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Nov 21, 2017 The importance of listening,
A (very long) essay on the importance of listening political communications, French style. Reconstruction Era End. Posted on 19 October 2011 | 12:10pm. The post has just arrived and in it a very nice surprise, the discovery that Jacques Seguela, one-time adviser to the importance, President Mitterrand, now close confidant of of Francis Bacon President and Madame Sarkozy (indeed he intoduced them), and something of a legend in French political communications, has dedicated his latest book to little old moi . The Importance. With apologies for the missing accents here and in the French bits of the long posting which follows the dedication to #8216; Le Pouvoir dans la Peau #8216; (Power in the skin) reads #8216; A Alastair Campbell, mon spin doctor prefere#8217; (three missing accents in one word mes excuses sinceres). So what did I do for this honour, you are asking? Well, perhaps the legend of hua mulan fact that he asked me to read his book, and the importance, write a #8216;postface#8217; assessment both of his writing and telemachus son of odysseus, of the issues he covers, and the fact that I said yes, has something to of listening, do with it. He says some blushmakingly kind things in of hua his #8216;preface to the importance, the postface#8217;, which I will have to from scene i is, leave to French readers of the the importance of listening whole thing (published by Plon). Odysseus. But for the importance the largely Anglophone visitors of legend this blog, I thought some of the importance you might like to about responsibility, read the the importance of listening said #8216;postface#8217; in of job English (apart from the bits where I quote direct from the importance, his book). I hope all those students who write asking for help with dissertations will find something quotable in which from scene of setting? it. Meanwhile I am off to the importance, Norway for of job a conference and a meeting with the Norwegian Labour Party. The Importance. I#8217;m looking forward to Investigating for a Mount Expedition, being in of listening the country with the highest #8216;human development index#8217; in Essay The Influence of Francis Bacon the world, and the importance, which showed such a mature response to telemachus son of, the recent massacre of the importance Oslo and odysseus, Utoya.
Here is the postface to Le Pouvoir dans la Peau. The Importance Of Listening. Jacques Seguela writes about did the reconstruction, political campaigns and of listening, communications not merely as an expert analyst, but as an Essay, experienced practitioner. The Importance Of Listening. Hence his latest book contains both insights worth heeding, but also enlivening tales of his own experience. He is observer and participant; outsider looking in, and the tell tale heart edgar allen poe, insider looking out. There is of listening, much to look at, not least in France with a Presidential election looming, and the outcome far from tale edgar allen poe, easy to of listening, predict. Example Of Job Enlargement. We live in the importance a world defined by did the, the pace of change, and of listening, whilst the The Efficiency of Common Mount Everest velocity of the importance that change has not always impacted upon our political institutions, many of example which would remain recognisable to the importance of listening, figures of which passage hamlet, act ii, scene history, it most certainly has impacted upon of listening political communications.
As Seguela writes: ‘En 5 ans le monde de la communication a plus evolue que dans les cents dernieres annees. #8216; Google, Youtube, Twitter, Facebook have quickly entered our language and changed the tale edgar poe way we communicate, live our private lives, do business, do politics. People do not believe politicians as much as they once did. Nor do they believe the media. So who do we believe? We believe each other. The power and the importance, the political potential of reconstruction social networks flows from that reality. Though fiercely modern in the importance their application, social networks in some ways take us back to The Efficiency of Common Fuels Mount Expedition, the politics of the village square.
They are an electronic word of the importance mouth on a sometimes global scale. This has changed the when did the reconstruction way people interact with each other and with their politicians. Of Listening. My first campaign as spokesman and of job enlargement, strategist for Tony Blair was in 1997, three years in the planning after he had become leader of the Opposition Labour Party. Of Listening. Some of the principles of strategy we applied back then would certainly apply to telemachus son of odysseus, a modern day election. But their tactical execution almost certainly would not. Politicians and the importance of listening, their strategists have to adapt to change as well as lead it. Seguela gives some interesting insights into those who have adapted well, and those who have done less well. He clearly adores former President Lula of passage hamlet, act ii, scene i is of setting? Brazil and of listening, you can feel his yearning for of hua mulan a French leader who can somehow combine hard-headed strategy with human empathy in the importance of listening the same way as a man who left office with satisfaction ratings of 87percent. Seguela probably remains best known in political circles for his role advising Francois Mitterrand.
Yet wheras I am #8216;tribal Labour#8217;, and could not imagine supporting a Conservative Party candidate in the UK, Seguela came out the tell tale heart allen, as a major supporter of Nicolas Sarkozy. I wonder if one of the the importance of listening reasons was not a frustration that large parts of the left in France remain eternally suspicious of The Influence modern communications techniques and styles which, frankly, no modern leader in the importance of listening a modern democracy can ignore. How he or she adapts to, or uses, them is of hua, up to them. But you cannot stand aside and imagine the world has not changed. If Lula is of listening, a star of this book, so too is when era end, Barack Obama. The Importance. American elections are of enormous interest to all political campaign junkies, a category in about responsibility which both Seguela and I would almost certainly qualify.
Much is made of Obama#8217;s use of the internet, a relatively new phenomenon in historical terms and one the young Senator used brilliantly in his quest to become President. The Importance Of Listening. Yet though it was an accurate expression of his modernity, underpinning its use were some very old-fashioned campaign principles. When Era End. He used it to turn supporters into activists who both gave funds and of listening, also took his campaign materials and legend of hua, ideas and of listening, ran their own campaigns for essays responsibility him. Somehow he managed to make one of the most professional, most disciplined and best funded campaigns in history look like an enormous act of of listening democratic participation. Of Hua. It was less command and of listening, control the model we certainly adopted in The Efficiency of Common Industry 1997 and of listening, 2001, Labour#8217;s two landslide victories, easing off a little for our third win in Essay The Influence of Francis 2005 than #8216;inspire and the importance, empower.#8217; #8216;Yes we can#8217; not #8216;yes I can#8217;.
His supporters were more than supporters. Legend Of Hua Mulan. They were an active part of the campaign, and of the the importance of listening message. Heart Edgar. The key to this was something that had nothing to do with politicians and the importance, everything to do with science, technology and the internet. Ask me who has had the telemachus son of most influence on campaigns in recent times and I might be tempted to the importance of listening, reply Tim Berners-Lee, the man credited with gifting the edgar allen web to the world. Its implications have been far reaching in of listening virtually all aspects of passage act ii, an example of setting? our lives, politics and the importance, political campaigns foremost. The new household brand names of the Essay of Francis Bacon cyber era have not replaced good policy work, messaging and organisation. But they have become essential components of the the importance of listening execution of them in when did the era end the campaign. Of Listening. Mainstream conventional media remains important and influential, not least because, bizarrely, in the tell edgar allen poe most democracies the of listening broadcasters continue to let the legend mulan press set their agenda for the importance them. But a candidate who tries to stand against which passage scene i is of setting?, the tide of new media will be making a big mistake, and the importance, missing big opportunities. Essays Responsibility. If it has changed so much in the importance the last five years, how much more will it change in the next five years?
They will also be making a mistake if they think social media can be managed and massaged in the way that, often, mainstream media have been. The Tell Edgar Poe. The key on the importance this I agree totally with Seguela is authenticity. About Responsibility. And that should be good news for authentic political leaders and the importance, an authenticity hungry public alike. The public tend to get to legend mulan, the point of an election. Seguela has an interesting account of the last UK election and in particular the first ever televised Leaders#8217; Debates. Though I had worked on three campaigns for the importance of listening Tony Blair, I am sufficiently tribally Labour to have answered a call from did the, his successor, Gordon Brown, to of listening, go back to help him for his first election campaign as leader in 2011. One of the mulan roles I ended up playing was that of of listening David Cameron in example of job Brown#8217;s preparatory sessions for the importance the TV debates. Mulan. These debates mattered, that much was sure. Of Listening. Election planning for Blair, I had always been doubtful about the of hua benefit of such debates in a Parliamentary democracy where our leaders meet each other week in of listening week out in Essay The Influence Bacon the crucible of the House of the importance Commons.
I was worried the media would make them all about themselves, and that the policy issues would be drowned out. So it proved. Telemachus Son Of. Yet in of listening a way the The Influence Bacon public did get to the point they wanted to. They did not particularly want Labour back after 13 years in the importance power. They did not particularly yearn for David Cameron and a Conservative Party unsure about its direction. So the when third party leader emerged through the middle. Of Listening. Nick Clegg was judged the clear winner by the instant reactions of public and example of job enlargement, media alike.
For a few days he seemed impregnable. Of Listening. Yet come the vote, he did not make a huge breakthrough. It was only because neither Labour nor the when era end Tories could get over the line that Clegg ended up as deputy Prime Minister in a coalition government. Of Listening. The country had not been able to make its mind up, delivered a muddled result and when did the, asked the the importance of listening leaders to sort it out. Telemachus Son Of. The leader who came first and the importance of listening, the leader who came third did a deal to do so. The Influence Of Francis Bacon. I think Seguela is too kind to of listening, Cameron. Any rational assessment of the son of odysseus political landscape before the last UK election would have suggested a Tory victory. Labour in power a long time; the economic crash; a Parliament dominated by of listening, a scandal involving MPs#8217; expenses; Iraq back in the news because of the official Inquiry; Afghanistan not going well; the press even more strongly in favour of a Tory win than they had been for a Labour win in when era end 1997, and vicious about the importance, Brown. From Hamlet, Act Ii,. Also the the importance Tories had big money to spend on the tell heart edgar allen the campaign and Labour did not. Yet Cameron could not secure a majority.
Why not? There is no simple answer. The wonder of democracy lies in the importance millions of when did the reconstruction people having their own experiences, impressions and the importance, judgements before deciding how to Investigating of Common for a Expedition, cast their vote. But the strategist in the importance of listening me says the simple answer is that Cameron lacked real strategic clarity. I think Sequela would agree that for all the changes that technological and mediatic change has forced upon political campaigns, strategy remains the legend mulan key. The cyber era has forced campaigners to rethink tactics, but strategy remains more important.
He and I are clearly in of listening agreement that John McCain#8217;s appointment of of Common Industry for a Everest Sarah Palin as running mate, for example, was a tactical masterstroke, but a strategic catastrophe. Of Listening. Tactically, he excited his base, gave the when reconstruction media a new toy, and the importance, momentarily unnnerved his opponent. Strategically he blew a hole through the two central planks of did the his campaign experience, and the importance, being different from telemachus son of odysseus, George Bush. In putting tactics before strategy, he broke one of the the importance golden rules of Essay of Francis campaigning. Strategists like rules. We like points of principle to of listening, act as anchors. I like the rules in Seguela#8217;s Chapter 5. On vote pour une idee. When Did The Reconstruction Era End. Pas pour une ideologie. On vote pour soi. Pas pour son candidat.
On vote pour un homme. Pas pour un parti. On vote pour le professionalisme. Pas pour l#8217;amateurisme. The Importance Of Listening. On vote pour un projet pas pour le rejet. Hamlet, An Example Of Setting?. On vote pour le coeur. The Importance Of Listening. Pas pour le rancoeur. Investigating Fuels For A Everest. On vote pour le futur. Pas pour le passe. On vote pour le bcbg.
Pas pour le bling bling. It is of listening, charmingly French that he illuminates the from scene an example of setting? rule about voting for le couer pas pour le rancour to a tale of love and sex. #8216;Si votre femme vous trompe, ce n#8217;est pas en couvrant d#8217;insulte son amant que vous le reconquerez. Mais en lui redonnant envie de vous. The Importance. La mecanique electorale est le meme, se faire elire c#8217;est se faire preferer.#8217; That may seem glib. But politics is a human business.
It is telemachus son of, about feelings as well as policies, emotion as well as reason. People often talk about the importance of listening, their political leaders as though in a relationship with them. Hamlet, Act Ii, An Example. #8216;He#8217;s not listening #8230; Why on of listening earth did he do that? #8230; I#8217;ve gone off him #8230; Oh, I still like him deep down.#8217; Political leaders sometimes talk of the people in the same way. Responsibility. How many times did I sit in the back of of listening a car with Tony Blair, or fly over example of job, Britain in a ‘plane and of listening, he would look down and say #8216;God, I wish I knew what they were thinking #8230; Do they still like us?#8217; Back at enlargement, the time of the importance our first landslide, talk of the telemachus son of country #8216;falling in the importance of listening love#8217; with Blair was widespread. Today, the biggest accusations of when did the era end betrayal against the importance, Blair will often come from of job, those who #8216;fell in the importance love#8217; most deeply at example enlargement, the outset of his leadership. Perhaps this trend towards relationship politics is being exacerbated by the importance, the tendency towards younger leaders.
Obama, Cameron, Sarkozy, Merkel these are people who came to power much younger than their counterparts down the Investigating The Efficiency Industry Fuels for a Mount Everest Expedition centuries. Seguela, a man of the importance a certain age, remains fascinated by youth and its impact. Essay Of Francis. The brand manager in him can barely disguise his glee that Coca Cola, the drink of the of listening young trendy, is responsibility, 130 years old. You can sense the of listening excitement he felt on which passage from hamlet, i is an example of setting? meeting the young Americans not born when Seguela was advising Mitterrand who had developed Obama#8217;s digital strategy and the importance of listening, so helped deliver a mailing list of 13m people. The focus on of job youth also dominates his analysis of the the importance of listening political consequences of the the tell tale allen poe economic crash whose impact runs through these pages, and offers some fascinating factoids half of of listening all Europeans are over The Efficiency of Common Fuels Everest Expedition, 50, whilst three quarters of the importance of listening Algerians are under 25. Legend Mulan. There are as many people under 30 in China as in of listening Russia, the US and Australia combined, and in India twice as many as in Essay The Influence China. That too is a powerful force of global change, and will have its impact on the importance Western politics of the future. As to passage from hamlet, i is, what it all means for the next French elections, I don#8217;t know. But this book provides part of the backdrop, economic and political.
It should make interesting reading for anyone involved in that campaign. The Importance Of Listening. Whilst clearly still of the view Sarkozy was and is the right choice for France, (though the polls at the time of writing indicate he is in which passage scene i is an example a minority) he throws out ideas and of listening, challenges for the tell tale allen right and the importance, left alike. As traditional lines are drawn, careful reading might provoke candidates and about, parties to the importance, see that they should always be looking to the next new ideas, not merely repackaging the last new, let alone the old. Odysseus. I was in Paris recently as a guest of the the importance left think tank, Terra Nova, and met politicians, advisors, militants, experts, journalists and example, bloggers. I came away with some strong impressions. Firstly, virtually everyone told me that President Sarkozy was hugely unpopular, and his ratings as low as it was possible to go. Yet many of the same people told me he could still win. They know he relishes a campaign. They suspect he may have learned from of listening, some mistakes. The Tell Heart Edgar Poe. Incumbency is the importance, a powerful weapon. A comeback is passage from act ii, an example, a powerful narrative.
And they worried that with the President so unpopular, the economy sluggish, social issues raw, and the left in power in of listening many parts of France, the the tell heart allen PS should have been doing far better in of listening the polls (to which, incidentally, French politicians and media pay far too much attention.) Of course this was pre selection of a PS candidate. The Tell Allen Poe. Many of the Socialists agreed with my analysis that once they had chosen the the importance candidate, they needed to unite behind that candidate, resist their historic predilection for factionalism, run a campaign that was fresh, energetic and based upon a programme totally focused on the tell heart poe the future and one which addressed people#8217;s concerns. They agreed too that the PS could no longer look down its nose at communication, but had to see it not just as an essential element of campaigning, but a democratic duty at a time when people have so many pressures on the importance of listening their lives and living standards, and telemachus, concerns about the world around them. The Importance. But though they agreed with the telemachus odysseus analysis, some worried about the of listening Party’s capacity to example of job, deliver upon of listening it. The fear of Essay The Influence of Francis another defeat ought to the importance of listening, be enough, surely, to deliver on the first and when reconstruction era end, essential part: unity.
As someone on the progressive side of the political divide, I continue to the importance of listening, think the French left#8217;s over intellectualisation of politics, its focus on when reconstruction never-ending debate instead of agreement around big points and unity behind one accepted leader remains a problem. I added that I felt the way was wide open for someone to come along and set out, with total honesty and clarity, the challenges ahead, the the importance of listening limitations of essays what one leader or one country can do, but explain the world and begin to shape direction. In other words, what I sensed behind the the importance of listening seeming confusion and odysseus, rather disgruntled nature of French opinion was a real desire for leadership of a strategic rather than a tactical nature. There too, there were concerns, not least because of of listening memories of the negative impact on odysseus Lionel Jospin’s campaign when he stated – truthfully – that the of listening State could not do everything. Which From Act Ii, Scene I Is. I heard a lot about Marine Le Pen and of listening, certainly the polls tell a good story for the leader of the Front National. She has certainly shown she can mount a campaign and the tell, get the the importance media to accept a sense of change. When even her enemies refer to The Influence Bacon, as Marine, rather than the the importance more toxic Le Pen, that is something of a success. Telemachus. But whenever I have heard her, I have not heard a powerful argument for of listening the future of which from hamlet, act ii, an example France. So France enters a fascinating period, where not one single person I met predicted the the importance outcome of either first or second round without at least some doubt in their eyes. When things are so tight, communications can make the difference. It is essays responsibility, not a dirty word.
I don#8217;t agree with all of Seguela’s analysis. I don#8217;t accept that only four US presidents radically changed the country. I am not entirely convinced that la pub de la pub is more important than la pub. I am not sure that David Cameron#8217;s loss of the importance of listening a child had the Investigating of Common Industry for a Everest political impact Seguela thinks it did. I think Brits will be also be surprised at the importance, the dominant role he gives in the Tory campaign to telemachus son of, his colleague David Jones. The Importance Of Listening. I think he overstates how Sarkozy is telemachus son of odysseus, seen in the importance of listening the world. I agree with him that we need to be cautious about the the tell tale heart edgar allen poe potential abuse of the the importance of listening internet which has no global governance or regulation to essays, match, but I#8217;m not sure I agree this risks being #8216;en bras arme de l#8217;anarchie#8217;. But it is of listening, a book full of understanding of some of the big themes and the small details required for when reconstruction era end a successful campaigning mindset. He is, as one would expect for someone who has been close to different leaders, clued up on the importance of listening the importance of essays good chemistry between leader and strategist.
He understands the importance of body language as well as language. He knows the the importance importance of emotion as well as reason. Essay Bacon. He understands how the web is the importance of listening, changing politics. Essays About. One of of listening my favourite phrases is example, that #8216;life is on the record#8217;. He has a different way of putting it. The Importance. #8216;Le #8220;off#8221; n#8217;existe plus desormais. Tout ce que vous direz pourra se retourner contre vous.#8217; It is from hamlet, an example, why the whole #8216;droit d#8217;etre oublie#8217; is emerging as a debate. Of Listening. How many of the young men and telemachus, women today filling the web with pictures and confessions from their private lives may end up running for the importance office one day, and regretting their openness? On verra. Perhaps I can end where I began, with the changes the social media has brought. Of Hua. At the last election Labour did not do poster campaigns.
This was a shame. In previous campaigns we had had some brilliant posters. But under Gordon Brown, we had very little money for the campaign. Of Listening. The Tories had plenty of passage from hamlet, act ii, scene an example of setting? it and, as Seguela records, they ran a lot of the importance posters. Of Hua Mulan. One of the importance of listening their most expensive billboard campaigns was of a giant photo of Cameron with an of job, anti-Labour slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on like this.#8217; Someone noticed that the the importance Tory leader#8217;s face had been airbrushed. Essays About Responsibility. This fact became the source of of listening thousands of of job enlargement tweets.
Then someone set up a website mydavidcameron.com where people could send their own, largely anti-Tory, versions of of listening this poster. These were sent in in their thousands, and mulan, many were much better, wittier and the importance of listening, more politically devastating than the original. I#8217;ll tell you when I knew they had wasted their money when the legend of hua mulan newspapers carried photos of one giant poster site which had been defaced #8230; Cameron#8217;s hair had been replaced with a painted version of Elvis Presley#8217;s hair, and to the importance, the slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on The Influence of Francis Bacon like this#8217; had been added the words of one of Elvis#8217; most famous songs #8230; #8216;with suspicious minds#8217;. The combination of the the importance internet and wit had reduced the essays about political impact of of listening a hugely expensive campaign to zero. That is my final thought as you begin to the tell heart poe, read Jacques Seguela’s account. The Importance. It is a quote from a former colleague, Labour MP Hazel Blears #8230; #8216;Campaigning is like sex.
If you#8217;re not enjoying it, you#8217;re not doing it properly.#8217; The ego has landed. fascinating view on mulan the affective, the emotional response of the individual. Tories always bang on about how they view what Labour left them as nefast and noxious, Labour defends limply- the truly great things we did in of listening fact achieve. The above text would clearly show both miss the point. From Hamlet, Scene Of Setting?. On vote pour le futur. The Importance. Pas pour le passe. Legend Mulan. The presidential focus of the importance of listening this text On vote pour un homme. Pas pour un parti- may jar greatly with many in which from act ii, scene of setting? this country. T.B was viewed as too much this way by many. Of Listening. Another masochist ? It#8217;s truly weird.
The emergence of telemachus son of odysseus social media is an the importance, interesting development and responsibility, may, in the importance time, alter the political dynamic. It is scene i is an example, satisfying to the importance of listening, be able to did the reconstruction era end, debate issues online, particularly important for those on the left who so rarely see or hear progressive opinions in the importance the media. Passage From Act Ii, An Example Of Setting?. Since joining Twitter I feel better informed and in touch with political issues of the day. Useful campaigning information can be spread quickly and it has the potential to of listening, strengthen social bonding between groupings of odysseus like minded people. I am surprised how many journalists, media organisations and politicians are active on the importance of listening Twitter. It seems they at least, are aware of Essay The Influence its potential and are wary of ignoring its influence. I suspect much of the the importance antagonism directed towards Nick Clegg was spread through social media. Tenagers don#8217;t generally read newspapers or watch TV news, but they do talk to reconstruction, each other via Facebook.
Let#8217;s hope it will make a difference. Of Listening. Since the collapse of widescale union membership, too many natural Labour supporters don#8217;t hear our political message. Most probably read right wing papers and when era end, watch Sky TV. We need to of listening, maximise our reach through new social media to counteract the all pervasive right-wing bias everywhere else. Telemachus Son Of. Norway is an amazing modern country, and how it has used it#8217;s oil and the importance, natural resouces for the best of Investigating of Common Fuels for a Mount Everest Expedition all its people should be a set lesson to the importance of listening, any country in about responsibility the World. Efficiency in the importance of listening it#8217;s extraction, and which passage scene of setting?, efficiency in the importance of listening using its resulting wealth. And this group from enlargement, Norway here I have always liked since they started up, here with a guest star from Sweden.
Royksopp and of listening, Robyn, And well done for heart poe having respect from La France, but that personally does not surprise me. But the book on of listening sharp end political communication, to The Efficiency of Common Fuels for a Mount Everest, tell you honestly, is not up my street. I am into the importance, other things in of job enlargement life, you might have noticed. Of Listening. Anyway, Alastair, isn#8217;t it about time you thought of which passage hamlet, act ii, scene i is of setting? becoming an MP? Glenda Jackson was older than you when she became one, if I remember right. The Importance Of Listening. Ah yes, just checked, she was about Investigating of Common Industry Mount Everest, 56, while you are only, ahem!, 54, but without a couple of oscars#8230; you total wanks. The Importance Of Listening. I know who you are and everything. You are pathetic in The Efficiency trying to be higher. Higher than what, you tell we banging keyboard in your own worlds. Need a keyboard to grow vegetibles?
Don#8217;t think so somehow. The Importance. Time, ey? Who#8217;ll have it? Raised with praise to from hamlet, act ii, scene i is an example of setting?, die? Parentals withering before eyes, heartbreaking before yourself die. Of Listening. Life, who#8217;ll have it? asked?
Not by many with sense. To see life#8217;s gymnastics performed, buck over enlargement, a horse yes or no the normed. More scandanavian, with a 23 windowed VW german Samba minibus, and red riding hood, yes, her and her subliminal hidden story, Grimm from Copenhagen-like, Saw Clarissa Dickson show today brilliant! Especially when she said you would most probably have a glass of wine, while I will partake in a ginger beer. The Importance Of Listening. Have wild garlic growing everywhere around here, with those baggy flowers and that smell in did the reconstruction era end the air when you pass them. Will have to note them so to the importance of listening, dig the about responsibility bulbs when ready. Of Listening. Gawd knows what garlic strain they be though. Did The Reconstruction Era End. After helping Tony Blair to secure a historic third term in office, Alastair Campbell might have hoped to the importance, make good his long-planned escape from Downing Street. Blair, and of Francis Bacon, Gordon Brown, had other ideas.
Having negotiated Brown’s pivotal role in the 2005 election victory, Campbell then became fundamental in the transition from one Prime Minister to of listening, another.
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Nov 21, 2017 The importance of listening,
Genetics and Homosexuality: Are People Born Gay? The Biological Basis for Sexual Orientation. There is a common belief among liberals that people are born either gay or straight. Conservatives tend to believe that sexual orientation is the importance actually sexual preference, which is chosen by the individual. This page represents a review of the essays about, scientific literature on the basis for of listening homosexual orientation.
Are people born gay or straight? Much of the essays responsibility, current media sources assume the question is a solved scientific problem with all the evidence pointing toward a biological (probably genetic) basis for a homosexual orientation. Contrary to the importance this perception, the Investigating The Efficiency of Common Fuels Mount Everest, question has been poorly studied (or studied poorly), although there is some evidence on both sides of question. In addition, many of the initial studies, which were highly touted by the media as proof for a biological basis for homosexuality, have been contradicted by later, more thorough studies. This evidence falls into four basic categories: Brain structure Possible hormonal influences Concordance of homosexuality in twins Concordance of genetic markers in of listening siblings Real genetic studies (GWAS) Until a few years ago, sexual orientation used to be called sexual preference. Obviously, the about responsibility, two terms denote significant differences in the the manner by the importance of listening which sexuality develops.
A preference is example something that is chosen, whereas orientation is merely something that defines us. The differences are potentially important regarding how the law applies to those who are gay. If homosexuality is not chosen, but actually is a biologically-determined characteristic over which we have no choice, then laws should not treat gays and straights differently, since homosexuality would be equivalent to one's race, over which we have no control. Since sexual attraction begins in the brain, researchers first examined the question of sexual orientation by comparing the anatomy of brains from the importance of listening males and females. These studies showed that male and female brains showed sexual dimorphism in the pre-optic area of the hypothalamus, where males demonstrated a greater than two-fold difference in heart allen poe cell number and size compared to females. 1 A second study found that two of four Interstitial Nuclei of the Anterior Hypothalamus (INAH) were at least twice as large in males as females. 2 Since the INAH was involved in of listening sexual dimorphism, it was hypothesized by Simon LeVay that there might be differences in this region in when heterosexual vs. homosexual men. Postmortem examination of the brains of of listening AIDS patients vs. control male subjects (presumed to be heterosexual) showed that the presumably heterosexual men exhibited INAH3 that were twice the size of both females and presumably homosexual men who had died of AIDS. When Did The Reconstruction Era End? 3 The study has been criticized for its uncertainty of sexual orientation of the subjects, and potential complications caused by the AIDS virus (which does infect the human brain), and also by lowered testosterone levels found in AIDS patients. A popularized Newsweek cover story, Is This Child Gay?
4 characterized LeVay as a champion for the genetic side, even though the study involved no genetic data at the importance all. A subsequent study by telemachus odysseus Byne, et al. Of Listening? examined the question of INAH3 size on the basis of sex, sexual orientation, and HIV status. 5 The study found large differences in the tell edgar allen poe INAH3 volume on the basis of sex (with the male INAH3 being larger than the the importance, female INAH3). However, the volume of IHAH3 was decreased in male heterosexual men who had contracted AIDS (0.108 mm 3 compared with 0.123 mm 3 in male controls). There was no statistically significant difference between IHAH3 sizes of male heterosexuals vs. male homosexuals who had contracted AIDS (0.108 mm 3 and 0.096 mm 3 , respectively). The study also found that there were no differences in the number of neurons in the INAH3 based upon sexual orientation, although researchers found significant differences between males and females, as in of Common Fuels other studies.
5 It was obvious from this study that LeVay's study was fatally flawed due to the AIDS complication, and that there were no differences in the INAH3 based upon sexual orientation. The role of the hypothalamus in of listening sexual orientation was further studied by Swaab, et al . Other researchers had hypothesized that differentiation of the hypothalamus occurred before birth. However, Swaab's study showed that the sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) of more than 100 subjects decreased in volume and cell number in the females only 2-4 years postnatal. This finding complicated the findings of the brain studies, since not only chemical and hormonal factors, but also social factors, might have influenced this process. Responsibility? 6. A study by Allen and the importance, Gorski examined the anterior commissure of the brain, finding that females and homosexual males exhibited a larger size than heterosexual males. 7 However, later studies using larger sample sizes found no such differences.
8. Complicating the issue of brain differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals is the problem that sexual experiences themselves can affect brain structure. 9 So, the when did the reconstruction, question will always be whether homosexual practice changes the brain or whether the brain results in homosexual practice. Since sexual differentiation occurs within the womb, as a result of hormonal influences, it has been hypothesized that homosexuality may result from a differential hormone balance in the wombs of those who eventually exhibit a homosexual orientation. Since hormonal levels within the womb are not available, proxies for hormonal influences have been used to the importance of listening examine the Essay of Francis, question of how hormonal influences might impact sexual orientation. These proxies include differences in skeletal size and shape, including the of listening, ratio of the long bones of the example of job enlargement, arms and the importance, legs relative to did the reconstruction era end arm span or stature and the hand bones of adults (the ratio of the length of the various phalanges).
Studies have shown that ratios of digit length are predictors of several hormones, including testosterone, luteinizing hormone and estrogen. 10 In women, the index finger (2D, second digit) is of listening almost the same length as the the tell tale edgar, fourth digit (4D). However, in men, the index finger is usually shorter than the fourth. The Importance Of Listening? It has been shown that this greater 2D:4D ratio in females is established in two-year-olds. It has been hypothesized that the sex difference in the 2D:4D ratio reflects the prenatal influence of androgen on males. A study by son of Williams, et al. showed that the 2D:4D ratio of the importance homosexual men was not significantly different from Investigating of Common Everest that of heterosexual men for either hand. 11 However, homosexual women displayed significantly smaller 2D:4D ratios compared with heterosexual women (see figure to right). It has been hypothesized that women exposed to more androgens in the womb tend to of listening express a homosexual orientation.
However, since these hormone levels were never measured, one is left with the proxy of of job enlargement finger lengths as a substitute. The Importance? Studies have found that the more older brothers a boy has, the more likely he is to about develop a homosexual orientation. 12 This study also found that homosexual men had a greater than expected proportion of brothers among their older siblings (229 brothers: 163 sisters) compared with the general population (106 males: 100 females). Males who had two or more older brothers were found to have lower 2D:4D ratios, 11 suggesting that they had experienced increased androgens in the womb. Why increased androgens would predispose both males and females to be homosexual was not explained in the study. Another study examined the length of long bones in the arms, legs and hands. Both homosexual males and heterosexual females had less long bone growth in the arms, legs and hands, than heterosexual males or homosexual females.
13 Accordingly, the researchers hypothesized that male homosexuals had less androgen exposure during development than male heterosexuals, while female homosexuals had greater steroid exposure during development than their heterosexual counterparts. Of course, with regard to male homosexuality, this study directly contradicted the presumed results of the Williams study above, which showed that males with multiple older brothers (who tended to be homosexual) experienced increased androgen exposure. A study of one homosexual vs. The Importance? two heterosexual male triplets found that the homosexual triplets scored more on the female side of the Masculinity-Femininity scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, 14 suggesting a possible hormonal influence (decreased androgens) involved in male homosexual orientation. All of the studies reporting possible hormonal influence on homosexuality suffer from the lack of any real evidence that hormones actually play any role in sexual orientation. The fact that contradictory studies report increased 11,15 vs. decreased 13-14 androgens as a basis for homosexuality doesn't provoke confidence that the heart poe, proxies are really true. Obviously, a study that documented real hormone levels, as opposed to the importance of listening proxies, would probably provide more definitive data. Studies involving a rare hormonal imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), caused by The Influence of Francis Bacon defective 21-hydroxylase enzyme, suggest that hormonal abnormalities can influence sexual orientation. Of Listening? CAH results in increased production of male hormones during development. In males, increased androgens has little effect. However, female fetuses that develop in this environment develop ambiguous external genitalia, which complicates subsequent development. In utero treatment with dexamethasone reduces the androgen imbalance, resulting in an individual who is genetically and phenotypically female.
However, dexamethasone treatment also results in reduced homosexual orientation among treated females, 16 suggesting that some homosexuality may result from hormonal influences during development. Homosexual rights groups have suggested that dexamethasone treatment not be given, because it reduces homosexual orientation in females affected by CAH. The observation that familial factors influence the prevalence of homosexuality led to a the initiation of number of twin studies, which are a proxy for the presence of possible genetic factors. Most of these early studies suffered from example of job methodological flaws. Kallmann sampled subjects from correctional and psychiatric institutionsnot exactly representative normal populations. 17 Bailey et al. published a number of the importance of listening studies in the early 1990's, examining familial factors involved in of Common Industry Fuels for a Mount Everest Expedition both male and female homosexuality. These studies suffered from the the importance, manner in which subjects were recruited, since the investigators advertised in openly gay publications, resulting in skewed populations. 18 Later studies by the same group did not suffer from this selection bias, and Essay Bacon, found the heritability of homosexuality in Australia was up to 50 and 60% in females but only 30% in males. The Importance? 19. A study by Kendler et al. in enlargement 2000 examined 1,588 twins selected by a random survey of 50,000 households in the United States. 20 The study found 3% of the population consisted of non-heterosexuals (homosexuals and bisexuals) and a genetic concordance rate of the importance 32%, somewhat lower than than found in heart allen poe the Australian studies.
The study lost statistical significance when twins were broken down into male and female pairs, because of the low rate (3%) of the importance non-heterosexuals in the general U.S. population. A Finnish twin study reported the Essay of Francis Bacon, potential for homosexual response, not just overt homosexual behavior, as having a genetic component. 21. On a twist on homosexual twin studies, an Australian research group examined the question of whether homophobia was the result of nature or nurture. The Importance Of Listening? 22 Surprisingly, both familial/environmental and when did the reconstruction, genetic factors seemed to play a role as to whether or not a person was homophobic. Even more surprising, a separate research group in of listening the U.S. confirmed these results (also adding that attitudes towards abortion were also partly genetic). 23 Now, even homophobes can claim that they were born that way! Twin studies suffer from the problem of telemachus trying to distinguish between environmental and genetic factors, since twins tend to live within the same family unit. A study examining the effect of birth order on homosexual preference concluded, The lack of relationship between the strength of the effect and degree of homosexual feelings in the men and women suggests the influence of birth order on homosexual feelings was not due to a biological, but a social process in the subjects studied. Of Listening? 12 So, although the twin studies suggest a possible genetic component for homosexual orientation, the results are certainly not definitive.
An examination of family pedigrees revealed that gay men had more homosexual male relatives through maternal than through paternal lineages, suggesting a linkage to the X chromosome. Dean Hamer 24 found such an association at region Xq28. If male sexual orientation was influenced by a gene on Xq28, then gay brothers should share more than 50% of their alleles at this region, whereas their heterosexual brothers should share less than 50% of their alleles. In the absence of such an association, then both types of the tell tale heart brothers should display 50% allele sharing. An analysis of 40 pairs of gay brothers and the importance, found that they shared 82% of their alleles in the Xq28 region, which was much greater than the example of job, 50% allele sharing that would be expected by the importance of listening chance. 25 However, a follow-up study by the same research group, using 32 pairs of gay brothers and The Efficiency Industry Fuels Mount Expedition, found only 67% allele sharing, which was much closer to the 50% expected by chance. 26 Attempts by Rice et al. to repeat the Hamer study resulted in only 46% allele sharing, insignificantly different from of listening chance, contradicting the Hamer results. 27 At the same time, an unpublished study by Alan Sanders (University of Chicago) corroborated the example of job enlargement, Rice results. The Importance? 28 Ultimately, no gene or gene product from the Xq28 region was ever identified that affected sexual orientation. When Jonathan Marks (an evolutionary biologist) asked Hamer what percentage of homosexuality he thought his results explained, his answer was that he thought it explained 5% of male homosexuality. Marks' response was, There is no science other than behavioral genetics in which you can leave 97.5% of a phenomenon unexplained and telemachus son of, get headlines.
29. A study of 13,000 New Zealand adults (age 16+) examined sexual orientation as a function of childhood history. 30 The study found a 3-fold higher prevalence of the importance childhood abuse for those who subsequently engaged in same sex sexual activity. However, childhood abuse was not a major factor in homosexuality, since only 15% of essays homosexuals had experienced abuse as children (compared with 5% among heterosexuals). 30 So, it would appear from this population that only a small percentage of homosexuality ( 10%) might be explained by early childhood abusive experiences.
If homosexual orientation were completely genetic, one would expect that it would not change over the course of one's life. For females, sexual preference does seem to change over time. A 5-year study of the importance lesbians found that over a quarter of of job these women relinquished their lesbian/bisexual identities during this period: half reclaimed heterosexual identities and the importance, half gave up all identity labels. 31 In a survey of young minority women (16-23 years of age), half of the participants changed their sexual identities more than once during the two-year survey period. 32 In another study of subjects who were recruited from organizations that serve lesbian/gay/bisexual youths (ages 14 to 21 years) in New York City, the percentage that changed from a lesbian/gay/bisexual orientation to a heterosexual orientation was 5% over the period of just 12 months (the length of the survey). 33 Other studies have confirmed that sexual orientation is The Influence Bacon not fixed in all individuals, but can change over time, especially in of listening women. 34 A recent example of an essays orientation change occurred with The Advocate's Person of the Year for 2005. Kerry Pacer was the youngest gay advocate, chosen for her initiation of a gay-straight alliance at White County High School in Cleveland, Georgia. However, four years later, she is raising her one year old daughter, along with the the importance of listening, baby's father.
35 Another former lesbian, British comedienne Jackie Clune, spent 12 years in lesbian relationships before marrying a man and producing 4 children. Example Of Job Enlargement? 36 Michael Glatze came out at age 20 and went on to be a leader in the homosexual rights movement. At age 30, he came out in the opposite direction, saying, In my experience, coming out from under the influence of the homosexual mindset was the most liberating, beautiful and astonishing thing I've ever experienced in my entire life. 37 A 2011 study of Christian gays who wanted to of listening change their sexual orientation found that 23% of the subjects reported a successful conversion to heterosexual orientation and functioning, while an essays about responsibility additional 30% reported stable behavioral chastity with substantive dis-identification with homosexual orientation. 38 However, 20% of the subjects reported giving up on the process and fully embraced a gay identity, while another 27% fell in between the two extremes. 38 Obviously, for at the importance least some individuals, being gay or straight is something they can choose. The question of nature vs. nurture can also be seen by examining children of homosexual vs. heterosexual parents.
If homosexuality were purely biological, one would expect that parenting would not influence it. Paul Cameron published a study in 2006 that claimed that the children of homosexual parents expressed a homosexual orientation much more frequently than the general population. 39 Although claims of bias were made against the study, another study by Essay of Francis Bacon Walter Schuum in the importance 2010 confirmed Cameron's results by statistically examining the results of 10 other studies that addressed the question. 40 In total, 262 children raised by homosexual parents were included in the tell the analysis. The results showed that 16-57% of such children adopted a homosexual lifestyle. Of Listening? The results were even more striking in daughters of lesbian mothers, 33% to 57% of whom became lesbians themselves. Since homosexuals makeup only. 5% of the population, it is clear that parenting does influence sexual orientation. It always amazes me when people say that they were born gay. Looking back on my own experience, I would never say that I was born straight.
I really didn't have any interest in females until about the seventh grade. Before that time, they weren't really interesting, since they weren't interested in sports or riding bikes or anything else I liked to do. I am not a huge fan of Neo Darwinian evolution. Nevertheless, there is some clear evidence that natural selection (and sexual selection) does act upon populations and has acted on our own species to produce racial differences. 41 Natural selection postulates that those genetic mutations that favor survival and reproduction will be selected, whereas those that compromise survival and of Common Fuels for a Mount, reproduction will be eliminated. Obviously, a gene or series of genes that produce non-reproducing individuals (i.e., those who express pure homosexual behavior) will be rapidly eliminated from any population. So, it would be expected that any gay gene would be efficiently removed from a population. However, it is the importance possible that a gene favoring male homosexuality could hide within the human genome if it were located on the X-chromosome, where it could be carried by reproducing females, and The Efficiency Industry Fuels for a Mount Everest, not be subject to negative selection by non-reproducing males. In order to survive, the the importance of listening, gene(s) would be expected to be associated with higher reproductive capacity in women who carry it (compensating for the generation of non-reproducing males). I can't imagine a genetic scenario in which female homosexuality would ever persist within a population.
Within the last decade, genetic analysis of heritable traits has taken a huge step forward with the advent of DNA microarray technology. When Reconstruction? Using this technology, it is possible to scan large lengths of the the importance, human genome (even an entire genome wide scanGWAS) for numerous individuals, at quite reasonable costs. This DNA microarray technology has led to the discovery of genes that are associated with complex diseases, such as Crohn's Disease, which is the topic of my research. If homosexuality truly has a genetic component, DNA microarray studies would not only The Efficiency of Common Industry Fuels for a Mount Everest Expedition, definitively prove the point, but would identify specific gene(s) or loci that might be associated with those who express a homosexual orientation. The first attempt to do genome wide scans on homosexual males was done by Mustanski et al. in 2005. 42 The results suggested possible linkage near microsatellite D7S798 on the importance of listening chromosome 7q36. However, an attempt to repeat the finding (along with. 6000 well-defined SNPs spread comparatively evenly across the human genome) failed to find any significant SNPs. 43 However, a third study using Chinese subjects found a weak association at the SHH rs9333613 polymorphism of 7q36. 44 A more general study, examining mate choice among different populations, found no genetic link, prompting the investigators to speculate that such choices were culturally driven. 45 The largest genome wide scan was conducted by of Common Industry Fuels for a Mount Everest Expedition 23andMe.
7887 unrelated men and 5570 unrelated women of European ancestry were analyzed by GWAS. Although unpublished, the of listening, data was presented at the American Society of Human Genetics annual meeting in San Francisco, showing that there were no loci associated with sexual orientation, including Xq28 on the X chromosome. 46 So, the preliminary studies on possible genetic causes of homosexual orientation tends to rule out Essay The Influence of Francis, any dramatic genetic component to sexual orientation. Why are people gay? The question of how homosexual orientation originates has been the subject of the importance much press, with the when did the era end, general impression being promoted that homosexuality is largely a matter of genes, rather than environmental factors.
However, if one examines the scientific literature, one finds that it's not quite as clear as the news bytes would suggest. The early studies that reported differences in of listening the brains of homosexuals were complicated by HIV infection and were not substantiated by larger, better controlled studies. Numerous studies reported that possible hormonal differences affected homosexual orientation. However, these studies were often directly contradictory, and allen poe, never actually measured any hormone levels, but just used proxies for hormonal influences, without direct evidence that the proxies were actually indicative of true hormone levels or imbalances. The Importance? Twin studies showed that there likely are genetic influences for homosexuality, although similar studies have shown some genetic influences for homophobia and even opposition to abortion. About Responsibility? Early childhood abuse has been associated with homosexuality, but, at most, only of listening, explains about Fuels Expedition, 10% of those who express a homosexual orientation. The fact that sexual orientation is not constant for many individuals, but can change over time suggests that at least part of sexual orientation is actually sexual preference. Attempts to find a gay gene have never identified any gene or gene product that is the importance of listening actually associated with homosexual orientation, with studies failing to confirm early suggestions of linkage of homosexuality to region Xq28 on The Efficiency of Common Industry Fuels Mount the X chromosome. The question of genetic influences on sexual orientation has been recently examined using DNA microarray technology, although, the results have largely failed to pinpoint any specific genes as a factor in sexual orientation. Swaab, D.F. and of listening, E. Fliers.
1985. A sexually dimorphic nucleus in the human brain. Science 228:1112-1115. Allen, L.S., M. Hines, J.E. Shryne and R.A. Essays About? Gorski. 1989. Two sexually dimorphic cell groups in the human brain. J. Neurosci.
9:497-506. LeVay, S. 1991. A difference in hypothalamic structure between heterosexual and the importance of listening, homosexual men. Science 253:1034-1037. Gelman, D. Is This Child Gay? Born or Bred: The Origins of Homosexuality. Newsweek September 9, 1991, p. 52.
Byne W., S. Tobet, L. A. Mattiace, M. S. The Tell Tale Edgar Poe? Lasco, E. Of Listening? Kemether, M. A. Edgar, S. Morgello, M. S. Buchsbaum, and L. Essay The Influence Bacon? B. Jones. 2001. The interstitial nuclei of the human anterior hypothalamus: an investigation of variation with sex, sexual orientation, and HIV status. Horm. Behav. 40:86-92. Swaab, D.F., L.J.G. Gooren, and M.A.
Hofman. 1992. Gender and the importance, Sexual Orientation in Relation to Hypothalamic Structures. Horm. Res. 38 (Suppl. 2):51-61. Allen, L. S. and R. A. Gorski. 1992.
Sexual orientation and the size of the anterior commissure in the human brain. PNAS 89: 7199-7202. Allen, L. S. and R. A. About? Gorski. 1991. The Importance? Sexual dimorphism of the anterior commissure and massa intermedia of the human brain. J. Investigating For A? Comp. Neurol. 312: 97-104. K. The Importance Of Listening? M. Bishop, K. About Responsibility? M. and D. Wahlsten.
1997. Sex Differences in the Human Corpus Callosum: Myth or Reality? Neuroscience Biobehavioral Reviews 21: 581-601. Lasco , M. Of Listening? S., T. Enlargement? J. Jordan, M. A. Edgar, C. K. Petito and W. Byne. 2002. A lack of dimorphism of sex or sexual orientation in the human anterior commissure. Brain Research 936: 95-98. Breedlove, M.S. 1997.
Sex on the brain. Nature 389: 801. Manning, J.T., D. Scutt, J. Wilson and the importance of listening, D. I. Lewis-Jones. 1998. The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a predictor of sperm numbers and concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and oestrogen.
Human Reproduction 13: 3000-3004. Williams, T. J., M. E. Pepitone, S. E. Christensen, B. M. Cooke, A. D. Huberman, N. J. Breedlove, T. J. Breedlove, C. L. Jordan, and S. M. The Tell Allen? Breedlove. 2000. The Importance? Finger-length ratios and sexual orientation. Nature 404: 455-456. McConaghy, N., D. Hadzi-Pavlovic, C. Stevens, V. Manicavasagar, N. Essay Of Francis? Buhrich, and U. Vollmer-Conna.
2006. Fraternal birth order and ratio of of listening heterosexual/homosexual feelings in women and men. The Tell Heart Edgar Allen Poe? J. Homosex. 51:161-74. The Importance Of Listening? Martin , J. T. and D. H. Nguyen. 2004. Anthropometric analysis of Essay homosexuals and heterosexuals: implications for the importance of listening early hormone exposure Hormones and Behavior 45: 31-39. Hershberger, S.L., and N.L. Segal. Son Of Odysseus? 2004. The cognitive, behavioral, and personality profiles of a male monozygotic triplet set discordant for sexual orientation.
Arch. Sex. Behav. 33:497-514. The Importance Of Listening? McFadden, D. 2002. Masculinization effects in heart allen poe the auditory system. Arch. The Importance Of Listening? Sex. Behav. 31:99-111.
Frisén L, Nordenström A, Falhammar H, Filipsson H, Holmdahl G, Janson PO, Thorén M, Hagenfeldt K, Möller A, Nordenskjöld A. 2009. Gender role behavior, sexuality, and psychosocial adaptation in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to CYP21A2 deficiency. Essay Of Francis Bacon? J. Clin. The Importance Of Listening? Endocrinol. Metab. Tale Poe? 94:3432-3439. Kallmann, F.J. The Importance Of Listening? 1952. Twin and sibship study of overt male homo-sexuality.
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Heritable factors influence sexual orientation in women. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 50:217-223. Bailey, J.M., and of listening, A.P. Bell. 1993. Familiality of female and male homosexuality. Behav. When Reconstruction Era End? Genet. 23:313-322.
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J. Person Soc. Psychol. 78:524-536. Kirk, K., J. Bailey, and N. Martin. Essays About? 2000. Etiology of male sexual orientation in of listening an Australian twin sample, Psychology, Evolution Gender 2: 301–311.
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Food Service (Waitress Waiter) Resume Samples. Click the the importance of listening images to expand the did the era end resumes to a larger size. We have three resumes, and detailed explanations for how to write your own below. If you are an the importance entry-level candidate (or have never been a waiter before), click here. If you need a food service cover letter, click here.
Attention line cooks, prep cooks, chefs, and other food service workers — Don’t see your job here? Please view our full list of food service resume samples here. Click here to when reconstruction download. This MS Word Food Service Resume. Food Service Resumes (Text Versions Quick Facts) Restaurant Server (Chrono) Candidate uses a Reverse-Chronological resume format, and introduces the resume with a strong Career Objective Candidate emphasizes 7+ years of experience, and presents hard numerical evidence to the importance prove she are a strong salesperson Candidate emphasizes depth of wine and Investigating of Common Fuels Mount Expedition entree knowledge to play up her competence. RESTAURANT SERVER (REVERSE-CHRONOLOGICAL) 8870 Haven Street, Bloomington, IN 44590(141)-212-5465.
Food Service Worker with 7+ years of experience in of listening, food preparation and service, and a certificate in The Influence of Francis Bacon, Food Handling and Safety. Possesses a keen knowledge of wines, entrees, and the importance the responsibilities of example a successful restaurateur. Faithfully adhere to the highest standards of of listening hygiene, quality and customer service. Aiming to leverage my knowledge to effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. RIVERSIDE RESTAURANT Chicago, IL. Food Service Worker September 2011 – Present.
Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Clean all work areas, equipment, utensils, dishes, and silverware and ensure they are stored appropriately in of Francis Bacon, accordance to state law. Perform food preparation duties such as preparing salads, appetizers, and of listening cold dishes, portioning salads, and Essay The Influence of Francis Bacon brewing coffee in a fast-paced line kitchen. CARRABBA’S ITALIAN GRILL Chicago, IL. Trainee Food Service Worker August 2007 – July 2011. Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant Assisted host or hostess by answering phones to take reservations or to-go orders, and by greeting, seating, and thanking guests Stored food in designated containers and storage areas to prevent spoilage and increase shelf life Presented wine samples for guests to taste and opened the bottles for them upon their approval Served food and beverages to patrons, and prepared or served specialty dishes at tables as required. Certificate in the importance of listening, Food Handling and Safety, June 2008. Bachelor of when did the era end Arts Degree in Culinary Arts, June 2007.
Team worker who is able to the importance of listening adapt in highly dynamic and changing situations. Excellent problem solving and communication skills, with a focus on reconstruction era end customer service Familiarity with Point of the importance of listening Sale terminals Bilingual (Spanish/English) Candidate uses a Combination resume format to emphasize achievements and skills, beginning with a Professional Profile introduction to Investigating of Common Fuels for a Mount present critical and relevant information Candidate bolds key waitressing skill keywords in the importance of listening, the Professional Profile section, and lists her achievements after them Candidate emphasizes her ability to “upsell” customers on alcoholic beverages. Three Key Server Waitress Skills: 1. Salesmanship: Ability to convince customers to when did the reconstruction era end make extra purchases by persuasively presenting entree wine pairings, selling desserts, and convincing patrons to return to the establishment. 2. Communication: Ability to the importance of listening host, entertain, small talk, and speak fluidly in front of The Influence of Francis strangers at length. Of Listening. Ability to work together with other food service workers as a team, often working in when era end, pairs for the importance bigger tables. Ability to keep a cool head when dealing with irate customers. 3. Tale. Management: Ability to the importance teach new hosts and waiters how to present menu items, how to use Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, and Essay The Influence of Francis Bacon test trainees for memorization of food ingredients. Project Execution: Implemented new menu introduction strategies, increasing customer purchases of wine by the importance of listening 10% on average Management: Assisted in the training of 6 new waiters, ensuring attention to detail and comprehensive understanding of restaurant methodology and when reconstruction era end practices Awards and Recognition: Frequently praised for excellent service on restaurant online rating system Salesmanship: Deep and broad knowledge of the importance of listening wines and appropriate entree pairings Communication: Fluent in The Influence, English and Spanish – Excellent verbal and of listening written skills. Familiarity with Point of Sale (POS) and common restaurant machinery Able to memorize entire menu within a day, including ingredient combinations Proven ability to about responsibility “upsell” alcohol, dessert, and appetizers to customers Bilingual Spanish and English.
Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2012 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and appropriate entree pairings, leading to daily wine sales averaging $180, fully 15% higher than company average Wrote patron’s food orders on slips, memorized orders, and managed food resources in of listening, a 120+ seat restaurant Operated POS terminals to input customer orders, swipe credit cards, and enter cash amounts received Received in-depth training for son of proper food handing techniques, including proper freezer placement, appropriate soup temperatures, and equipment cleaning processes. Hostess Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2010 – 2012. Awarded “Employee of the Month” two months consecutively Bussed tables, presented menus, seated customers, and assisted waiters with drink orders Trained 3 new hosts in providing excellent customer service and conflict resolution techniques. Florida State University, Orlando, FL. Bachelor of Arts in English, May 2008. Three Transferable Skills for Food Service:
1. Customer Interactivity: If you have ever had any experience dealing with customers (whether you were scooping ice cream, greeting people at the importance, a front desk, operating a ticket booth, etc.), this type of the tell tale heart allen experience is transferable into any other customer service job. 2. Technical: Have you ever swiped a credit card, operated a Point of of listening Sale (POS) Terminal, or re-stocked receipt paper? All of these skills are transferable into essays about responsibility, food service. 3. Communication: Bilingual ability, especially Spanish, will help your food service career chances significantly. If you’ve ever had a job where you’ve had to speak in front of other people, that kind of communication ability is considered transferable. 534 Shelby Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 24542 * (433) 623-6234 * [emailprotected] Superior salesmanship skills, consistently outperforming company peers Friendly, outgoing, and charismatic personality well suited for a fast paced, customer service oriented restaurant Experience with Point of of listening Sale (POS) Terminals, with excellent basic math skills Working knowledge of wines, cocktail mixes, and other bartending skills Conversational in essays responsibility, Spanish. Awarded “Employee of the the importance of listening Month” for consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the restaurant offerings, leading to telemachus more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to the importance of listening meet company average.
Experience with 3 types of POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and of Francis coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and knowledge of equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to calculate and split bills in the event of POS Terminal downtime. Consistently scored over 90% satisfaction rating on customer feedback surveys Conversational in Spanish (able to the importance take orders from Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in odysseus, the event of customer dissatisfaction. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of Science in Marketing, May 2005. 4 Steps to Writing the Ultimate Server Resume.
“Food service” encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and of listening servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and hostesses, and busboys. A waiter takes orders from a happy couple. These roles fall into what are called the “front end” (customer service) and tale edgar the “back end” (food preparation) of the establishments. This resume is relevant to of listening those of tale heart you with “front end” server experience. Of Listening. We will teach you why this is an excellent resume, and essays about responsibility how you can write your own in a similar fashion.
As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in order to: Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role. Read this resume writing guide to ensure you achieve your goals. By the way be sure to read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to understand the major rules that all resumes need to follow, including server resumes. If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in the importance of listening, minutes with our widely praised resume maker. 1. Of Francis Bacon. Include These Key Server, Waitress, and Waiter Skills. For some quick help, here are the of listening key aspects you need to include on a server resume. Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for these specific traits to responsibility decide if you’re a worthwhile candidate. Be sure to the importance of listening include these key server skills on your resume. Keep in mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in Food Handling and Safety, you should place it at the top of your resume. If you don’t have any, you can land more interviews and potentially increase your salary by earning one.
The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here. 2. The Tell Tale Heart. Write a Convincing Career Objective. The first major section of your resume is called the the importance Career Objective. This applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. Pay particular attention to the bolded parts:
1st: It immediately states years of of job experience: 7+ years of of listening experience in food preparation and service… 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in Essay The Influence of Francis Bacon, Food Handling and of listening Safety. 3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the business:
Keen knowledge of wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the example enlargement position she wants to fill: “Aiming to…effectively perform a management position at of listening, your restaurant. “ In the eyes of a hiring manager, this applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the son of odysseus objective. It is also well written, and targeted at the managerial role she wants to fill. Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to increase by 11% through 2022. It’s very important to remember that the Career Objective does not relate to what YOU want from the job, but rather what you can do for the company . In this way, the the importance applicant makes a convincing argument that she’d be an asset to the company in a managerial role. Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about how to odysseus write your own. 3. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers. Adding numbers to of listening your job description bullet points will help the hiring manager grasp the size and scope of your responsibilities, and give them a clearer mental picture of your experience.
By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the vast majority of your competition. The easiest way to do this is to simply write how big your food establishment is, and how many seats it has. The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below: Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the vast majority of your competition. If you really want to blow away the hiring manager, you’ll need to The Influence do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average. Do you know how much you make in the importance, sales daily or monthly?
You can expect to son of odysseus make an average of $47,960 per years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants — especially big chains — will track their servers’ sales statistics for the purposes of budgeting (and, of of listening course, to telemachus son of odysseus cajole low performers). You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and include them on your resume. Even if you didn’t perform spectacularly (like the applicant), simply including this information in your resume will indicate to the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and hard working. This is called writing an the importance of listening “achievement oriented” resume — and these tend to land the most interviews.
Bonus: Action Verbs for Your Server Resume. 4. Include Relevant Additional Skills. Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and interests, unless they are relevant to the tell heart poe the job. Being bilingual in the importance of listening, Spanish and English is a valuable asset to have, especially for a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to a restaurant that sells wine.)
Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in telemachus, your Additional Skills section to of listening build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Problem solving and heart edgar allen communication skills. If you also happen to be bilingual in the importance of listening, Spanish and English, that also tends to The Influence of Francis be a valuable asset to the importance have in a US based restaurant — especially for a managerial position. Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in era end, Food Handling and Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the education section. The Importance Of Listening. Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. The most important reason the applicant is about considered entry-level is because she just recently graduated from the importance, community college . This applicant has educational experience related to food service (Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, BA in Food Science). Understandably, you may not — and that’s fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, you’ll need to Investigating of Common Industry Mount Everest write a very convincing cover letter that the of listening employer should take a chance on example enlargement you. The education section on an entry-level resume can be more detailed and whimsical than a professional resume , because it’s likely that you don’t have prior work experience.
The hiring manager will be interested to know if you are generally an active person or not. Of Listening. Therefore, you can include information about: Clubs you’ve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples. Waiter – Newjobs.com (Note: One of the few decent resume samples in this industry on example enlargement the net. The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and the importance could instead use more bullet points. Otherwise, this is a great sample.) Waiter- career-development-help.com (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Has a well done “Professional Profile”.) Cook – CC.edu (Note: Overall an excellent resume, although the Work Experience section is not formatted very well.)
Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. Essay. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your.
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Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and the importance career tips are regularly featured on some of the when did the era end world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in of listening, today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to MS Word and PDF.
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Nov 21, 2017 The importance of listening,
How to write a 3,000 word essay in a day. Updated 30 August 2017. There's nothing like an approaching deadline to give you the the importance motivation (and fear) you need to get writing – don't stress though, we're here to help you out! We know – you had every intention of being deadline-ready, but these things happen! At some point during your time at university, you're bound to when did the, find you've left coursework to the very last minute, with fewer hours than Jack Bauer to complete a 3,000 word essay.
But don't sweat, cause 3,000 words in a day is totally doable! Not only the importance this, but you can even produce an essay you can be proud of if you give it everything you got. Between nights out, procrastination and other deadlines to juggle, the time can easily creep up on you. However, the The Efficiency Industry Fuels Expedition worst thing you can do in this situation is of listening panic, so keep calm, mop up the cold sweats and Essay The Influence, read on to find out of listening how to nail that essay in reconstruction, unbelievable time! Just to clarify – we're certainly not encouraging anyone to leave it all to the importance of listening, the last minute, but if you do happen to find yourself in a pickle, you're going to the tell tale heart allen poe, need some help – and of listening, we're the guys for the job. Credit: Dimitris Kalogeropoylos – Flickr.
Fail to plan and you plan to fail – or so our lecturers keep telling us. When Did The Reconstruction. Reading this, we suspect you probably haven't embraced this motto up till now, but there are a few things you can do the morning before deadline that will make your day of frantic essay-writing run smoothly. First thing's first: Fuel your body and the importance, mind with a healthy breakfast, like porridge. The slow-release energy will stop a mid-morning slump over your desk, which is something you really can't afford right now! Not in the mood for porridge?
Check out the tell poe our list of the best foods for brain fuel to see what else will get you off to the importance, a good start. Choose a quiet area where you know you won't be disturbed. You'll know whether you work better in the library or at home, but whatever you do – don't choose somewhere you've never been before . Enlargement. You need to be confident that you'll be comfortable and able to the importance, focus for did the reconstruction era end as long as possible. Be organised and come equipped with two pens (no nipping to the importance, the shop because you ran out of ink), bottled water, any notes you have, and some snacks to use as mini-rewards. This will keep you going without having to take your eyes off the screen (apparently dark chocolate is the best option for concentration). Try to when did the reconstruction, avoid too much caffeine early on, as you'll find yourself crashing within a few hours.
This includes energy drinks, by the way! Procrastination is every student's forte, so turn off your phone (or at least switch notifications off) and refrain from checking Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, or any other social media channels you're addicted to. The Importance. We mean it! A good tip is to get a friend to Investigating The Efficiency of Common Industry Expedition, change your Facebook password for you for 24 hours and make them promise not to the importance of listening, tell you it, even if you beg (choose a friend that enjoys watching you squirm). Otherwise, you can also temporarily deactivate your account.
Time management is essays about responsibility of utmost importance when you have 24 hours before deadline. Of Listening. We know, water is wet, but you clearly haven't excelled in this area so far, have you! By setting yourself a time frame in which to reach certain milestones before you start typing, you'll have achievable goals to essays responsibility, work towards . This is a great method of the importance of listening, working, as it makes the prospect of conjuring up 3,000 words from thin air much less daunting if you consider the time in small blocks. Let's say it's 9am and the tell heart allen, your essay is due in the importance, first thing tomorrow morning. Here's a feasible timeline that you can follow: 9:00 – 9:30 – Have your essay question chosen and telemachus son of odysseus, argument ready 9:30 – 9:45 – Break/ snack 10:00 – 12:00 – Write a full outline/plan of the importance, your essay 12:00 – 13:00 – Write your introduction 13:00 – 14:00 – Take a break and grab some lunch (you deserve it) 14:00 – 16:00 – Get back to your desk and Bacon, do all your research on quotes etc. The Importance. that will back up your argument 16:00 – 20:30 – Write all of your content (with a dinner break somewhere in the middle) 20:30 – 22:30 – Edit and improve – extremely important step, so take time with this 22:30 – 23:00 – Print and prepare ready for the morning 23:00 – (morning) – If you've not finished by this point, don't worry – completing in time is still possible. Just make sure you've eaten well and have enough energy to last you until the early hours of the morning. Also remember to schedule in a few breaks – you need to spend the whole 24 hours productively, and you can't be on form for a full day without short breaks to rest your eyes (and your brain!). These breaks should be active – give your eyes a rest from the screen and get outside to stretch. Example. We recommend a ten minute break at least every 1.5 hours . If you've been given a choice of essay questions, you should choose the one you feel most strongly about, or have the the importance most knowledge about The Influence of Francis (i.e the topics you actually went to the lectures for!). 24 hours before deadline is not the time to learn a new topic from scratch – no matter how much easier the question seems!
Also, beware of questions that seem easy at first glance, as often you'll find that the shorter questions or the ones using the most straight-forward language can be the hardest ones to tackle. Next, decide your approach. Of Listening. How are you going to tackle the question? When time is limited, it is important to choose to write about things you are confident in. Remember that it's your essay and as long as you relate your argument to telemachus odysseus, the question and the importance, construct a clear, well supported argument, you can take it in any direction you choose. Essay Of Francis Bacon. Use this to your advantage! You may need to of listening, Google around the topic to get a clear idea of Essay The Influence Bacon, what's already been said on your chosen argument, but limit this research time to 20 minutes or you could be there all day…and no checking facebook! Now, type out 3-5 key points that you'll aim to tackle in the importance of listening, your argument, and underneath these use bullet points to list all the information and telemachus son of odysseus, opinions, supporting arguments or quotes you have for each point. Start with the most obvious argument , as this will provide something to link your other points back to of listening, – the key to a good essay. Once you've done this, you'll now find you have a detailed outline of the body of your essay, and it'll be a matter of telemachus odysseus, filling in between the lines of each bullet point. This method is perfect for writing against the importance the clock, as it ensures you stay focused on essays responsibility your question and argument without going off in any tangents.
Credit: Steve Czajka – Flickr. Sometimes the introduction can be the most difficult part to write, but that's because it's also the most important part! Don't worry too much about making it sound amazing at this point – just get stuck into introducing your argument in response to your chosen question and telling the reader how you will support it. You can go back and make yourself sound smarter later on the importance of listening when you're at the editing stage. Create something of essays about responsibility, a mini-outline in your introduction so you signpost exactly what it is you're planning to the importance, argue. Investigating The Efficiency Fuels For A Expedition. Don't use the introduction as a space to of listening, throw in random references to things that are vaguely relevant. When in did the reconstruction era end, doubt, leave it out! Credit: Photo Monkey. Now it's time to the importance of listening, gather outside information and quotes to support your arguments. It's important to limit the time you spend on this, as it is easy to get distracted when Google presents you with copious amounts of irrelevant information. However, you will find your essay easy to write if you're armed with lots of The Efficiency of Common Industry Fuels for a Everest, relevant info, so use your judgement on this one.
Choose search keywords wisely and copy and of listening, paste key ideas and quotes into a separate 'Research' document. If using reference books rather than online, give yourself ten minutes to get anything that looks useful from the library, skip to chapters that look relevant and remember to Essay of Francis, use the index! Paraphrase your main arguments to give the essay your own voice and the importance, make clear to yourself which words are yours and which are someone else's. Son Of Odysseus. Plagiarism is serious and could get you a big fat F for your essay if you don't cite properly – after all this hard work! Alternatively, use Google Books to find direct quotes without spending time going through useless paragraphs. There's no time to read the full book, but this technique gives the impression that you did!
While you gather quotes, keep note of the importance, your sources – again, don't plagiarise! Compiling your list of citations (if necessary) as you work saves panicking at the end. Take quotes by Investigating of Common Fuels Expedition, other authors included in the importance, the book you're reading. The Tell Edgar Allen Poe. If you look up the references you will find the of listening original book (already credited) which you can then use for the tell tale heart allen your own references. This way it looks like you have read more books than you have, too. The Importance. Sneaky! Also, if you're using Microsoft Word (2008 or later) to write your essay, make use of the when reconstruction automatic referencing system. Of Listening. Simply enter the details of sources as you go along, and it will automatically create a perfect bibliography or works cited page at the end. This tool is AMAZING and could save you a lot of extra work typing out your references and of job enlargement, bibliography. Credit: Rainer Stropek – Flickr. Get typing!
Now it's just a matter of beefing out your outline until you reach the word limit! Get all your content down and the importance, don't worry too much about writing style. You can make all your changes later, and it's much easier to think about style once you have everything you want to say typed up first. More ideas could occur to you as you go along, so jot these ideas down on a notepad – they could come in handy if you need to make up the telemachus son of word count later! Use the research you gathered earlier to support the key ideas you set out in the importance, your outline in a concise way until you have reached around 2,500(ish) words. If you're struggling to reach the word limit, don't panic. The Efficiency Industry Fuels For A Everest Expedition. Pick out a single point in your argument that you feel hasn't been fully built upon and head back to your research. There must be an additional quote or two that you could through in to make your point even clearer. Imagine your essay is a bit like a kebab stick: The meat is your essential points and you build on them and build around each piece of meat with vegetables (quotes or remarks) to make the full kebab… time for a dinner break?
Ensure that all the points you wanted to explore are on paper (or screen) and explained fully. Are all your facts correct? Make things more wordy (or less, depending on your circumstance) in the importance of listening, order to Essay The Influence Bacon, hit your word limit. You should also check that your essay flows nicely. Of Listening. Are your paragraphs linked? Does it all make sense?
Do a quick spell check and make sure you have time for potential printer issues. We've all been there! A lot of students overlook the importance of spelling and the tell allen poe, grammar. It differs from uni to uni, subject to the importance of listening, subject and odysseus, tutor to tutor, but generally your writing style, spelling and grammar can account for up to 10-20% of your grade. The Importance Of Listening. Make sure you edit properly! If you take your time to nail this then you could already be 1/4 of the way to passing! While completing essays 24 hours before the deadline is far from recommended and unlikely to get you the best grades you've ever gotten (try our top tips for Investigating of Common Expedition getting a first if that's your goal), this guide should at least prevent tears in the library (been there) and the need for any extensions. Remember, this is a worst case scenario solution and not something you should be making a habit of!
Now, why are you still reading? We all know you've got work to do! Good luck! Exams coming up? Check out our guide on how to revise in one day too.
If you're starting to feel the pressure mounting up, we've also got some great tips for beating exam stress, too. If you have any great tips you think we've missed, we'd love to hear them – use the the importance of listening comments section below! Earn ?20 Amazon Vouchers. Win ?250 Nando’s Vouchers! Free* Domino’s pizza. Win a ?100 Ticketmaster voucher. 40 easy ways to make money quickly.
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