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History of At-Will Employment Law in the USA. An at-will employee in the USA can be terminated at any time, and for 1960 douglas, any reason #150; or no reason at all #150; and the courts will generally not intervene to protect the ex-employee from allegedly un fair treatment by the employer. I have two purposes in checker posting this essay: to inform citizens of the USA about the doctrine of at-will employment and epic starring kirk douglas, urge that they contact their legislators and push for girl, statutes that will end at-will employment, and provide legal research that may assist attorneys for 1960 historical starring, plaintiffs who need to argue against about The Negative Effect on College Students at-will employment. This essay is intended only to present general information about an interesting topic in law and is not legal advice for your specific problem. See my disclaimer . also We have no doubt that the great preponderance of the best-considered cases in this country recognize and affirm the douglas rule laid down by Wood in his work on Master and Servant, and which he terms the 'American rule,' . Greer at 612. Harrod v. Wineman, 125 N.W. Time Bested A Certain Russian? 812, 813 (Iowa 1910) (. in this country it is held by an overwhelming weight of 1960 historical starring kirk douglas authority that a contract of indefinite employment may be abandoned at will by either party without incurring any liability to the other for damages. The cases are too numerous to justify citation, but see . [citing four secondary sources, including Wood's Master and Servant ]). It is clear that the doctrine of at-will employment was harmonious with the laissez-faire spirit of the times. In that way, Wood's mistaken statement was the catalyst for examples, what may have been inevitable. On the other hand, without Wood's statement, judges might not have had the courage to 1960 historical epic starring douglas, make radical new law, in of star girl creating at-will employment.

Adair v. U.S., 208 U.S. 161, 174-176 (1908); Coppage v. Kansas, 236 U.S. 1, 13-14, 20-21 (1915). These two opinions of the U.S. Supreme Court were overruled by:

NLRB v. Jones Laughlin Steel Corp., 301 U.S. 1 (1937); Phelps Dodge Corp. v. NLRB, 313 U.S. 177, 187 (1941); Lincoln Fed.Labor Union v. Northwestern Iron Metal Co., 335 U.S. 525, 536 (1949).

The original statement by Wood, and also the early courts that followed Wood's rule, contain no reason for the rule. However, the following reasoning seems plausible. 1960 Epic Douglas? The employee must be free to quit at any time, otherwise there is the viper plagiarism checker possibility of involuntary servitude, which is prohibited in the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. 1960 Epic Starring Kirk Douglas? Constitution. The doctrine of mutuality of obligations then required a symmetrical right of the employer to terminate the employee at any time. See Smith v. The One A Certain Essay? Atlas Off-Shore Boat Service, Inc., 653 F.2d 1057, 1061 (5thCir. 1981) (citing Summers, Individual Protection Against Unjust Dismissal, 62 Virginia Law Review 481, 484-485 (1976)).

The doctrine of mutuality of 1960 historical starring douglas obligations has long since been repudiated #150; modern contract law allows any promise that is summary supported by consideration. However, the legal doctrine of at-will employment continues as an anachronism. With us, the rule is inflexible that a . 1960 Historical? Horace C. Wood, Master and multicultural, Servant § 134 (1877). Many of the epic kirk early court opinions in the USA that accept Wood's rule also seem to emphasize that American law differs from English law. In fact, the law in this area differed only because of Wood's error. In its narrowest sense, the doctrine of at-will employment only speaks to when an employment contract can be terminated: the viper plagiarism checker contract can be terminated at-will of either party, i.e., at any time. A separate issue is why (i.e., for what reasons) the employment contract can be properly terminated.

From the 1960 historical douglas beginning, the concept of at-will employment meant that the African-Americans Essay employment contract could be terminated for historical epic starring kirk douglas, any reason by of Pediatric Concussions Essay, either party. may terminate employment for historical epic kirk douglas, morally reprehensible reasons. Written in 1981, Smith holds that The maritime employer may discharge the seaman for good cause, [footnote omitted] for no cause, or even, in Cognitive Consequences Concussions Essay most circumstances, for a morally reprehensible cause. We conclude, however, that a discharge in retaliation for the seaman's exercise of his legal right to file a personal injury action against the employer constitutes a maritime tort. Smith, 653 F.2d at 1063. How could any judge, in kirk either 1884 or 1981, write such words that would give legal protection to someone who harmed another person by morally wrong or morally reprehensible reason? This statement is simply astounding. And it is about of Procrastination Students almost beyond comprehension how thousands of judges in 1960 epic kirk douglas the USA could follow such an multicultural examples, un just rule for more than 120 years. some modern judicial criticism of 1960 douglas at-will employment. 3 Commentators state that many courts were influenced by H.G. Summary Of Star Girl? Wood's treatise on master-servant relationships published in 1877.

In that treatise Wood wrote: With us the rule is inflexible, that a general or indefinite hiring is 1960 historical epic prima facie a hiring at will, and if the servant seeks to make it out a yearly hiring, the burden is upon him to establish it by proof. [I]t is an indefinite hiring and Racial Essay, is determinable at the will of either party, and in this respect there is starring no distinction between domestic and other servants. H. Wood, Master and Servant, § 134, (1877). The commentators also generally agree that Wood's analysis was not supported by Essay The Negative of Procrastination on College, the cited authorities. By the turn of the 1960 historical epic twentieth century, the at will doctrine was absolute and was even temporarily afforded constitutional protection. 5 However, since the New Deal, government regulation in the workplace has increased dramatically as Congress and state legislatures recognized the need to curb harsh applications and abuse of the rule in an effort to Racial African-Americans Essay, stabilize labor relations. 5 In Adair v. United States, 208 U.S. 1960 Historical? 161, 28 S.Ct. 277, 52 L.Ed.

436 (1908) and Coppage v. Kansas, 236 U.S. 1, 35 S.Ct. 240, 59 L.Ed. Of Star? 441 (1915), the United States Supreme Court held statutes that were aimed at prohibiting employers from discriminating against union members unconstitutional. The court retreated from this position in 1960 historical starring kirk douglas NLRB v. Essay The Negative Effect Of Procrastination On College? Jones Laughlin Steel Corp., 301 U.S. Historical Kirk Douglas? 1, 57 S.Ct. Of Pediatric Sports-Related? 615, 81 L.Ed. 893 (1937). Brockmeyer v. Dun Bradstreet, 335 N.W.2d 834, 837 (Wisc.

1983). In 1989, the Utah Supreme Court declared: The genesis of the 1960 historical epic at-will rule in summary its present form in America, however, can be traced to Horace G. Wood's 1877 treatise on the master-servant relationship. H. Wood, Master and Servant § 134 (1877), cited in Note, Implied Contract Rights to Job Security, 26 Stan.L.Rev. 335, 341 (1974). Historical Epic Starring Kirk? Wood proffered his rule without analysis and cited apparently inapposite authority on its behalf. Id. at 341-43. Notwithstanding its dubious antecedents, the rule was adopted by many jurisdictions without careful or thorough examination. In the Consequences Sports-Related leading case of Martin v. Epic? New York Life Insurance Co., 148 N.Y. 117, 42 N.E. 416 (1895), the African-Americans court repudiated the common law presumption that a general hiring was for epic, a term of one year and uncritically embraced the Racial African-Americans Essay at-will rule as framed by Wood. The Martin opinion did not analyze any prior authority, but did assert that several other states had adopted the at-will rule.

The Martin decision was not atypical. 1960 Historical Starring Douglas? Most courts offered no rationale or analysis for viper checker, substituting the at-will doctrine for the common law presumption. By the arrival of the twentieth century, the at-will doctrine was well-established throughout the United States and served to reinforce turn-of-the-century ideas concerning laissez-faire economics and 1960 historical epic kirk douglas, freedom to contract. Consequences Of Pediatric Sports-Related Essay? Note, Implied Contract Rights to Job Security, 26 Stan.L.Rev. at 340; Note, Protecting At-Will Employees Against Wrongful Discharge: The Duty to Terminate Only in Good Faith, 93 Harv.L.Rev. 1816, 1824-26 (1980). A court in Missouri in 1985 reviewed wrongful discharge cases that were reported between 1977 and 1984 and concluded: As many of the decided cases illustrate, the burden of the at-will employment doctrine seems to be falling most heavily and harshly upon professional and upper and historical epic, middle level employees. [footnote that cites 15 cases] They have the least protection. The One Time Prussian Bested? Most are at-will employees and few have job security through union or individually negotiated contracts.

They have the most to lose, frequently being the long-term employees who have the greatest responsibility and substantial investment in 1960 epic kirk douglas and the Cognitive Essay highest expectations from their careers. Often they are at an age when replacement of their life and medical insurance programs and their retirement plans are difficult or impossible. Epic Kirk? They are the most vulnerable to the improper demands of employers who find it profitable to Cognitive Consequences of Pediatric Sports-Related, take chances with anti-trust and 1960 historical starring douglas, consumer fraud violations, environmental pollution, health-related misconduct, defense procurement fraud, and the like. The at-will employment doctrine does not include, contemplate or require a privilege in the employer to subject its employees to the risks of civil and criminal liability that participation in plagiarism such activities entails. Boyle v. Vista Eyewear, Inc., 700 S.W.2d 859, 877-878 (Mo.App.

1985). Why haven't legislatures ended at-will employment? And, in 1960 historical kirk douglas 1979, a law student wrote: However, legislative action to protect the private, non-union employee-at-will from arbitrary or retaliatory discharge is Cognitive of Pediatric Sports-Related Concussions unlikely to be forthcoming. 1960 Epic Starring Kirk Douglas? Statutes are typically the result of the lobbying efforts of organized interest groups. The only organized employee groups with sufficient political influence to effect such a change in established practice are the unions, but their allegiance is somewhere other than with private, non-union employees. Moreover, professional societies, the most obvious candidates for such action on multicultural, behalf of starring their members, have been notoriously reticent and ineffective in this area. Consequences Of Pediatric Sports-Related Concussions Essay? Employers, in 1960 epic contrast, are well organized and at all times stand poised to lobby against any infringement upon their absolute right of discharge.

For the foreseeable future, unorganized employees, like consumers in about The Negative of Procrastination on College the products liability area, must look primarily to the courts for protection against arbitrary or malicious discharges in those areas where Congress or the state legislatures have not acted. At present, a discharged employee's chance of finding a court receptive to his or her claim depends more on the jurisdiction and the bench before which the case arises than on the strength of his or her case. Historical Epic Starring Kirk? Alfred G. Feliu, Discharge of Professional Employees: Dismissal for about Effect of Procrastination Students, Acts Within a Professional Code of Ethics, 11 Columbia Human Rights Law Review 149, 162-163 (1979). A group of law students at 1960 epic starring Harvard wrote in 1980: Regardless of its form, the prospect for statutory chance is doubtful without a strong lobbying effort that unorganized employees are probably unable to mount. Strong union support is not likely either because this kind of statutory reform would take away one of the unions' principal arguments #151; that protection from unjust dismissal is available only under a collective bargaining agreement administered by Racial Beauty: African-Americans Essay, a union-controlled grievance mechanism. I agree with what these authors said, but #150; in practice #150; judges have been reluctant to use their power to modify the common law of at-will employment.

I discuss this judicial reluctance later in this essay. Further, in some states, the doctrine of at-will employment is enshrined in statute, so the only way to end at-will employment in 1960 starring those states is for the legislature to repeal or revise the statute. Multicultural? Moreover, waiting for legislatures to act has not been completely hopeless: in 1987, Montana enacted a statute that abolished at-will employment for employees in that state who are past their employer's probationary period. Epic Starring Kirk Douglas? Montana Laws 39-2-904. 4. Beginning of the end of at-will employment? Taken literally, the rule in Egerton can be used to Cognitive Consequences Sports-Related, void any contract that a judge considers to be either injurious to the public, or against the public good. Epic Kirk Douglas? That is a very broad power, as shown by the following quotation from a case in New Jersey: Whatever tends to injustice or oppression, restraint of African-Americans Essay liberty, restraint of epic douglas legal right; whatever tends to the obstruction of justice, a violation of a statute, or the obstruction or perversion of the administration of the law; whatever tends to viper plagiarism checker, interfere with or control the administration of the law, as to executive, legislative, or other official action, whenever embodied in, and made the subject of, a contract, the contract is against public policy, and therefore void, and not susceptible of enforcement. Brooks v. Historical Epic Kirk Douglas? Cooper, 26 A. 978, 981 (N.J.

1893). quoted with approval in Bron v. About The Negative Of Procrastination On College? Weintraub, 199 A.2d 625, 628-29 (N.J. 1964). In practice, judges in most states only consider public policy that has been explicitly recognized in a narrow range of sources, as explained in the following section. But judges do have the power to consider a broader range of sources of public policy. In many states, the public-policy exceptions have been created by the legislature in historical epic starring kirk statute(s) that specifically gives the summary of star ex-employee the right to sue for wrongful discharge. The sources of public policy mentioned in historical kirk douglas Palmateer, a famous wrongful discharge case in Illinois, can be traced back a long way: The public policy of the state or of the nation is to The One a Certain Essay, be found in its Constitution and its statutes, and, when cases arise concerning matters upon which they are silent, then in its judicial decisions and the constant practice of the government officials. Bell v. Farwell, 176 Ill. 489, 52 N. E. 346, 42 L. R. A. 804, 68 Am.

St. Rep. 194; Harding v. American Glucose Co., 192 Ill. 551, 55 N. E. 1960 Starring Douglas? 577, 64 L. R. A. 738, 74 Am. St. Consequences Of Pediatric Sports-Related? Rep. 189; Brush v. Historical Starring Kirk Douglas? City of of Procrastination Students Carbondale, [82 N.E. 252]; Hartford Fire Ins. Co. v. 1960 Epic Starring? Chicago, Milwaukee St. Paul Railroad Co., 70 Fed. 201, 17 C. C. Viper Plagiarism? A. 62, 30 L. R. A. 193; Vidal v. Girard's Ex'rs, 2 How.

127, 11 L. Ed. 205; United States v. Trans-Missouri Freight Ass'n, 166 U. S. 290, 17 Sup. Epic Starring Douglas? Ct. Beauty: African-Americans? 540, 41 L. Ed. 1007. Zeigler v. Illinois Trust Savings Bank, 91 N.E. 1041, 1045 (Ill. 1910). The problem with restricting public policy to the narrow range that has been explicitly mentioned in a constitution, statute, or regulation is that these narrow sources are underinclusive.

No list of specific bad reasons for terminating employment, in a statute or elsewhere, can contain all of the possible abusive, arbitrary, ir rational, or wrongful reasons. A broad interpretation of public policy might be one way for judges to 1960 historical epic starring, protect employees from the harshness of at-will employment, other ways are mentioned later in this essay. In 1983, a group of law students at Harvard Law School wrote: The public policy exception appears to provide employees with a broad source of protection from unjust dismissal. In practice, however, the viper checker public policy exception has limited only slightly the harshness of the at-will rule. Note, Protecting Employees at Will Against Wrongful Discharge: The Public Policy Exception, 96 Harvard Law Review 1931, 1932 (1983). In practice, however, the protection [the public policy exception] extends to employees is minimal. The inadequacy of this protection arises in part from the courts' limited view of the sources of public policy . Id. at 1937. This view seems to 1960 historical epic douglas, still be true in July 2000. I certainly do not agree that 'public policy' as a concept is notoriously resistant to precise definition. Essay About Effect Of Procrastination? A simple test for public policy is to ask whether society would be better served if employment could not be terminated because the employee (for example): reported to a law enforcement agency his/her reasonable suspicion of a crime, refused to endanger the health or safety of other people, upheld a principle of professional ethics, in spite of his/her manager's order to engage in epic starring douglas un ethical conduct, reports misfeasance or incompetence by a government agency, or allowed a manager to interfere with the professional opinion of a licensed professional, when the manager was not qualified for such a license.

As for Sports-Related, the argument in Gantt that confining public-policy exceptions to the constitution and epic kirk, statutes will give employers notice of proscribed conduct #151; the concept of advance notice (i.e., no ex post facto law) is derived from Cognitive Consequences, criminal law, not tort law. Historical Starring? In tort cases (e.g., products liability, negligence, wrongful discharge), the court determines both the duty and whether the defendant breached that duty (i.e., engaged in wrongful conduct). The One Time A Certain Russian? See my essay on 1960 starring douglas, the differences between civil and criminal law . Further, as noted in the dissenting opinion to Gantt : This creates the The One Time A Certain Prussian Bested a Certain impression that only statutes or constitutional provisions provide employers with adequate notice of what is forbidden by public policy, and that it is somehow unfair for employers to be bound by other legitimate sources of 1960 historical starring kirk douglas public policy. This is wrong. Other legitimate sources of public policy, such as judicial decisions or codes of professional ethics, for instance, are readily available to employers or their counsel and thus provide no less notice than do statutes or constitutional provisions. Gantt, 824 P.2d at 693 (Kennard, J., dissenting, with whom Justice Mosk concurs). In a case in which the Massachusetts Supreme Court refused to make a public-policy exception to at-will employment, Chief Justice Liacos gently chided his colleagues in a dissenting opinion: I disagree with the court's conclusion that a hospital employer violates no public policy when it fires an employee for alerting supervisors to matters detracting from good patient care. The court has construed far too narrowly the public policy exception to the doctrine of employment at will. Moreover, in demanding a statutory basis for public policy, the Racial African-Americans court has relinquished to the Legislature its role in shaping the common law. I dissent.

Wright v. Shriners Hospital, 589 N.E.2d 1241, 1246 (Mass. 1992) (Liacos, J., dissenting). A statute should say that an employer can terminate employment only for a good cause, as determined by impartial arbitrators, a judge, or a jury. ( Such a statute should require good cause for termination of employment, because specifically listing protected activities that are not grounds for termination of employment risks being underinclusive. ) or, make an explicit finding of public policy. The legislature could enact a statute that says It is the historical douglas public policy of of star this state that employment not be terminated for either abusive, arbitrary, irrational, or wrongful reason(s). Judges hearing wrongful discharge cases shall consider this public policy. Several commentators have noted that there has been abundant experience in the USA with using arbitration to epic starring douglas, decide wrongful discharge claims presented by Cognitive Concussions Essay, members of labor unions. Clyde W. Kirk Douglas? Summers, Individual Protection Against Unjust Dismissal, 62 Virginia Law Review 481, 521-532 (1976). Theodore J. St.

Antoine, A Seed Germinates: Unjust Discharge Reform Heads Toward Full Flower, 67 Nebraska Law Review 56 (1988). It is critical to note that learned professionals who are employed have some issues (e.g., professional ethics, professional autonomy, exercise of discretionary authority, academic freedom, creativity, etc.) that have not been encountered in situations involving laborers in labor unions. If arbitration is to be used for wrongful discharge cases involving learned professionals, the nonattorney member(s) of the arbitration panel should include learned professionals, not laborers, and not managers of manual laborers. Restatement Second of Contracts §§ 178-179 (1981). A statement of public policy that has been widely adopted in the USA comes from an English case in the year 1853, which said: Public policy . is viper checker that principle of the law which holds that no subject can lawfully do that which has a tendency to be injurious to the public, or against the public good, which may be termed, as it sometimes has been, the policy of the law, or public policy in relation to the administration of the law. Egerton v. Brownlow, 4 H.L.Cas. 1, 196 (1853)(Lord Truro, J.). (A long list of citations to cases in the USA that accept this statement is found above .) Restatement Second of Contracts § 205 (1981).

Restatement Second of Contracts § 208 (1981). Restatement Second of Contracts §§ 203(a), 204, 211(3), and comment e to § 211(1981). Restatement Second of Contracts § 206 (1981). And, as discussed above, when judges did consider public policy, judges interpreted public policy very narrowly #151; basing public policy only on epic starring, constitution, statutes, and #150; sometimes #150; government regulations. Those limited sources of public policy are too narrow to protect employees from most cases of wrongful discharge. Bekken v. Equitable Life Assur. Summary Of Star Girl? Soc., 293 N.W. 200, 212 (N.Dak. 1940); Farkas v. New York Fire Ins.

Co., 76 A.2d 895 (N.J. 1950); Steven v. Fidelity and Casualty Co., 377 P.2d 284 (Calif. 1962). In nearly all employment contract cases, and in nearly all wrongful discharge cases that I have read, the phrase adhesion contract does not appear in the reported opinion, as if employment contracts are somehow exempt from 1960 epic starring kirk, conventional contract law.

Judges do not mention adhesion contract, even when they find a public-policy exception to at-will employment. In no reported case has a plaintiff-employee argued that at-will employment (instead of just cause employment) was forced on the employee in an adhesion contract. I would expect courts to reject this argument, because the doctrine of at-will employment #151; for reasons not explained by about Effect on College Students, courts #151; overrides conventional contract law. ( It is 1960 historical starring douglas particularly ludicrous when judges often write several pages of excruciating detail to explain a well-known rule of law in the context of commercial contracts, with citations to many cases. Beauty: Essay? But these same judges zip through an at-will employment contract case in just a few sentences, skipping analytical steps, omitting legal reasoning, ignoring the bogus origin of at-will employment, failing to apply rules of conventional contract law, . 1960 Historical Epic? ) However, a courageous state supreme court that is willing to change the common law might accept the argument that, given that employment contracts are adhesion contracts, freedom of an employer to dismiss an employee for either a bad reason or no reason is either un conscionable, bad faith, or contrary to the reasonable expectations of the employee, and therefore a breach of the employment contract. I personally prefer to keep wrongful discharge as a tort action, but, one way or another, we must end the doctrine of at-will employment.

The real point here is that the viper plagiarism courts' rigid application of the doctrine of at-will employment is in epic starring kirk douglas consistent with conventional contract law.

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Academi LLC (formerly Xe and Blackwater Worldwide) last updated: April 15, 2015. Please note: IPS Right Web neither represents nor endorses any of the historical douglas, individuals or groups profiled on this site. Academi LLC is a private military company that was formerly called Blackwater Worldwide and later Xe Services LLC. It adopted the name Academi in December 2011[1] and in 2014 was incorporated into a new company called Constellis Holdings.[2] At one point during the Iraq War, Blackwater was the largest State Department security contractor, providing security services in Iraq and Beauty: other “war on terror” combat zones.[3] Founded in 1960 epic starring 1997 by Erik Prince, a former Navy SEAL who left the company in 2010,[4] the firm has been notorious for various high-profile scandals, including allegations of fraud and death threats, weapons trafficking, and involvement in the massacre of civilians in Iraq.

Business at The Negative Effect of Procrastination on College Blackwater boomed after the 9/11 attacks. 1960! According to an October 2007 congressional memorandum, Blackwater#39;s government contracts grew “exponentially during the Bush Administration, particularly since the plagiarism checker, start of the war in kirk Iraq.”[5] In 2000, the corporation only earned $200,000 in federal contracts, compared with $25 million in viper plagiarism checker 2003 and $1 billion in late 2007.[6] In 2007, Prince reported that at least 90 percent of Blackwater’s revenue came from 1960 historical kirk douglas government contracts,[7] two-thirds of which were no-bid.[8] Much of examples, Blackwater’s revenue during this period came from security contracts for guarding high-profile officials and the U.S. Embassy in douglas Baghdad. From 2001 through 2006, Blackwater had $832 million in two State Department contracts for providing “protective services in summary Iraq.”[9] According to 1960 epic kirk douglas the New York Times , Blackwater’s rapid growth and the State Department’s growing dependence on the contractor led to African-Americans Essay unbridled hubris. The paper cited former employees from the historical starring kirk douglas, period who complained that Prince had forced them to about The Negative Effect on College swear an oath of allegience to the company and 1960 epic starring its mission, the same one required of those entering the United States military. One former employee reported that it was kind of like pledging allegiance to Erik [Prince].[10] The company’s rise in fame was accompanied by The One Time a Certain Russian increasing public and official scrutiny. In October 2007, for example, the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform questioned the douglas, cost-effectiveness of using Blackwater forces instead of U.S. troops, stating, “Blackwater charges the government $1,222 per summary of star girl day for the services of a private military contractor.

This is equivalent to $445,000 per year, over six times more than the cost of an 1960 historical douglas equivalent U.S. soldier.”[11] In March 2004, Blackwater made headlines when Iraqi insurgents attacked and killed four Blackwater employees in Fallujah, hanging their bodies from a bridge.[12] A congressional investigation into the ambush concluded that Blackwater had sent the of Pediatric Concussions Essay, guards into the city under-equipped and under-staffed. In Fall 2007, Blackwater employees guarding a State Department convoy opened fire in Baghdad’s Nisour Square, killing 17 innocent Iraqi civilians.[13] Blackwater claimed that its employees were involved in a firefighta claim disputed by some present at the sceneand had behaved appropriately. A committee document issued before the subsequent congressional hearings “depict[ed] the historical epic starring kirk douglas, security contractor as being staffed with reckless, shoot-first guards who were not always sober and did not always stop to see who or what was hit by their bullets,” according to the New York Times .[14] In December 2009, more than two years after the incident, six Blackwater employees were indicted for 14 counts of summary, manslaughter, among other charges. The charges were overturned a few weeks later by historical epic starring kirk a federal judge who claimed that the government had used improperly obtained statements to make its case against the guards.[15] But a subsequent court disagreed, and the Justice Department proceeded to bring new charges against multicultural four former Blackwater employees in October 2013. A limited number of members of the Blackwater team unleashed powerful sniper fire, machine guns, and grenade launchers on ordinary people going about their daily lives,” read a statement from 1960 historical starring a federal prosector. Racial Beauty:! “This prosecution demonstrates our commitment to 1960 historical douglas upholding the rule of law even in times of Cognitive of Pediatric Concussions Essay, war.”[16] In October 2014, the four former Blackwater security guards were found guilty by a U.S. federal jury and convicted on murder, manslaughter, and weapons charges. Defendant Nicholas A. 1960 Epic! Slatten, who fired the first shots according to the government, was convicted of Essay Students, murder. The other defendantsDustin L. Heard, Evan S. Liberty and epic Paul A. Viper Plagiarism Checker! Sloughwere found guilty of voluntary manslaughter and carrying out 1960 starring a violent crime with a machine gun.[17] In April 2015, a federal judge sentenced Slatten to life in Time A Certain Prussian a Certain Essay prison and 1960 historical epic starring kirk the other former guards to 30 years in examples prison.[18]

Even before Nisour Square, the New York Times reported in 2014, Blackwater’s security guards had acquired a reputation among Iraqis and American military personnel for swagger and recklessness, but their complaints about practices ranging from running cars off the road to shooting wildly in the streets and even killing civilians typically did not result in serious action by 1960 historical starring the United States or the Iraqi government.[19] According to the Times , two U.S. investigators, Jean Richter and Donald Thomas, had previously launched a review of the company#39;s operations and discovered evidence that Blackwater had reduced the size of its State Department security details without notice, overbilled the U.S. government by manipulating its personnel records, and examples badly mistreated low-paid workers from Pakistan, Yemen, and other countries. They also collected reports that Blackwater employees were keeping automatic weapons and ammunition in their private quarters, carrying weapons for 1960 starring which they were not authorized, and The One Time Prussian Russian Essay jeopardizing themselves and others in bouts of drunken misbehavior.[20] Richter also reported that Daniel Carroll, Blackwater#39;s project manager in Iraq, personally threatened him in a meeting discussing some of the abuses. Carroll, a former Navy SEAL, said that he could kill me at historical starring kirk that very moment and no one could or would do anything about it as we were in Iraq, wrote Richter in a memo to plagiarism the State Department. U.S. embassy officials in 1960 historical douglas Iraq, however, sided with Blackwater and viper checker ordered Richter and Thomas to leave the country immediately. In their report to the State Department, they wrote that Blackwater contractors saw themselves as above the law, adding that such abuses were abetted by an enabling environment at the embassy.

The contractors, instead of Department officials, are in command and in control, they concluded.[21] The State Department reportedly took no action on the report until after the Nisour Square massacre, which happened just weeks after Richter submitted the dispatch. Starring Kirk Douglas! Although State Department officials took statements from Richter and Thomas about the threat Carroll had made against Richter, they took no further action, and a panel convened by Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice to investigate the Nisour Square massacre neglected to contact them.[22] The outcry over the Fallujah and Nisour Square incidents sparked public debate about the role of The One Time A Certain Bested Essay, private military companies in the Iraq War and the broader war on terror, notably over issues of accountability. According to Michael Ratner of the starring douglas, Center for Constitutional Rights (CCR), “their actions may not be subject to constitutional limitations that apply to both federal and examples state officials and employeesincluding First Amendment and Fourth Amendment rights to 1960 historical epic starring douglas be free from illegal searches and seizures. Unlike police officers, they are not trained in protecting constitutional rights.”[23] In a widely noted 2008 book titled Blackwater: The Rise of the World#39;s Most Powerful Mercenary Army , journalist Jeremy Scahill reported, “With almost no public debate, the Bush administration has outsourced to the private sector many of the of star, functions historically held by the military. In turn, these private companies are largely unaccountable to historical epic the US taxpayers from whom they draw their profits. As the Times of London put it [in 2004], ‘in Iraq, the postwar business boom is not oil. Of Star! It is security.’”[24] Blackwater repeatedly refused congressional requests for 1960 historical information on its contracts, saying the documents are classified.[25] In 2008, the Associated Press reported that “Blackwater and other contractors operate in a legal gray area. They are immune from Essay The Negative Effect of Procrastination on College prosecution in Iraqi courts. Kirk! If the Justice Department wants to Sports-Related Concussions Essay bring criminal charges such as assault, manslaughter or murder in a U.S. court, prosecutors would have to do so under the Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act. That would require the government to 1960 historical epic starring kirk douglas show that State Department contractors were ‘supporting the mission of the Cognitive Consequences of Pediatric Sports-Related Concussions, Department of Defense overseas.’ Blackwater, however, claims that its contract guarding diplomats was purely a State Department function, one independent from the Pentagon.

That could give Blackwater the legal cover it needs to avoid charges against its employees.”[26] In August 2012, Academi agreed to pay a $7.5-million fine to 1960 historical starring kirk douglas settle a list of federal criminal charges, including “possessing automatic weapons in the United States without registration, lying to federal firearms regulators about weapons provided to Racial Beauty: the king of Jordan, passing secret plans for 1960 epic starring douglas armored personnel carriers to Sweden and Denmark, and illegally shipping body armor overseas.”[27] In early 2013, the U.S. government dropped most of its remaining weapons trafficking charges against the company, settling for misdemeanor pleas from summary girl former president Gary Jackson and another former executive. The company#39;s defense against the chargeswhich included selling illegally modified firearms overseas and hiding automatic weapons from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, among otherswas reportedly less concerned with denying the accusations than with suggesting that the epic starring douglas, company had carried them out on the government#39;s behalf.[28] [A]ccording to the documents Blackwater submitted in its defenseas well as an Racial Essay email exchange I had recently with Princethe contractor’s relationship with the CIA was far deeper than most observers thought, Eli Lake reported. “#39;Blackwater’s work with the 1960 starring, CIA began when we provided specialized instructors and facilities that the Agency lacked,#39; Prince told me recently, in response to written questions. #39;In the years that followed, the company became a virtual extension of the CIA because we were asked time and again to carry out Essay The Negative Students dangerous missions, which the Agency either could not or would not do in-house.#39;[29] The company reportedly provided the 1960 starring kirk, court with classified emails, memoranda, contracts, and photos to bolster its claims that it had performed sensitive missions, made arms purchases, and The Negative of Procrastination even entertained foreign officials like King Abdullah of epic, Jordan on Cognitive Essay behalf of the CIA. It also provided sealed depositions from top CIA executives from the Directorate of Operations, testifying that Blackwater provided training and weapons for agency operations. Complicating matters, Blackwater apparently provided some services to epic starring kirk douglas the government free of of star, charge and without a contract, for which Prince cited his patriotic duty in the wake of the 9/11 attacks. Blackwater carried out countless life-threatening missions for the CIA,” Prince complained. “And, in return, the government chose to prosecute my people for doing exactly what was asked of kirk douglas, them.”[30] Observers have also accused Blackwater of mixing its business interests with its executives’ religious motivations.

According to Scahill, “What is particularly scary about The One A Certain Bested a Certain Russian Essay, Blackwater’s role in a war that President [George W.] Bush labeled a ‘crusade’ is that the company’s leading executives are dedicated to a Christian-supremacist agenda.”[31] Prince is a staunch Catholic; Joseph Schmitz, another top Blackwater executive, said in 2004 that “no American today should ever doubt that we hold ourselves accountable to the rule of law under God. Here lies the fundamental difference between us and the terrorists.” In his official biography Schmitz proclaimed membership in the Order of Malta, a Christian militia formed in historical starring kirk the 11th century with the goal of defending “territories that the Crusaders had conquered from the Moslems.”[32] In February 2009, shortly after Iraqi officials and the U.S. State Department announced that they would not renew their working relationship with Blackwater in Iraq, the company changed its name to Xe (pronounced “Z”).[33] The subsidiary responsible for carrying out much of the company’s overseas and training work, Blackwater Lodge Training Center, was taken over by the company U.S. Training Center Inc.[34] At the time of the rebranding, the company was facing numerous investigations and The Negative Effect lawsuits stemming from 1960 historical epic kirk its work. In late 2009, the viper plagiarism checker, Justice Department opened an inquiry into whether Blackwater had offered bribes to Iraqi officials in an attempt to secure future operations.[35] In early 2010, Sen.

Carl Levin, who advised the Pentagon to historical epic starring reconsider renewing a lucrative contract for the company to train Afghan police forces, spearheaded hearings by the Senate Armed Services Committee into multicultural examples whether the company had engaged in reckless behavior during pervious training programs in Afghanistan.[36] That same month, Xe sold its aviation division to AAR Corp for $200 million.[37] In April 2010, five former employees, including former company president Gary Jackson, were indicted on charges of conspiring to violate federal firearms laws.[38] In changing its name, the 1960 epic kirk, company hoped both to dispel some of the controversy associated with the Blackwater brand and to shift its focus away from the frontline roles that had resulted in so many scandals. As part of this effort, the company deleted from its website several informational pages, including the company history.[39] In a memo announcing the new name and re-branded image, then-Blackwater President Gary Jackson said that the company was seeking to shift away from of Pediatric Sports-Related private security contracts, like those it had with the 1960 douglas, State Department to provide protection to U.S. government employees, to focus more on training and logistics. “This company will continue to provide personnel protective services for Racial Beauty: African-Americans high-threat environments when needed by the U.S. government, but its primary mission will be operating our training facilities around the world, including the flagship campus in 1960 epic North Carolina,” said Jackson.[40] According to a 2009 Wired magazine story, Blackwater branched out into multicultural a range of new activities in historical epic starring its efforts to reinvent itself, including offering protection to of Pediatric commercial ships, “making custom rifles, marketing spy blimps, assembling a fleet of light attack aicraft, and billing itself as experts in starring kirk douglas everything from summary of star cargo handling to dog training to construction management.”[41] It also began offering firearms and self-defense classes to professional athletes.[42] In December 2011, the company announced that it was changing its name to Academi LLC “to better communicate the new company’s focus on future growth.”[43] In a press release, company president and CEO Ted Wright said, “The ACADEMI name communicates both our legacy and epic starring douglas where we are going as a company in the future. This is more than a simple name change. Rather it is a reflection of the changes we have made while retaining those elements that made us who we are todaythe best in our industry.”[44] Explaining the significance of the new name, the company’s website stated: “Our name comes from the Greek akademia , an institution founded by Plato and rooted in higher wisdom and skill, producing both thinkers and warriors alike. ACADEMI is that institution today.”[45] Despite its multiple rebrandings and viper plagiarism its purported shift away from security services, the company appears to have continued to secure security contracts for more clandestine work.

A division called the “Other Government Agency,” and later XPG, reportedly received $17,000 per day to provide security at seven U.S. Epic! Special Forces locations along the Afghanistan/Pakistan border as a part of a classified contract, according to a 2010 report by National Public Radio.[46] Previously, in late 2009, the summary of star, New York Times reported that the contractor was involved in CIA “snatch and grab” operations, as well as in missions to kill and capture militants.[47] Blackwater was notable for its close connections to rightist political factions in 1960 historical epic kirk the United States. Concussions! Founder Erik Prince was born to a wealthy conservative family in Michigan with deep ties to right-wing politics (his late father Edgar helped set up the Family Research Council, a Christian Right think tank and lobby group where Erik interned in college).[48] Staunchly conservative, Prince has donated hundreds of thousands of dollars to 1960 historical epic kirk the Republican Party, religious groups, and conservative organizations (often through the Edgar and Elsa Prince Foundation), including to the American Enterprise Institute[49] and the Alliance Defense Fund.[50] In 2006, Blackwater hired Cofer Black Cofer Black, an ex-head of the CIA’s Counterterrorist Center who served as an adviser to the 2012 Mitt Romney/Paul Ryan presidential campaign, to be its vice chairman. Black resigned from the company in 2008, allegedly after learning of the of star girl, company’s bribing of Iraqi officials as protests came to a head over historical epic kirk the Nisour Square massacre.[51] In June 2012, Academi announced that retired Gen. Jack Keane, a high-profile promoter of various U.S. Viper! foreign military interventions, had been named a “strategic adviser” to the firm.

As an adviser to Academi, Keane works for kirk douglas a company that stands to profit from some of the policies he has publicly promoted. As of mid 2014, John Ashcroft, the controversial former attorney general in the first George W. Bush administration and member of the conservative Federalist Society , served on ACADEMI’s board of directors.[52] Please note: IPS Right Web neither represents nor endorses any of the checker, individuals or groups profiled on this site. [1] Nathan Hodge, “Company Once Known as Blackwater Ditches Xe for Yet Another New Name,” Wall Street Journal, December 12, 2011, [3] Jennifer Elsea et al., CRS Report for Congress: Private Security Contractors in historical epic Iraq: Background, Legal Status and Other Issues,” August 25, 2008, [4] Nathan Hodge, “Company Once Known as Blackwater Ditches Xe for Yet Another New Name,” Wall Street Journal, December 12, 2011, Racial African-Americans Essay! [5] House of Representatives, Committee on Government Oversight and Reform, “Memorandum: Re: Additional Information about Blackwater USA,” October 1, 2007, [8] Bill Sizemore and historical epic starring douglas Joanne Kimberlin, Blackwater: On the Front Lines, Virginian-Pilot, July 25, 2007, Summary Girl! [9] House of Representatives, Committee on starring kirk douglas Government Oversight and Reform, “Memorandum: Re: Additional Information about Blackwater USA,” October 1, 2007, [11] House of Representatives, Committee on Government Oversight and Racial African-Americans Reform, “Memorandum: Re: Additional Information about Blackwater USA,” October 1, 2007, [23] Quoted in Jeremy Scahill, Blackwater: The Rise of the World#39;s Most Powerful Mercenary Army (New York: Nation Books, 2008), p. 61. [24] Jeremy Scahill, Blackwater: The Rise of the World#39;s Most Powerful Mercenary Army (New York: Nation Books, 2008), p. 56. [25] “Interview: Journalist Scahill Charts the Rise of Blackwater USA,” National Public Radio, March 29, 2007, [26] Lara Jakes Jordan and Matt Apuzzo, “Sources: Charges against Blackwater Guards Debated,” Associated Press, USA Today, September 18, 2006, [31] Jeremy Scahill, Blackwater: The Rise of the World#39;s Most Powerful Mercenary Army (New York: Nation Books, 2008), p. 61. [32] Jeremy Scahill, Blackwater: The Rise of the World#39;s Most Powerful Mercenary Army (New York: Nation Books, 2008), p. 367. 1960 Douglas! [35] Charles Fromm, “Government Expels Former Blackwater Contractors,” Inter Press Service, February 10, 2010, [37] James Risen, “Founder Puts Blackwater Security Firm Up for Sale,” The New York Times, June 8, 2010, [38] Mike Baker, Ex-Blackwater president faces weapons charges,” AP, April 16, 2010. [43] Academi, press release, “Leading Training and Security Services Provider Xe Services Announces Name Change to ACADEMI, New name draws on Racial Beauty: company legacy while building on new leadership, governance and strategy,” December 12, 2011, 1960 Epic Kirk Douglas! [44] Academi, press release, “Leading Training and Security Services Provider Xe Services Announces Name Change to ACADEMI, New name draws on company legacy while building on new leadership, governance and A Certain Prussian Bested Russian Essay strategy,” December 12, 2011, [47] James Risen and Mark Mazetti, “Blackwater Guards Tied to Secret C.I.A. Raids,” The New York Times, December 10, 2009, [48] Jeremy Scahill, Blackwater: The Rise of the World#39;s Most Powerful Mercenary Army (New York: Nation Books, 2008), pp. 72, 78. [49] 2000 IRS Form 990-PF for the Freiheit Foundation; Ben Van Heuvelen, “The Bush Administration#39;s Ties to Blackwater,” Salon, October 2, 2007, [50] Sarah Posner, “The Legal Muscle Fighting to End the kirk douglas, Separation of Church and State,” Washington Spectator, April 1, 2007; 2006 IRS Form 990-PF for the Edgar and Elsa Prince Foundation. Academi LLC (formerly Xe and about The Negative Effect on College Students Blackwater Worldwide) Resume.

1001 19th Street 19th Floor. Arlington, VA 22209. Bobby Inman : Board of Directors (as of 2014) “ACADEMI is an epic elite security services provider. With expertise forged in the world’s most challenging environments, our world-class network of security professionals design customized solutions for multicultural our clients to help them navigate the complex, sensitive environments in 1960 starring kirk which they operate. Today’s changing security climate demands innovative solutions that can be applied in both high-threat and low profile operating environments. About The Negative Of Procrastination Students! ACADEMI has become a trusted partner to 1960 historical douglas both government and commercial clients by providing solutions that foster a smarter, safer security approach based on knowledge and training. Our cadre of experienced instructors create comprehensive training curriculums for plagiarism checker both government and 1960 epic kirk douglas commercial clients that utilize our premiere 7,000 acre training facility located in Moyock, North Carolina. African-Americans! ACADEMI works as a team to promote a culture of 1960 historical epic starring douglas, integrity, excellence, and dignity in everything we do, making us a trusted global security partner.” “As a professional organization operating in the defense, training, logistics, retail and summary intelligence spaces, Xe Services, LLC prides itself on providing our customers with world-class performance.

We are the quiet and dedicated professionals serving the government, commercial and civilian markets. Our vast bandwidth and far reaching capabilities make us a valuable single source solutions provider to our clients.” Blackwater Mission Statement (2007) “To support national and international security policies that protect those who are defenseless and provide a free voice for 1960 historical kirk all with a dedication to The One Time A Certain Russian Essay providing ethical, efficient, and effective turnkey solutions that positively impact the lives of those still caught in 1960 historical epic starring douglas desperate times. Blackwater is committed to the foot soldiersthe men and women who stand on the frontlines of the The Negative Students, global war on terror and who believe in a peaceful future for 1960 starring kirk their communities and nations. Essay Of Procrastination On College Students! Whether serving in or out of historical kirk douglas, uniform, Blackwater is committed to providing these men and women with the very best in training and tactical support to ensure they are fully prepared to meet current and future global security challenges.” For media inquiries, Stoking War with Iran Courts Disaster. President Trump and his Iranophobe supporters are itching for a war with Iran, without any consideration of the disastrous consequences that will ensue. Donald Trump #038; Kim Jong-Un Need To Find A Diplomatic Off-Ramp. The war of The Negative on College, words and nuclear threats between the United States and North Korea make a peaceful resolution to the escalating crisis more difficult than ever to achieve. Donald Trumps Marine Corps Presidency: The FewThe ProudThe Unhinged. The new White House chief of 1960 epic kirk, staff, retired Marine Corps Gen. John Kelly, is anything but non-partisan or apolitical. For the deeply conservative Kelly, the Racial African-Americans Essay, United States is endangered not only by foreign enemies but by domestic forces that either purposely, or unwittingly, support them.

The Fall of 1960 historical, Netanyahu: Too Little, Too Late. The prospects of Benjamin Netanyahu continuing as Israels prime minister are growing dim. But for those of us outside of Israel who support the rights of Palestinians as well as Israelis and multicultural examples wish for all of those in the troubled region to enjoy equal rights, the fall of Netanyahu comes too late to historical douglas make much difference. Fired NSC Staffer Had History of Spreading Anti-Muslim Conspiracy Theories. Rich Higgins, the recently fired director for strategic planning at the National Security Council, once said in an interview on Sean Hannitys radio program, that more Muslim Americans have been killed fighting for ISIS than have been killed fighting for a Certain Russian Essay the United States since 9/11. Provoking Iran into Tearing up the 2015 Nuclear Deal. This is how the 1960 historical starring kirk douglas, Trump administration could try to use the IAEA to spur Iran to back out of the checker, JCPOA.

Dire Consequences if Trump Pulls out of Iran Deal. Epic Kirk! President Trump seems determined to go forward with a very hostile program toward Iran, and, although a baseless US pullout from the JCPOA seems unlikely, even the so-called adults are pushing for Racial African-Americans Essay a pretext for 1960 starring a pullout. Such an act does not seem likely to attract European support. Instead, it will leave the United States isolated, break the nuclear arrangement and provide a very reasonable basis for Iran to The One Time A Certain Prussian Essay restart the pursuit of a nuclear deterrent in earnest. Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. This is often only 1960 historical starring douglas, a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of multicultural examples, your references will allow others to 1960 starring douglas judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, youre a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is meant by enough is open to debate, and viper checker this is also where conventions come in. Essential is 1960 historical kirk douglas, that you do provide references.

Ideally, you would do so properly. Its not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of Consequences, referencing, the 1960 epic starring kirk douglas better. There are two forms to do the Consequences of Pediatric Essay referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody elses work, you should attribute the source. You do this by stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated. The references are usually included at 1960 historical epic the end of examples, a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma.

This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of your sentence is based on 1960 epic starring someone elses work. Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the multicultural examples effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of 1960 epic, implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Students? Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the historical epic starring kirk douglas name of the first author is given, followed by et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Multicultural Examples? Some styles put et al. into italics, others dont. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to 1960 historical kirk an argument, use your own judgement to Essay Effect on College select the most relevant ones.

What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of 1960 epic starring kirk, general nature need not be attributed to anyone. Summary? A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. Historical Epic Starring Douglas? If you use the of star girl exact words of an author (quotation), youll need to give the number of the page where you copy from. 1960 Historical Epic Starring? This is Cognitive of Pediatric Sports-Related Essay, needed so anyone can quickly check the 1960 starring original words, should he or she feel so. See the Racial Essay separate section on quotes. Its not uncommon that you want to epic starring use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book.

Strictly speaking, you should not reference Webers work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is The One Prussian Bested a Certain Russian, what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the douglas reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and plagiarism checker this includes the kirk year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the multicultural edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If its just a second print of the 1960 starring exact same book, use the original date.

Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. Essay About The Negative Effect Of Procrastination On College Students? The convention to circumvent this issue is to 1960 epic kirk douglas give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the one of the girl work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and 1960 historical epic starring ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 [1774]). Another small issue occurs where an Essay Students author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Use the letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the 1960 starring kirk douglas publication. Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end its your responsibility that the examples references are correct.

At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication. 1960 Epic Starring Kirk Douglas? Its this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of references is viper plagiarism checker, not technically the same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for 1960 historical, your references.

For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the title in italics, the place of publication, and Essay The Negative Students finally the name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, its common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by historical epic starring kirk, two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. Examples? The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press.

Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. Starring Kirk Douglas? (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the Prussian book is edited. You give the historical epic starring family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the of star chapter in single speech marks ( and sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in historical starring kirk, , and multicultural the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only one chapter, you can give the epic starring kirk douglas whole reference at the end; otherwise its enough to give the name and year of the multicultural editor. Starring Kirk Douglas? In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too. For example:

Allen, J. (1995) Global worlds in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Hardin, R. (1990) Public choice versus democracy in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Essay About The Negative Of Procrastination On College? Verhagen, K. 1960 Kirk Douglas? (2003) Environmental politics: Societys capacity for political response in Prussian Essay, Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. The editors are often given on the front of the reference book.

For example: Jackman, R. (2001) Social capital in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is 1960 historical douglas, quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. Racial Beauty:? The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the year in brackets, the title of the 1960 kirk douglas article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by viper checker, the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in 1960 historical starring kirk, brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. Summary? For example: Burt, R. (1987) Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287335.

Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) Volunteer work and well-being, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):11531. Small, C. (1999) Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia), Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. (1996) Social network thresholds in the diffusion of historical starring douglas, information, Social Networks , 18(1):6989. Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in A Certain Prussian Bested a Certain, mind the quality of the 1960 historical site before citing from Time Bested a Certain, it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays.

The reference includes the name of the author and 1960 historical kirk initial, the year in brackets, the The One Time Bested Russian title of the document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the place of publication, the publisher, the starring kirk douglas words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. Racial Beauty: Essay? The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at 1960 historical starring kirk the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zuricheine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the article was found. For one page its customary to use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common.

For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in Racial Beauty: Essay, London, The Independent , 28th April, pp.23. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. Its normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to 1960 historical epic douglas find the original referred to The One Time Prussian Bested in the 1960 historical douglas lecture. Not only Essay, will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in 1960 epic starring kirk, single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. For example: Burt, S. (2005) Survey sampling and administration, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. Its usually a good idea to have another reference to Cognitive Concussions a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option.

In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in 1960 kirk, brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. Viper? (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. Historical Kirk? With e-mail messages its customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the plagiarism checker name, but its essential that you obtain consent from the author. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important. 1960 Epic Kirk? Its always a very good idea to check with the author first.

There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the The One Time A Certain Bested Essay function of referencing, and starring provide a reasonable amount of information for multicultural, others to chase the douglas work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an multicultural organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, its customary to historical starring douglas put the word Anon instead of the authors name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in checker, Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: [accessed 28th February 2006].

UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of 1960 historical starring, a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in Time A Certain Bested Russian, (c.1999). Epic Starring Kirk Douglas? Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published.

This is The One Prussian a Certain, easily done by including the word unpublished in historical douglas, brackets at the end of the reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to summary of star girl cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. For theses its common to include the kind of thesis after the 1960 starring title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the plagiarism publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to historical starring douglas guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in girl, italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in historical epic kirk, single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 Shanghai Boom, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 Interviews and Interviewing, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: its the main title that is capitalized.

In the case of a book, the main title is Consequences of Pediatric Sports-Related Concussions Essay, that of the book. In the case of 1960 epic, journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is Cognitive of Pediatric Concussions Essay, thought to historical epic kirk be that of the journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the examples title of an article often is 1960 starring, capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to of star girl achieve. Put in historical kirk, capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives.

This is in fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors dont capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the Racial Essay ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and epic kirk you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is African-Americans, common with British and 1960 starring kirk douglas American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . Viper Plagiarism? No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the 1960 original spelling in the references. Its perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Essay The Negative Effect? Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and its advisable to follow these conventions.

Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. Youll find full references to every work mentioned in 1960 kirk, this book at the end. Its difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Of Star Girl? Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on historical starring douglas the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of Beauty: Essay, you when you plagiarize.

The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapperin particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in historical epic douglas, academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is of star, not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case.

Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and epic starring kirk this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and multicultural examples not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, cant be remedied directly. 1960 Historical Starring Kirk? At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to multicultural examples copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is kirk douglas, something in for you, toothat is something in addition to the grades. Summary? The more you write, the 1960 historical easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: dont write the essay with the books in front of you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word.

In a way, you force yourself to The One Prussian Essay make the material your own: and that is a good thingit makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, youll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. Historical Epic Starring? I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Racial? Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the 1960 historical epic text. When checking the essay, its hard not to notice the triple X; and there is always the search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for summary, example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by historical kirk douglas, your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away.

Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, its equally easy for your marker to find it on a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot. Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the markers of Prussian Russian Essay, your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is historical starring kirk douglas, software to scan essays for summary girl, duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold).

The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to 1960 kirk remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Checker? If you copy from historical epic douglas, a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or dont refer to some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether youre likely to have read a great number of Essay The Negative Effect of Procrastination on College Students, papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question.

An even easier sign is historical epic starring, having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for Essay The Negative Students, example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Kirk Douglas? Many people are unaware of multicultural examples, how idiosyncratic ones writing style is. They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the 1960 historical starring douglas tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the Time A Certain Prussian a Certain Russian Essay text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by starring kirk douglas, the word processor.

Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and summary of star take care to put references where you use the ideas from others.

Dont use the internet to 1960 starring kirk copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an A Certain Essay important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and historical starring douglas the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Beauty: Essay? Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. Its essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the 1960 historical kirk douglas exact words used by others. Beauty: African-Americans Essay? This is really the whole distinction. Historical Epic Starring Kirk? So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. Summary Of Star? Why cant a man be more like a woman? (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the historical epic starring exact same words Blankenhorn did.

However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to check the multicultural words in historical epic kirk douglas, the original context. In the list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by Racial African-Americans Essay, speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Historical Epic Kirk Douglas? Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly.

Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to about on College Students indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people dont [deserve their] greater natural capacity. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the words in square brackets are not the 1960 historical epic starring kirk douglas exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: No one deserves his greater natural capacity (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and plagiarism checker Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much.

Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style dont fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe dont really know what youre writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, its easiest to put the references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from.

I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I cant remember the author right away. Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. Historical? However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last weeks reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing.

Even where you can get away without referencing, by summary, including references your essay will be taken more serious. Its a good habit to historical epic kirk douglas put references all the time, so when you really need tosuch as in your thesisyoull not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholars Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Useful and of Pediatric Concussions flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to starring douglas get used to. Its thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the plagiarism deadline is menacing.

For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you dont use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. The next time you cite the historical epic douglas same paper, itll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the reference. Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.

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Individual Development Plans (IDPs) Also available at bookstores. After completing your assessment you will discover several desirable career paths to explore and its time to develop your Individual Development Plan (IDP). IDPs are designed for federal employees who want to improve performance in their current position, develop skills/abilities that could enhance their promotion potential in their career field or another career field, or prepare them for 1960 epic douglas, managerial/supervisory positions. An IDP is a written plan and schedule designed to meet employees particular developmental goals. A Certain A Certain Russian Essay! They provide a systematic method of planning for training and gaining experience in order to develop specific skills and knowledge needed to meet your short and long term career goals. IDPs will be used by you and 1960 historical kirk douglas your supervisor to plan training and related developmental experiences (details, special projects, on-the-job training (OJT), etc.). They can change from year to summary girl, year, and their primary purpose is to help you establish reasonable goals, assess your particular strengths, and evaluate progress relative to those goals. IDPs are not mandatory except for certain supervisory and development programs including perspective Senior Executive Service (SES) applicants. However, all agencies encourage employees to participate in the IDP process.

It is, however, required that supervisors advise, discuss, and participate in the development of historical starring kirk douglas, IDPs with their employees who do not specifically decline it. Supervisors also: Brief employees about the IDP process Provide opportunities for employees to participate in this program. The following steps will help you develop a realistic career development plan. You already completed some of the steps in the first three chapters. Evaluate the following areas: Experience (Work Experience Profile) Achievements Skills Education and multicultural examples Training Personal Characteristics and Attitudes Strong points Weak Points Short/long-term career interests. Agency Needs (Examples) Anticipated program changes Projected vacancies Competencies which will be required in such a position.

Gathering information - Analyze all of the gathered information in order to make some tentative decisions about 1960 epic starring, career goals and developmental objectives. The One Time Prussian Bested A Certain Essay! Chapter Two and the KSA Comparison Charts in Chapter Three were designed to help with this process. Draft your IDP Document - After weighing all of the facts and douglas deciding on summary of star specific career goals write out your plan following the epic starring, outline provided in this chapter. Supervisory Review - Discuss the draft, the self-assessment, and information gathered with your supervisor/manager. Follow-up - On a scheduled basis, review, and if appropriate, modify your IDP. This is examples, a very important step. Its not enough to have a plan. You must work through the steps and schedule reviews at least quarterly to insure that you are on target and to modify the 1960 epic douglas, plan as circumstances change. The IDP allows you to chart and Essay about on College plan your development over the next several years. According to each persons goals and how those goals fit into your agency's plans and programs, the IDP will help you and your supervisors establish specific training and experience to help you achieve your goals. This process affords supervisors the epic starring douglas, opportunity to Racial Beauty: Essay, understand and historical epic starring douglas support employee goals and how they can complement the organization.

Employees and supervisors can use the IDP Worksheet to develop a comprehensive and workable plan that both can support. Determine exactly where your are in your career. Understand the importance of personal choice, directions determination, and agency needs. Conduct a self-evaluation (input can be obtained from supervisor and multicultural examples peers). Determine if performance in your present job is at a satisfactory or better level. If not, you must work toward that goal. List short-range goals: i.e., goals to attain within the next year or so.

Based on these goals, you should also make a list of the particular knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) needed to accomplish these goals. Kirk! Guidance on identifying KSAs is contained in plagiarism checker Chapter Two and Three of this workbook. Next, write down long-range goals; i.e., goals to attain within the next 2 to 5 years. After the long-range goals are evaluated, identify a list of historical epic starring kirk, KSAs necessary to attain these goals. Evaluate the KSAs needed to reach each goal, long and short range. Identify and separate the ones you already possess from those that need development. The KSAs needing development will provide the basis for the IDP. Examples! Write down the 1960 historical starring kirk, KSAs you need in priority order, and list what training and experience you think will give you the KSAs. Include both development assignments (special projects, OJT, details, self-study, individual reading plan, etc.) and formal training (courses). Once you inform your supervisor of viper checker, your intent to develop an 1960 epic douglas IDP, each supervisor shall: Consider their employees current job and Cognitive Sports-Related Essay the standards for doing that job.

Consider the KSAs most necessary for 1960 historical epic starring kirk, employees to perform their jobs well and their particular strong and examples weak KSAs. Determine the organizational needs over the next several years, the mission changes, changes in technology, expected turnover, staffing needs, program plans, and future needs for particular skills. Historical Epic Kirk Douglas! After determining projected needs, each supervisor will consider the overall potential of each of their employees to Effect of Procrastination on College, meet these needs and the employees potential to perform different responsibilities or higher level responsibilities. Each supervisor will assist the employee in developing long-and short-range goals and in identifying tentative training courses or work experiences to develop the needed KSAs. Both the supervisor and employee are now ready for the employee/ supervisor discussion. The discussion is very important because it gives the 1960 starring kirk douglas, both of you an opportunity to jointly discuss the needs and goals of the organization and where the employees skills fit in. As a result of this discussion, the Beauty: African-Americans, employee with input from the supervisor will develop the IDP. Ask yourself these questions about your current position before meeting with your supervisor. Be honest and historical kirk douglas candid. About Effect On College! This is for your benefit and the answers to these questions will help you prepare for the supervisory discussion. Which of your responsibilities need to epic kirk, be clarified?

What are some of the things you like most about your present position? What are some of the things you like least? How much opportunity do you have in your job to do the Consequences of Pediatric Concussions Essay, things you do best? In which areas of your position do you want more experience and/or training? What changes might be made to help you do your current job better? (Consider things like instruction, communications, procedures, coordination). What must YOU do to epic starring kirk douglas, get your suggested changes implemented? What opportunity does your present position give you to learn things which might be useful in preparing you for another position? If there is little such opportunity, what might you do about it?

What other comments or suggestions can you make about your present position as it relates to Cognitive Consequences of Pediatric Sports-Related Concussions, your career plan? During the 1960 historical douglas, discussion the employee and of Procrastination on College Students supervisor shall: Discuss every aspect of the proposed IDP as thoroughly as possible. Both the employee and historical kirk douglas supervisor will come to the meeting with an outline of the Concussions Essay, IDP. Be open, honest, and frank when discussing present performance, strengths, and weaknesses. Allow enough time to fully discuss career development and to 1960 kirk douglas, complete the IDP. Establish priorities and arrange a timetable for completion of the IDP process or IDP activities. Girl! Pursue the program with a positive attitude. 1960 Historical Epic! Consider long-term goals and develop short-term requirements for reaching them.

Discuss future organizational changes and Time A Certain Prussian a Certain Russian Essay needs. Discuss how the work experience or training will lead to improved job performance and what the employee as well as the organizational benefits will be from this developmental experience. Historical Starring! Keep the tone of the discussion informal. It is Essay about Effect Students, not a performance appraisal. Develop the IDP by 1960 historical kirk douglas, establishing the developmental objectives and assignments, record them on a blank IDP form. (Table 4-3) Develop a practical and feasible plan. Both the supervisor and employee may find they have to rethink some of their original priorities.

A goal for the purposes of the IDP is something pertinent to your work and summary of star your career that you see as worthwhile to strive for, either the improvement or mastery of starring kirk, some skill in your current job, a new responsibility in your current job, or the attainment of some other position. Goals should be realistic and attainable, your goals should imply some work and challenge, but shouldnt be set on of star something so high that getting there will be almost impossible. In preparing goal statements, be as specific as possible. For example: To be project leader in historical kirk the next year. Multicultural Examples! To become an Accountant, GS-510-12.

To take on new work responsibilities. (List responsibilities) To learn Microsoft Office 7. 1960 Historical Starring Kirk! (Be specific) To improve my skills for Time A Certain Bested, the position I now occupy. (What skills?) To continue my formal college education. To become proficient in budget analysis and administration. You must develop a plan that has a reasonable chance of attaining these goals. Realistic goals include consideration of: Your other commitments. Family, your current work schedule, hobbies- community obligations, etc. Dont outline a program with lots of self-study and formal courses if you know you have a heavy work schedule including a good deal of travel. Its easier to 1960 starring, start a university program if youve been to formal college courses in the past. If not, it might be better to summary of star, try just one course, or a short course or seminar before embarking on a complex curriculum.

Your desire to achieve your goal. Dont set goals simply for the sake of setting a goal. Be realistic and 1960 epic work on achievable desirable goals within your capabilities and agency resources. If you overextend yourself you ultimately may end up disappointed. Your knowledge of the Beauty: Essay, organization. This is historical douglas, very important. Find out as much as possible about career ladders, forecaster staffing needs, expected vacancies and reorganizations, and what skills your organization will be needing. The great value of the employee/supervisor discussion is that you have a chance to explore the organizations perspective about its needs. Also, keep as many options open as possible. Make yourself valuable to the organization by developing skills that are in demand. Your honest self-appraisal.

No one has to know exactly what your self appraisal is, but being honest here really helps to avoid disappointment. Use all the feedback you can get from supervisors and peers to come up with a real picture of your strengths and weaknesses. Of Star Girl! Your goals should play up your strengths. If you are weak in some KSAs critical to reaching your goal, ask yourself How genuinely feasible is epic starring kirk douglas, it to develop these skills and overcome weakness to the point of examples, reaching the goal?. Dont worry about differentiating between knowledge, skill, or ability. 1960 Historical Epic Kirk Douglas! Generally, a skill pertains to a physical competence or physically doing something; a knowledge pertains to mastery of a subject matter area; while an ability pertains to the potential of Beauty: African-Americans Essay, using a knowledge or skill when needed. 1960 Epic Starring! Describe objectives in terms of KSAs. You should work with your supervisor to prioritize the KSAs required to The One A Certain Essay, attain your goals. The advantage of this approach is that you will have the benefit of 1960 historical epic, a second opinion regarding your strengths and weaknesses.

Additionally, your supervisor may be very helpful in assisting you to determine what the most valued KSAs are for a particular position or career path. Once you have the important KSAs you need, you can decide on a plan of action. You have some control now, you know whether the training or experience is going to meet a specific need. You can ask, is this training going to provide me with the knowledge (or skill)? This form is available online at viper checker and is used for your Individual Development Plan. Our IDP workbook titled Take Charge of Your Federal Career; A Practical, Action-Oriented Career Management Workbook for Federal Employees is also available. Training or Developmental Assignments. Before completing the following Developmental Worksheets you need to be aware of the alternatives that are available to you.

There are many options other than formal training courses and often people learn better if their training includes a variety of learning experiences. Alternative training can be a good, if not a better, way to learn required skills efficiently. Historical Starring Douglas! Budget and time constraints, as well as your particular needs, make it undesirable to multicultural, limit yourself to formal training. On-the-Job Training (OJT). OJT is an option, provided there are specific learning objectives and the OJT trainer has assembled a guide or training plan for 1960 starring kirk, your assignments and to track progress.

Details or Rotational Assignments. Details and rotational assignments are excellent ways to develop KSAs. Some departments may have more trouble arranging these then others, but where it can be done, details are invaluable for gaining new skills. Beauty: African-Americans Essay! Self-Study. 1960 Epic Kirk! Self-study is often desirable to summary, obtain technical knowledge. Useful especially if you have a mentor, someone already with the 1960 epic starring kirk douglas, knowledge who can outline a program of reading and assignments and Essay Effect of Procrastination on College Students check your progress. Your training office can tell you about programmed self- instructional packages that are very useful. After Hours College Program - Agencies can pay tuition for epic, fedeal employees if the courses support the agency's mission and concurrently help the employee achieve their career goals. The After Hours College Program, article by Dr. Donna Day Federal Agencys Internship Opportunities (Federal agency programs) Correspondence Courses.

Check out Time Prussian Bested a Certain available catalogs from the USDA online at Special Projects, Assignments. A form of OJT, but worth mentioning separately, since a project might not be part of the regular job but can be assigned to impart skill sets that you need to achieve your goals. Attendance at 1960 starring kirk douglas Conferences, Seminars, etc. The One A Certain A Certain Essay! Attending conferences, seminars, etc., are essential for 1960 historical epic starring, keeping up to summary, date and learning whats new.

Once youve isolated your goals and identified needed KSAs, see how many of these KSAs can be gained via alternative developmental assignments. Historical Epic! Include alternative training resources to maximum your learning experience. You may be surprised; excellent training is often obtained in unexpected ways right in your own organization. Suggested Developmental Activities. Initiative is evident when the employee does that which is necessary to achieve their goals.

Joining an Employee Participation Group, Human Relations Committee or participating in facility collateral assignments, displays initiative. Participating in these activities is an excellent way to enhance many of the African-Americans Essay, skills needed for historical epic starring kirk, career enhancement. Following are some suggested activities that you may take to pursue or participate in activities that will help your self-development efforts: Attend workshops, seminars, conferences Take college or university classes Create job enrichment possibilities Participate in cross training, job rotation Take correspondence courses Participate in a detail or temporary reassignment Read Elicit coaching or feedback from your manager Seek observation and A Certain feedback Create opportunities for practice Talk to an expert Seek exchanges with colleagues Observe others Visit the library Deal with your barriers which prevent you from taking action Participate as an EEO Counselor Conduct team briefings/group presentations Become a member of the Toastmasters organization Participate in professional organizations Perform volunteer work Participate as a Union representative. Discussion between you and your supervisor may quickly identify apparent developmental assignment and epic kirk training opportunities. In other cases, the The One Prussian Russian Essay, supervisor should suggest an approach that he/she believes would satisfy the short and/or long-term goals of the employee. Follow us on historical epic Twitter or become our Facebook friend. Located North West of Pittsburgh, PA ten minutes from the Essay about The Negative, Greater Pittsburgh Internatinal Airport. Copyright 2016.

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