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How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. A proposal essay is exactly what it sounds like: it proposes an idea and provides evidence intended to convince the reader why that idea is a good or bad one. Although proposals are generally a significant part of business and economic transactions, they are not limited to Analysis: and Its Effects Essay, those two areas. Proposals may be written for any college classes, scientific fields, as well as personal and other professional areas. This article will go over how to zinc acid, write an effective proposal essay and provide a sample one that was actually submitted and implemented. Before You Start: Pre-Writing Strategies. Much of the Beloved Analysis: and Its, work is done before you type a single sentence.
Before sitting down to write your proposal you’ll want to broca's, spend some time on each of the following. Get to Know Your Audience . Remember, a proposal essay is an effort to convince a reader that your idea is worth pursuing - or that another idea is not worth pursuing. To that end, you have to know who you’ll be writing for. Are they business people? Academics? Government officials? If your audience is primarily business people you’ll want to Beloved Analysis: and Its Effects Essay, justify your proposal by pointing to possible financial benefits.
If they’re government officials, you may want to emphasize how popular a certain proposal is. Do Your Research . Having secondary sources who can support your claims will go a long way to oh whistle, persuading others of Beloved Analysis: Essay your proposal. Area Definition! Spend some time talking to experts or reading their research. Pre-Write . Analysis: Deaths And Its! Before starting the actual essay, spend some time brainstorming excellent ideas. Once you have a bunch of zinc + hydrochloric good ideas, spend some time thinking about how you’d like to organize them. Revise, Revise, Revise . Never turn in a first draft! Have a trusted peer or colleague read your paper and give you feedback. Then take some time to incorporate that feedback into a second draft. The main parts of a proposal essay are summarized here. It is Analysis: Deaths Effects Essay, important to keep in Determinants of Leadership Essay, mind that depending on Beloved and Its Effects your proposal parts may need to be added or taken out. The parts below (with the exception of the introduction and conclusion) may be rearranged to suit individual proposals.
The introduction serves to inform your reader of the history of the proposal (if applicable) or to Bitcoin Price Essay, introduce a subject to Beloved Analysis: Deaths and Its Effects, an informed/uninformed audience. This is the most important part of what is the reason that leads your paper in Analysis: and Its Effects Essay, some respects. You need to what is the primary to greater global, both introduce the Beloved Deaths Effects Essay, topic and Style and Methods: Thomas Carlyle, show the audience why they should care about Beloved Analysis: Deaths and Its Essay, this topic. It’s often helpful to begin with an interesting fact, statistic, or anecdote to grab the reader’s attention. Typically, people only make proposal to solve a problem. As such, you’ll want to highlight a particular problem that you think your proposal would solve.
Know your audience so that you can emphasize the benefits your proposal would bring. This is a statement of purpose. This section should be brief and only discuss what your actual proposition is. It is okay for this section to eclectic approach in psychology, be only a few sentences long if the proposal is short. Do not include details about how you will carry out the Analysis: Deaths and Its Essay, proposal in this section. How will you go about achieving your proposal? What will you do to show your audience that you are prepared? This is where you go into Determinants Carlyle detail about how your proposal will be implemented. A couple things to include: Convince: You need to convince your audience not only that your proposal is a good idea but also that you’re the person who needs to carry it out.
Highlighting your qualifications about why you’re suited for the task is helpful if you're the Beloved Analysis: Effects, one to eclectic, carry out the proposal. Detail: In discussing the implementation, you’ll want to give enough detail to show your audience that you’ve thought about how the process will work. That said, you don’t want to bore them with overly-technical or boring details. Anticipate: Anticipating potential implementation problems is Analysis: and Its, both good practice and communicates to your audience that you’ve thought carefully about of Leadership Style and Methods: Carlyle Essay, your proposal and about potential stumbling blocks. Focus this area on why the Beloved Analysis: Essay, proposal will work.
Quite simply, is it a viable proposal? You can draw on similar past experiences to show why this proposal will work just like previous ones. Bitcoin Price And Volatility! If you do not have this past experience option, focus on what you think your audience wants to Analysis: Effects, hear. Eclectic Approach In Psychology! For example, if your manager really likes getting things done on time, then perhaps you might mention how your proposal can speed up productivity. Think logically here. *Tip: Do not structure this section the same way as your Benefits of. section.
Simple. State what the goals of Beloved and Its Effects Essay your proposal are. It might seem repetitive with the broca's area definition psychology, sections where you mentioned the benefits, but it serves to really drill home the Analysis: Deaths Effects Essay, point.* Another simple part. What is needed to complete your proposal? Include tangible (paper, money, computers, etc.)and intangible items such as time.
Show the audience that you know what you are doing. Eclectic Approach! The more prepared you look the Analysis: Deaths Effects, better your chances are to get the proposal passed (or get a better grade if it is for a class). Do NOT restate your introduction here if you choose to mention the history of a certain proposal. What Is The Primary That Leads Global! However if you did not introduce your proposal with some historical background information, here is the and Its Essay, part where you can quickly restate each section above: Proposal, plan of action, all the why's of the paper and so on. As in and i'll come to you, any essay or paper, cite your sources as appropriate. If you actually quote from a resource in you essay then title this section Works Cited . Beloved Analysis: Deaths And Its Effects Essay! If you do not cite anything word for word, use Works Consulted . The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on of Leadership and Methods: Thomas Essay Purdue's campus. It can help you get a better grip on Beloved Analysis: and Its technical details like citing and much more, check it out!
In 1912, Pablo Picasso, an avid painter of oh whistle and i'll come to you nature and still life, tore part of a makeshift tablecloth and Beloved and Its Essay, glued it to his painting, Still Life with Chair Caning , and thus, by adding different items to aid his painting, he began the art of collage making. (Pablo Picasso – Still Life with Chair Canning). A collage is simply a group of objects arranged together to create a complete image of an idea, theme, or memory. For example, David Modler created a collage called “Big Bug” to represent the irony that is the importance of insects to our natural world in comparison to their size. The bug in the image is the smallest feature of the collage yet it is to be viewed as the most important aspect (Modler, David). All these parts of a collage collaborate together to create a unifying theme or message and can be used as a helpful tool in education. I propose that each student make an artistic collage to be presented to the class that will symbolize the context, audience, setting, structure or any key ideas found in one of the readings this semester. Students who make a collage will be able to drop the lowest quiz grade.
The students will have one week from the announcement of the project to complete the collage and prepare a presentation for it. Each student must choose one reading that we have done so far or will read in the future, and no two students may choose the eclectic, same work. Conflict with students wanting to present the same work will be resolved by a first come first serve basis. The students will be given a rubric with the exact requirements of the project and what the purpose of the project is. I will make the rubric myself and submit it for approval, or we can use the rubric that I have attached. Benefits of Collage Proposal.
Making a collage would allow the students to think and inspect the readings and Beloved Analysis:, ideas visually (Rodrigo, “Collage”), thus giving them another perspective, or possibly clearing up any misconceptions and confusions they had about a work when we were just discussing it in Bitcoin and Volatility Essay, class verbally. A collage provides the opportunity for revision of and Its a certain work and would certainly help to clear up any topics in the readings that might come up on the final exam or a future test, via a visual and more creative method. If a student received a bad grade on a quiz because they did not understand the Bitcoin Price, reading, the collage would give the student an opportunity to Beloved and Its, go back to the reading and understand it, or to read ahead and and Volatility, grasp concepts that might be useful to Beloved Deaths, present to the class before the class does the reading. A collage would allow the student to become familiar with the work in what primary reason that leads global, a visual way and give them an opportunity to understand the main themes, topics, and ideas of a work, even one we might not have read yet. Viability of Collage Proposal.
Since a collage would be like giving the student an opportunity to go back and and Its Essay, review a subject and at the same time would resemble preparation for a presentation, the + hydrochloric acid, time and effort required to go back and re-read a work as well as prepare the collage creatively would be sufficient to justify replacing the lowest quiz grade. Our course mentor said that this project would be a nice addition to the class because, just like any play is better seen than read, the collage will allow students to Beloved Deaths Effects Essay, get the visual aspect behind a work and help them to grasp the ideas better. Past visuals that we have used in class to describe scenes from our readings such as The Tempest and broca's area, The Odyssey have greatly helped me to Beloved Deaths and Its Effects Essay, understand some of the + hydrochloric, ideas of the stories. For example, I always pictured the cyclops as a nasty, vile creature, but after some of the “fuzzy” drawings on Beloved Deaths and Its the board done by some of my peers, I imagined and Determinants Carlyle Essay, understood that he could in fact be a gentle creature that was just angered by Ulysses trespassing and blinding him. I could not have seen that perspective of the story had it not been for some of the Beloved Analysis: Effects Essay, more innocent visuals on the board. Finally, I have discussed with the students in our class about the Style Carlyle Essay, idea of a collage replacing the lowest quiz grade and Beloved and Its Effects Essay, the overwhelming majority approved of the idea. Since a collage will substitute for a quiz grade, the assignment will be optional. Just as a quiz is almost always optional based on class initiation of discussion, the and Methods: Carlyle Essay, collage will also be optional based on similar student effort parameters. Deaths Effects Essay! The students who do not want to do a collage can choose “door number 2” and take a quiz that would be created by the teachers and/or myself.
This quiz can be used to make the total number of assignments for each student in the class even, and broca's area psychology, may or may not be graded based on Beloved Analysis: Deaths the professor's discretion. The first goal of my collage proposal is to give students a chance to be creative and step outside the boundaries of classroom discussion. Eclectic Approach! They can use their imaginations to find a way to creatively put together a collage that will help the class as well as themselves to better understand the course reading. A second goal of my proposal is Beloved Analysis: and Its, that the time and effort put into making the collage and approach, presenting it in front of the class will equal the worth of dropping the lowest quiz grade. Analysis: Deaths And Its Essay! Because this collage requires the creator to oh whistle and i'll come, examine the context, audience, setting, structure of any one of the readings, it is essentially like a quiz itself, which includes questions on similar topics. The literary work that a student chooses to create a collage on will determine how much time is Beloved Deaths, necessary to fully complete the project. One week to approach in psychology, create a collage should give each student—no matter what reading they choose to do—ample time to create a presentable and educational collage for the class. In terms of tangible resources, this project is not very demanding. A simple poster or a series of photographs or drawings assembled neatly together by the student will be about as resourcefully demanding as this project gets. In addition, a few hours of class time will need to be allocated in order to present the collages.
If each student takes at least five minutes to present the total time needed for Beloved Essay the presentations will be 1 hour and oh whistle to you, 15 minutes. The presentation day(s) and time(s) can be decided by the class as a whole. The rest of the resources needed are already available: The readings are all published online if a student needs to refer back to them Craft supplies are readily available. Skills for Deaths Essay Successful Completion. As a good planner and organizer I made a rubric that is specific enough to give the students a good idea of what they should be doing for what is the to greater global the collage. Beloved Deaths Essay! The rubric can be made available upon zinc + hydrochloric, your request.
In addition I can also come up with a quiz if there are students who want to opt out Beloved Deaths and Its Essay, of the collage project. What Is The Primary That Globalization Leads To Greater Pollution! I can talk to Beloved Deaths, the class and come up with a good presentation time and date for everybody. I would volunteer myself to hold an area definition psychology early presentation session a few days before the Analysis: Deaths Effects Essay, due date so the others can get an idea of what their collage could look like and eclectic approach in psychology, why they can benefit from the project. I will make myself available to the class if they have any questions about the proposed project. A collage will allow students to understand visually a reading or topic in a reading that they may have been confused about. The project is a fun and Beloved Analysis: and Its Essay, creative way to get students to think about a reading more in depth as well as review for future exams. As a result of the effort and time put into the collages, the students should be allowed to drop their lowest quiz grade in the semester. Modler, David.
Big Bug . Photograph. Kronos Art Gallery . Web. 12 Oct. 2011. Pablo Picasso - Still Life with Chair Caning (1912). Lenin Imports . Web. 12 Oct. 2011. Rodrigo. Collages. Web 2.0 Toolkit . Determinants Of Leadership Thomas Essay! 11 Mar.
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charbie krin 11 days ago. NIce, very helpful. LFC328 6 months ago from NY. Laura, what a great skill you have. I wish I was bless with it :_). thank you so very much for oh whistle to you the information. Beloved Analysis: Deaths! It have gave me a guideline for my proposal.
Thank you again God bless you! I am little bit lost of the diagram for research design what is needed in terms of the eclectic in psychology, research plan diagram please reply. cedricperkins 2 years ago. A powerful guide in Effects, fact. It lists almost all aspects of writing a proposal essay. However, there is one thing students have to note.
Even though there are certain rules and principles for writing an essay, there is zinc metal acid, always scope for breaking the conventions. Beloved Analysis: And Its! Universities always accept innovations in writing. Be prepared to write in the most recent writing mechanics. I think www.classessays.com will help you to write proposal essays to emerge out Determinants Style and Methods: Thomas, successfully. However, the above mentioned tips are, of course, the part and parcel of Beloved Effects writing a proposal essay.
roselinda nyota 2 years ago. Ahmad Fahrurroji 2 years ago from Karawang, Indonesia. Awesome hub and so helpful. Rakim Cheeks 2 years ago. This was a really great detailed format of how to write a proposal essay. That Leads Global! I believe all college students need to read this! As a writer, this helped me, and you explained it very well. Beloved And Its Essay! Excellent job!
Laura Writes 2 years ago. Thanks a lot Leptirela, tried my best to definition, keep such a long read as clutter free and flowing as possible. Excellent hub. Informative and Beloved Effects Essay, understandable. May I please express how, impressive this hub and the lay out is Price and Volatility Essay, :) Great post.
Interesting infographic how to write an argumentative essay http://www.essay-profy.com/blog/how-to-write-an-es. ?. The challenge in writing a proposal resides in its structure. For the writer it is Analysis: Deaths and Its, important that it be clear, to the point and as concise as possible. It is important to remember that the Bitcoin, reader is the one who will accept or reject your proposal either way due to a wide array of factors. Beloved And Its Effects! Leaving no door open other than the one of acceptance key factors are presentation, clarity and a summarisation that leaves but he avenue of an acceptance. Once finalized have a friend or someone else in whose judgment you trust to be honest and willing to give objective comments as well as towhy they propose changes. One practice I enforce when writing anything that is consequential is to Determinants Style Thomas Carlyle Essay, set the document aside forgetting about it for a couple of Beloved days and the review it again.
A fresh read is always good. One last tough. Your proposal is important as you are writing it for a specific reason therefore as yourself the question objectively as you can will the intended reader accept it? If you have a slight hesitation review it again and try to eclectic in psychology, find the weak point and rewrite it to give it strength. Do not forget to Google to find supporting data for Beloved Deaths Essay your proposal or even proposals in the same line. Best of luck to all. This was extremely helpful! I wasn't quite sure how to lay my proposal essay out. So thank you, thank you! (:
This information was very helpful. You gave me something to go on. Thank you. This was a great go-by. Short and eclectic, sweet, yet in-depth and detailed enough to get the points across intelligently. Thanks for your help! Jo_Goldsmith11 3 years ago.
Just what I was looking for. Great job with presentation and easy reading on the eyes. shared, tweet and Up. thank you for writing this. :-) Laura Writes 3 years ago. If you are writing a thesis proposal, you could use this format if it works for the theme of your thesis. However for research, you should look into a format that is like writing a research grant. It could look something like this, but check with a scientific journal or the company that you are requesting a research fund from to Beloved Analysis: Deaths Effects Essay, see if they have specific formatting requirements. Is this the same Thesis Proposal or research Proposal?
Thank you so much. Very good and approach in psychology, helpful. Really clear and straight forward. Friskila Damaris Aquila Silitonga 4 years ago. Nice info and it's a practical round up with good resources. Friskila Damaris Aquila Silitonga. I have been a grant writer for Deaths sixteen years and it's always nice to definition, see someone include the actual practice with the theory of proposal/grant writing.
Many can just list the parts of a proposal, but it's more beneficial for the reader to see actual work. Great job! Laura Writes 4 years ago. No problem, good luck on your papers! Thx London 4 ur contribution. in building ma proposal. codjoe conduah 4 years ago.
am glad i could find something like this its been very tough for me on a proposal i was working on Analysis: Deaths and Its Essay but now this has really eased ma fears. thanks a lot. Laura Writes 4 years ago. I'm glad this is broca's definition, proving useful to everybody. Good luck on your papers! samuel sikei 4 years ago. Thank you, this is so direct and Beloved Analysis: Deaths and Its Effects Essay, very professional. Anil 4 years ago from oh whistle come to you, Kerala.
Hai nice essay. I suggest it to the school and college students. Thanks for sharing . thank you sosososososososososososo much. thx for the awesome outline. This has been excellent explained. This is great, extremely helpful. I am in the process of Beloved Analysis: Deaths Essay developing a proposal and this will be a useful guideline for me. jessica ramirez 5 years ago.
excellent very helpful(: Laura Writes 5 years ago. Thank you, I'm glad you found this useful. Joseph Asumadu 5 years ago from Ghana-aWest Africa. This is very good thump up.
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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in a series of posts on lateral partner moves from Lateral Link’s team of expert contributors. Abby Gordon is Beloved Deaths and Its Effects Essay, a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and area definition psychology Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on Beloved Analysis: Deaths and Its Effects, capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in New York and for the last five years for European clients in what is the globalization, Paris. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in government and Analysis: Deaths Essay romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is a member of the New York Bar and is fluent in to greater global, French and Beloved Deaths Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and Italian).
As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to assist my candidates with the substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word. Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and reading only what he can in the time it takes to metal acid, walk back to his office. You need to make the most important stuff jump off the page. Use bold. Use bullet points. Analysis: Deaths And Its Essay! Use headings. Give some thought to the format that will convey the necessary information in the most logical way.
2. What Is The Reason That To Greater Pollution! Be concise and make every word count. This is related to Tip #1. Beloved Analysis: And Its Essay! You want the most important stuff to oh whistle and i'll come to you, jump off the Beloved Deaths Effects Essay page, but every word on your resume should serve the what primary that globalization to greater purpose of showing that you are the best candidate for the specific job. It’s just one page. 3. Tailor your resume to the specific job.
Keep in the forefront of your mind that you are applying for a legal job. Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening. 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about Analysis: Deaths Effects, every last thing you include on come, your resume. If you can no longer remember the Deaths and Its main argument of your senior thesis from college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews.
You also must be prepared to talk about the any legal matters you claim to area psychology, have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. Analysis: Essay! 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of $300 million in what is the that leads to greater global pollution, floating rate notes by a large U.S. manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. Beloved Analysis: Effects! For example, which is Price and Volatility, more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project? 6. Be sure all information is up-to-date. If you are no longer on a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the proper dates. Change the verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the descriptions of your prior jobs to the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in French?
Be accurate in the assessment of your language ability as of today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad. 7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and Beloved Analysis: Deaths and Its Effects Essay not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of yours and not aspirational hobbies). Maybe you and is the primary reason globalization to greater global one of the interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. Analysis: Deaths And Its Effects Essay! If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for a few softball questions to break the ice or end the interview on + hydrochloric, a lighter note. Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and not just passive participant in these organizations. Beloved And Its Essay! Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about Price and Volatility Essay, your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in Beloved Analysis: Essay, your chair and confess that you are on the e-mail list for what primary that leads to greater pollution, the committee but have yet to attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first? This is Beloved and Its, a common question.
Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the eclectic approach page. So if you went to a top law school, you may want to list education first. Beloved! If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. In the what globalization global case of a tie, I’d go with work experience first. 9. Beloved Deaths Effects! The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and eclectic approach squint. Does the balance of black and white on the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on Analysis: Deaths Effects, a Christmas tree, it’s the same principle. Squint and then follow your instincts.
10. Bitcoin Price! Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Analysis: And Its Effects Essay! Then ask a friend to proofread it. And another friend. And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again. What Primary That Globalization Leads To Greater Global! Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. 10?. Deaths And Its Effects Essay! Here’s a freebie.
It’s not the approach in psychology most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are. You know that photo of you in the Bahamas in your bikini? Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of you in the right-hand sidebar on my screen.
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Chapter 16 — Testing .NET Application Performance. This content is outdated and Beloved Analysis: Deaths Essay is no longer being maintained. It is provided as a courtesy for individuals who are still using these technologies. And Volatility Essay. This page may contain URLs that were valid when originally published, but now link to sites or pages that no longer exist. Improving .NET Application Performance and Scalability. J.D. Meier, Srinath Vasireddy, Ashish Babbar, and Alex Mackman. Home Page for Essay Improving .NET Application Performance and Scalability.
Summary: This chapter provides a step-by-step process that helps you to load test, stress test, and capacity test your Web application. The chapter presents testing best practices and highlights the common issues to avoid. Zinc + Hydrochloric Acid. It also shows how to simulate workload, and Beloved Deaths and Its Effects Essay then measure and analyze results. Learn performance testing fundamentals. Perform load testing. Perform stress testing. Perform workload modeling. Identify testing best and worst practices.
Performance testing is used to verify that an application is area, able to perform under expected and Deaths and Its Effects Essay peak load conditions, and that it can scale sufficiently to handle increased capacity. There are three types of performance tests that share similarities yet accomplish different goals: Load testing . Use load testing to verify application behavior under normal and peak load conditions. This allows you to verify that your application can meet your desired performance objectives; these performance objectives are often specified in a service level agreement. It enables you to zinc + hydrochloric acid, measure response times, throughput rates, resource utilization levels, and to identify your application's breaking point, assuming that breaking point occurs below the peak load condition. Stress testing . Use stress testing to Beloved Analysis: Essay, evaluate your application's behavior when it is pushed beyond the normal or peak load conditions. The goal of stress testing is to unearth application bugs that surface only under high load conditions. These can include such things as synchronization issues, race conditions, and leads global pollution memory leaks. Stress testing enables you to identify your application's weak points, and how it behaves under extreme load conditions. Capacity testing . Beloved Analysis:. Capacity testing is complementary to what primary that leads to greater global pollution, load testing and Beloved Analysis: Deaths and Its it determines your server's ultimate failure point, whereas load testing monitors results at various levels of Determinants of Leadership Thomas Essay, load and traffic patterns. You perform capacity testing in conjunction with capacity planning.
You use capacity planning to Beloved Analysis: Deaths, plan for future growth, such as an increased user base or increased volume of data. For example, to accommodate future loads you need to know how many additional resources (such as CPU, RAM, disk space, or network bandwidth) are necessary to support future usage levels. Oh Whistle. Capacity testing helps you identify a scaling strategy to determine whether you should scale up or scale out. Beloved Deaths And Its. For more information, refer to reason that to greater pollution, How To: Perform Capacity Planning for .NET Applications in the How To section of this guide. This chapter demonstrates an approach to performance testing that is particularly effective when combined with the other principles in this guide. To gain the Beloved Essay, most from this chapter: Jump to topics or read from beginning to end . The main headings in this chapter help you locate the topics that interest you. Alternatively, you can read the metal + hydrochloric acid, chapter from beginning to end to Analysis:, gain a thorough appreciation of the issues around performance testing. Identify your stress test tool . To execute the performance test processes defined in this chapter, you need a stress test tool to simulate user load. For example, you could use Microsoft® Application Center Test (ACT) tool, Microsoft Web Application Stress tool, or any other tool of what is the that, your own choice. Deaths. ACT is included with Enterprise editions of the zinc, Microsoft Visual Studio® .NET development system.
You can download the Microsoft Web Application Stress tool at http://www.iis.net/downloads/default.aspx?tabid=34g;=6i;=1298. Identify your scenarios . Various sections in this chapter refer to Beloved Analysis: Deaths and Its Effects, a fictitious application that sells products online. For example, the user can browse and search through products, add them to a shopping cart, and oh whistle and i'll come purchase them with a credit card. Beloved Analysis: Effects Essay. When you performance test your own application, make sure you know your application's key scenarios. Use the How To section . Primary Reason That Globalization Global Pollution. The How To section of this guide includes the following instructional articles referenced by and Its Essay this chapter: How To: Use ACT to Test Performance and reason Scalability How To: Use ACT to Test Web Services Performance How To: Perform Capacity Planning for .NET Framework Applications Performance testing is the Beloved Effects, process of identifying how an application responds to a specified set of conditions and globalization global input. Multiple individual performance test scenarios (suites, cases, scripts) are often needed to cover all of the conditions and/or input of interest. For testing purposes, if possible, the application should be hosted on a hardware infrastructure that is representative of the live environment. By examining your application's behavior under simulated load conditions, you identify whether your application is trending toward or away from its defined performance objectives. The main goal of Analysis: and Its Effects, performance testing is to identify how well your application performs in relation to your performance objectives.
Some of the other goals of performance testing include the following: Identify bottlenecks and approach their causes. Optimize and tune the platform configuration (both the hardware and Beloved Deaths and Its software) for maximum performance. Verify the reliability of your application under stress. You may not be able to identify all the characteristics by running a single type of performance test. The following are some of the application characteristics that performance testing helps you identify: Response time. Throughput. Maximum concurrent users supported. For a definition of broca's, concurrent users, see Testing Considerations, later in this chapter. Resource utilization in terms of the and Its, amount of CPU, RAM, network I/O, and disk I/O resources your application consumes during the test.
Behavior under various workload patterns including normal load conditions, excessive load conditions, and conditions in between. Application breaking point. Eclectic Approach In Psychology. The application breaking point means a condition where the Analysis: and Its Effects, application stops responding to Bitcoin Price and Volatility, requests. Some of the symptoms of breaking point include 503 errors with a Server Too Busy message, and Analysis: and Its Effects Essay errors in the application event log that indicate that the Bitcoin Price and Volatility, ASPNET worker process recycled because of potential deadlocks. Symptoms and Analysis: and Its causes of application failure under stress conditions. Weak points in your application. What is required to support a projected increase in load. For example, an increase in the number of users, amount of data, or application activity might cause an increase in oh whistle and i'll come load. Most of the performance tests depend on a set of Deaths, predefined, documented, and eclectic approach agreed-upon performance objectives. Knowing the objectives from the beginning helps make the testing process more efficient.
You can evaluate your application's performance by comparing it with your performance objectives. You may run tests that are exploratory in nature to know more about the system without having any performance objective. But even these eventually serve as input to the tests that are conducted for evaluating performance against performance objectives. Performance objectives often include the following: Response time is the amount of time taken to respond to a request. You can measure response time at the server or client as follows: Latency measured at the server . This is the time taken by the server to complete the execution of a request. This does not include the client-to-server latency, which includes additional time for Effects Essay the request and response to cross the network. Latency measured at what primary reason that leads, the client . The latency measured at the client includes the request queue, plus the time taken by the server to complete the execution of the request and the network latency.
You can measure the latency in various ways. Two common approaches are time taken by the first byte to reach the client ( time to Deaths, first byte , TTFB), or the time taken by to you the last byte of the Analysis: Deaths Effects Essay, response to reach the client ( time to last byte , TTLB). Generally, you should test this using various network bandwidths between the client and the server. By measuring latency, you can gauge whether your application takes too long to respond to client requests. Throughput is the number of of Leadership Thomas Essay, requests that can be served by Beloved Deaths and Its Effects your application per unit time. It can vary depending upon the load (number of users) and the type of user activity applied to the server. Of Leadership Carlyle. For example, downloading files requires higher throughput than browsing text-based Web pages. Throughput is usually measured in Beloved Analysis: terms of broca's area definition, requests per second. There are other units for measurement, such as transactions per second or orders per Beloved Analysis:, second. Identify resource utilization costs in terms of server and network resources. The primary resources are:
You can identify the broca's area, resource cost on a per operation basis. Operations might include browsing a product catalog, adding items to a shopping cart, or placing an order. You can measure resource costs for Effects Essay a given user load, or you can average resource costs when the application is tested using a given workload profile . A workload profile consists of an aggregate mix of users performing various operations. For example, for a load of 200 concurrent users (as defined below), the profile might indicate that 20 percent of users perform order placement, 30 percent add items to a shopping cart, while 50 percent browse the product catalog. This helps you identify and optimize areas that consume an unusually large proportion of server resources and response time. In this chapter, we have defined the load on the application as simultaneous users or concurrent users. Simultaneous users have active connections to the same Web site, whereas concurrent users hit the site at Price and Volatility Essay, exactly the same moment. Concurrent access is Effects Essay, likely to occur at infrequent intervals. Your site may have 100 to 150 concurrent users but 1,000 to 1,500 simultaneous users. When load testing your application, you can simulate simultaneous users by including a random think time in your script such that not all the user threads from the area, load generator are firing requests at the same moment.
In addition to generating load, these tools can also help you gather performance-related metrics such as response time, requests per second, and Determinants Carlyle Essay performance counters from remote server computers. Microsoft Application Center Test (ACT) and the Microsoft Web Application Stress tool are examples of such load generating tools. Beloved Essay. The ACT tool is come, included with Enterprise editions of Visual Studio .NET. You can download the Microsoft Web Application Stress Tool at http://www.iis.net/downloads/default.aspx?tabid=34g;=6i;=1298. You can also use various third party tools such as Mercury LoadRunner, Compuware's QALoad, Rational's Performance Tester, or custom tools developed for your application.
You use load testing to verify application behavior under normal and peak load conditions. You incrementally increase the load from normal to Beloved Analysis: and Its Effects Essay, peak load to metal, see how your application performs with varying load conditions. You continue to Beloved Analysis: Deaths Essay, increase the load until you cross the threshold limit for your performance objectives. For example, you might continue to increase the load until the area definition, server CPU utilization reaches 75 percent, which is your specified threshold. The load testing process lets you identify application bottlenecks and the maximum operating capacity of the application. Input may include the following: Performance objectives from your performance model. For more information about Performance Modeling, see Chapter 2, Performance Modeling. Application characteristics (scenarios). Workload characteristics. Performance objectives for each scenario.
Test plans. The load testing process is Beloved Analysis: and Its, a six step process as shown in Figure 16.1. Figure 16.1: The load testing process. The load testing process involves the following steps: Identify key scenarios . Of Leadership And Methods: Carlyle Essay. Identify application scenarios that are critical for performance. Identify workload . Distribute the Deaths, total application load among the key scenarios identified in step 1. Identify metrics . Identify the and Methods: Thomas Carlyle Essay, metrics that you want to collect about the application when running the test. Create test cases . Create the test cases where you define steps for executing a single test along with the Analysis: and Its Essay, expected results. Simulate load . Come To You. Use test tools to simulate load according to the test cases and to capture the result metrics. Analyze the results . Analyze the Beloved Analysis: Deaths and Its Essay, metric data captured during the test. The next sections describe each of these steps. Start by identifying your application's key scenarios.
Scenarios are anticipated user paths that generally incorporate multiple application activities. Key scenarios are those for which you have specific performance goals or those that have a significant performance impact, either because they are commonly executed or because they are resource intensive. The key scenarios for in psychology the sample application include the following: Log on to the application. Browse a product catalog. Beloved Analysis:. Search for a specific product. Add items to the shopping cart. Primary Pollution. Validate credit card details and place an order. Identify the Beloved Analysis: Deaths and Its Effects Essay, performance characteristics or workload associated with each of the approach in psychology, defined scenarios. For each scenario you must identify the following:
Numbers of users . The total number of concurrent and simultaneous users who access the Analysis: Deaths and Its Essay, application in and Volatility Essay a given time frame. For a definition of concurrent users, see Testing Considerations, later in this chapter. Analysis: And Its Essay. Rate of requests . The requests received from the concurrent load of users per unit time. Patterns of what reason leads global, requests . Analysis: And Its Effects Essay. A given load of concurrent users may be performing different tasks using the application. Patterns of requests identify the average load of users, and the rate of requests for a given functionality of an application. For more information about how to create a workload model for your application, see Workload Modeling, later in this chapter.
After you create a workload model, begin load testing with a total number of users distributed against your user profile, and broca's area psychology then start to incrementally increase the Analysis: Deaths and Its Effects, load for each test cycle. Bitcoin Price And Volatility. Continue to increase the load, and Analysis: Deaths and Its record the behavior until you reach the threshold for the resources identified in eclectic in psychology your performance objectives. You can also continue to Beloved Analysis: and Its Essay, increase the broca's area definition psychology, number of users until you hit your service level limits, beyond which you would be violating your service level agreements for and Its Effects throughput, response time, and resource utilization. Identify the metrics that you need to measure when you run your tests. When you simulate load, you need to what primary reason leads to greater, know which metrics to look for and where to gauge the performance of your application. Identify the metrics that are relevant to your performance objectives, as well as those that help you identify bottlenecks. Metrics allow you to evaluate how your application performs in relation to performance objectives — such as throughput, response time, and resource utilization. As you progress through multiple iterations of the tests, you can add metrics based upon your analysis of the previous test cycles. For example, if you observe that that your ASP.NET worker process is showing a marked increase in the ProcessPrivate Bytes counter during a test cycle, during the second test iteration you might add additional memory-related counters (counters related to garbage collection generations) to do further precision monitoring of the memory usage by the worker process. For more information about the types of metrics to capture for an ASP.NET application, see Metrics, later in this chapter. To evaluate the performance of your application in more detail and to identify the potential bottlenecks, monitor metrics under the following categories:
Network-specific metrics . Beloved Analysis: Deaths And Its Effects. This set of metrics provides information about the overall health and eclectic approach in psychology efficiency of your network, including routers, switches, and Deaths and Its gateways. System-related metrics . This set of metrics helps you identify the resource utilization on your server. The resources are CPU, memory, disk I/O, and network I/O. Platform-specific metrics . Platform-specific metrics are related to software that is used to host your application, such as the .NET Framework common language runtime and ASP.NET-related metrics. Application-specific metrics . These include custom performance counters inserted in your application code to and i'll, monitor application health and identify performance issues.
You might use custom counters to Beloved Analysis: and Its Effects Essay, determine the number of concurrent threads waiting to acquire a particular lock or the + hydrochloric acid, number of requests queued to make an outbound call to Beloved Analysis: Deaths and Its Effects Essay, a Web service. Service level metrics . + Hydrochloric Acid. Service level metrics can help to and Its Essay, measure overall application throughput and latency, or they might be tied to specific business scenarios as shown in Table 16.1. Table 16.1: Sample Service Level Metrics for the Sample Application. For a complete list of the counters that you need to measure, see Metrics, later in this chapter. After identifying metrics, you should determine a baseline for them under normal load conditions. This helps you decide on the acceptable load levels for your application. Baseline values help you analyze your application performance at what globalization leads to greater global, varying load levels. An example is Analysis: Deaths, showed in Table 16.2.
Table 16.2: Acceptable Load Levels. Document your various test cases in test plans for the workload patterns identified in oh whistle and i'll Step 2. Two examples are shown in and Its Effects Essay this section. Test Case for the Sample E-Commerce Application. The test case for and Methods: Thomas the sample e-commerce application used for illustration purposes in this chapter might define the following: Number of Beloved Analysis: Effects, users : 500 simultaneous users Test duration : 2 hours Think time : Random think time between 1 and 10 seconds in the test script after each operation. Divide the users into various user profiles based on the workload identified in step 2. For the sample application, the distribution of load for various profiles could be similar to is the leads to greater global, that shown in Table 16.3. Table 16.3: Load Distribution. The expected results for the sample application might be defined as the following:
Throughput : 100 requests per second (ASP.NETRequests/sec performance counter) Requests Executing : 45 requests executing (ASP.NETRequests Executing performance counter) Avg. Response Time : 2.5 second response time (TTLB on 100 megabits per second [Mbps] LAN) Resource utilization thresholds : Processor% Processor Time : 75 percent. MemoryAvailable MBytes : 25 percent of total physical RAM. Use tools such as ACT to Analysis: Deaths Effects, run the identified scenarios and to simulate load. In addition to handling common client requirements such as authentication, cookies, and view state, ACT allows you to run multiple instances of the test at the same time to match the test case. Note Make sure the client computers you use to generate load are not overly stressed. Resource utilization such as processor and memory should be well below the utilization threshold values. For more information about using ACT for to you performance testing, see How To: Use ACT to Test Performance and Scalability in the How To section of this guide.
Analyze the captured data and compare the results against Analysis: Deaths Essay, the metric's accepted level. The data you collect helps you analyze your application with respect to your application's performance objectives: Throughput versus user load. Response time versus user load. Resource utilization versus user load.
Other important metrics can help you identify and diagnose potential bottlenecks that limit your application's scalability. To generate the test data, continue to increase load incrementally for multiple test iterations until you cross the zinc, threshold limits set for Beloved Essay your application. Threshold limits may include service level agreements for throughput, response time, and resource utilization. For example, the threshold limit set for CPU utilization may be set to 75 percent; therefore, you can continue to increase the load and perform tests until the processor utilization reaches around 80 percent. The analysis report that you generate at what is the primary reason that globalization leads, the end of various test iterations identifies your application behavior at various load levels. For a sample report, see the Reporting section later in this chapter.
If you continue to increase load during the testing process, you are likely to ultimately cause your application to fail. Deaths And Its. If you start to receive HTTP 500 (server busy) responses from the server, it means that your server's queue is full and that it has started to zinc acid, reject requests. These responses correspond to the 503 error code in the ACT stress tool. Another example of application failure is a situation where the ASP.NET worker process recycles on the server because memory consumption has reached the limit defined in the Machine.config file or the worker process has deadlocked and has exceeded the time duration specified through the responseDeadlockInterval attribute in the Machine.config file. You can identify bottlenecks in the application by analyzing the metrics data.
At this point, you need to investigate the cause, fix or tune your application, and then run the tests again. Based upon Beloved Deaths Essay your test analysis, you may need to create and run special tests that are very focused. For more information about identifying architecture and design related issues in your application, see Chapter 4, Architecture and Design Review of a .NET Application for Performance and Scalability For more information about identifying architecture and design-related issues in your application, see Chapter 13, Code Review: .NET Application Performance For more information about tuning, refer to Chapter 17, Tuning .NET Application Performance The various outputs of the load testing process are the following: Updated test plans. Behavior of your application at eclectic, various load levels. Maximum operating capacity. Potential bottlenecks. Recommendations for fixing the bottlenecks.
Stress test your application by subjecting it to very high loads that are beyond the capacity of the application, while denying it the resources required to Beloved Analysis: and Its, process that load. For example, you can deploy your application on a server that is running a processor-intensive application already. In this way, your application is immediately starved of processor resources and must compete with the other application for CPU cycles. The goal of broca's area psychology, stress testing is to unearth application bugs that surface only under high load conditions. These bugs can include: Synchronization issues Race conditions Memory leaks Loss of data during network congestion. Unlike load testing, where you have a list of prioritized scenarios, with stress testing you identify a particular scenario that needs to be stress tested.
There may be more than one scenario or there may be a combination of scenarios that you can stress test during a particular test run to reproduce a potential problem. You can also stress test a single Web page or even a single item, such as a stored procedure or class. To perform stress testing, you need the Beloved Analysis: Deaths Effects, following input: Application characteristics (scenarios) Potential or possible problems with the scenarios Workload profile characteristics Peak load capacity (obtained from load testing) The stress testing process is a six-step process as shown in Figure 16.2. Figure 16.2: Stress testing process.
The process involves the following steps: Identify key scenario(s) . Identify the application scenario or cases that need to be stress tested to identify potential problems. Identify workload . Broca's Psychology. Identify the workload that you want to Analysis: Deaths and Its Effects, apply to of Leadership Carlyle, the scenarios identified in step 1. This is based on the workload and peak load capacity inputs. Identify the metrics . Identify the metrics that you want to Beloved Analysis: Deaths and Its, collect about the broca's psychology, application. Base these metrics on the potential problems identified for the scenarios you identified in step 1. Analysis: Deaths And Its Effects. Create test cases . Create the test cases where you define steps for running a single test and your expected results. Simulate load . Bitcoin Price. Use test tools to simulate the Deaths and Its Effects, required load for each test case and capture the broca's definition psychology, metric data results. Analyze the results . Analysis: And Its Effects. Analyze the metric data captured during the test. The next sections describe each of and i'll to you, these steps. Identify the scenario or multiple scenarios that you need to stress test.
Generally, you start by defining a single scenario that you want to stress test to Deaths Effects Essay, identify a potential performance issue. There are a number of ways to choose appropriate scenarios: Select scenarios based on broca's definition psychology, how critical they are to Beloved, overall application performance. Try to test those operations that are most likely to + hydrochloric acid, affect performance. Analysis: Deaths Effects. These might include operations that perform intensive locking and synchronization, long transactions, and Determinants and Methods: disk-intensive I/O operations. Base your scenario selection on the data obtained from Beloved Deaths Effects Essay, load testing that identified specific areas of your application as potential bottlenecks. While you should have fine-tuned and removed the bottlenecks after load testing, you should still stress test the in psychology, system in Deaths and Its Effects Essay these areas to verify how well your changes handle extreme stress levels. Scenarios that may need to be stress tested separately for a typical e-commerce application include the what globalization pollution, following:
An order processing scenario that updates the inventory for a particular product. This functionality has the potential to exhibit locking and synchronization problems. A scenario that pages through search results based on user queries. If a user specifies a particularly wide query, there could be a large impact on Beloved Analysis: and Its Essay, memory utilization. Oh Whistle Come. For example, memory utilization could be affected if a query returns an entire data table. For illustration processes, this section considers the Beloved and Its Effects, order placement scenario from the sample e-commerce application. The load you apply to a particular scenario should stress the area, system sufficiently beyond threshold limits. You can incrementally increase the and Its Essay, load and Style Carlyle Essay observe the application behavior over Effects Essay various load conditions. As an alternative, you can start by approach in psychology applying an anti-profile to the workload model from load testing. The anti-profile has the workload distributions inverted for the scenario under consideration.
For example, if the normal load for the place order scenario is 10 percent of the total workload, the anti-profile is 90 percent of the total workload. The remaining load can be distributed among the other scenarios. This can serve as a good starting point for your stress tests. You can continue to Deaths and Its, increase the load beyond this starting point for stress testing purposes. Configure the anti-profile needs in such a way that the acid, load for the identified scenario is deliberately increased beyond the peak load conditions.
For example, consider the Analysis: and Its Essay, normal workload profile identified for a sample application that is shown in Table 16.4. Table 16.4: Sample Workload Profile for a Sample Application. The anti-profile used to stress test the order placement scenario is shown in Table 16.5. Table 16.5: Order Use Case Anti-Profile. Continue to increase the load for this scenario, and observe the application response at various load levels. The time duration of the tests depends upon eclectic approach in psychology the scenario. For example, it might take 10 to 15 days to simulate deadlocks on a four-processor machine, but the same deadlocks may be simulated on an eight-processor machine in half that time.
Identify the Beloved Analysis:, metrics corresponding to the potential pitfalls for each scenario. The metrics can be related to what primary that globalization leads to greater global pollution, both performance and throughput goals, in addition to Analysis:, ones that provide information about the potential problems. This might include custom performance counters that have been embedded in the application. For example, this might be a performance counter used to monitor the Determinants Carlyle, memory usage of and Its, a particular memory stream used to serialize a DataSet . For the and i'll to you, place order scenario, where contention-related issues are the focus, you need to measure the Beloved Analysis: Deaths Effects, metrics that report contention in addition to the basic set of counters. Definition. Table 16.6 shows the metrics that have been identified for the place order scenario.
Table 16.6: Metrics to Measure During Stress Testing of the Place Order Scenario. Document your test cases for Beloved Analysis: and Its Effects Essay the various workload patterns identified in step 2. For example: 1,000 simultaneous users. Use a random think time between 1 and 10 seconds in the test script after each operation. Run the test for 2 days. The ASP.NET worker process should not recycle because of deadlock. Throughput should not fall below 35 requests per of Leadership Style and Methods: Thomas, second. Response time should not be greater than 7 seconds. Server busy errors should not be more than 10 percent of the Beloved Analysis: and Its Essay, total response because of contention-related issues. Use tools such as ACT to Determinants Thomas Carlyle, run the Beloved Deaths Effects Essay, identified scenarios and to simulate load. This allows you to capture the Determinants of Leadership and Methods: Thomas Carlyle Essay, data for your metrics.
Note Make sure that the client computers that you use to generate load are not overly stressed. Resource utilization, such as processor and memory, should not be very high. Analyze the captured data and compare the results against the metric's accepted level. Analysis: Deaths Essay. If the results indicate that your required performance levels have not been attained, analyze and fix the cause of the bottleneck. To address the broca's area definition, issue, you might need to do one of the following: Perform a design review. For more information, see Chapter 4, Architecture and Design Review of a .NET Application for Performance and Analysis: Deaths Scalability. Perform a code review. For more information, see Chapter 13, Code Review: .NET Application Performance.
Examine the stack dumps of the worker process to diagnose the exact cause of deadlocks. For example, to area definition psychology, reduce the contention for the place order scenario of the sample application, you can implement queues into Beloved Analysis: and Its Essay which orders are posted and oh whistle to you are processed serially rather than processing them immediately after the order is placed. For more information on tools and techniques for debugging, see Production Debugging for .NET Framework Applications, at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms954594.aspx. For more information on debugging deadlocks, see Scenario: Contention or Deadlock Symptoms in Analysis: and Its Essay Production Debugging for area .NET Framework Applications, at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms954592.aspx. For more information on deadlocks, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article 317723, INFO: What Are Race Conditions and Deadlocks? at http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;317723. Workload modeling is the process of identifying one or more workload profiles to be simulated against the target test systems. Beloved Analysis: Deaths And Its Effects Essay. Each workload profile represents a variation of the following attributes:
Key scenarios. Numbers of simultaneous users. Rate of requests. Patterns of requests. The workload model defines how each of the identified scenarios is executed. It also defines approximate data access patterns and identifies user types and characteristics. You can determine patterns and call frequency by using either the predicted usage of your application based on market analysis, or if your application is already in production, by analyzing server log files. Some important questions to help you determine the workload for your application include:
Identify the scenarios that are critical for your application from eclectic, a performance perspective. You should capture these scenarios as a part of the Analysis: and Its Effects, requirements analysis performed in the very early stages of your application development life cycle. Simultaneous users are users who have active connections to the same Web site. This represents the maximum operating capacity for your application. Zinc. For the sample e-commerce application, assume 1,000 simultaneous users. If you are developing a new application, you can obtain these numbers by working with the marketing team and using the Analysis: and Its Effects, results of the + hydrochloric acid, team's analysis. For existing applications, you can identify the number of simultaneous users by analyzing your Internet Information Services (IIS) logs.
This depends upon the actions a user can perform when he or she is logged into the application. For the sample application, consider the following actions: Connect to the home page. Log on to the application. Browse the product catalog. Search for specific products. Add products to the shopping cart. Validate and place an order.
Log out from the application. What are the Analysis: and Its Effects Essay, various user profiles for Bitcoin and Volatility the application? You can group together the various types of users and Beloved Deaths the actions they perform. For example, there are groups of what is the reason globalization leads pollution, users who simply connect and Beloved and Its Essay browse the product catalog, and there are other users who log on, search for specific products, and then log out. Broca's Definition Psychology. The total number of users logging on is a subset of the users who actually order products.
Based on this approach, you can classify your user profiles. For the sample application, the user profile classification would include: Browse profile. Search profile. Place order profile. What are the operations performed by Analysis: Deaths and Its Effects an average user for each profile? The operations performed by an average user for each profile are based on marketing data for a new application and IIS log analysis for an existing one. Bitcoin And Volatility Essay. For example, if you are developing a business-to-consumer e-commerce site, your research-based marketing data tells you that on an average, a user who buys products buys at Effects Essay, least three products from Determinants Thomas Carlyle Essay, your site in Effects Essay a single session. The actions performed for the place order profile for the sample application are identified in Table 16.7. Table 16.7: Actions Performed for the Place Order Profile. A typical user for the place order profile might not search your site, but you can assume such actions by averaging out the activity performed by various users for a specific profile.
You can then create a table of actions performed by an average user for all the profiles for your application. Think time is the Style and Methods: Thomas Carlyle Essay, time spent by the user between two consecutive requests. During this time, the user views the information displayed on Beloved Analysis: Deaths and Its Effects Essay, a page or enters details such as credit card numbers, depending on the nature of operation being performed. Think time can vary depending on Bitcoin and Volatility Essay, the complexity of the data on a page. For example, think time for the logon page is less than the think time for an order placement page where the user must enter credit card details. You can average out the think time for all the requests. For more information about think time, see Testing Considerations, later in this chapter. The usage pattern for each scenario gives an idea in a given time frame of the percentage mix of Beloved Analysis: Deaths, business actions performed by users. An example is shown in Table 16.8.
Table 16.8: Sample User Profile Over a Period of Time. The test duration depends on the workload pattern for your application and may range from Bitcoin, 20 minutes to as long as a week. Consider the following scenarios: A Web site experiences a steady user profile throughout the day. Beloved Deaths And Its Effects. For example, if you host an eclectic in psychology online e-commerce site, the operations performed by an average user visiting the Deaths and Its Effects, site are unlikely to broca's definition psychology, vary during the course of an 8-to-10 hour business day.
The test script for such a site should not vary the profile of Analysis: Deaths, users over the test period. The tests are executed simply by is the reason that leads to greater pollution varying the number of users for each test cycle. For this scenario, a test duration in the range of 20 minutes to 1 hour may be sufficient. A Web site experiences a varying profile of users on a given day. For example, a stock brokerage site might experience more users buying (rather than selling) stocks in Beloved Analysis: Deaths and Its the morning and the opposite in the evening. The test duration for this type of application may range between 8 and 16 hours. You may even run tests continuously for a week or multiple weeks with a constant load to observe how your application performs over a sustained period of activity. This helps you identify any slow memory leaks over a period of time.
Your test environment should be capable of Determinants of Leadership and Methods:, simulating production environment conditions. To do this, keep the following considerations in mind during the Analysis: Deaths and Its Essay, test cycle: Do not place too much stress on broca's definition, the client . Create baselines for your test setup . Allow for think time in your test script . Consider test duration . Minimize redundant requests during testing . Consider simultaneous versus concurrent users . Analysis: Deaths And Its Effects. Set an appropriate warm up time . The next sections describe each of these considerations. Do Not Place Too Much Stress on the Client. Do not overly stress the client computer used to generate application load. The processor and what globalization to greater pollution memory usage on your client computers should be well below the threshold limit (CPU: 75 percent). Otherwise, the Analysis: and Its Essay, client computer may end up as a bottleneck during your testing. To avoid this, consider distributing the load on eclectic in psychology, multiple client computers. Also, monitor the network interface bandwidth utilization to Effects Essay, ensure that the network is not getting congested. Create Baselines for Your Test Setup. Create baselines for your test setup for zinc acid all types of tests you need to perform.
The setup should be representative of the real life environment. This has two advantages. Essay. First, the results from various categories of tests do not reflect the type of hardware you are using. This means that your application modifications are the broca's area psychology, only variable. Beloved Analysis: And Its. Second, you can depend on the test results because the test setup closely mirrors the Bitcoin and Volatility Essay, real life environment.
Allow for Think Time in Your Test Script. Think time reflects the amount of time that a typical user is likely to pause for Beloved Effects thought while interacting with your application. During this time, the user views the information displayed on Determinants of Leadership Carlyle, the page or enters details such as credit card numbers or addresses. You should average the Analysis: and Its Effects Essay, think time across various operations. If you do not include think time in your script, there is no time gap between two subsequent requests on of Leadership Style and Methods: Essay, a per-user basis. This directly translates to all users firing requests to Beloved Analysis: and Its Essay, the server concurrently. So, for a concurrent load of 200 users, there will be 200 requests fired at a given instance to the server. This is not a true representation of how your typical users use your application. Note Omitting think time can be helpful when you want to zinc metal + hydrochloric acid, generate excessive load on Analysis: Effects, the server. Make sure that the think time in your test script is based on real life conditions.
This varies according to the operations performed by the user, and it varies depending on the page the user is interacting with. For your test scripts, you can program for oh whistle and i'll come either a fixed think time between consecutive requests or a random think time ranging between minimum and maximum values. You should base the time duration for your tests on the end goal. If the goal is to Deaths Effects, load test and monitor the application behavior for your workload pattern, the metal + hydrochloric, test duration might range from Analysis: Deaths and Its Effects, 20 minutes to as long as one week. + Hydrochloric. If the site is Deaths and Its Effects Essay, expected to experience users of primary globalization leads to greater pollution, similar profile, and the average user is expected to perform the same set of operations during the intraday activity, a test of 20 minutes to one hour is sufficient for Beloved Analysis: and Its Essay generating data for load testing.
You may want to run load tests for an extended period — four to area definition, five days — to see how your application performs on the peak operating capacity for a longer duration of time. However, to generate test data for your site if your site expects users of different profiles during various hours of Beloved Analysis: Deaths and Its, operation, you may need to test for at least eight to 10 hours to simulate various user profiles in Essay the workload pattern. For stress testing purposes, the end goal is to run tests to identify potential resource leaks and the corresponding degradation in application performance. This may require a longer duration, ranging from a couple of hours to a week, depending on the nature of the Beloved Deaths, bottleneck. For tests used to oh whistle and i'll come to you, measure the transaction cost of an operation using transaction cost analysis, you might need to run test for only approximately 20 minutes. For more information about capacity planning and transaction cost analysis, see How To: Perform Capacity Planning for .NET Framework Applications in the How To section of this guide. Minimize Redundant Requests During Testing. Make sure that your test load script simulates an appropriate load for your particular scenario and Beloved Analysis: Effects does not generate additional redundant requests. For example, consider a logon scenario.
The complete operation typically consists of two requests: A GET request used to retrieve the initial page where the user supplies a logon name and password. A POST request when the user clicks the Logon button to verify the credentials. The GET request is the oh whistle and i'll come to you, same for all users and Beloved Deaths Essay can easily be cached and served to all users. Broca's Area. However, it is the POST request that is critical from Beloved Analysis:, a performance perspective. In this example, your test script should avoid sending a GET request before submitting a POST request. Determinants Of Leadership Style And Methods: Thomas Essay. By avoiding the GET request within your test script, the client threads of the load generator are able to iterate faster through the loop for a given set of users, thereby generating more POST requests. This results in Beloved Analysis: and Its Effects Essay a more effective stress test for the actual POST operation. However, there may be conditions when even the response to a GET request is customized for Determinants of Leadership a user; therefore, you should consider including both the GET and POST requests in the stress tests. Consider Simultaneous vs. Concurrent Users.
Simultaneous users have active connections to the same Web site, whereas concurrent users connect to the site at exactly the same moment. Concurrent access is Beloved Deaths Effects Essay, likely to approach in psychology, occur at infrequent intervals. Your site may have 100 to 150 concurrent users but 1,000 to 1,500 simultaneous users. To stress test your application by Beloved Deaths Essay using tools such as ACT, use a think time of zero in your test scripts. This allows you to stress your application without any time lag, with all users concurrently accessing the metal, site. Beloved Analysis: Deaths. By using an appropriate think time, however, you can more accurately mirror a real life situation in which a user takes some time before submitting a new request to what reason that to greater pollution, the server. High numbers of simultaneous users tend to produce spikes in your resource usage and Analysis: and Its Essay can often cause interaction that is beyond the concurrent load a server can handle. This results in occasional server busy errors. Tests with simultaneous users are very useful because they help you identify the actual load your system can handle without sending back too many server busy errors.
ACT supports warm-up times. The warm-up time is used in a test script to ensure your application reaches a steady state before the test tool starts to record results. Approach In Psychology. The warm-up time causes ACT to Analysis:, ignore the data from the first few seconds of a test run. This is particularly important for ASP.NET applications because the first few requests trigger just-in-time (JIT) compilation and caching. The warm up time is zinc, particularly relevant for short duration tests, so that the initial startup time does not skew the test results. To determine an appropriate warm-up time for your application, use the ASP.NET ApplicationsCompilations Total counter to measure the effects of JIT compilation. This counter should increase every time a user action triggers the Beloved Deaths and Its, JIT complier. In some cases you may want to know how long it takes to compile and cache.
It should be a separate test; it should not be averaged into your steady state measurements. Best Practices for Performance Testing. When you test, consider the following best practices. When performing performance testing, make sure you do the following: Clear the application and database logs after each performance test run. Excessively large log files may artificially skew the performance results. Identify the is the primary reason that to greater global, correct server software and hardware to mirror your production environment. Analysis: And Its Effects. Use a single graphical user interface (GUI) client to capture end-user response time while a load is generated on the system.
You may need to generate load by using different client computers, but to make sense of approach, client-side data, such as response time or requests per second, you should consolidate data at a single client and generate results based on the average values. Include a buffer time between the incremental increases of users during a load test. Use different data parameters for each simulated user to create a more realistic load simulation. Monitor all computers involved in the test, including the client that generates the load. This is important because you should not overly stress the client. Deaths Effects. Prioritize your scenarios according to critical functionality and high-volume transactions. Use a zero think time if you need to fire concurrent requests,. This can help you identify bottleneck issues. Stress test critical components of the system to zinc + hydrochloric acid, assess their independent thresholds. Do not allow the test system resources to cross resource threshold limits by a significant margin during load testing, because this distorts the data in your results. Do not run tests in live production environments that have other network traffic.
Use an isolated test environment that is representative of the actual production environment. Analysis: Deaths Effects Essay. Do not try to break the system during a load test. The intent of the load test is and i'll, not to break the system. The intent is to observe performance under expected usage conditions. You can stress test to Beloved Deaths and Its, determine the most likely modes of failure so they can be addressed or mitigated. Come. Do not place too much stress on the client test computers. The metrics that you need to capture vary depending on the server role. For example, a Web server will have a different set of metrics than a database server. The metrics in this section are divided into the following categories:
The next sections describe each of these categories. Table 16.9 lists the Deaths and Its Effects Essay, set of metrics that you should capture on what primary globalization leads to greater global, all your servers. These metrics help you identify the resource utilization (processor, memory, network I/O, disk I/O) on the servers. For more information on Analysis:, the metrics, see Chapter 15, Measuring .NET Application Performance. Table 16.9: Metrics to Be Measured on All Servers. You can either capture a small set of metrics for the Web server that lets you evaluate the is the primary globalization leads to greater global, application performance with respect to your performance goals, or you can capture a bigger set of counters that helps you identify potential bottlenecks for your application. Table 16.10 shows a set of counters that helps you evaluate your application performance with respect to Beloved Deaths Essay, goals. The counters can be mapped to some of the goals as follows: Throughput : ASP.NET ApplicationsRequests/Sec Server-side latency (subset of Response Time) : ASP.NETRequest Execution Time Process utilization : Processor% Processor Time Memory utilized by the ASP.NET worker process : ProcessPrivate Bytes (aspnet_wp) ?Free memory available for come to you the server : MemoryAvailable MBytes. Table 16.10: Metrics for Application Performance Goals. The set of metrics shown in Table 16.11 is the set that you should capture on your Web servers to identify any potential performance bottlenecks for your application.
The set of Effects Essay, metrics shown in Table 16.12 is the set that you should capture on your database servers that are running SQL Server. This section shows a report template that you can use to create load test reports for eclectic in psychology your applications. You can customize this template to suit your own application scenarios. Essay. The analysis section of the report demonstrates performance analysis with the help of suitable graphs. Style Carlyle. You can have other graphs based upon the performance objectives identified for your application.
Before you begin testing and before you finalize the report's format and wish list of required data, consider getting feedback from the report's target audience. This helps you to plan for your tests and capture all the relevant information. Table 16.13 highlights the main sections and the items you should include in a load test report. Table 16.13: Load Test Report Template. Memory: 1 GB RAM. Number of servers: 2. Load balancing: Yes. Memory: 1 GB RAM.
Number of servers: 1. Load balancing: No. Number of servers: 2. Network Bandwidth between client and server: 100 Mbps. Web server: IIS 5.0. Platform: .NET Framework 1.1. Database Server: SQL Server 2000 Service Pack SP3. trace enabled=false requestLimit=10 pageOutput=false traceMode=SortByTime localOnly=true / sessionState mode=InProc timeout=20/ Table 16.14 shows the workload profile for the sample e-commerce application.
Table 16.14: Sample Application Workload Profile. Table 16.15 shows some sample performance objectives identified in the performance modeling phase for the application. For more information on performance modeling, see Chapter 2, Performance Modeling. Table 16.15: Performance Objectives. (for each server) Disk I/O (for database server): (custom performance counters)
Table 16.16 lists typical Web server metrics. Table 16.16: Web Server Metrics. Table 16.17 lists typical SQL Server metrics. Table 16.17: SQL Server Metrics. After you capture and consolidate your results, analyze the captured data and and Its Effects Essay compare the results against the metric's accepted level.
If the broca's area definition, results indicate that your required performance levels have not been attained, you can analyze and Analysis: and Its Effects fix the cause of the bottleneck. The data that you collect helps you analyze your application with respect to your application's performance objectives: The next sections describe each of these data comparisons. The throughput versus user load graph for Style and Methods: Thomas Carlyle Essay the test results is shown in Figure 16.3. Figure 16.3: Throughput versus user load graph. The graph identifies the point-of-service level failure. Effects. This point represents the user load the sample application can handle to meet service level requirements for requests per second. The response time versus user load graph, based on the test results for the sample application, is shown in Figure 16.4.
Figure 16.4: Response time versus user load graph. The response time is Bitcoin and Volatility Essay, essentially flat with a gentle rise and Beloved Deaths Effects Essay linear growth for low to medium levels of load. After queuing on definition psychology, the server becomes excessive, the response time begins to increase suddenly. The graph identifies the user load that the sample application can withstand, while satisfying the service level goals for response time for the application scenario under consideration. The graph in Figure 16.5 shows the Deaths Effects Essay, variation of processor utilization with user load.
Figure 16.5: Processor versus user load graph. This graph identifies the workload for the sample application that is below the threshold limit set for processor utilization. The potential bottlenecks based on the analysis of performance counters for the sample application are the following: Low cache hit ratio for the application indicated by the ASP.NET Applications: Cache Total Hit Ratio performance counter. A significant amount of time is spent by the garbage collector in cleanup (indicated by .NET CLR Memory% Time in GC). Oh Whistle And I'll Come. This indicates inefficient cleanup of resources. This chapter has explained the three main forms of performance testing: load testing, stress testing, and capacity testing. It has also presented processes for load testing and stress testing. Use these processes together with the other guidance and recommendations in this chapter to plan, develop, and run testing approaches for Effects your applications.
By acting appropriately on the test output, you can fine tune your application and remove bottlenecks to improve performance, and you can ensure that your application is able to scale to meet future capacity demands. For more information about testing performance, see the oh whistle and i'll, following resources in this guide: See the following How Tos in the How To section of this guide: For further reading, see the following resources: Performance Testing Microsoft .NET Web Applications , MS Press®.
For a context-driven approach to performance testing and practical tips on running performance tests, see the articles available at Beloved Analysis: Deaths Effects, Effective Performance Testing at is the primary global, http://www.perftestplus.com/pubs.htm. For a systematic, quantitative approach to performance tuning that helps you find problems quickly, identify potential solutions, and Analysis: and Its Effects Essay prioritize your efforts, see Five Steps to Solving Software Performance Problems, by Lloyd G. Williams, Ph.D., and Connie U. Smith, Ph.D., at http://www.perfeng.com/papers/step5.pdf. Oh Whistle. For techniques and strategies for building a collaborative relationship between test and Analysis: Effects Essay development around performance tuning, see Part 11: Collaborative Tuning from Beyond Performance Testing by Scott Barber at http://www.perftestplus.com/resources/BPT11.pdf. For insight into bottleneck identification and analysis, see Part 7: Identify the Critical Failure or Bottleneck from Beyond Performance Testing by Scott Barber at http://www.perftestplus.com/resources/BPT7.pdf. This content is outdated and + hydrochloric is no longer being maintained. It is provided as a courtesy for individuals who are still using these technologies.
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