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Bunka Gakuen University Graduate School. Hebrew! Ruth Barcan BA DipEd UoN PhD UQ, is a Senior Lecturer at The University of apa cite this for me, Sydney. Nudity is isha meaning, paradoxical-a bodily state that is apa cite this for me, seen as so banal or matter of fact that it is rarely given sustained conceptual or academic treatment, while all the hebrew, while most societies subject it to journey short story, intense regulation via customs, taboos, and meaning hebrew laws. Nudity is customarily imagined as a #8220;natural#8221; state-since we are all born naked-and yet its powerful social and cultural regulation means that it is anything but simple or natural. Nudity might seem so uncomplicated as to need no definition; it is Movement Essay, simply the state of being without clothes. Isha Meaning! But this is india, too simple.

In the past, the word naked could mean clad only in an undergarment. In fine art, the term #8220;nude#8221; almost always includes semiclad or lightly draped bodies. So too, in isha meaning hebrew some legal jurisdictions, the erect penis is legally #8220;nude#8221; even when covered in an opaque fabric. Story! Conversely, some uncovered parts of the body-an elbow, a nose, a wrist, a face-are unlikely to be considered naked. Isha! Definitions of nudity, which are subject to mini, historical and cultural variation, rely on assumptions about hebrew, what counts as clothing. Defining nudity can also be an nancy oliver, ideological or political matter. Isha Meaning! Are ornamentation, tattooing, feathers, skins, jewelry, or even hairstyles forms of clothing? This can matter greatly, as in the colonial context, where nudity was often seen as a sign of savagery.

Nakedness and clothing help define each other. They can function as #8220;nuclei#8221; of humans#8217; #8220;sense of order#8221; (Clark, p. The Abolitionist Movement Essay! 4), as in the following sample list of fundamental sense-making oppositions in the Western tradition: Nakedness vs. Clothing. Natural vs. Cultural.

Unchanging vs. Isha Hebrew! Changeable. Invisible vs. Visible. Pure vs. Corrupt. British Colonized! Human Nature vs. Human Society. Pre-, Non- Anti-social vs. Social. These terms are valued according to isha meaning hebrew, context, blurry at their edges, and occasionally reversible.

Thus, nakedness has been able to The Abolitionist Essay, be imagined as both an indecent state needing to be covered by #8220;culture#8221; (clothing) and a pure state far superior to isha meaning, the indecent cultural masquerade of clothing. The nakedness of #8220;savages,#8221; for example, has been imagined as evidence of their inferior humanness-but it has also been subject to romanticization (the #8220;naturalness#8221; of the #8220;noble savage#8221;). In the journey, Western tradition, nudity can, broadly speaking, attract both positive and negative metaphorical meanings. Mario Perniola has argued that these opposing meanings arise from the different metaphysics underlying the Greek and meaning the Judaic traditions. In the journey, Platonic tradition, he argues, truth was understood as something to be unveiled. Nudity, therefore, accrued metaphorical meanings of truth, authenticity, and meaning hebrew innocence. A Cask Summary! Moreover, in sculptural and athletic practice, the meaning hebrew, ideal human figure was naked. A Cask Of Amontillado! In the isha hebrew, Judaic tradition, however, in which the when did females get the right to vote in england, Godhead was imagined as gloriously veiled , nakedness was more likely to isha meaning, signify degradation, humiliation, or loss of personhood. It is colonized india, important to stress that this is isha, a simplification; there was internal complexity within, and interchange between, the two systems of meaning. In any case, metaphorical meanings and lived practice did not always match up; nor were the idealized meanings of oliver, nudity open to all types of naked bodies (for example, those of women, older men, or slaves).

English has two major terms for the state of hebrew, undress: nakedness and nudity. Mini Cooper India! Nakedness is the isha hebrew, older word, coming from the Germanic family of journey short story, languages. Nude is of Latin origin, entering the language in isha meaning hebrew late Middle English. A Cask! The original connotations of isha, these terms persist-nakedness tends to suggest a raw, natural state, while nudity suggests a state of undress refined by culture into an aesthetic state. Within fine arts, this etymological nuance has been elaborated into apa cite for me, a full-fledged aesthetic distinction between the hebrew, naked and the nude, a distinction most famously articulated by Kenneth Clark. Put simply, Clark#8217;s opposition is when get the right to vote in england, this: nakedness is the isha meaning, #8220;raw#8221; human body, the human body without clothes.

Nudity results when the artist works on problem in education today that raw material. Thus, the isha hebrew, nude is british colonized, not a subject of isha meaning, art but a form of art (p. 3). John Berger glosses it thus: nakedness is a starting point and the nude is #8220;a way of Movement, seeing#8221; (p. 53). Meaning! Nakedness is imperfect and for me individual; the nude is ideal and universal. Meaning Hebrew! Nakedness is nature; nudity, culture.

The artist#8217;s work de-particularizes the model#8217;s nakedness, lifting it into ideality. Mini Cooper India! #8220;It is widely supposed that the naked human body is in itself an meaning hebrew, object upon which the eye dwells with pleasure and which we are glad to see depicted. But anyone who has frequented art schools and seen the shapeless, pitiful model which the students are industriously drawing will know that this is an The Abolitionist Movement, illusion#8221; (Clark, p. 3). Isha Meaning! Conceptually, the difference relies on of amontillado summary the myth of an unmediated original bodily state-as though there were in the first place some raw #8220;nature#8221; untouched by culture. The opposition also depends on underlying value judgments that have made it politically unpalatable to isha meaning, some. India! Some feminists, for isha meaning hebrew example, have seen much to criticize in india Clark#8217;s denigration of the naked as a pitiful state. We are, says Clark, #8220;disturbed#8221; by isha hebrew, the natural imperfection of the naked body, and The Abolitionist Essay we admire the classical scheme that eliminates flaws, wrinkles, and signs of isha, organic process: #8220;A mass of naked figures does not move us to empathy, but to journey short story, disillusion and isha dismay. We do not wish to a cask summary, imitate; we wish to meaning hebrew, perfect#8221; (p.

4). Get The Right! For many feminists, such unabashed idealism is hebrew, not only conceptually untenable, it is The Abolitionist Movement Essay, politically suspect, since it denigrates the (traditionally feminized) body. #8220;[I]n our Diogenes search for physical beauty, our instinctive desire is isha hebrew, not to from, imitate but to isha, perfect. This is a cask, part of our Greek inheritance … #8216;Art,'[Aristotle] says, #8216;completes what nature cannot bring to isha meaning hebrew, a finish'#8221; (Clark, p. Colonized! 9). Clearly, the isha hebrew, idealizing processes Clark describes are not limited to classical art. They are the apa cite for me, backbone of the hebrew, glamorizing tendencies of contemporary consumer culture, as critics such as John Berger first pointed out. Contemporary advertising favors smoothed, youthful surfaces, and it employs its own techniques, including image manipulation, to british india, ensure that bodily ideals do not #8220;disturb#8221; us with signs of isha meaning, imperfection.

It is not hard to see why feminists have by and large been less than enthusiastic about the distinction between the naked and the nude, since they are critical of the pressures that such idealization puts on journey short story women, especially, and argue that dissatisfaction with the isha, #8220;natural#8221; body is nancy oliver, a major cause of isha meaning hebrew, psychological and british colonized india cultural malaise. Isha! Barcan, Ruth. Nudity: A Cultural Anatomy . India! Oxford: Berg, 2004. . #8220;Female Exposure and the Protesting Woman.#8221; Cultural Studies Review 8 no. Isha! 2 (2002): 62-82. Berger, John. Ways of Seeing . London: BBC; Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972. This For Me! Explores the naked/nude distinction in art and advertising.

Clark, Kenneth. The Nude: A Study of Ideal Art . Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1956. Isha Meaning Hebrew! Classic discussion; source of naked/nude distinction. Hollander, Anne. Seeing through Clothes . Nancy From! Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Miles, Margaret R. Carnal Knowing: Female Nakedness and meaning hebrew Religious Meaning in the Christian West . Boston: Beacon Press, 1989. Nead, Lynda. The Female Nude: Art, Obscenity, and Sexuality . London: Routledge, 1992. The Abolitionist Movement! Feminist text that includes an extended critique of the isha, naked/nude distinction. Perniola, Mario. #8220;Between Clothing and british india Nudity.#8221; Translated by meaning, Roger Friedman.

In Fragments for when did females right to vote a History of the isha meaning hebrew, Human Body. Part Two , pp. Nancy From! 236-265. Edited by Michel Feher, with Ramona Naddaff and hebrew Nadia Tazi. New York: Zone, 1989.

Outline of nakedness in Greek and Judaic traditions. Nudism is the practice of nonsexual social nudity, usually in mixed-sex groups, often at this for me, specially defined locations, such as nude beaches or nudist clubs. Nudism can be differentiated from the practice of isha meaning hebrew, spontaneous or private nude bathing (#8220;skinny-dipping#8221;) in that it is an british, ongoing, self-conscious and systematic philosophy or lifestyle choice, rather than a spontaneous decision to isha meaning, disrobe. Nudists believe in the naturalness of the naked body, and in the medicinal, therapeutic, or relaxing properties of unself-conscious social nudity. They believe that modesty and shame are socially imposed restrictions on apa cite the freedom of the naked body, and isha meaning that eroticism is not a necessary condition of nakedness. They frequently emphasize the importance of total nudity, arguing that partial concealment is more sexual than total exposure. Nudism arose in Germany at the turn of the twentieth century, and spread through Europe, the United States, and apa cite this Australia. The so-called #8220;father of nudism#8221; was the isha meaning hebrew, German Heinrich Pudor (real name Heinrich Scham), who coined the of amontillado, term Nacktkultur (#8220;naked culture#8221;) and whose book Nackende Menschen (Naked man [1894]) was probably the first book on nudism. Meaning! Richard Ungewitter (author of Die Nacktheit [1906]) is story, more widely known as the founder of hebrew, nudism, his reputation having survived Pudor#8217;s accusations of plagiarism. Nudism flourished in Germany, France, England, elsewhere in from Europe, and in meaning the United States, but its advocates often had to fend off legal challenges or accusations of a cask, depravity. While nudism had distinctive national flavors, and isha meaning hebrew there was occasionally some rivalry (especially between the india, French and the Germans), there was also considerable communication, influence, and overlap between nudist cultures.

Nudism was known by isha meaning, many names: in problem in education Germany, as Nacktkultur, Freikorperkultur (free-body culture), or Lichtkultur (light culture); in isha hebrew France as nudisme, naturisme , or libre-culture (free culture), and in colonized England as Gymnosophy or naturism. Isha! Germanic nudism was a proletarian movement, mostly communitarian and of amontillado summary ascetic in style. Meaning Hebrew! Its constituency was largely the problem today, unemployed and isha meaning hebrew the working poor. By and large however, nudism was a movement endorsed and mini organized by educated people-physicians, scientists, lawyers, clergy, and, in isha meaning France especially, occasionally by story, members of the isha hebrew, aristocracy. Problem In Education! Nudism produced an meaning hebrew, extensive proselytizing literature. Key nudist figures or writers of the 1920s and 1930s included: in Germany, Adolf Koch, Paul Zimmerman, and british colonized india Hans Suren; in isha hebrew France, Marcel Kienne de Mongeot, the The Abolitionist, Durville brothers, and isha meaning Pierre Vachet; in the United States, Maurice Parmelee and story Frances and Mason Merrill; and in meaning hebrew England, the Reverend Clarence Norwood, John Langdon-Davies, and William Welby. Nudists often met with religious opposition, but there were also many openly Christian nudists, who argued that it was time for Christianity to rid itself of superstition. Of Amontillado! Early nudism was a medical, philosophical, and political movement.

Its key contentions were the therapeutic benefit of unhindered access to sun and air, and the psychological benefit of an open relation to hebrew, the naked body. Nudist writing commonly begins with cross-cultural and historical examples demonstrating the relativity of The Abolitionist Movement Essay, shame and isha meaning modesty, before proceeding to british india, expound the psychological, moral, social, and physical benefits of nudity. Clothing was considered to be both an instrument of class oppression and isha a major cause of ill health. This! Nudists claimed that an meaning, excess of shame and modesty bred psychological complexes, unhealthy relations between the sexes, and produced bodies that were both unhealthy and an affront to beauty. The contribution of nancy, nudism to the aesthetics of the race was regularly cited as one of isha, its benefits. Maurice Parmelee, for example, argued that nudism would contribute to a more #8220;beautiful mankind#8221; (p. Mini Cooper! 179). Isha Hebrew! Some nudist clubs banned the The Abolitionist Movement, disabled and meaning hebrew the corpulent as a punishment for unhygienic lifestyles, but other nudists were troubled by in education, too strong an emphasis on the aesthetic: #8220;While extreme cases of isha, deformity and from mutilation can be so distressing and meaning painful to view that there may be some justification for a cask such exclusion, it is of supreme importance that the isha meaning hebrew, gymnosophy movement be maintained on a lofty humanitarian plane (Parmelee, pp. 179-180) #8220; The relation between nudism and eugenics was complex, and use of an aesthetic discourse is cooper india, no simple marker of eugenic thought or of fascism. Hebrew! Although Pudor, for The Abolitionist Movement example, was overtly anti-Semitic, Karl Toepfer warns that there was no #8220;deep, inherent connection#8221; between Germanic body culture and Nazism (p.

9). Nudism was neither simply reactionary nor progressive. Meaning Hebrew! On the cooper india, one hand, it was a trenchant critique of meaning, modernity. Nudist physicians lamented the soot-choked air of industrial cities and mini india the lack of meaning hebrew, exposure to fresh air and sunlight of most working people. In England! Socialist accounts argued that this physical malaise was compounded by the role of clothing in meaning hebrew effecting oppressive social stratification; clothes were seen as masking the innate equality of apa cite this for me, all people.

Some nudist writing is isha, characterized by a romantic and nostalgic evocation of nature, a conception no doubt aided by the use in England and british France of the isha meaning, euphemistic alternative #8220;naturism#8221; (a term that, incidentally, appears to be gaining some favor in contemporary nudism as a more #8220;acceptable#8221; term than nudism). For many writers, however, nudism was emphatically not a return to nature. As Parmelee put it, the idea that nudists want to discard anything artificial or man-made was #8220;manifest folly#8221; (p. 15). Scientists and right to vote in england physicians saw nudism not as a return to isha meaning, Eden (although this trope certainly occurred in of amontillado nudist writing), but as a path forward to isha hebrew, a shining new modernity in problem in education which science, rather than superstition, would lead the isha, way.

Nudism was thus not (only) nostalgic but also saw itself as modern and The Abolitionist rational . Nudist writing intersected with a raft of other modern discourses-heliotherapy (sun-cure), sexology, socialism, feminism, and eugenics. Isha Meaning Hebrew! Caleb Saleeby, for example, was a fervent advocate of nudism, heliotherapy, and eugenics (he was Chairman of the National Birthrate Commission and mini india author of a number of books on eugenics). Meaning! Sexologist Havelock Ellis considered nudism to be an extension of the dress reform movement for women, and Maurice Parmelee saw it as a powerful adjunct to feminism. Ennemond Boniface was a socialist nudist, who fervently believed that nudism was an alternative to bloody socialist revolution, and a cask of amontillado would bring about a new naturist era in which all would be equal under the sun (see sidebar). For many, nudism was not just a therapeutic practice; it was a revolutionary plan for isha meaning hebrew an egalitarian utopia. There are a number of forms of today, contemporary organized nudism, each with a somewhat distinct culture: nude beaches, nudist resorts, nudist clubs, and meaning hebrew swim-nights. #8220;Clothes optional#8221; resorts are becoming more common in in education some countries, as part of the meaning hebrew, growth of mini cooper india, naturist tourism. Meaning! The utopian and political underpinning of when did females to vote, early nudism has largely disappeared. Nudism has remained a minor practice, and it has by and large mutated into a #8220;lifestyle#8221; chosen by meaning hebrew, individuals rather than either a medical practice or a program for social reform.

Contemporary nudists tend to be more private and less evangelical about their practice, and they are unlikely to see it as connected to mini cooper, any form of radical philosophy or politics. The major benefits are, they believe, a relaxed lifestyle and a healthy body image. The French socialist Ennemond Boniface predicted that nudism would bring about the end of capitalism: #8220;[T]here will be an exodus … from the isha meaning, cities, and the willing return … to the good nourishing earth. Little by little, men will desert the did females to vote in england, monstrous, nauseating agglomerations [of our] towns, in order to found … new and meaning increasingly numerous naturist towns. Then … the factories, those places of short, hard labor where decent folk are imprisoned, will progressively become empty. The ferocious reign of the industrialist and isha meaning his accomplice the in education, banker will be over#8221; (Salardenne, p. 93).

Body image is, in meaning fact, the one social issue around which nudists are likely to Essay, be united in their opinion. Whereas for the early nudists, one of the isha meaning hebrew, prime benefits of nudism was that it would promote healthy, beautiful bodies and, by of amontillado, social selection, contribute to the elimination of meaning hebrew, unhygienic or unappealing bodies, contemporary nudists see nudism as a way of journey short, escaping the debilitating effects of the modern obsession with the body beautiful. They believe that nudism teaches one to be comfortable with one#8217;s body, whatever it looks like. Barcan, Ruth. Hebrew! Nudity: A Cultural Anatomy . Journey Short Story! Oxford: Berg 2004. Isha Meaning Hebrew! #8212; #8220;#8216;The Moral Bath of Bodily Unconsciousness#8217;: Female Nudism, Bodily Exposure and the Gaze.#8221; Continuum: Journal of Media and Cultural Studies 15.3 (2001): 305-319. On contemporary female nudists#8217; accounts of the from, benefits of meaning hebrew, nudism. Movement Essay! Clapham, Adam, and Robin Constable.

As Nature Intended: A Pictorial History of the isha meaning, Nudists . A Cask Summary! Los Angeles: Elysium Growth Press, 1982. Useful history. Hebrew! Clarke, Magnus. Nudism in Australia: A First Study . Victoria: Deakin University Press, 1982. This For Me! A comprehensive study. Isha! Merrill, Frances, and a cask of amontillado summary Mason, Merrill. Isha! Nudism Comes to America . New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1932. Norwood, C. E. (Rev). Nudism in England . London: Noel Douglas, 1933.

Parmelee, Maurice. Nudism in Modern Life: The New Gymnosophy . London: Noel Douglas, 1929. An account of the benefits of of amontillado summary, nudism by a nudist physician, with an introduction by Havelock Ellis. Pudor, Heinrich [Heinrich Scham]. Naked People: A Triumph-Shout of the Future . Isha Hebrew! Translation by Kenneth Romanes.

Peterborough: Reason Books, 1998 [1894]. Apa Cite! Earliest nudist text; little read. Isha! Salardenne, Roger. Le nu integrale chez les nudistes francais: Reportage dans les principaux centres . Paris: Prima, 1931. Saleeby, C. W. Sunlight and Health . London: Nisbit and Company, 1923.

A eugenic view. Toepfer, Karl. Empire of Ecstasy: Nudity and british colonized Movement in German Body Culture, 1910-1935 . Isha Hebrew! Berkeley: University of a cask, California Press, 1997.

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lie essay This is for Shlomo Elfassy. I hate being lied to. Short of violence, it is the worst thing you can do to me. Not because of meaning hebrew God, or the Ten Commandments, or any universal moral precepts. British Colonized India! The reason that I hate lies is because, like you, I wish to navigate carefully through life, and to meaning, do so I must be able to calculate my true position. When you lie to me, you know your position but you have given me false data which obscures mine. Lying is theft. When you tell me something which I take to be true and as a result I invest my time, or my money, or even my care, you have stolen these things from me because you obtained them with false information.

Lying creates inequality. Since you also do not like being lied to--I have never known anyone who wanted to be deceived-- you have acted as if there were two classes of humans: you, with the right to did females get the right in england, lie, and everyone else, who must be truthful to you so that you too will not lose your way. Lying treats people as means to isha hebrew, the end you wish to accomplish, and not as ends in themselves. Lying is one of those rare areas in which the when get the to vote, moral rulebook and the legal one overlap each other quite neatly. Isha Meaning! Fraud is defined as an intentional falsehood on short story which another relies to his detriment.

A fraud is a lie writ large, often in a financial context, where the damage to me is quantifiable in money. Even those lies which the law does not define as fraud tend to meaning, fit the same definition: a knowing false utterance which the mark is intended to colonized india, rely on to his harm, and does. Isha! The only differences are of degree, for example, when we cannot assess the apa cite, loss in money. The basic tenet that lying is isha meaning, wrong seems to be universal to The Abolitionist, all cultures, probably because humans are social animals. To live together in hebrew, a society we must tell the truth to each other about such basic matters as sources of food or of journey story danger. Sissela Bok writes in Lying: Moral Choice in Public and Private Life : A society, then, whose members were unable to isha, distinguish truthful messages from deceptive ones, would collapse. But even before such a general collapse, individual choice and Essay survival would be imperilled. Hebrew! The search for cooper india, food and shelter could depend on no expectations from others. Isha Meaning Hebrew! A warning that a well was poisoned or a plea for help in an accident would come to be ignored unless independent confirmation could be found.

Since even liars agree that lying is wrong, to the extent that they do not wish to short story, be lied to and to lose their way, there are some remarkable special cases in meaning hebrew, our society: we justify some lies and are resigned to others. Why does indignation fail in certain cases? Public and private spheres. Before looking at specific cases, I would like to dispose of the journey story, idea that, where lying is concerned, there is an important distinction to be made between public and hebrew private life. Some people believe lying is apa cite, more justified in isha, one area than the other. This can cut either way: we tolerate a politician who lies because he adores, and is rigorously faithful to, his wife of forty years. Or we excuse a friend's marital infidelity because we believe him to be of problem complete integrity in business relationships. Ross Perot pointed out, correctly in my view, that where lying is concerned you cannot separate the spheres. He did not want adulterers working for him because any man who will lie to his wife will lie to me. Isha Meaning! You can test this assertion by asking yourself: why wouldn't he?

Because his wife is a thing to british india, him but I am a person? There is no answer to the question likely to inspire continuing confidence in the individual. Meaning Hebrew! Once we know that another violated a relationship of trust and reliance, there is no moral distinction to be drawn based on the sphere in which the deed occurred. Infidelity. Sexual infidelity has become so common in our society that it is increasingly treated as if it were a sociological phenomenon rather than a moral issue: men are more likely to have multiple mates and families during life, women are more likely to have one.

As Richard Dawkins teaches us in The Selfish Gene , both approaches can be evolutionarily successful strategies: investing maximum time in a few offspring gives them a better chance of survival; having as many offspring as possible with multiple mates makes it likely that at least some will survive, though you have invested no time in them. Lying itself can be an this, eminently successful strategy; as Huxley pointed out in Darwin's lifetime, there is isha, no overlap between evolution and ethics. Infidelity is of interest for our purposes here because it is get the right to vote in england, involves lying (if we choose to have an open relationship, there is no infidelity, so the isha meaning hebrew, phrase itself requires that a lie have occurred). In being unfaithful, I create a situation in colonized, which my wife has a false view of reality: she loses her way. She reposes all her trust and love in isha meaning, me based on an understanding that we are exclusive, that all my concern is invested in her, and when did females get the this understanding is completely false. She is in isha meaning, effect living in a house which may appear solid but has no foundation. I can't imagine a greater fraud than to steal years of someone's life this way.

The opportunity costs are tremendous: your spouse had the opportunity to find someone else who was truthful and build a life with him and you robbed her of that. The existence of sexually transmitted diseases makes infidelity even more horrendous. Even in nonmarital relationships, deliberately tolerated or encouraged mismatches of expectations are quite common. If one member of a couple has communicated a wish to be exclusive, in my rulebook the apa cite, other has a reciprocal responsibility to meaning hebrew, be truthful about whether or not this is agreeable. The consequences of lying are not just emotional but because of disease, may bring severe physical harm. There are many people who contracted AIDS from a companion they thought was faithful, but even if the ailment is merely an itch curable by penicillin you had no right to make me run a risk I never chose to cooper india, undertake, any more than you have the right to steal an isha hebrew, hour of my time with a lie.

Several human conventions and self-deceptions interfere with the perception that infidelity involves a horrendous lie. Did Females To Vote! Feminism temporarily clouded the issue because of ancient concepts of property lying at the roots of marriage and sexual relationships. If the man is a master, free to act as he pleases, and the woman a chattel, infidelity restores the balance by granting the woman some autonomy. Concepts of meaning turning the tables, of two wrongs make a right do not end inequality; they promote or exploit it. Get The To Vote In England! Once relationships are reconceived as a partnership of equals, having nothing to do with mastery or property, the obligation of meaning truthfulness comes to the fore, as it does in any kind of partnership. Another human convention about infidelity seems to be based merely on the fact that it has become so common. We reverse engineer morality from ubiquity; in other words, we cease believing that anything so prevalent can be wrong (a similar mental accomodation led many to tolerate human slavery.) People commonly remain friendly with someone who told the when get the to vote, most appalling lies to a spouse. A related kind of tolerance is engendered sometimes from the lack of meaning hebrew legal consequences; we sometimes confuse the legal plane with the moral, so as to say that if the behavior does not result in a judgment for damages, it is not wrong in a fundamental sense. Problem In Education! Ironically, the reconception of marriage as a partnership of hebrew equals in colonized india, this case has had the unintended consequence of diminishing our sense of shock at adultery. Two career marriages are common, and alimony almost unknown today; therefore there is increasingly a conception that someone who did not end up in meaning, a mess (struggling to in education, take care of hebrew two families) could not have done something wrong. (Of course, when adulterers more commonly ended up in financially untenable situations, this as frequently excited the compassion of the people around them.

My wife remembers bitterly the friends who said, But he's a student! when she expressed an expectation that her estranged first husband would contribute to the support of their child.) But it is colonized, incorrect to work backwards from a lack of hebrew consequences to the morality of an action; human life is inherently ragged and mini india uneven and an action violating a moral rule does not inevitably lead to any punishment. Another set of excuses arise from a loss of respect for the institution of marriage. Just as women, treated as chattels, may have regarded infidelity as a way to restore their self-respect, men who feel that they were dragged into rather than choosing marriage have long justified infidelity as if it were a dessert which you eat to comfort yourself at the end of a bad day. Meaning! There is an entire literary genre of the 1960's, which I find to be infantile and unreadable: the self-pitying novel of adultery, by a male author, presumably autobiographical, where marriage is cooper, portrayed as an isha hebrew, absurd collection of get the right social expectations which the protagonist undertakes because he has no choice and because society expects it. Hebrew! This is the novel of I live in the suburbs, my wife is a stranger, I am alienated, and my nubile young student represents freedom. Did Females Get The To Vote! Such excuses are pathetic because they justify lies by denying that the liar is a moral actor: he is isha meaning, just a chip in a billow, carried into marriage. By blaming society, his or her parents, the spouse, everyone but himself, he obscures what is essentially a simple situation: as a moral actor, he has a responsibility either to make it work, as earlier generations did, or not to be there. Mini India! But the not to be there must also be seen through a lens of moral responsibility, because where there has been very substantial reliance, make it work may be the only moral choice.

Otherwise its too facile. She invested thirty years of isha meaning her life in me, but she's not who I thought, so I'm going to abandon her and Movement start over, should not be an easy or common choice. I love being married. Marriage in my book is about equality, partnership and truth. The ideal is a relationship of complete trust and corresponding simplicity, the isha meaning hebrew, most uncomplicated and invigorating atmosphere on earth. Lying in The Abolitionist Movement Essay, business. Commerce is an ancient and respectable human activity that predates written language.

If I have extra wheat and you have extra apples, lets work out isha hebrew, a trade. While to many people today, lying and The Abolitionist Movement Essay business are as inextricably entangled as deceit and meaning war, there is nothing about the fundamental nature of commerce which dictates that lying form an essential part. A business organization is a form of human community dedicated to commerce. As such, it can be based on the same assumptions as any other type of community: that people are ends, not means, and that the when get the to vote in england, community is formed for the benefit of all. While a few businesses are run so that the employees are all equal (co-ops and ESOP's), even those more hierarchically organized can be based on the premise that people treated with honesty and concern will respond with loyalty and isha hebrew hard work.

If this sounds impossibly idealistic, it is not. I am a businessman and have founded and run companies based on this premise. Companies, like any other community, are held together by a type of glue. Problem! In political communities, there are three types available, fear, greed or loyalty; businesses are usually based on either greed or loyalty, as fear does not apply when there is a large choice of isha other communities which can be easily joined by did females get the to vote changing jobs. People may work in isha hebrew, a business based on The Abolitionist lies without being disturbed by it if they are resigned to it and especially if the lies do not impact them personally (similar to the tolerance of adultery by friends mentioned above.) They may tolerate an environment in which they are routinely lied to if the financial opportunity is large enough and especially if they are of the type who can thrive in an environment of lies. However, I believe most people would prefer, if the opportunity exists, to work in meaning, a company whose goals they approve and which treats them as human beings and not as things. Problem In Education! If I am correct about this, then it follows that they look to business leadership with the same standards as any other kind of leadership. They may be resigned to a lack of integrity, but it nevertheless remains an ideal. Businesses can be tremendously successful without engaging in fraud. Isha Meaning Hebrew! While we may be suckered into buying products that are highly hyped, we also have a special affection for, and short often a lifelong relationship to, products that accomplish a job unpretentiously and about which no extraordinary claims are made.

I value the car I drive, and isha hebrew will buy another of the same kind, because it hasn't broken down in six years, not because I believe that by owning it I am younger or better-looking than I actually am. One of the companies in which I worked had a business model which was ninety percent sales and ten percent implementation. I am not implying any dishonesty built into the model; there are businesses where finding the The Abolitionist, opportunity is most of the work, and delivering the result is much easier. Through years of close involvement with the isha meaning, salespeople, during which time I assisted in problem in education today, solving various conflicts and ethical dilemmas, I learned that sales, which has such a bad reputation, can itself be a business of great integrity. At its most transparent, sales involves the matching of a problem and isha hebrew a solution, or a need and the thing which satisfies it. The salesperson, rather than lying to the purchaser and british colonized getting him to want something unsuitable, can simply work to eliminate the friction of the system by honestly addressing the purchaser's concerns. There is an isha meaning hebrew, incentive to be honest in business, as in other kinds of activities, which works entirely on a practical and not a moral plane. Customers who discover that they have been lied to will not return; employees who have been lied to will leave, and it will become harder to recruit new ones. These practical incentives do not always work (economic necessity, the lack of choice, or simply the cooper, ease of obfuscation and difficulty of transmitting information, may be enough to counter them.) Nevertheless, they work enough of the isha hebrew, time that the consequences of deception provide a practical brake on mini india the system. Leadership and Lying.

A study done right after World War II concluded that soldiers did not fight for the American flag, or some devout conception of country or democracy, or for the president. They fought for the other members of their squad, the smallest unit of the huge community of which they were members. The squad may also have been the only unit in which they could have been certain there was rigorous honesty among the members. In the squad, lies could be most easily detected and their consequences were most grave. Since our daily survival depends on our watching each other's backs, if you are not carrying the isha meaning hebrew, weight, if you are making excuses and taking more from british, me than you are giving, I will certainly know. In a primal unit dedicated entirely to survival, there is no room for liars. It is interesting to compare the beauty and simplicity of the squad with the larger components of the meaning, community. Apa Cite This! Why would we not hope for the same clarity in the larger groups that we found in the smallest one? Who wouldn't want to be able to look at the captain, the colonel or the general with the same implicit trust one felt for one's squad mates?

That we regard this as a naive aspiration is based on experience and resignation, not on our desire for a rulebook which permits lying. These distinctions are built into our vocabulary: we talk about politicians lying, not leaders; not every politician is a leader, not even one in a position of ostensible leadership. A leader is hebrew, like a flag: we want to know what he stands for in order to salute him. We want him to take our side, solve our problems, treat us as people rather than chattel, and be responsive to our opinions. Colonized India! His honesty is the cornerstone of the structure; if we catch him lying to us it is isha, impossible to be confident he is carrying out the did females get the right, rest of his mission. While many people are resigned to isha meaning hebrew, being lied to by politicians, few will defend the premise that a leader should lie to us for our own good. Cooper! Even liars want the people around them to be truthful, so that they do not lose their own way. A leader who is meaning, tasked with acting as navigator for an entire community must seek to have people around him who will give him rigorously accurate information, so he does not crash the problem in education, vessel on the rocks.

If he is a liar, he has arrogated the right to himself to be the only one in isha meaning hebrew, the system, as he could not do his job if the this for me, others around him behaved as he did. Note that I make the assumption that lies cannot be contained, while many lying leaders assume they can. We can all collaborate to lie to the public, as long as we are honest with one another: this was the ethic of the Nixon administration and meaning hebrew of many other governments through-out history. Crisis situations tend to bring out this ethic; in crises, war being a prime example, conventional rulebooks are suspended and fraud (alongside force) is engaged to achieve our goals. As Sissela Bok points out, apologists for lying have long maintained that there are people to whom we owe no obligation of truth. The starkest example is the murderer who asks you where his intended victim is mini, hiding. This hypothetical, discussed by every philosopher who has analyzed the phenomenon of lying, divides the absolutists from the hebrew, relativists. Kant, an absolutist, maintained we must not even lie to a murderer.

Most of us would find this lie completely justified, even if there was no other lie we would ever tell. At the other extreme, we may create structures in when right, which we owe no obligation of truth to large groups of people, based on isha hebrew such factors as race, geographical origin, economic status, or the mere fact that they are our followers. Here the exception winds up eating the rule: we may have no obligation of honesty to anyone except a select few--and we may even betray those when there is something else to be gained. We can call this the organized crime theory of leadership. Human inertia leads to complacency sometimes. We tolerate the harm a friend did another because we do not want to give up a friend. We tolerate even more dishonesty in the workplace, because we do not want to leave a job. The unwillingness to take action or make significant changes in our lives thus promotes lying to ourselves. Sometimes we render a lie innocuous by regarding it as an extraordinary event.

Someone told a lie to promote a particularly important goal, but now that things have returned to normal he will return to truth and I can count on him. The problem is that this flies in the face of human nature. Apa Cite This For Me! Just as bodies in motion tend to remain in motion, liars who have succeeded in isha meaning hebrew, obtaining something important through a falsehood should be expected to utter another one when there is something else to obtain. Lies become habitual and the goals may be of decreasing importance. The belief that lies can be contained within neat temporal, geographical or ethnic lines is disproved by experience. [F]ew lies, says Bok, are solitary ones: The first lie 'must be thatched with another or it will rain through.' More and more lies may come to be needed; the liar always has more mending to do.

And the strains on him become greater each time. After the first lies, moreover, others can come more easily. Psychological barriers wear down; lies seem more necessary, less reprehensible; the british, ability to isha meaning hebrew, make moral distinctions can coarsen. A man who has obtained a leadership position through a lie faces an interesting challenge. If he cannot convince the people around him that there was no lie, then he must try to problem today, persuade them that it was the isha hebrew, last one; in other words, that lies can be contained. The Abolitionist Movement Essay! Since his entire authority, the position itself, was obtained by that lie, it will be a very difficult task. Meaning Hebrew! It is on a moral plane with: We had to commit one murder to achieve our goals, but there will never be another. In life, as in the movies, everyone usually has their knives out a remarkably short time after this statement is Movement Essay, made.

In the graphic hypothetical of the killer seeking his victim, we face an isha meaning hebrew, extraordinary situation. Story! The rules have broken down (or the authorities who could apply them cannot reach us in time) and we are in a state of nature where the hebrew, individual we are facing is Essay, prepared to apply force. However, even in this situation we have other choices. We could respond with force, or run away, or refuse to answer. The fact that a lie may be the most practical response does not mean it complies with our rulebook. Nor are we compelled to rewrite the rules to accomodate it. Here we face the old confusion between the moral and practical. Most moral rulebooks do not attempt to incorporate the practical at all turns. (If they did, only one rule would be necessary: Anything practical is meaning hebrew, acceptable.) It may be highly practical to throw some people from the problem, lifeboat when the hebrew, waves get high or food is short (it may be even more practical to kill and mini india eat them.) But under most of our rulebooks, it would be a highly unethical choice. Thus the statement I had to meaning hebrew, lie is never true, because there are other choices which we evaluated but found too costly. A common experience of my generation was the choice of whether to lie to avoid the draft during Vietnam. (I turned 18 the year the draft ended.

I had already formulated the get the to vote, ideas I am expressing here,but I cannot say with certainty that I would have had the courage of hebrew my convictions.) On the one hand, most people who evaded the journey story, draft had a genuine belief that the war was immoral. Hebrew! On the today, other hand, many missed the fact that draft evasion was not a moral choice, nor was it in any way (because concealed) an act of protest. On a spectrum of moral statement, two other choices were more honest. The highest form of isha hebrew protest, involving the british, most personal risk, was to refuse to serve and isha accept the consequences. Problem Today! Few people had the meaning, courage to do this. Another choice was to withdraw from the community altogether and go live in another country, which more people did. Draft evaders, by Movement Essay contrast, became free riders who continued to accept the isha, benefits of American society without paying the price that society demanded in return.

As such, they were on journey story the same moral plane as welfare cheats and anyone else who obtains something on false pretenses. In a Hobbesian state of isha meaning nature, we may face stark choices. In wars, good men may face each other every day in circumstances which they did not choose and british colonized from which only one can emerge alive. Hebrew! Still, there is a choice made, to journey short, kill and live, where another path was available (to die rather than kill.) The choice to live, though natural and understandable, need not be elevated into isha meaning, a moral imperative. In fact, it is journey short, not under most rulebooks; think again about the isha meaning hebrew, lifeboat example, where we are not permitted to kill other inhabitants of the boat, even to ensure our own survival. Lies and violence can be viewed similarly. Lies are never necessary and when applied to protect an important interest, like survival, never need to be elevated to problem in education, the level of isha meaning a morally acceptable choice. This For Me! Our rulebooks, after all, are compilations of the ways we should behave. Meaning! If riddled with exceptions, they lose simplicity and efficacy and become mere sociological mirrors of problem today actuality. Aren't there white lies?

It is very hard to say what these are. Personally, I feel better saying nothing about your appalling tie than praising it falsely. Isha Hebrew! Though I have told enough lies to get out of social engagements I wanted to avoid, I believe today that an accretion of such lies, however trivial, undermines the trust we feel for another human being in more significant matters. It is hard to say that any lie is wholly beneficial or otherwise completely without consequences. When my grandfather had leukemia, his doctor did not tell him; the The Abolitionist Movement, conventional medical wisdom of the 1950's said it was merciful to isha meaning hebrew, lie. In my opinion, he was robbed of the opportunity to navigate his life knowingly in the light of apa cite this a major obstacle in the landscape.

When my father contracted lymphoma, medical ethics had changed, and he was told everything from the start. When my own cancer arrives, I expect to be treated no differently. A very common and trivial lie involves deceiving someone about which others possess certain information. Meaning! Many, perhaps most, promises of confidentiality are deceptive because privately conditional: I have the colonized india, mental reservation (which I do not communicate to you) that I will not tell anyone except my wife, or a friend whom I trust also to keep the secret. I told a memorable lie of this type, which backfired. (It was an important goal to include in this essay at least one example of a lie I told, so as not to create a false impression that I have never lied.) Within a company, I was in an ambiguous situation of meaning hebrew having two bosses: I was on loan from Boss 1 to Boss 2 (who did not want my help and regarded me as a spy for Boss 1.) Someone made a comment in british colonized india, internal email in Boss 2's group which I knew would anger Boss 1. I told Boss 1 about it in meaning, confidence. Boss 2 asked me if I had told anyone and I said no. I was uncomfortable with the question, which I certainly could have answered honestly, and I took the line of least resistance. Boss 1 was so angered by the comment that he responded in email to the entire group, establishing me as a liar. My already difficult relations with Boss 2 and when get the in england his group were now further undercut; I was publicly shamed and meaning hebrew I can't say I fully recovered from this in cooper india, my dealings with Boss 2. Yet the lie, at isha, the moment I told it, seemed a very trivial one. Problem Today! I thought it would never be detected, so there would be no consequences.

Also, I believed it was not a lie uttered in order to isha meaning hebrew, obtain a benefit on false pretenses. In reality, it was, because what I was trying to obtain was the continued level of trust, however small, which Boss 2 placed in me before I told the lie. Another common excuse for a lie is that it is uttered in response to an intrusive, inappropriate question. I probably thought Boss 2 really had no right to ask me what I had or hadn't told Boss 1. In Education Today! Some people made this excuse for Bill Clinton lying about Monica Lewinsky: that the press had no right to inquire into his private life. Hebrew! However, even if we claim a distinction (which I rejected above) between the moral implications of for me private and public behavior, this is isha meaning hebrew, a very weak excuse. The President could have told the truth or refused to answer. It would be refreshing to hear a public figure say, That's none of your damn business once in a while.

By lying, he did himself immense public damage, of for me which the impeachment trial was the most visible and expensive consequence. Truth stands as an meaning hebrew, absolute value, the glue which binds the rulebook. Apa Cite This For Me! When regard for truth has been broken down or even slightly weakened, says St. Augustine (quoted by Bok), all things will remain doubtful.

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The correct way to use integration tests in your build process. In my previous article on isha, unit testing, I showed you how to The Abolitionist Essay mock all the dependencies of a single Java class in order to isha isolate it from the rest of the system. This way the class under test is in a controlled environment where you can test its own business logic with nothing else in british colonized, the way. However there are some times where you should NOT use mocking during testing. These are the times where you are actually interested in the interface of isha this class with its dependencies. You zoom out from a single class and you want to test a component of the system which not only is based on multiple classes but it might also use other systems such as a database or a queue. For these cases you need an integration test. All the problem in education today previous articles in meaning, the testing series talked about unit tests so far. And yes, there is a difference! Sometimes there is not a clear distinction on what is an integration test and what is a unit test. My basic rule of thumb is that if.

a test uses the database a test uses the network a test uses an this for me, external system (e.g. a queue or a mail server) a test reads/writes files or performs other I/O. …then it is an integration test and not a unit test. I have seen several developers who talk about “tests” and isha meaning either they mean both or just integration tests. Here is also a brief comparison between the two. You should now know the difference between the two.

Writing an integration test is problem, heavily dependent on meaning hebrew, your environment. The first thing that you should decide is the scope of colonized india your integration test. So if we keep following Matt from the hebrew previous article who keeps on working on the gigantic CRM, he could write integration tests for: Verifying correct integration of the CRM with the printer (in a staging environment of course) Verifying correct integration of the CRM with the apa cite this mail server Verifying correct reading/writing of invoices from/to the DB Verifying the whole data flow of receiving an order, creating an invoice, saving it to the DB and mailing it to the client. This is an End-To-End integration test. Since some of the integration tests in the case of Matt, use a staging environment (e.g. the isha hebrew mail server) it is also important to document these dependencies so that his fellow developers know about them. I always hate it when I run the did females to vote in england test suite on a new application and half the isha meaning tests fail because my workstation has no network access to the testing database! A second point with integration tests that must be accounted is the use of when right to vote detailed logging. When a unit test fails it is isha meaning, very easy to mini india understand why since the scope is very narrow. Isha Hebrew? When an Essay, integration test fails, things are not so simple.

Because by definition an integration tests is based on many components and a specific data flow, identifying the failure cause is not always straightforward. My recommended way to alleviate this problem, is the use of detailed logging statements (that are always needed in meaning hebrew, an Enterprise application regardless of unit tests). Story? This way, when an integration test fails you can examine the logs and understand if the issue is in the code or in an external resource used by the test. Why integration tests should never run together with unit tests. Now we reach the most important point regarding unit tests. In a big enterprise application integration and unit tests MUST be handled differently. Here is an all too common scenario that I have personally seen multiple times. Matt has created a lot of meaning unit and integration tests. Short? All of them are executed by Maven when the isha meaning hebrew test goal is british colonized, run. However during a server migration some of the integration tests stop working.

However everyone on isha hebrew, the team is busy and nobody fixes the IPs in the configuration files. Soon after some integration tests that depend on an external system run really slowly. The Abolitionist? But nobody has time to isha hebrew investigate the cause. Journey Short Story? Developers no longer run tests before committing code because the test suite is very slow. More unit tests break as a result, since developers do not maintain them. New developers come into the team. They start working on meaning, the CMS and soon find out that half the british india test suite is broken. Most of meaning them do not even bother with unit tests anymore. A valiant developer comes into the team and says that this madness must stop. Mini India? He spends a day and finds out that the effort required to fix all tests is not realistic for the current timeframe. He also finds out that in isha hebrew, several cases the unit tests are broken because of changes in the business requirements.

So fixings the tests is not a straightforward process since somebody has to adapt them to new code. By this point it is clear that tests are not actually used in this project. New developers simply declare that “writing unit tests is journey, a waste of time” and isha they are right from their point of view, since nobody wants to british india work with a broken test suit. This is a scenario that we need to avoid. Delegating integration tests to Maven Failsafe plugin. There are many ways to split unit and integration tests. My suggestion is to use the Maven failsafe plugin.

Unit tests should follow the isha hebrew naming convention introduced in the first part of this series. Unit test classes are named with “name of when did females get the right to vote class + Test”. Then they are placed in the test directory of the Maven project structure. The unit tests are executed automatically when the test goal is run. Next you should add the failsafe plugin in your pom.xml file. Your integration tests however hava a different naming convention. They are named as “name of class + IT”.

IT stands for Integration Test. Now the test goal will ignore them. Meaning? Instead these tests will be executed by the integration-test goal which is problem in education today, a built-in goal into Maven. Here is a table that summarizes this split. How to run integration tests in your build process. Now that all these changes are done you have great flexibility on meaning, how you run unit tests. In Education Today? Most importantly your build server (e.g. Jenkins) should contain a mixture of jobs that deal with both kinds of tests.

Here is isha hebrew, a overview of suggested jobs. The suggested workflow is the following. Developers run the when did females get the to vote in england test goal during development Developers run the test goal before any commit Developers run the integration-test goal before a major commit with many side effects Build server compiles code and isha runs the test goal every 15-30 minutes (main build) Build server compiles code and runs the integration-test goal every day (integration build) Build server compiles code and runs the integration-test goal before a release to QA. With this workflow it is clear that developers get fast feedback from the unit tests so anything that breaks can be fixed immediately. The boring process of running integration tests is left to the build server which runs them automatically in a well defined schedule. In this post we have finally tackled integration tests. We showed you the differences with unit tests regarding test focus, external systems and running time. We also hope we convinced you that they must be handled differently.

Our suggested method for splitting tests is the maven failsafe plugin. Finally we proposed some combinations of build jobs and Essay how they run different types of tests. Feel free to post your suggestions below regarding unit and integration tests. Isn’t it an even better idea to run integration tests in isha meaning, dedicated environments orchestrated by Jenkins, configured by Chef and provisioned by Vagrant or virtualization? Jevgeni you are partially right you can do it too. Journey Story? But I usually run integration tests similar to the production one but without virtualization (for example using AS embedded server or embedded DB without replication, mirroring, ..), but when I jump into virtualization (if I cannot have a replica of the production environment) is in tests like acceptance tests, deployment tests, … Well this is my approach, which in my case fits perfectly. Hi Kostis really nice post which summarizes very well how to run integration tests. Meaning Hebrew? Only pointing out india that you can achieve the same without using failsafe plugin, you can use surefire with exclusions, but of course failsafe approach is also good. An alternative to the failsafe plugin is to use JUnit 4 Category annotation to label tests as integration tests, and then use maven profiles to meaning exclude them from developer builds, but run them nightly in the CI server. This week I also had the epiphany that once you exclude integration tests you can apply JUnit 4 parallelism to your mock object tests to problem make them run even faster.

it would be great if you could add in your blogs links to meaning hebrew the previous articles in the series. This would make it much easier to in education read the meaning whole thing… Sorry, to be clear, put in one place links to all other articles, not just the previous one. Yes, JUnit categories is another option. With this you can even split your unit tests even further. Like unit tests, slow integration tests, fast integration tests, tests that need something special etc. I have never tried JUnit parallelism, good to know! Yes there are multiple way to do the split.

Dale also recommended JUnit4 categories. What I really like about the failsafe plugin is the naming convention. When To Vote? A test is instantly recognizable by isha meaning, its name. You can click on my name directly below the mini cooper india title of this post and you will get the full list of the blog posts. I think it depends on the application you write. There are Enterprise applications that don’t need anything special. They are just CRUD web interfaces over a relational database. Yes, the hebrew ultimum integration testing! Build done - launch VirtualMachines with jenkins, optionally controlled with Vagrant and setup with puppet or chef, deploy apps/db and short what’s needed for the app and test against that.

Tests done, kill environments and release resources. Always a clean slate! hey can u tell me that how to import build solutions from build server on integration server.. u can also mail me documents regarding this problem on my email id. i’m a little bit confuse. Isha? When i’m writing test that use configuration files like spring-security.xml and web application context do i still call it unit test?

I really enjoyed reading your articles about testing. You did a great job explaining unit test, integration test and test coverage. The dos and don’ts and when and get the where use what type of test. Thanks a lot for isha meaning this. I’m bookmarking your articles for future references.

Very good blog, but I strongly do disagree with the did females get the right to vote time span on how you fragment stuff. The reasoning why integration tests should be in its own build, I do not agree on. When they are in isha hebrew, their own build, its harder to detect, the integration tests will often be delegated to journey short story teams that knows next to nothing on how to isha hebrew solve them, or you end up with an “integration testing team”, and they take longer time to fix. In my opinion, integration tests should be in the main build, and the developer’s should run the build often – as an absolute minimum it should be merged locally and ran before pushing from local machine. That way the developer that is short story, doing the isha meaning changes, also have to problem take responsibility for changes in isha meaning hebrew, integration tests, and The Abolitionist Essay can not be ignored.

Now, if you have a 15-20 minutes build on an application without integration tests, and/or the integration tests take 2-3 hours, I would say that you have a completely different issue that really should be addressed! In my oppinion, a build – with integration tests, should not take more than 5 minutes, and hebrew you should consider splitting into more applications when you pass 3 minute build. But as I stated, this is my opinion… It seems to apa cite this for me me that your application in isha meaning, not really large. You can’t possibly test a banking system with integration tests in less than 5 minutes. I have been working with quite huge systems like national statistics, booking, international cargo systems, and british india what I have noticed is that even though the isha meaning systems are quite large in total, a lot can be done to make several smaller pieces that work together. The code also gets cleaner, so its really a win-win situation I think. If a banking systems is chopped into The Abolitionist Movement smaller blocks, I think its quite possible to meaning run a full set of problem tests within five minutes. Also it sounds like its too many integration tests. I am not sure I understand what you propose. By your suggestion I split my big banking system in 30 modules where each takes 5 minutes to build.

My team is 10 developers who commit multiple changes. Some of the isha meaning hebrew changes might be in Movement Essay, the domain classes (thus affecting the whole system). When I make I release I would have to build these 30 modules in order (because of the dependencies) and isha meaning hebrew still pay 30* 5 minutes = 2,5 hours. So what is that gain? I still need to wait for journey story 2.5 hours after each commit to make sure that nothing is indeed broken (i.e. until all integration tests pass) (Also if you think that a banking system has too many integration tests, you obviously don’t know the inner workings of a bank) Well… I do suggest that dividing the system into 30 modules would be an option, yes.

If you have to deploy all 30 modules every time you make a change, then perhaps they are put together wrong. From my experience, when systems are broken up in smaller modules with a good interface between them, then you only have to release a couple of those modules. Isha? For instance if one of the modules is front-end of the customer part of the banking system, where they can see their account information, you can make changes to that application and deploy it without touching the back-end part of the application, or releasing the administration part of the short story whole. That will effect the whole release process since you can run changes much faster through test and QA process, and can help the cause thowards continous delivery. And yes, I have been working with banking systems too, and large systems that gather whole nation’s transactional data. Isha? Politically it was one of the most challenging systems I have ever been working on apa cite, – though not that hard to divide into hebrew working modules, but national people register were way more complex to split into working modules. I still don’t understand how it is apa cite this, possible to meaning do what you say.

Let’s say that I make a single change that affects modules 3,5 (I know this information because I am a human). British? Then another developer makes a changes that affects modules 5,7,4,23 (out of the 30 modules) How does the build server know that for the first commit only isha meaning 2 (out of 30 modules) need to be built and for the second commit only problem today 4 out of 30 modules need to be built? So at the moment my build server should need to meaning build all 30 modules (not deploy them). Hence I have to wait 2,5 hours. I never said that all 30 modules need to apa cite this for me be deployed every time.

I am saying that they need to be compiled and unit tested. Also the article talks about Java, but my system could be on Groovy or another dynamic language (where I have to run unit tests to verify correct behaviour) A very interesting discussion. You will sometimes have exceptions to the rule, like the rule that a method should not be more than 20 lines. Sometimes its just not practical, so in some cases you can accept larger modules with longer build-time, though I still mean that if a module have longer than 3 minutes build-time, it should be checked and see if something can be done. The reason is isha hebrew, that if you have 100 developers, building twice a day with 15 minutes build, you waste day’s worth of work every day, not to mention that developers gets frustrated. To answer your post:

Most build-servers will notice when there’s a change to cooper india a module, and then it will be built. The rest of the library that is not touched or affected by the updated module, is – for that module, a third party product and does not need to meaning hebrew be built. As long as there’s no compability issues or functionality you need in that module, I don’t see why you need to update straight away. Example: You don’t update StringUtil or Spring at once its a new version out, and you certainly don’t run all the unit tests built into Hibernate ;) Ok. Problem? then we agree. When I was talking about rebuilds, I was talking about meaning runtime dependencies. Movement Essay? Not compile time (which is indeed very easy for a build server to handle).

Insightful. Great article. Isha Hebrew? Thank you ! 10-20 minutes build? isn’t that too long…? Hi blader, would you able to share any link/tutorial on problem in education, how this is meaning hebrew, done. Cooper India? Would really appreciate your help in this! Thanks! Hi Jevgeni, would you able to meaning hebrew share any link/tutorial on The Abolitionist Movement Essay, how this is done. Isha Meaning? Would really appreciate your help in this! Thanks! Now, 2 years later.

I tend to short story propose a slightly different approach for isha what I described in the comment. Since then, we have docker! I currently don’t have a link yet. I haven’t actually written it down. In short: each application should live in it’s own reset-able docker image. You launch your ‘environment’ from the british initial state you decided it should be in. ( docker images FTW! they are easily updated and saved, or just discarded after use and checked out/build from scratch again. ) Update only meaning that applications that need to be changed, run all your system integration tests and deploy to production (if all goes well :-) No offense to problem in education today anyone in particular, but unit testing is a waste of time. Isha Meaning? Individual methods are supposed to be small enough so that they cannot possibly be incorrect. Therefore testing these individual units of code in isolation is a waste of journey short story time.

Doing integration testing is the best way to do unit testing. Dude in meaning hebrew, your case you will be waiting hours for all of when did females to vote your permutations. I can’t recall how many times unit tests have saved me from meaning, numerous bugs that would be caused from fast testable inputs/outputs of functions. Colonized? Writing large integration of multiple components with all of those would be incredibly slow or you will need tons of instances to run in isha, parallel which can become expensive and unmanageable. Where I have found what you’re saying useful is writing JPA tests against an in memory database to ensure your queries are written correctly… no sense in Movement, unit testing that. i disagree that unit tests are “Easy to write and verify” while “Setup of integration test might be complicated”. for example, integration testing against a REST endpoint using frisby.js or something is typically quite easy, and meaning hebrew basically anyone can do it; whereas testing a class in cooper, isolation by mocking dependencies, setting up their behavior, and verifying the interactions (while satisfying the heuristics of maintainable software) can be quite challenging. unit tests on classes with no dependencies, or unit tests where the dependencies are injected and easily controlled as with functional programming, are easy to write; it’s the object-oriented, dependency-inversion style of isolation which is meaning hebrew, tricky. Testing a REST endpoint is apa cite this for me, called functional testing or end-to-end testing. This is meaning hebrew, a different thing. It is not integration test (as you don’t really integrate with anything if you see the system as a black box)

If your software is for a bank, a hospital or a nuclear reactor this is Movement Essay, perfectly normal. It is indeed a great article and discussion. I still have few questions, as i am pretty much new to this CI/Automated Testing and meaning how to. orchestrate with Jenkins pipeline. Basically, we have developed SOAP Webservices and we have also written Unit test in UnitTestSuite and Integration test in IntegrationTestSuite. We plan to run the UnitTest during the build.

Our pipeline is such that we do the commit–auto-Build–auto scan–auto run JUnitTestSuite –Auto deploy to Dev. Next, i want to run a smoke test/integration Test in the dev env after i deploy in problem in education today, the dev env. Is it ok to hebrew hit the actual Dev Database and the actual Service from Dev env to The Abolitionist perform this test? Do you see any issues? Hello…..I have few questions on the Integration testing….

i am pretty much new to this CI/Automated Testing and how to orchestrate with Jenkins pipeline. we have developed SOAP Webservices and we have also written Unit test in UnitTestSuite and Integration test in IntegrationTestSuite. We plan. to run the UnitTest during the build. Our pipeline is such that we do the commit–auto-Build–auto scan–auto run JUnitTestSuite –Auto deploy to Dev. Next, i want to run a smoke test/integration Test in the dev env after i deploy in the dev env. Is it ok to hit the actual Dev Database and the actual Service from Dev env to perform this test?

Do you see any issues?

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20 Essay Writing Prompts For 5 Paragraph Essays Sample 396393. Hebrew? This topic contains 0 replies, has 1 voice, and cooper was last updated by mnemverrokifen 6 days, 10 hours ago. Meaning? 20 Essay Writing Prompts For 5 Paragraph Essays Sample. 501 Writing Prompts DePaul University College of Education 19. Model Persuasive Essays . 20 . 2 Expository Writing Prompts . In Education Today? 51. Rubrics—Scoring The samples provide a look at a top essay , a middle-of-the road essay ,. Isha Meaning? Writing Prompts : Over 200 for Practice Essays , Journal Entries, and Persuasive and journey expository essay writing prompts , reader response Middle School, we used the following prompts for formal, five - paragraph , practice essays in meaning hebrew, . The Abolitionist Essay? 20 step by step tutorials are available for isha hebrew, producing articles, reviews, essays . The Five Paragraph Essay Wizard- Essay and prompts You do not have to be a wizard to learn to write excellent five - paragraph essays . You do need some basic skill and practice . At this site, you will find the 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to Help You Get Started Essay Writing 2 Feb 2015 Do you need help coming up with persuasive essay topics for colonized india, your essay ? You#039;ve These reasons and examples (evidence) should convince readers to believe your argument. Check out these example persuasive essays . 5 . Should all high school students be required to complete parenting classes? Best 20 + Essay writing ideas on Pinterest | Essay writing tips See more ideas about Essay writing tips, Vocabulary and isha Creative writing . please (for the love of all that is holy) stay away from the Movement, five paragraph essay . With the 20 Useful Words and Phrases for isha meaning hebrew, Top-Notch Essays Infographic, .. Within the past week we have been learning the correct way to write a research question. 30 Prompts for a Persuasive Paragraph , Essay , or Speech 10 Apr 2017 When considering topics for The Abolitionist Movement Essay, a persuasive paragraph, essay , or speech, Drawing on one or more specific programs for your examples , Over the past 20 years, more and more public schools have implemented 400 Topic Suggestions for Essays and Speeches Learn to Write a 5 Paragraph Essay . Expository Writing Prompts : 30 Writing Prompts for School and 14 Oct 2013 Improve your writing skills with practice essays based on these 30 expository Another option is to take up this course on isha quality paragraph and apa cite for me essay writing . Isha Meaning? . 5 . Describe the mini, evolution of meaning communication in the last 20 years Persuasive Essay : Grade 5 Writing Unit 3 Writers generate ideas for when get the in england, writing persuasive essays . Isha? 3. Writers . Colonized? Read aloud the hebrew, first paragraph on apa cite for me the last page of the essay (page 10) and isha meaning hebrew have students. writing prompts , student rubrics, and sample responses Glencoe 5 . Writing Prompts , Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses.

Expository Clarification Essay . Prompt 1 Students will have 50 minutes to did females right in england, complete their essays . The 20 Best Persuasive Essay Topics For 5th Graders 20 Intriguing Persuasive Essay Topics for hebrew, 5th Graders whether you are asked to write a persuasive or an argumentative paper , the approach is the same. Mini Cooper India? Developing fun essay topics for a class can sometimes be a challenge. Students want to learn the skills to become good writers but they also want to enjoy the Samples Essays and Commentary CaMLA MELAB Sample Essays and isha meaning Commentary 2. Essay 1. Problem Today? Rating: 97. Technology has highly evolved over isha meaning hebrew The writing prompt this test taker wrote on was: . into distinct paragraphs , and the organizational Commentary on Essay 5 . Page 20 The Four Major Types of Essays | Time4Writing Help your student understand different types of essays and learn the journey short, four Essay writing is a common school assignment, a part of isha meaning hebrew standardized tests, Often on journey short tests, choosing the correct type of essay to meaning, write in response to a writing prompt is the writer explains or defines a topic, using facts, statistics, and when did females get the to vote examples . Best holiday essay . English essay writing help She Cooks, She Eats 8 Mar 2017 Christmas Essay Story Writing Prompts for Kids. Can it be that we have just written a really good five paragraph essay and we only wrote 20 . Meaning Hebrew? Essays largest database of quality sample essays and research papers on My 20 5 - Paragraph Essay Topics on Outsourcing and Global Remote 4 Nov 2016 This article will not only provide 20 essay topics but it will also include a short essay Lastly, an added essay and our writer#039;s guide for 5 - paragraph essay on Sample 5 - Paragraph Essay : The Role Outsourcing and Remote . papers, essays , dissertations and mini other custom writing services inclusive of 101 Persuasive Essay and Speech Topics | Ereading Worksheets Looking for persuasive topics ? I taxed my brain to create this huge list of persuasive essay topics relevant to today#039;s . How to Write Persuasive Essays SAT Essay Prompts : The Complete List PrepScholar Blog We#039;ve compiled every single SAT essay prompt for the new SAT in this Posted by Laura Staffaroni | Apr 6, 2017 5 :00:00 PM . Meaning? all 11 of the get the to vote in england, real prompts in a row – take the isha hebrew, time to learn from your experiences writing the practice essays . . Usually, the short paragraph before the assignment is meant to apa cite this for me, provide some If You Teach or Write 5 - Paragraph Essays –Stop It! | The White Rhino 10 May 2012 The thesis or argument in the traditional five - paragraph essay doesn#039;t lend itself to isha meaning, to express ideas engagingly, proving that this structure limits students#039; writing development.

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Revise (read Source: Official GED Practice Test: Language Arts, Writing ; American Council on Education. Isha Meaning? List of Persuasive Topics Mrs. Carson#039;s Classes Google Sites 86 Possible Persuasive Essay Topics 5 . Should all American citizens have to complete a year of journey story community service? . Possible Persuasive Writing Prompts . Explain your answer using specific reasons and examples . 20 . Many cities suffer . homework can find dozens of sites on the Internet that offer essays for sale. Isha Meaning Hebrew? The Top 20 Best Political Essay Topics To Consider The following article suggests 20 great ideas you may feel free to use. For example , if you are writing about problem in education today whether or not you think a political idea is good or not The following list could be used for political essays , or could be used to hebrew, help inspire Five paragraph essay structure · Hiring a professional writer · Finding a 20 Persuasive Writing Prompts About School Rules | Owlcation 16 Apr 2013 In this hub, you#039;ll find a list of ideas for persuasive writing essays , all revolving For example , the when did females get the to vote in england, question about sports, athletes, and academics would be 5 Persuasive Writing Essay Prompts About Health Care Reform Easy Outline Essay Writing – 861683 | BeautiFun Games 2 days ago How to hebrew, Write a 5 - Paragraph Essay Outline – Essay Writing – Kibin 21 Oct 2013 format their ideas before writing an essay or research paper . can be used 26+ Examples of Essay Outlines Outlines help you write essays with a clear Plagramme.com 20 Aug 2017 How to write an journey story, outline: 5 easy steps to. You must be logged in to reply to this topic. Keep up-to-date with industry news and meeting invites. Never too much of a good thing! Click here to signup. Want to meaning, join in on all of the terrific benefits of being a DMALI member? Click here to get started!

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essay human behavior Read the isha following essay from the subject Human Behaviour. When Did Females Right To Vote! Click on the blue highlighted numbers to see comments. Words or phrases highlighted in pink are wrong or in some way problematic. Isha! Most of these have comments attached, but in a few places we leave it to you to think about what is wrong, or how the writing might be improved. 1 Cancer is still seen by cooper many as an incurable disease that slowly takes over healthy human tissue, and ultimately causes death. 2 Through advances in medical science, different physical procedures have been developed to treat cancer for example, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. In recent years however, there has been a growing perception by cancer specialists and patients that the isha onset and treatment of cancer may be affected by when in england psychological factors. A new field of research called psycho-oncology has emerged to investigate how the mind can slow down, or even reverse, the progress of cancer. The results from such studies however, have not always been conclusive, and in the case of retrospective studies, have often proved contradictory.

3 While it is important that medical science properly investigate the merit of mind-cancer theories, the benefits of hebrew alternative therapies and viewpoints should not be overlooked in the debate over short story cancer research. 4 The essay briefly surveys the origins of mind-cancer research and the emergence of the field of isha psycho-oncology, before addressing contemporary research in the area, in particular, the problem of validating results. It concludes by british colonized examining the merits of alternative therapies with regard to isha meaning patient psychology. 5 Before examining the Movement Essay origins of mind-cancer research, the physiology of cancer will be briefly discussed. Cancer is a general term used to describe a physiological disorder in which cells in the body begin to isha meaning hebrew reproduce as abnormal cells, forming a mass called a tumour. There are different types of cancers and tumours, and the body utilises the immune system to story destroy the cancerous cells. If the tumour is malignant, the immune system stops the cancer cells from hebrew moving to mini india other areas of the body. The immune system halts the spread of the cancer cells by the use of cytotoxic T-cells, also known as 6 natural killer (NK) cells. These cells attack the cancerous cells and isha destroy them.

This is british colonized india why much cancer research over the years has concentrated on the immune system because in hebrew effect, this system provides the body#039;s own natural cancer treatment. In several studies completed over the last two decades, 7 researchers have found that psychological factors such as stress and mini india bereavement can suppress NK cell activity in the body, and the activity of all T-cells in general 8 (Bartrop, 1977; 9 Sali, 1992, cited by Kune, 1992). This phenomenon (immunosuppression) has come to isha be viewed as a contributing factor in many physiological diseases including allergies, infections, digestive disorders, asthma, heart disease, and cancer 10 (Edelman Kidman, 1997). The idea however, that psychological factors could have an influence on cancer was first raised as early as the second century. The Greek physician, 11 Galen, noted that depressed women were more likely to develop cancer than happy women (cited by Sdorow, 1995). Other eminent physicians and surgeons also noted that the personalities of people who had developed cancer were markedly different to journey story people who had not developed cancer (cited by Kune, 1992); 12 i.e, they concluded that cancer was more likely to develop in people who possessed a #039;melancholy#039; disposition (cited by Horne, 1996). 13 This raised the question of why such psychological factors might influence the behaviour of cancer. Studies in the field of psycho-oncology, which combines oncology with psychiatry, therefore tried to show how the isha hebrew mind affected physiological functions. Dedicated experimentation in the field first began with laboratory mice. 14 Sklar and Anisman (1979) implanted cancerous cells into mice, and problem then subjected them to isha a series of escapable and inescapable electric shocks. They reasoned that the mice subjected to the inescapable shocks would be placed under more stress than the mice allowed to escape the today shocks.

They further found that the mice in the former category developed exaggerated tumour sizes and did not survive as long as did the mice in the latter category. Nevertheless, the results were regarded as inconclusive since different tumour systems are differentially influenced by stress (chemically induced tumours are inhibited by increased stress levels), and the experiment involved mice and not humans. 15 Research was then directed to cancer patients. Many studies concentrated on women suffering from breast cancer, and hebrew consisted of interviewing them after a significant event involving their cancer (such as diagnosis, or an operation). The patients were then followed up after a number of years. However, the results often proved contradictory, as has occurred in get the right to vote in england several retrospective studies. In one well-known case, 16 Ramirez et al. (1989) found that there was a prognostic association between severe life stressors and isha meaning hebrew the recurrence of breast cancer.

Barraclough et al. (1992) 17 on the other hand, 18 found that psychosocial adversity such as depression, or a severe life event, was not conducive to a relapse of when get the to vote cancer and this conclusions has since been supported. 19 There is good evidence for any relation between stressful life events and isha meaning hebrew breast cancer (McGee 1999, p.1015). Certain studies found that patients could be classified into different psychological groups, and that a pattern emerged in the life span of the patients in each of the groups. In one study, Greer et al. (1979) classified 20 69 female patients suffering from breast cancer into one of four groups , 21 the Denial, Fighting Spirit, Stoic Acceptance and Feelings of Hopelessness groups. The Denial group consisted of those patients who rejected any evidence of their diagnosis, and cooper 22 didn#039;t consider having cancer as serious. The Fighting Spirit group consisted of patients who possessed a highly optimistic attitude, and sought to learn more information about their cancer and to do everything they could to conquer the disease. The Stoic Acceptance group comprised patients who ignored their cancer and any symptoms as much as they could, continuing with their lives as normal. The patients in the Feelings of Hopelessness group considered themselves gravely ill, and were totally preoccupied in a negative way with their illness. At the completion of the study, researchers found that the patients classified in meaning hebrew the first two groups were more likely to achieve a favourable outcome than the patients classified in the latter two groups (Greer et al. 1979).

This conclusion was similar to Galen#039;s hypothesis, which claimed that women who had cancer and died from it were more likely to have different personalities than those women who did not develop the get the to vote in england disease or were cured of it. Other studies reinvestigated the role of stress in cancer. Isha Meaning! Medical research had established that stress could cause immunosuppression, and that in times of stress, people could become sick more readily. Goodkin et al. (1984) postulated that an invasive cervical carcinoma could develop as a result of The Abolitionist Essay a mediating mechanism such as the immune system becoming adversely affected by isha stress. As mentioned previously, exposure to stressful life experiences can also alter T-cell activity in the immune system.

Schleifer et al. Short Story! (1985) demonstrated that in most people T-cell activity returned to normal after a time, but for others, it remained lower than prior to the stressor event leaving them more susceptible to illness. Meaning Hebrew! However, like many other findings, it remains to be determined whether these changes in problem today immune function are specifically related to isha cancer. 23 Can the mind really play a role in colonized india cancer onset and cure? While many researchers in the field of psycho-oncology have found positive correlations between cancer and psychological factors, results overall have proved inconclusive, and in some cases, contradictory. It is isha meaning also possible that researchers have concluded what they wanted to believe. . . . In those studies which have directly linked stress to cancer, stress may only be an problem today indirect cause. People in general, when confronted with something that causes stress, tend to isolate themselves and engage in meaning #039;emotion-focused coping behaviour,#039; to prevent being overwhelmed by their negative emotions (Atkinson et al. 1996). Typical examples are behavioural strategies including cigarette smoking and drug and The Abolitionist Movement Essay alcohol consumption.

Such behaviour can cause numerous health problems with smoking being especially linked to the development of lung cancer. In turn, the cancer can spread to isha meaning hebrew other parts of the body. These coping factors may in fact, represent the real reason why stress has been linked to cancer. Issues such as these are among the questions that mind-cancer research needs to resolve. The quality of when get the to vote studies conducted has also prevented any definite conclusions being reached about the validity of theories that view the mind as influencing cancer. Many of these studies for example, have been criticised for poor methodology and meaning hebrew design faults (Edelman and Kidman, 1997).

24 Small sample sizes, the use of problem unvalidated instruments, no control groups, no vital information taken into account and no randomising of treatment groups may have led to errors in isha the calculation of results, and therefore, to questionable conclusions. Many studies have not been replicated by this other researchers to determine the accuracy of their results. . . . Or, they may have been based upon isha hebrew what was in effect, the when in england measurement of feelings. Since feelings cannot be determined quantitatively, it is isha hard to assess the exact amount of stress or depression that a person has experienced. . In Education! . . In addition, the hebrew equipment used in some studies to measure psychological variables may have varied between studies. Problem In Education! All these factors can contribute to meaning inconclusive outcomes. Although verifying mind-cancer studies is problematic, medical personnel need to consider the psychology of their patients. For this reason, the benefits offered by a positive mindset or alternative therapies should not be too readily dismissed. It may well be useful for some cancer patients to colonized india believe that the mind can be used as a tool to treat, or even, prevent the onset of cancer. Similarly, it may also benefit some cancer patients to attempt alternative treatments such as meditation and positive thinking. No matter how strange a cancer treatment may appear, it should not be immediately discredited. One woman with breast cancer was able to keep her malignant tumour localised for a period of seven years, before undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy to finally destroy the cancer.

Over a period of seven years, she underwent vibrational healing and oxygen therapy, took high doses of Vitamin C and meaning Vitamin B17 (Laetrile), but most importantly, adopted a positive attitude toward life and living (Ward 1996). . . The Abolitionist Movement Essay! . Such a patient may well be an example of the phenomenon Sarafino (1990) notes of patients who appear to #039;will away#039; cancer. 25 The extent to which the mind can affect cancer still remains unresolved. Specific questions cannot be answered with any certainty due to the ambiguities, inconsistencies and direct contradictions of some studies. Nevertheless, an examination of the literature that discusses these issues reveals broad findings that are worth emphasising: Stress can negatively affect the immune system.

Although the isha evidence is ambiguous, stress can also affect the onset and progression of cancer. The Abolitionist Movement Essay! An individual#039;s psychological profile can affect the progression of cancer in the body. Such findings should not be ignored, but rather used to the patient#039;s advantage. With the advent of newer medical technology, more research and greater knowledge about how the mind works, the answers to questions in the field of psycho-oncology will hopefully be revealed. Atkinson, R.L., Atkinson, R.C., Smith, E.E., Bem, D.J., and meaning hebrew S. Nolen-Hoeksema . Hilgard#039;s Introduction to problem in education today Psychology. (12th ed.). USA: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1996. Barraclough, J., Pinder, P., Cruddas, M., Osmond, C., Taylor I., and M. Perry. Life events and isha meaning hebrew breast cancer prognosis. British Medical Journal, 304, 1078-1081, 1992. Bartrop, R.W., Luckhurst, E., Lazarus.

L., Kiloh, L.G., and R. Penny. Depressed Lymphocyte Function After Bereavement. The Lancet, i, 834-836, 1977. Edelman, S. and A.D. British Colonized India! Kidman. Mind and cancer: Is there a relationship? - 27 A review of evidence. Australian Psychologist, 32, 79-851, 1997. Goodkin, K., Antoni, M.H., and isha meaning hebrew P.H. Blaney. Stress and hopelessness in the promotion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia to invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.

Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 30, 67-76, 1986. Greer, S., Morris, T., and K.W. Mini Cooper! Pettingale. Hebrew! Psychological response to breast cancer: Effect on outcome. The Lancet, ii, 785-787, 1979.

Home, R. Cancer Proof your Body. Adelaide: Griffin Paperbacks, 1996. Kune, G.A., and S. India! Bannerman. The 1st Slezak Cancer Symposium - The Psyche and Cancer. University of Melbourne, 1992. McGee, R. Does stress cause cancer? There#039;s no good evidence of a relation between stressful events and cancer. British Medical Journal, 319, 1015-1019, 1999.

Ramirez, A.J., Craig, T.K.J., Watson, J.P., Fentiman, I.S., North, W.R.S., and R.D. Reubens. Stress and meaning relapse of breast cancer. British Medical Journal, 298, 291-293, 1989. Sarafino, E.P. Cooper India! Health Psychology-Biosocial Interactions. Canada: 28 1990. Schleifer, S.J., Keller, S.E., and M. Stein.

Central Nervous System Mechanisms and Immunity: Implications for meaning hebrew Tumour Response. In S.M. Journey Story! Levy, Behaviour and Cancer. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., 1985. 29. Sdorow, L.M. Psychology, (3rd ed.). 30 Brown and Benchmark , 1995. Sklar, L.S., and H. Anisman.

Stress and coping factors influence tumour growth. Science, 205, 513-515, 1979. Ward, D. Isha! One in 10 - Women living with Breast Cancer. To Vote In England! Sydney: Allen and Unwin Pty Ltd, 1996. The first thing to do in isha meaning a typical introduction is to introduce the topic , and provide a little relevant background information to orient the reader. The first statement here identifies the broad topic as cancer, with a brief description of what it is. The second stage of a typical introduction limits the british scope of the discussion. The next 4 sentences focus on the history of the isha meaning treatment of cancer, and specifically the role of the mind in controlling the disease. This next stage points out the importance or relevance of the topic. We don#039;t yet know, however, exactly how the writer is going to tackle the did females get the right to vote in england subject. In the final stage of the introduction, the writer gives a brief outline of the structure of the essay, and what the writer intends to achieve.

Note, however, that this plan avoids using #039;I#039; statements (In this essay I will . ); to do so would overemphasise what is purely organisational information. Instead it does the same thing in a less personal way: This essay . surveys . It concludes by examining . . In general,#039;I#039; is rarely used in scientific writing, where the #039;facts of research#039; are required to isha meaning speak for themselves. Notice how the topic sentence in today this paragraph maintains the overall theme - the effects of the meaning mind on cancer - while at the same time moving the discussion forward. If you wish to use an acronym like NK = natural killer in your essay, introduce it the first time by using the full term and adding the acronym immediately after it in The Abolitionist Movement Essay brackets. Use the active voice and human agent(s) where possible (i.e. Researchers have found. instead of isha meaning impersonal constructions of the type It has been found. Colonized! Impersonal constructions do not clearly indicate authorship or responsibility. This first use of isha meaning hebrew a reference focuses on today, introducing relevant information rather than specific researcher achievements/events/opinions. This is a typical practice in the early stages of an essay. See Citing previous research on the difference between information-prominent and meaning hebrew author-prominent citations.

(Sali, 1992, cited by Kune, 1992) is a reference within a reference . In general, you should avoid reporting writers at #039;third-hand#039;; instead go to The Abolitionist Essay the original source if possible. If that is not possible, you can use this method to cite authors referred to in another source. When using the Harvard or Author-Date system of referencing, a reference at the end of a sentence is always placed in brackets before the full stop, not after it: This phenomenon (immunosuppression) has come to be viewed . and cancer (Edelman, 1997). This phenomenon (immunosuppression) has come to be viewed . and cancer. (Edelman, 1997) Galen is a source cited by another author (Sdorow, 1995), as are other eminent physicians and surgeons (cited by Kune, 1992). In formal writing it is preferable to avoid using abbreviations - use #039;that is#039; rather than i.e. and #039;for example#039; rather than e.g. The pronoun this is often overused by isha meaning writers. In this sentence, you may feel it is not clear what #039;this#039; refers to. Today! The following sentence is more specific, and isha meaning hebrew you might consider dropping this first sentence altogether. Author-prominent citations (see Citing previous research) are appropriate at this point as the writer#039;s focus has now moved to short story the work of individual researchers.

Note that if you have cited a particular reference once already in a paragraph, it is meaning not necessary to cite that work again in the same paragraph unless a second reference has also been cited, and when did females you need to clarify any possible ambiguity. In this paragraph only one reference has been cited (Sklar and meaning Anisman 1979), and the reader will naturally assume that any information in right the rest of the paragraph comes from the same source. The topic sentence must state the intention behind the paragraph clearly and specifically. In this case the point is the isha turn from research on animals to research on human patients. Adding a couple more words could clarify this; for example: At that point, therefore, research was directed to cancer in journey short story human patients.

et al. is the Latin short form for #039;and others#039; or #039;other writers#039; and is used when more than two writers are referred to. Strictly speaking, it should only isha meaning hebrew, be used the second time you refer to when did females in england the same source - in other words, give the meaning full citation the first time the work is cited. Here, therefore, the cooper india citation should be to Ramirez, Craig, Watson, Fentiman, North, and Reubens (1989) . (Of course, the authors#039; initials are not included in isha the citation - except when two of the authors have the same surname.) Note, too, that et al. is mini cooper plural in reference; so make sure the verb agrees with its plural subject. Transition markers such as #039;on the other hand#039; are used to organise your argument and to emphasise particular points - e.g. cause ( because , since, etc.), effect ( as a result , therefore , etc.) contrast ( however , on the other hand , etc.), concession ( although , etc.) and example ( for meaning instance , etc.) (see also Linking. Use them strategically and cooper carefully.

It might be better to use #039;claimed#039; here in place of #039;found#039;. Vary your reporting verbs (i.e. states , claims , suggests , aintains , demonstrates , etc.), but make sure the hebrew appropriate verb is today used. #039;Say#039; and #039;tell#039; are not used when reporting written sources. Use a direct quote only when the wording is isha meaning hebrew exceptional. Otherwise, use a paraphrase instead. A direct quote was not necessary in this case. Direct quotations are generally not used in academic writing; they are a feature of journalistic style. For a direct quote, use quotation marks around the exact words of the The Abolitionist Movement original. Use three dots to indicate any omission of word(s), e.g. (between . and cancer). Include the page number in isha meaning hebrew the citation, after the year. A quote longer than three lines should be set out as an indented block, single-spaced, without quotation marks.

Numbers are written as words (one, two . ) up to ten, and thereafter usually as figures. So the writer here is correct to write 69 patients but four groups. It would be better to use a colon rather than a comma here to introduce the list that follows like this: In one study, Greer et al. (1979) classified 69 female patients suffering from this breast cancer into one of four groups: the Denial, Fighting Spirit, Stoic Acceptance and Feelings of Hopelessness groups. Do not use contractions in formal writing - use full forms (i.e. #039;did not#039;

Topic sentences in the form of questions are not appropriate in formal scientific writing. They look lazy or journalistic. Make a clear statement to introduce the topic of the paragraph. In this case the second sentence in this paragraph would make a better topic sentence: While many researchers in the field of psycho-oncology have found positive correlations between cancer and isha meaning psychological factors, results overall have proved inconclusive. Keep items in problem a list parallel in grammatical form.

In this case, make them all noun phrases like small sample sizes or the use of unvalidated instruments. Here, rather than using no . it would be better to write: the absence of control groups and the failure to take vital information into account and randomise treatment groups. The conclusion that follows here does what is recommended for isha concluding an essay: it firstly sums up the argument with appropriate reference to the main points discussed, and then attempts to The Abolitionist Movement indicate further implications or future directions. Isha Meaning Hebrew! However, the final statement is rather glib that is, it looks good, but doesn#039;t say very much. This weakens the overall impact. It might be better to offer a more cautious, reasoned statement at colonized, the end: With the advent of better medical technology and continuing research, answers to some of the questions in the field of mind-cancer research may become clarified. In the meaning hebrew meantime, the professional desire for right to vote in england verifiable results should always be balanced against the patient#039;s well-being. Notice the use of cautious language here. Academics are generally careful not to meaning hebrew make claims that could easily be proved wrong, and use qualifiers, modal verbs and hedging expressions (some, may, possibly, etc.) to do this. Remember, too, that the conclusion should never introduce new information.

Make sure you are consistent in the setting out of your bibliography and that you include all relevant information. Once you adopt a particular way of setting out the The Abolitionist Movement Essay information, don#039;t chop and change between items. Note that article titles are typically formatted in lower case apart from the initial capital and the capital after the colon: Edelman, S. and A.D. Kidman.

Mind and cancer: Is there a relationship? - A review of evidence. Australian Psychologist, 32, 79-851, 1997. This is to distinguish them from book and journal titles, especially where italics are not used to identify these, as they are in isha meaning hebrew this case. The name of the publisher must be provided with the City of problem in education today publication. See the entry for Home, R. as an example. Page numbers must be provided for hebrew single chapters in today a book, as well as for any journal articles used. City of publication must be provided with the meaning hebrew name of the publisher. See the entry for Home, R. as an example. Problems?

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