the more “progressive.” But Nixon’s chief interest in population control was its supposed value as a Cold War weapon.

The president charged Henry Kissinger, his National Security Advisor and Secretary of State, with conducting a secret study on the role of population control measures in joint examples, the fight against new world, global communism. Examples. Kissinger pulled together a group of Essay about, experts drawn from the National Security Council (NSC), the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of joint venture examples, Defense, the Department of State, USAID, and other agencies to a language study the question. The result was issued on December 10, 1974 in examples, the form of the classified NSC document titled “Implications of Worldwide Population Growth for U.S. Security and Overseas Interests.” The document known as National Security Study Memorandum 200 (NSSM 200), or simply as the on Talking about, Kissinger Report represented the encoding of venture, Malthusian dogma as the strategic doctrine of the United States. NSSM 200 was declassified in 1989 and so is now available for scrutiny.

Examining the document, what is apparent is the a language, Nietzschean mindset on the part of its authors, who (implicitly embracing the communist line) clearly regarded the newborn masses of the world as America’s likely enemies, rather than her friends, and as potential obstacles to the exploitation of the world’s wealth, rather than as customers, workers, and business partners participating together with America in a grand team effort to grow and advance the world economy. The memo made the case for a population control effort that is global in joint venture, scope but not traceable back to beowulf schmoop its wealthy supporters. On November 26, 1975, NSSM 200 was formally adopted by the Ford administration. A follow-up memo issued in 1976 by the NSC called for the United States to use control of food supplies to impose population control on a global scale. Joint Venture. It further noted the value of using dictatorial power and military force as means to coerce Third World peoples into submission to population control measures, adding: “In some cases, strong direction has involved incentives such as payment to about Branches of Government acceptors for sterilization, or disincentives such as giving low priorities in the allocation of housing or schooling to those with larger families. Such direction is the sine qua non of an effective program.” Without a shred of justification, but with impeccable organization, generous funding, aggressive leadership, and backing by a phalanx of established respectable opinion, the population control movement was now doctrinally enshrined as representing the core strategic interest of the world’s leading superpower.

It was now positioned to wreak havoc on a global scale. The Characteristics of examples, Population Control Programs. O f the billions of taxpayer dollars that the U.S. government has expended on population control abroad, a portion has been directly spent by USAID on beowulf schmoop its own field activities, but the majority has been laundered through a variety of international agencies. As a result of this indirect funding scheme, all attempts to compel the population control empire to conform its activities to accepted medical, ethical, safety, or human rights norms have proven futile. Joint Examples. Rather, in direct defiance of laws enacted by Congress to try to correct the situation, what has been and new world continues to be perpetrated at public expense is an atrocity on a scale so vast and varied as to almost defy description. Venture Examples. Nevertheless, it is worth attempting to convey to readers some sense of the evil that is being done with their money. Before describing some case studies, let us consider the primary characteristics manifested by nearly all the campaigns. First, they are top-down dictatorial . In selling the effort to Americans, USAID and its beneficiaries claim that they are providing Third World women with “choice” regarding childbirth. There is no truth to this claim.

As Betsy Hartmann, a liberal feminist critic of these programs, trenchantly pointed out in her 1995 book Reproductive Rights and Essay Elements in Upton Wrongs , “a woman’s right to choose” must necessarily include the option of joint venture examples, having children precisely what the population control campaigns deny her. Rather than providing “choice” to individuals, the purpose of the campaigns is to strip entire populations of their ability to reproduce. This is done by national governments, themselves under USAID or World Bank pressure, setting quotas for sterilizations, IUD insertions, or similar procedures to be imposed by their own civil service upon the subject population. Those government employees who meet or exceed their quotas of “acceptors” are rewarded; those who fail to do so are disciplined. Second, the programs are dishonest . It is a regular practice for government civil servants employed in population control programs to lie to their prospective targets for quota-meeting about the consequences of the operations that will be performed upon them. For example, Third World peasants are frequently told by government population control personnel that sterilization operations are reversible, when in fact they are not. Third, the programs are coercive . As a regular practice, population control programs provide “incentives” and/or “disincentives” to compel “acceptors” into accepting their “assistance.” Among the “incentives” frequently employed is the provision or denial of cash or food aid to starving people or their children. Among the of the, “disincentives” employed are personal harassment, dismissal from employment, destruction of homes, and denial of schooling, public housing, or medical assistance to the recalcitrant. Fourth, the programs are medically irresponsible and examples negligent . Country. As a regular practice, the programs use defective, unproven, unsafe, experimental, or unapproved gear, including equipment whose use has been banned outright in the United States. Joint Venture Examples. They also employ large numbers of inadequately trained personnel to perform potentially life-endangering operations, or to maintain medical equipment in a supposedly sterile or otherwise safe condition.

In consequence, millions of people subjected to the ministrations of such irresponsibly run population control operations have been killed. This is particularly true in Africa, where improper reuse of hypodermic needles without sterilization in population control clinics has contributed to the rapid spread of deadly infectious diseases, including AIDS. Fifth, the programs are cruel, callous, and beowulf schmoop abusive of human dignity and joint venture examples human rights . A frequent practice is the colonization of the new world, sterilization of women without their knowledge or consent, typically while they are weakened in the aftermath of childbirth. Joint Venture Examples. This is tantamount to government-organized rape. Forced abortions are also typical. These and other human rights abuses of the population control campaign have been widely documented, with subject populations victimized in Australia, Bangladesh, China, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Kosovo, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tibet, the Essay on The Effects Elements Sinclair's, United States, Venezuela, and Vietnam. Sixth, the programs are racist . Joint Venture. Just as the global population control program itself represents an attempt by the (white-led) governments of the United States and the former imperial powers of Europe to about Branches of Government cut nonwhite populations in the Third World, so, within each targeted nation, the local ruling group has typically made use of the population control program to attempt to eliminate the people they despise.

In India, for example, the ruling upper-caste Hindus have focused the population control effort on examples getting rid of lower-caste untouchables and Muslims. In Sri Lanka, the beowulf schmoop, ruling Singhalese have targeted the venture examples, Hindu Tamils for a language, extermination. In Peru, the joint, Spanish-speaking descendants of the of the, conquistadors have directed the joint examples, country’s population control program toward the goal of stemming the reproduction of the is creole a language, darker non-Hispanic natives. In Kosovo, the Serbs used population control against the Albanians, while in Vietnam the Communist government has targeted the venture examples, population control effort against Essay of Government, the Hmong ethnic minority, America’s former wartime allies. In China, the Tibetan and Uyghur minorities have become special targets of the government’s population control effort, with multitudes of the latter rounded up for forced abortions and sterilizations.

In South Africa under apartheid, the purpose of the government-run population control program went without saying. In various black African states, whichever tribe holds the joint, reins of power regularly directs the population campaign towards the elimination of Clairvoyants: Essay examples, their traditional tribal rivals. Joint Venture. There should be nothing surprising in any of this. Malthusianism has always been closely linked to racism, because the desire for population control has as its foundation the hatred of others. The population control agenda has now been implemented in well over a hundred countries. Although we cannot provide detailed accounts of the beowulf schmoop, efforts in each of them here, let us turn now to examine three of the venture examples, most important and egregious cases. S ince the time of Malthus, India has always been a prime target in the eyes of would-be population controllers.

Both the British colonial administrators and of the new world the high-caste Brahmins who succeeded them in power following independence in 1947 looked upon the “teeming masses” of that nation’s lower classes with fear and disdain. Jawaharlal Nehru’s Congress Party (which controlled India’s national government for its first three decades without interruption) had been significantly influenced by pre-independence contacts with the pro-Malthusian British Fabian Society. Notable members of the venture, native elite, such as the Clairvoyants: Fact or Fiction?, influential and formidable Lady Rama Rau, had been attracted to the ideas of eugenicist and venture examples Planned Parenthood founder Margaret Sanger. Beowulf Schmoop. Thus during the 1950s and early 1960s, the Indian government allowed organizations like the Population Council, the Ford Foundation, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation to set up shop within the country’s borders, where they could set about curbing the reproduction of the nation’s Dalits, or “untouchables.” The government did not, however, allocate public funds to these organizations, so their programs remained relatively small. Mass sterilization camp in India. Nick Rain Things changed radically in 1965, when war with Pakistan threw the country’s economy into disarray, causing harvest failure and examples loss of revenue.

When Prime Minister Indira Gandhi Nehru’s daughter assumed office in January 1966, India was short twenty million tons of grain and lacked money to buy replacement stock on the world market. She was left with no choice but to go to the United States, hat in about, hand, to beg for food aid. There was a lot that the United States could have asked for in return from India, such as support for the Western side in the Cold War (India was non-aligned), and particularly for the war effort in nearby Vietnam, which was heating up rapidly. One of President Lyndon Johnson’s aides, Joseph Califano, suggested in a memo to the president that the United States move rapidly to joint venture examples commit food aid in order to secure such a pro-American tilt. In reply he got a call from Johnson that very afternoon. “Are you out of beowulf schmoop, your f***ing mind?” the examples, president exploded. He declared in no uncertain terms that he was not going to “piss away foreign aid in nations where they refuse to deal with their own population problems.” Indira Gandhi arrived in Clairvoyants: or Fiction? examples, Washington in late March and met first with Secretary of State Dean Rusk, who handed her a memo requiring “a massive effort to control population growth” as a condition for food aid. Then, on March 28, 1966, she met privately with the president. There is no record of their conversation, but it is evident that she capitulated completely. Two days later, President Johnson sent a message to Congress requesting food aid for India, noting with approval: “The Indian government believes that there can be no effective solution of the Indian food problem that does not include population control.”

In accordance with the agreement, sterilization and IUD-insertion quotas were set for each Indian state, and joint examples then within each state for each local administrative district. Every hospital in on The Effects of Literary Elements The Jungle, the country had a large portion of venture, its facilities commandeered for Clairvoyants:, sterilization and IUD-insertion activities. (The IUDs, which were provided to the Indian government by the Population Council, were non-sterile. In Maharashtra province, 58 percent of women surveyed who received them experienced pain, 24 percent severe pain, and 43 percent severe and excessive bleeding.) But hospitals alone did not have the capacity to venture meet the colonization of the new world, quotas, so hundreds of sterilization camps were set up in rural areas, manned and joint operated by paramedical personnel who had as little as two days of training. Minimum quotas were set for the state-salaried camp medics they had to perform 150 vasectomies or 300 IUD insertions per month each, or their pay would be docked. Private practitioners were also recruited to Essay on Talking Music assist, with pay via piecework: 10 rupees per vasectomy and venture examples 5 rupees per IUD insertion. To acquire subjects for these ministrations, the Indian government provided each province with 11 rupees for every IUD insertion, 30 per vasectomy, and 40 per tubectomy. These funds could be divided according to the particular population control plan of each provincial government, with some going to program personnel, some spent as commission money to freelance “motivators,” some paid as incentives to the “acceptors,” and some grafted for other governmental or private use by the administrators.

Typical incentives for subjects ranged from 3 to 7 rupees for an IUD insertion and 12 to 25 rupees for Essay on The Effects of Literary Elements, a sterilization. These sums may seem trivial a 1966 rupee is equivalent to 65 cents today but at that time, 2 to 3 rupees was a day’s pay for an Indian laborer. When these pittances did not induce enough subjects to meet the quotas, some states adopted additional “incentives”: Madhya Pradesh, for joint, example, denied irrigation water to villages that failed to meet their quotas. Faced with starvation, millions of impoverished people had no alternative but to submit to sterilization. As the forms of coercion employed worked most effectively on the poorest, the Essay of Literary Elements in Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, system also provided the eugenic bonus of doing away preferentially with untouchables. The results were impressive. In 1961, the total number of joint, sterilizations (vasectomies and Essay of Government tubectomies combined) performed in venture, India was 105,000. About Branches Of Government. In 1966-67, the examples, yearly total shot up to 887,000, growing further to more than 1.8 million in 1967-68. No doubt LBJ was proud. But while ruining the lives of is creole a language, millions of people, the steep rise in sterilization figures had little impact on the overall trajectory of India’s population growth.

In 1968, Paul Ehrlich wrote in The Population Bomb , “I have yet to meet anyone familiar with the situation who thinks India will be self sufficient in food by venture 1971, if ever,” thus justifying his explicitly antihuman call that “we must allow [India] to slip down the drain.” As in so many other things, Ehrlich was wrong; India did achieve self-sufficiency in Clairvoyants: Fact Essay examples, food in 1971 not through population control, but through the improved agricultural techniques of the Green Revolution. Joint Venture Examples. It did not matter. The holders of the purse-strings at Essay Effects of Literary in Upton The Jungle USAID demanded even higher quotas. They got them. By 1972-73, the number of venture, sterilizations in India reached three million per year. Then, in the fall of 1973, OPEC launched its oil embargo, quintupling petroleum prices virtually overnight. For rich nations like the United States, the resulting financial blow was severe. For poor countries like India, it was devastating. In 1975, conditions in India became so bad that Prime Minister Gandhi declared a state of national emergency and assumed dictatorial power.

Driven once again to desperation, she found herself at the mercy of the World Bank, led by Country arch-Malthusian Robert S. Examples. McNamara. Essay. McNamara made it clear: if India wanted more loans, Gandhi needed to use her powers to deal more definitively with India’s supposed population problem. She agreed. Instead of incentives, force would now be used to venture obtain compliance. “Some personal rights have to a language be kept in abeyance,” she said, “for the human rights of the nation, the right to live, the right to joint progress.” Gandhi put her son Sanjay personally in charge of the new population offensive. Colonization New World. He took to venture his job with gusto. Overt coercion became the rule: sterilization was a condition for land allotments, water, electricity, ration cards, medical care, pay raises, and rickshaw licenses. Policemen were given quotas to nab individuals for sterilization. Demolition squads were sent into on Talking about Country Music slums to bulldoze houses sometimes whole neighborhoods so that armed police platoons could drag off their flushed-out occupants to forced-sterilization camps. In Delhi alone, 700,000 people were driven from their homes. Joint. Many of those who escaped the immediate roundup were denied new housing until they accepted sterilization.

These attacks provoked resistance, with thousands being killed in battles with the police, who used live ammunition to deal with protesters. When it became clear that Muslim villages were also being selectively targeted, the level of violence increased still further. The village of Pipli was only brought into submission when government officials threatened locals with aerial bombardment. As the director of family planning in Maharashtra explained, “You must consider it something like a war. Whether you like it or not, there will be a few dead people.” The measures served their purpose. On Talking Country Music. During 1976, eight million Indians were sterilized. Far from being dismayed by joint examples the massive violation of human rights committed by the campaign, its foreign sponsors expressed full support. Sweden increased its funding for beowulf schmoop, Indian population control by $17 million. Reimert Ravenholt ordered 64 advanced laparoscope machines altogether sufficient to venture examples sterilize 12,800 people per is creole a language, day rushed to India to examples help the effort.

World Bank president McNamara was absolutely delighted. In November 1976, he traveled to Essay about of Government India to congratulate Indira Gandhi’s government for its excellent work. Joint. “At long last,” he said, “India is moving effectively to address its population problem.” Prime Minister Gandhi got her loans. She also got the boot in 1977, when, in the largest democratic election in history, the people of India defied three decades of precedent and on Talking about Country voted her Congress Party out of power in a landslide. Unfortunately, in most Third World countries, people lack such an option to protect themselves against joint examples, population control. Equally unfortunately, despite the fall of the Gandhi government, the financial pressure on India from the World Bank and Essay on The Effects Elements The Jungle USAID to implement population control continued. By the early 1980s, four million sterilizations were being performed every year on India’s underclasses as part of a coercive two-children-per-family policy. Since in rural India sons are considered essential to continue the family line and provide support for parents in examples, their old age, this limit caused many families to seek means of disposing of infant daughters, frequently through drowning, asphyxiation, abandonment in sewers or garbage dumps, or incineration on funeral pyres.

More recently the primary means of eliminating the less-desirable sex has become sex-selective abortion, skewing the ratio of the sexes so that 112 boys are born for every hundred girls in India (far beyond the natural ratio of 103 to 106), with the ratio even more skewed in some locations. Beowulf Schmoop. A sense of the scale on which these murders were and are practiced, even just in the aspect of joint venture examples, gendercide, can be gleaned from the fact that in India today there are 37 million more men than women. B ecause of their proximity to the United States, Central and South America have long been in Essay about Branches of Government, the sights of population controllers from the American national security establishment. Since the 1960s, on the urging of examples, USAID, brutal population control programs have been implemented in nearly every country from Mexico to Chile. In this article we shall focus on just one of them, that of Peru, because the criminal investigation of its leading perpetrators has provided some of the or Fiction? Essay examples, best documentation of the systematic abuses that have been and venture continue to be carried out under the cloak of population control across Central and South America. Mountainous Peru features some of the most thinly populated regions on the planet. Beowulf Schmoop. This fact, however, in joint venture, no way deterred USAID planners from beowulf schmoop deeming these rural areas to be overpopulated, nor from funding programs designed to eliminate their people.

Begun in joint venture examples, 1966, these efforts proceeded on a comparatively low level until the 1990s, when strongman Alberto Fujimori assumed nearly dictatorial powers in the country. In 1995, President Fujimori launched a nationwide sterilization campaign. Mobile sterilization teams were assembled in Lima and then deployed to move through the countryside to conduct week-long “ligation festivals” in one village after another. Prior to beowulf schmoop the arrival of the sterilization teams, Ministry of Health employees were sent in to harass local women into submission. Women who resisted were subjected to repeated home visits and severe verbal abuse by the government workers, who chided the native women and girls that they were no better than “cats” or “dogs” for wanting to have children. If this did not suffice, mothers were told that unless they submitted to ligation, their children would be made ineligible for government food aid. Both the government harassment squads and the members of the sterilization units themselves operated under a quota system, striving to meet the nationwide target of 100,000 tubal ligations per year. They were paid if they met their quotas but punished if they failed to capture the joint venture examples, designated number of women for Country Music, sterilization. As a result, many women entering clinics for venture, childbirth were sterilized without any pretext of gaining their permission. Given the limited training of the sterilization personnel (provided in many cases by imported Chinese population control experts), the unsanitary conditions prevailing during the village “ligation festivals,” and the complete lack of post-operation care, it is not surprising that many suffered severe complications and more than a few died subsequent to their mutilations.

While the government personnel performing the mass sterilizations were urbanites of Spanish derivation, the overwhelming majority of the victims were rural Quechua-speaking natives of Inca descent. This, of course, was no coincidence. When Fujimori was booted out in 2000, the new president, Alejandro Toledo, asked the colonization of the new world, Peruvian Congress to authorize an investigation into the population control campaign. Joint Venture Examples. Accordingly, an of the, investigative commission known as the AQV was formed under the direction of Dr. Hector Chavez Chuchon. The AQV submitted its report to the Human Rights Commission of the venture, Peruvian Congress on is creole a language June 10, 2003. According to the report, in joint, the course of a five-year effort the Fujimori government had sterilized 314,605 women. Furthermore, Fujimori’s population control campaign had “carried out massive sterilizations on Clairvoyants: or Fiction? designated ethnic groups, benefiting other ethnic or social groups which did not suffer the examples, scourge with the same intensity . the Essay about of Government, action fits the definition of the crime of Genocide.” The report went on to make a “Constitutional Indictment” Fujimori and various officials of examples, his government “for the alleged commission of crimes against Individual Liberty, against Life, Body, and Health, of Criminal Conspiracy, and Genocide.” The primary funders of Fujimori’s genocide campaign were USAID (which ignored U.S. Essay Music. law and a 1998 congressional investigation to continue its financial support for the effort), the UNFPA, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. I n June 1978, Song Jian, a top-level manager in charge of developing control systems for the Chinese guided-missile program, traveled to Helsinki for an international conference on control system theory and joint venture design.

While in Finland, he picked up copies of The Limits to Growth and Blueprint for Survival publications of the Club of Rome, a major source of Malthusian propaganda and made the a language, acquaintance of several Europeans who were promoting the joint venture, reports’ method of using computerized “systems analysis” to predict and on Talking Country Music design the human future. Fascinated by joint examples the possibilities, Song returned to China and republished the Club’s analysis under his own name (without attribution), establishing his reputation for brilliant and original thinking. Indeed, while Club of Rome computer projections of a language, impending resource shortages, graphs showing the joint venture examples, shortening of population-increase times, and beowulf schmoop discussions of “carrying capacities,” “natural limits,” mass extinctions, and the isolated “spaceship Earth” were all clichés in the West by 1978, in China they were fresh and striking ideas. In no time at all, Song became a scientific superstar. Seizing the moment to grasp for greater power and importance, he pulled together an elite group of mathematicians from within his department, and with the help of a powerful computer to provide the necessary special effects, issued the profoundly calculated judgment that China’s “correct” population size was 650 to venture examples 700 million people which is to say some 280 to 330 million less than its actual 1978 population. Song’s analysis quickly found favor at top levels of the Chinese Communist Party because it purported to prove that the reason for China’s continued poverty was not thirty years of disastrous misrule, but the very existence of the Chinese people. (To make the utter falsity of Song’s argument clear, it is sufficient to note that in 1980, neighboring South Korea, with four times China’s population density, had a per capita gross national product seven times greater.) Paramount Leader Deng Xiaoping and his fellows in the Central Committee were also very impressed by the pseudo-scientific computer babble Song used to dress up his theory which, unlike its Club of Rome source documents in the West, ran unopposed in the state-controlled Chinese technical and popular media. Song proposed that China’s rulers set a limit of one child per family, effective immediately. Deng Xiaoping liked what Song had to say, so those who might have had the power to resist the one-child policy were quick to protect themselves by lining up in support. At the critical Chengdu population conference in is creole, December 1979, only one brave man, Liang Zhongtang, a teacher of Marxism at the Shaanxi Provincial Party School, called upon his party comrades to consider the venture, brutality they were about to is creole a language inflict: “We have made the peasants’ suffering bitter enough in joint venture, the economic realm. We cannot make them suffer further.” Liang also tried to argue from a practical standpoint.

If we implement this policy, he said, every working Chinese married couple will need to support four elderly grandparents, one child, and themselves a clear impossibility. None of the children will have any brothers or sisters, or uncles or aunts. None of the parents will have any relatives of their own generation to help out in time of need. The social fabric of village life will break down completely. There will be no one to serve in the Army. But such commonsense objections were of is creole, no avail.

The word soon came down from the top: one child per family was now the joint, policy of the infallible Party leadership, and no further disagreements would be tolerated. Thus began the most forceful population control program since Nazi Germany. No more would the new world, population controllers need to depend on tricks, bribes, denial of benefits, traveling ligation festivals, or slum demolition platoons to obtain their victims. They now had the organized and unrelenting power of a totalitarian state to examples enforce their will, holding sway over colonization new world not only a massive bureaucracy, but gigantic police and military forces, secret police, vast prison facilities, total media control, and joint venture examples tens of millions of informers. In The Population Bomb , Paul Ehrlich had called for Branches of Government, state control of human reproduction, with “compulsory birth regulation.” Now, just twelve years later, Ehrlich’s utopian dream had become a nightmare reality for one-fifth of the human race. Qian Xinzhong, a Soviet-trained former major general in the People’s Liberation Army, was placed in charge of the campaign. He ordered that all women with one child were to venture examples have a stainless-steel IUD inserted, and to be inspected regularly to make sure that they had not tampered with it. To remove the device was deemed a criminal act. Is Creole A Language. All parents with two or more children were to be sterilized.

No pregnancies were legal for joint venture examples, anyone under 23, whether married or not, and all unauthorized pregnancies were to be aborted. “Under no circumstances is the birth of a third child allowed,” Qian said. Women who defied these injunctions were taken and beowulf schmoop sterilized by force. Babies would be aborted right through the venture, ninth month of Essay about Music, pregnancy, with many crying as they were being stabbed to death at the moment of birth. Those women who fled to venture examples try to save their children were hunted, and colonization of the new world if they could not be caught, their houses were torn down and their parents thrown in prison, there to linger until a ransom of 20,000 yuan about three years’ income for venture, a peasant was paid for their release. Babies born to such fugitives were declared to be “black children,” illegal non-persons in the eyes of the state, without any right to employment, public schooling, health care, or reproduction. The leaders of the UNFPA and the International Planned Parenthood Federation were delighted, and rushed to send money (provided to them primarily by beowulf schmoop the U.S. Joint. State Department) and personnel to help support the campaign. China was so openly brutal in its methods that IPPF’s own information officer, Penny Kane, expressed alarm not at a language what was being done to joint examples millions of Chinese women, girls, and infants, but at the possible public-relations disaster that could mar the IPPF’s image if Americans found out what it was doing. New World. “Very strong measures are being taken to reduce population,” Kane wrote from China, “I think that in joint examples, the not-too-distant future this will blow up into a major press story as it contains all the ingredients for sensationalism Communism, forced family planning, murder of viable fetuses, parallels with India, etc. When it does blow up, it is going to be very difficult to defend.

We might find it extremely difficult to handle the press and the public if there were a major fuss about the Chinese methods.” Babies born in China in spite of the one-child policy are declared “black children” and about Branches of Government have no right to food, health care, or education. If female, they are frequently killed, either at birth, or if apprehended later, at orphanages where they are gathered. Shown above is examples Mei Ming, a two-year-old girl tied to is creole a chair in a “dying room.” The bucket below her is to catch her urine and joint venture examples feces as she dies over Effects of Literary Elements in Upton Sinclair's The Jungle the next several days from examples starvation and on The Effects neglect. The above photo was taken by a British TV crew during their filming of the 1995 documentary exposé The Dying Rooms . The Chinese government denies the examples, existence of dying rooms. Courtesy Care of China’s Orphaned and Abandoned Disregarding Kane’s concerns, the IPPF stepped up its support for the campaign. True to her worries, however, the Fact or Fiction? examples, story did begin to break in the West. On November 30, 1981, the Wall Street Journal ran an eyewitness story by Michele Vink reporting women being “handcuffed, tied with ropes, or placed in pig’s baskets” as they were being hauled off for forced abortions. Venture Examples. According to Vink, vehicles transporting women to hospitals in colonization new world, Canton were “filled with wailing noises,” while unauthorized infants were being killed en masse. “Every day hundreds of fetuses arrive at the morgue,” one of Vink’s sources said.

On May 15, 1982, New York Times foreign correspondent Christopher Wren offered an even more devastating exposé. Joint Examples. He reported on stories of thousands of Chinese women being “rounded up and forced to have abortions,” and tales of Essay on Talking about Country Music, women “locked in detention cells or hauled before mass rallies and harangued into consenting to abortion,” as well as “vigilantes [who] abducted pregnant women on the streets and hauled them off, sometimes handcuffed or trussed, to abortion clinics.” He quoted one Chinese reporter who described “aborted babies which were actually crying when they were born.” The horror became so open that it could not be denied. By 1983, even Chinese newspapers themselves were running stories about the examples, “butchering, drowning, and leaving to die of female infants and the maltreating of Fact, women who had given birth to girls.” Unfazed by the press coverage, Qian redoubled the joint venture, effort. Local Communist Party officials were given quotas for sterilizations, abortions, and IUD insertions. If they exceeded them, they could be promoted. If they failed to Essay about meet them, they would be expelled from the venture examples, Party in disgrace. These measures guaranteed results. In 1983, 16 million women and 4 million men were sterilized, 18 million women had IUDs inserted, and over 14 million infants were aborted.

Going forward, these figures were sustained, with combined total coerced abortions, IUD implantations, and sterilizations exceeding 30 million per year through 1985. In celebration of Qian’s achievements, the UNFPA in 1983 gave him (together with Indira Gandhi) the first United Nations Population Award, complete with diploma, gold medal, and $25,000 cash. In a congratulatory speech at the award ceremony in New York, U.N. Secretary General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar said: “Considering the fact that China and India contain over 40 per cent of Essay of Literary Elements, humanity, we must all record our deep appreciation of the way in which their governments have marshaled the resources necessary to implement population policies on a massive scale.” Qian stood up and promised to continue “controlling population quantity and raising population quality.” The U.N. was not alone in expressing its appreciation. The World Bank signaled its thanks in the sincerest way possible that is to say, with cash, providing China with $22 billion in loans by 1996. Given the examples, supreme importance to Essay about rural Chinese families of having a son, both to examples take care of aging parents and to continue the line and honor family ancestors, many peasants simply could not accept a daughter as their only child. The resultant spike in colonization of the, female infanticide was perhaps not especially troubling to the authorities in itself, given their attitude toward related matters, but the total social breakdown it betokened was. Facing this reality, in 1988 the government in some provinces compromised just a little and joint examples agreed that couples who had a daughter as their first child would be allowed one more try to have a son provided that there were no unauthorized births or other violations of the population policy by anyone in the couple’s village during that year. While giving a bit on the population front, this “reform” had the examples, salutary effect from the totalitarian point of view of destroying peasant solidarity, which previously had acted to shield local women giving birth in hiding.

Instead, hysterical group pressure was mobilized against joint venture examples, such rebels, with everyone in the village transformed into government snoops to police their neighbors against possible infractions. The killing of daughters, however, continued apace. During the period from 2000 to 2004, almost 1.25 boys were born for every girl born indicating that one-fifth of all baby girls in Clairvoyants: Fact or Fiction? Essay examples, China were either being aborted or murdered. In some provinces the fraction eliminated was as high as one-half. The Terrible Toll. I n 1991, UNFPA head Nafis Sadik went to China to examples congratulate the of the, oligarchs of the venture, People’s Republic for their excellent program, which by that time had already sterilized, implanted IUDs in, or performed abortions on a language some 300 million people. “China has every reason to feel proud of and pleased with its remarkable achievements made in its family planning policy and control of its population growth over the past ten years,” she said. “Now the joint, country could offer its experiences and special experts to help other countries. UNFPA is going to employ some of [China’s family planning experts] to work in other countries and a language popularize China’s experience in population growth control and family planning.” Sadik made good on her promise. With the help of the UNFPA, the Chinese model of population control was implemented virtually in joint, its entirety in Essay Effects Elements, Vietnam, and used to enhance the brutal effectiveness of the joint venture, antihuman efforts in Essay Elements in Upton, many other countries, from Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to Mexico and Peru. Meanwhile, many other countries have similarly grim stories. The Indonesian population control program was extensive and coercive; Betsy Hartmann has recounted a case in joint, 1990 in which “family planning workers accompanied by the police and army went from house to house and took men and a language women to a site where IUDs were being inserted.

Women who refused had IUDs inserted at gunpoint.” The Indonesian government’s longstanding commitment to population control meant that other areas of health care were not prioritized, which is why the country’s infant mortality rate is double that of neighboring Malaysia and Thailand. The misallocation of scarce health resources is even more apparent in examples, sub-Saharan Africa. Health care professionals and programs that should be dedicated to fighting malaria and other deadly diseases are instead dedicated to population control. As Dr. Stephen Karanja, former secretary of the Kenyan Medical Association, wrote in 1997: Our health sector is collapsed. Thousands of the Kenyan people will die of malaria, the treatment of Essay on The Elements in Upton The Jungle, which costs a few cents, in health facilities whose shelves are stocked to the ceiling with millions of dollars’ worth of pills, IUDs, Norplant, Depo-Provera, and so on, most of which are supplied with American money. Special operating theaters fully serviced and not lacking in venture, instruments are opened in hospitals for the sterilization of women. Of The. While in venture, the same hospitals, emergency surgery cannot be done for lack of basic operating instruments and of the supplies.

In a 2000 interview, Karanja continued, “You can’t perform operations because there is no equipment, no materials. The operation theater isn’t working. But if it is for a sterilization, the theater is equipped.” Worse still, as Steven Mosher has argued in his book Population Control , there is good reason to believe that the 100 million hypodermic needles that were shipped to Africa since the 1990s for venture examples, injecting contraceptive drugs have been a major cause of the continent’s horrific AIDS epidemic which has resulted in about Country, tens of venture, millions of deaths, with nearly two million more deaths expected this year, and next, and for a language, years more to come. Around the world, the examples, population control movement has resulted in billions of lost or ruined lives. We cannot stop at merely rebutting the pseudoscience and recounting the crimes of the population controllers. We must also expose and Essay on The Elements The Jungle confront the underlying antihumanist ideology.

If the idea is accepted that the world’s resources are fixed with only so much to go around, then each new life is unwelcome, each unregulated act or thought is a menace, every person is fundamentally the enemy of every other person, and joint examples each race or nation is the enemy of Essay Effects The Jungle, every other race or nation. The ultimate outcome of such a worldview can only be enforced stagnation, tyranny, war, and venture examples genocide. The horrific crimes advocated or perpetrated by antihumanism’s devotees over the past two centuries prove this conclusively. Only in a world of unlimited resources can all men be brothers. That is why we must reject antihumanism and embrace instead an ethic based on faith in the human capacity for creativity and invention. For in doing so, we make a statement that we are living not at the end of history, but at the beginning of history; that we believe in freedom and not regimentation; in progress and not stasis; in Branches of Government, love rather than hate; in examples, life rather than death; in hope rather than despair. Robert Zubrin, The Population Control Holocaust, The New Atlantis , Number 35, Spring 2012, pp.