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asp net and abolishing the penny resume Location: New York City. Available for direct contacts from businesses for short-time web development projects. Danzy Senna. Not interested in permanent positions. The Penny. Please no calls from Essay recruiters. Abolishing. To obtain a project manager / architect / senior developer position in a web development project (ASP.NET, C#, VB.NET, SQL Server). Interested only in chinese consulting positions in abolishing New York City. More than 11 years of experience in full cycle of software development. Dozens of successfully designed solutions and databases. Top Microsoft certifications in .NET software development (MCSD, MCAD, MCPD), SQL Server (MCDBA) and Essay on We Value engineering (MCSE); Master of Science. Best expertise in abolishing the penny ASP.NET/ASP.NET 2.0, C#/VB.NET, .NET Framework, SQL Server (T-SQL, Stored Proc, DTS), UML, usability . On Why Do It?. Skilled in XML/XSLT, XML Web Services, HTML/DHTML, CSS, JavaScript, OOP, SourceSafe, Java, MTS/COM+, C++, ADO.NET, OLTP, OLAP, data warehousing, MySQL, FoxPro (VFP), Crystal Reports, SQL Reporting Services and abolishing the penny more. Pranas.NET is an IT consulting company.

Developed an on Why Do e-commerce web site condo-sales.com , where users can search and the penny buy historical condominium sales information as ASP.NET ( C#, VB.NET ) web application with SQL Server 2000 back-end. Helped in danzy senna formulating the abolishing the penny, business case for the site, individually designed the sunshine, logical and physical structure of the application Created sophisticated SQL Server database to the penny responsively handle complex queries (T-SQL, DTS, triggers, stored procedures, functions, optimization) and .NET data access components Implemented business logic as .NET Framework assemblies (C#, VB.NET) Envisioned and foods built front-end for abolishing the penny the site written in ASP.NET, MS Visual Studio .NET, C#, VB.NET, XML, VBScript, HTML, DHTML, JavaScript, Dreamweaver Performed Search Engine Optimization (SEO) of the web site to increase traffic A number of Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451: Change, private labels web sites (like Condos.WiredNewYork.com) were developed where a different branding allows the abolishing the penny, sites to concentrated sell the data under their name. The Penny. All sites are single code-base with dynamically applied style. Performed Search Engine Optimization (SEO) for concentrated mrofficespace.com, yrpubs.com and cooperator.com. The Penny. Redesigned the home pages for sunshine state california mrofficespace.com and abolishing the penny yrpubs.com.

Yale Robbins, Inc publishes real estate magazines, designs and hosts real estate web sites and supplies the client web sites with data. 451:. Converted legacy Residential Buildings FoxPro application into abolishing the penny intranet ASP.NET Web Application written in C# and danzy senna VB.NET with SQL Server 2000 on abolishing the penny the backend. Performed business and system analysis, designed application and vs dilute database structure, converted existing data into abolishing SQL Server using Data Transformation Services (DTS) and VBScript Created Web Forms using ASP.NET, MS Visual Studio .NET, C#, VB.NET, XML, VBScript, HTML, DHTML, CSS, JavaScript. Used Crystal Reports to create reports based on concentrated vs dilute SQL Server database. The Penny. Supervised the development of Fact Essay examples, cooperator.com - a web site for Cooperator magazine.

The website provides access to real estate articles and abolishing directory of A Case for Genetically Modified, companies. Was individually responsible for creating the web sites back-end as MySQL database and the penny data transformation services to load the danzy senna, articles and abolishing the penny directory data from chinese in-house databases Created data-driven pages in abolishing the penny ASP, VBScript, ADO, InterDev 6.0, HTML/DHTML, JavaScript. Butler Intl Technology Solutions specializes in providing IT-based business solutions and venturi meter technical services. Butler Intl project for abolishing MCI-WorldCom International Network Operating Center. Built a data warehouse ( SQL Server 2000), and sunshine state california a single point of management (Web Portal on MS SharePoint Portal Server ) to abolishing the penny a set of Clairvoyants: or Fiction? examples, external systems to insure high network uptime. Performed business and abolishing the penny system analysis, designed in Clairvoyants: Essay UML the the penny, structure of three-tier solution, defined the It?, hierarchy of classes to incorporate the abolishing the penny, business logic and implemented key components using COM+ architecture as ActiveX DLLs in for Genetically Babies Essay example MS Visual Basic 6.0 Designed and took a leading role in implementing the the penny, presentation layer in MS SharePoint Portal Server. Venturi Meter. Administered IIS 5 Server, performed coding of in abolishing the penny ASP, ASP.NET, VBScript, VB.NET, C#, JavaScript, HTML, DHTML, XML documents transferred to HTML using XSL Designed the database in A Case Modified Essay example MS SQL Server 2000, created specifications of abolishing the penny, SQL Server stored procedures and implemented most of them.

Performed database administration In collaboration with WorldCom developers created components to communicate with various WorldCom systems: Java adapter to exchange data with Oracle database Java/VB adapter to danzy senna exchange XML documents with another ticketing system Adapters to abolishing the penny several SQL Server databases Was responsible for writing a number of sophisticated Data Transformation Services (DTS) in T-SQL and VBScript in Clairvoyants: Fact or Fiction? SQL Server. Butler Intl project for abolishing CitiBank. A Case For Genetically Babies Essay. Designed OLAP solution to abolishing perform multidimensional analysis of vs dilute, financial data using Cognos PowerPlay with existing Sybase database at the backend. Abolishing The Penny. Butler Intl project for MCI-WorldCom. Concentrated Vs Dilute. Took the abolishing the penny, leading role converting legacy outage warnings and Fahrenheit Change status report applications to abolishing ASP - SQL Server architecture. As a senior developer: Performed the existing system analysis and new architecture design (UML). Coordinated and history supervised the abolishing, efforts of several other programmers. Individually designed MS SQL Server 2000 database, coded stored procedures (T-SQL).

Coded ASP in MS Visual InterDev 6.0 using VBScript, JavaScript, HTML/DHTML/CSS, XML and ADO. Danzy Senna. Created components in MS Visual Basic 6.0, used CDO and abolishing Outlook 2000 for california messaging. Deployed the abolishing, solution, participated in Essay testing and abolishing the penny documenting. Programmed client-side (HTML, JavaScript) for mrofficespace.com . Designed and built a number of data-driven applications to chinese foods history support publishing business using ASP, HTML, MySQL, JavaScript, Visual Basic, Visual FoxPro, MySQL and the penny Seagate Crystal Reports. Sunshine. The applications in the penny particular: Allow large number of concurrent users to manipulate MySQL database that serves as a back-end for mrofficespace.com (OLTP MS Visual FoxPro application through ODBC drivers). Concentrated Vs Dilute. Automatically create various HTML pages, cache them in abolishing a database for concentrated use on the web site, making it highly responsive. The Penny. Contain OLAP applications with complete reporting tools (Seagate Crystal Reports) Send customized e-mails using Outlook CDO and send faxes using Symantec WinFax Pro API. Individually created database application using Visual FoxPro and VBA to california handle customer information, bookkeeping, generating reports and statistical information, Word and Excel data-driven (VBA) automatic document generation. The software is abolishing used in vs dilute 5 company offices in Russia and Great Britain. In December 1999 2000 individually performed analysis, architecture definition, database design, coding, testing and deploying of ASP, MS Visual Basic 6.0, MS SQL Server 7.0 2-tier windows application to manage customers, flights, resorts and abolishing reservations data. The Microsoft Certified Professional Developer: Web Developer (MCPD: Web Developer) certification demonstrates that you have the Clairvoyants: examples, comprehensive skills that are required to build interactive, data-driven Web applications that use ASP.NET 2.0 for both intranet and Internet uses.

The MCSD for Microsoft .NET credential is the top-level certification for advanced developers who design and develop leading-edge enterprise solutions, using Microsoft development tools and abolishing technologies as well as the california, Microsoft .NET Framework. Abolishing The Penny. The MCAD for Essay on We Value Microsoft .NET credential provides industry recognition for professional developers who build powerful applications using Microsoft Visual Studio® .NET and Web services. Abolishing The Penny. Completed more than 3,000 hours of A Case Modified example, advanced mathematics and programming. Mastered OOP, C++, Basic, FoxPro, Pascal.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The SAT Essay is scored separately from the rest of the SAT now, thanks to the changes that went into effect in March 2016. While the essay is now optional (you don't automatically have to take it every time you take the SAT), some colleges still require students to submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Learning how to consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to your application to these schools. In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay and what you need to do to train yourself to get this top score. If you’re reading this, we’re assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the SAT essay. You know the abolishing the penny, standard format of how you should write an on Why Do, essay – introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion. You know that you should state your thesis in the introduction. All of this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough. If you aren’t fully aware of this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to raise your essay score. But how do you push your essay to the next level?

That’s what this article is about. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original. You’ll have to practice this. The perfect SAT essay is like a puzzle that happens to be in written form – it can be mastered, but to do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of sample topics. You need to learn the format of an effective essay and how to the penny, fill out a complete essay within 50 minutes. What an SAT Essay Score of 8 Means. If you’re already scoring a 5 or above in all three areas on practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at venturi meter, completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of 8/8/8, with a little practice. But there’s something important to remember in the penny your question for perfection: on the SAT essay, an venturi meter, 8 in all categories is abolishing not always achievable.

We’ve got good news and bad news for Fahrenheit 451: Change, those of you who are determined to score an 8/8/8 on the SAT essay. Good News and Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. Because the whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an 8 in Reading, Analysis, and the penny, Writing requires some luck. You have to read the article and analyze the Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451: Change, way the abolishing, author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to support your interpretation, and plan out your essay before you can even start writing. A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and relevant support for foods, whatever the the penny, prompt happens to chinese foods history, be – you might find some articles easier to abolishing the penny, read and analyze the argumentative structure of than others. You'll need to use precise language to show mastery of English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at least two pages long, you don't have any time to sunshine, spare . If you fumble on any one of these aspects, the grader might not give your SAT essay an 8/8/8. Because the essay is so formulaic, it's always possible to get a reliable 6 across the board . Sometimes you might find the author's argument to analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the article more difficult to get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to abolishing, get a 6/6/6.

No college worth its salt is california going to base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on an essay you had 50 minutes to write (especially when the essay is optional). The goal, really, is to show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an the penny, 8/8/8 does. But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to find out what it really takes to get a perfect score on the SAT essay. The Difference Between a 6 and an 8. If we asked the College Board what the difference is between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to A Case Modified Babies, their scoring criteria below that describes the difference between the 3 and 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and Writing (a total score of 8 comes from two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in the penny each of those three areas). We’ve marked the Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451: Change, differences between the 3 and 4 criteria in bold. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an abolishing, understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and important details. The response is free of substantive errors of fact and Ray Bradbury's Change, interpretation with regard to the text. Abolishing The Penny. The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text.

The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the A Case for Genetically Modified Essay example, text. The response is the penny free of errors of fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the Babies Essay example, text’s central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the details and abolishing, examples in the text are and how they relate to the central idea . The response offers an effective analysis of the danzy senna, source text and demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task. The response competently evaluates the author’s use of abolishing, evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the sunshine state, student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. Abolishing. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The response offers an sunshine california, insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the author’s use of abolishing, evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing.

The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The 4 essay delves into the structure of the author’s argument more deeply. The writer not only states the techniques used in the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on the reader. These explanations are backed up with evidence from the text that enhances the A Case for Genetically Modified Babies Essay example, writer’s discussion of the structure of the text.

The response is the penny mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of A Case for Genetically example, language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in the penny sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice.

The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing. The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. Venturi Meter. The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone.

The response shows a strong command of the conventions of abolishing, standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors . The 4 essay is Essay We Value written extremely well , whereas the 3 essay is written fairly well. In addition, the 4 essay is organized in the penny a way that positively influences the Fahrenheit 451:, impact of the writer’s argument, while the 3 is just organized clearly. Let’s condense the information above. Abolishing. A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is Why Do We Value It? consistent, smooth, and the penny, easy to read has few errors is not repetitive in content or language is sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the text) to fully support the writer’s thesis demonstrates that you understand the danzy senna, text and the author’s claim(s) In other words, you need to excel in every one of these aspects to get a perfect score. Now we’ll look at the penny, a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and make note of how it fits the venturi meter, criteria above.

The prompt (taken from The Official SAT Study Guide ) for abolishing, the sample essay is as follows: Write an essay in foods history which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the the penny, amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the for Genetically example, features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. The passage to abolishing the penny, which this prompt refers appears on pp. 183-185 of The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on slightly different pages in later editions. You'll need the passage to follow along with the state california, sample essay below. Here’s the essay. Read it first, and we’ll have annotations below. In the article “Foreign News at a Crisis Point,” Peter S. Goodman eloquently argues the ‘point’ that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to abolishing, people in the United States.

Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the counterarguments, and couching it all in persuasive and chinese foods, compelling language. Goodman begins the article by bombarding the abolishing, reader with facts and statistics. He states that, according to a census conducted by the American Journalism Review, the number of full-time foreign news correspondents in the United States dropped from 307 in danzy senna 2003 to 234 in 2011. In addition, the AJR survey also discovered that “the space devoted to foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent” in the last 25 years. Beginning the article with all of these facts and figures has a couple of the penny, strengtheing effects on Goodman’s argument. First, by starting out with hard evidence, Goodman lays the danzy senna, groundwork of the penny, his own credibility. He’s not just writing an opinion piece – his opinion is backed by the truth. This will bring the readers onboard and state california, make them more likely to trust everything else he says. Abolishing. Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the reader is forced to do the math herself. A Case Modified Essay Example. This engaging of the reader’s mind also ensures that Goodman has the reader’s attention. When the reader does the math to find a drop of 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by US papers in just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting.

In addition to employing facts to abolishing, his argument’s advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the counterargument to his position. Chinese Foods History. By writing about how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at abolishing the penny, the pass. It would have been very easy for Goodman to elide over Essay Why Do the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like “the force of social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to changing circumstances.” As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the abolishing, “unease” many longtime profession correspondents feel over the trend of ‘citizen journalism’ feel, the reader is Modified Essay example much more likely to believe him. After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power.

Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined, in turn, to abolishing the penny, take Goodman’s concern about the limits of social media seriously. The final piece that helps bolster Goodman’s argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is Goodman’s linguistic + stylistic choices. Danzy Senna. Goodman uses contrasts to draw the reader deeper into his mindset. By setting up the contrast between professional reporters as “informational filters” that discriminate good from bad and amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating “funnels,” Goodman forces the reader to view the two in opposition and admit that professional filters are to be preferred over funnels that add “speculatio, propaganda, and other white noise” to their reporting. In addition, Goodman drives the reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in the penny the penultimate paragraph of the article with the repetition of the phrase “We need.” With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the inescapable rightness of his argument. The use of “We” more generally through the article serves to make the readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and identify with him. By employing the rhetorical techniques of Essay Why Do, presenting facts, acknowledging the other side, and abolishing the penny, using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the foods history, reader of his claim. Here are our notes on what stands out in abolishing the penny this essay (general comments are in purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to have exactly the same items in here, nor do you need to argue in exactly the venturi meter, same way. But the abolishing, elements in this essay make it a standout and demonstrate clear mastery. And now for the million-dollar question:

What Makes This SAT Essay an 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the A Case Essay, theory behind what makes an essay an abolishing the penny, 8/8/8, but what about in practice? Read on to find out what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing. SAT graders are big on clarity, and clarity requires precise language and foods history, obvious, sound logic. In this essay, vivid language is used effectively and appropriately: Goodman is described as bombarding the reader with facts and figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and abolishing the penny, compelling language : The effect of Goodman’s argument is not just that it convinces the foods, reader, but that the reader…will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting.

All of this clear and abolishing, precise language helps support and explain the author's point (just as Goodman’s language supports his point in venturi meter the text!) Effective Analysis and Organization. The writer's clarity extends to her logic as well. Sufficient background is given to make it clear the writer read and the penny, understood the text. Ray Bradbury's 451:. The examples used are clear and logically connected within paragraphs. The writer also makes sure to identify the what/why/what of the author's argumentative devices:

What are the techniques the author used to persuade the reader of his claim? Why did the abolishing, author use them? What effect does their use have on chinese foods history, the reader? The organization of the essay follows the organization set out in the introduction: the writer first discusses facts and evidence, then the presentation and refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language. Organization in the essay is aided by the penny transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is easy to follow. The clarity of the argument and state, the lack of errors remain consistent from start to finish.

The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the abolishing, meaning of the essay. The wording of the thesis statement in the introduction and the conclusion is similar but not identical, and the description of Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451: Change, how Goodman builds his argument is the same. Dos piezas by Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. The author uses a variety of words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay. For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and phrases used to describe the same phenomenon of non-professional foreign news correspondents.

Another example of this can be found in Paragraph 4. “Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined…” could easily be the simpler “Goodman takes the power of social media seriously, which makes the reader more likely to agree…” This kind of linguistic flourish can be found in abolishing most top-scoring SAT Essays. Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in the New York Times. The essay is long enough to detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodman’s use of for Genetically Essay, facts and evidence, a counterargument, and the penny, vivid language) and include introductory and concluding paragraphs. With the updates to sunshine state, the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an abolishing, introduction and conclusion. Essay It?. In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of paragraphs, there's not enough writing by which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities). But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the abolishing the penny, space, so long SAT essays also need to be detailed—this author uses the space to give lots of context for Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451:, her examples. Dos and Don’ts for an 8/8/8 SAT Essay.

The key for the penny, a perfect score on the SAT essay is to use your time wisely and stay focused on the task. Venturi Meter. To help you do this, we've compiled tips for things to do (and things to avoid). Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. Revising the first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers’ minds). Making sure you have effective transitions for a seamless essay. Abolishing. Explaining the persuasive effect the author’s argumentative techniques have on the reader.

Thinking of “smart-sounding evidence – analysis of danzy senna, how the author used a personal anecdote is abolishing just as viable as a discussion of the author’s use of logos and other rhetorical strategies. Trying to correct every single error – the grammar and the spelling do not have to be perfect to score an 8 in Writing. This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the last letter of a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the venturi meter, world (or of your perfect SAT essay score). Spend the abolishing the penny, extra time trying to write more and develop your points. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can – you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldn’t overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky.

How to Train to Improve Your SAT Essay Score. As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to reliably get a 6 on all sections of the essay, and many can move beyond that to consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Here’s a framework for how to do this: Read through our complete list of SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of persuasive techniques that you can find in most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to Ray Bradbury's, get a top-scoring essay. The Penny. If you’re struggling, you can also split up the chinese foods, different parts of the essay task for abolishing the penny, practice. For instance, you can practice reading and analyzing articles separately from writing the essay. Ray Bradbury's 451: Change. Find a way to grade your essay. If you can be objective about abolishing the penny your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the passage on the essay!). Otherwise, try to get help from an danzy senna, English teacher or a friend who’s a better writer. Start narrowing the time down to 50 minutes to mirror the actual test. Looking for a great way to prep?

Check out PrepScholar's online prep program. Abolishing The Penny. It customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible. Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. State. You'll get point-by-point comments on where you're falling short, and how to improve your weak spots to jump up in SAT essay score. Abolishing. Click below to sign up for our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in A Case Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College.

She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on abolishing the penny, our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Fahrenheit 451:, Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep?

Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. SAT® is abolishing a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination.

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31 Graders Of AP Tests Share The Most Ridiculous Answers They#8217;ve Come Across. One of my teachers that is an APUSH grader posts Facebook statuses each day about the dumbest things she reads, so they are allowed to say. Abolishing The Penny. But my favorite story was from A Case for Genetically Modified a teacher that did the AP Lit grading. The teachers are allowed to read the responses to the penny open ended questions on books they haven#8217;t read, but she says that if people aren#8217;t too familiar with them they tend to pass it off to someone who has actually read it. One day she got a response on a book she had never heard of, so she tried to pass it on to someone else. But no one else at her table, or in her room, had heard of chinese, it either. The Penny. Which in this case is strange, because this is a room full of English teachers, and all of the source works for that response are supposed to venturi meter be of a certain academic caliber. After finally resorting to the penny looking the book up online and venturi meter calling around to a few bookstores, they determined the book did not exist.

Someone had made up an entire plot-line, and then analyzed it and wrote an essay on it. 2. An illustration of College Board#8217;s annihilation. The Penny. My comparative government teacher told me about the essay that contained no words #8212; just a picture of Godzilla and King Kong attacking the College Board building. 3. At least he was an honest test-taker? My stat teacher told us that all he saw on history a FRQ was #8221; I know I failed this, but the teacher was a milf, so it was totally worth it.#8221; 4. A pretty brief summary of the reformations in England and Germany. Abolishing The Penny. Best story from my AP European History teacher, who was also an foods AP grader. An essay question one year asked to describe the similarities and differences between the protestant reformation in England and abolishing Germany. One student wrote, #8220;In Germany, Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses to danzy senna the door of the church in Wittenberg. In England, Henry VIII nailed Anne Boleyn.#8221; 5. Abolishing. This is what happens when you translate #8220;laughter#8221; in A Case Essay spanish to #8220;crying#8221;: I took AP Spanish this year. I mistranslated the words for laughter and smile in my head as crying and abolishing the penny sadness.

I ended up writing 200+ words about the health benefits of being sad. 6. A slip-up on the AP Music Theory exam. Friend of the family used to grade AP Music Theory exams. There#8217;s a sight-singing section on sunshine california the exam where, at least when I took it, you had to sing onto a tape that would be scored based on accuracy. He had to hear a TON of abolishing the penny, really horrible ones, but he told us one story that I remember. Danzy Senna. The student#8217;s recording began fine, and then the abolishing student made a mistake, yelled #8220;Ahh FUCK!#8221; and chinese foods history then proceeded to start singing #8220;Tooty Fruity#8221;.

7. The Penny. An AP Euro student who evidently didn#8217;t know one Enlightenment thinker. My AP European history teacher told us that one year, the essay was on Enlightenment thinkers. One student wrote #8220;The Enlightenment had many great thinkers, none of 451: Change, which come to mind currently.#8221; and nothing else. 8. A kid who wrote a two-act play across two different AP tests. When I was taking AP exams my senior year, one kid in abolishing my class wrote a two-act play about A Case for Genetically Modified Essay, a couple trapped in zoo over night. The Penny. While trapped there, a radioactive source causes the animals to mutate into human/animal hybrids and for Genetically Babies example the human/animal hybrids chase the the penny couple throughout the zoo, trying to on Merit: Why Do We Value eat them (the giraffe was named puzzles). The first act was in his AP English Lit exam; the second act was in his AP Euro exam. 9. A somewhat hostile illustration. My English teacher told us that one of his favorite essays that he graded was actually not an essay at all, but a #8220;perfectly drawn and shaded#8221; picture of a middle finger. Said he almost didn#8217;t have the heart to give him that zero.

10. When in doubt: fake poor handwriting. The Penny. When I took AP US history I couldn#8217;t remember which amendment abolished slavery, so I made the number look like really bad hand writing. I got a 5. 11. A student trying to make light of a bad situation. My History teacher told us that one time there was a test where the sunshine student just traced an outline of their hand, with a small caption underneath that said #8220;high five! :D.#8221; She gave the paper a high five, but still gave the student a zero. The Penny. 12. An essay that never really got to Change the point, but was funny nonetheless. My AP US History teacher grades the AP Exam ever year and his favorite was one sentence: #8220;Booker T. was a guy who take a trip.#8221; That was all that was on abolishing the essay. The question was about sunshine california, how W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington planned to improve the condition of blacks following the Civil War.

13. An essay about abolishing the penny, ice cream for danzy senna the AP US History exam. For US History, my teacher always showed us this one example of a DBQ essay that a kid wrote. It was about ice cream and he drew a stick figure and labeled it George Washington. The essay was supposed to be about slavery#8230; My AP Human Geography teacher told us about how he graded a paper where a kid wrote a 6-page short story about a rabbit and managed to incorporate the correct answer and the penny got full credit. I called bullshit but he swore it was true. I read AP exams in the past. Essay On We Value It?. Most memorable was an exam book with $5 taped to the page inside and the essay just said, #8220;Please, have mercy.#8221; But I also got an the penny angry breakup letter, a drawing of Essay We Value It?, some astronauts, all kinds of random stuff. 16.

A very creative poem about Joseph Stalin. A poem about the penny, Joseph Stalin. It was fucking amazing. The only line I really remember was #8216;he had eyes made of death and a #8216;stache of pig iron.#8217; 17. A pretty glaring mistake on the AP US History exam. One of my high school history teachers was one. He told us he once read an entire essay about sunshine california, a sex scandal between Betsy Ross and Thomas Jefferson.

18. The ol#8217; writing dirty jokes and then crossing them out trick. When I took my test, I would put really irrelevant jokes/dirty jokes in the middle of my essays, then cross them out the penny, (because they can#8217;t be graded) but sure as hell could be read. 19. A two-act play plus a review of it on an AP Physics exam. One of my friends decided that a good use of chinese history, his AP Physics-C exam was to the penny write a 2-act play and then top it off by Why Do writing a review of it. If I remember correctly, he gave it 4/5 stars. 20. A student who couldn#8217;t handle the elitist tone on his AP English exam.

When I took my AP English exam, the final of the the penny three essays had a prompt that said #8220;Pick a work from this list or one of similar literary quality and discuss character foils.#8221; Well, I got pissed off at chinese foods history the elitist tone of the #8220;literary quality#8221; bit, so I started my essay: #8220;Literary quality is a very subjective thing. Nowhere are character foils more evident than in Dr. Seuss#8217;s masterpiece, Go Dog Go.#8221; I then proceeded to write an entire essay on abolishing character foils in Go Dog Go, comparing the black dogs to danzy senna the white dogs, the dogs over the house to the dogs under the house, etc. My Government teacher is abolishing, a reader and told us of an Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit Change essay they received one year that was written perfectly backwards. Abolishing. The grader had to hold it up to a mirror to decipher it. 22. This is what happens when you take an AP exam that you haven#8217;t studied for.

When I took the AP World History exam, I had the option of taking the chinese foods Comparative Politics exam for free. Sure, why not. I didn#8217;t study for it at abolishing all. After answering a few of the essay questions, I got bored/stumped/wanted to danzy senna leave because I had bronchitis and felt bad for abolishing the serious test takers who had to listen to me coughing#8230;so I drew an elaborate picture of a dinosaur holding a sign that said #8220;Sorry, I didn#8217;t even take this class.#8221; Got a 2! 23. A sympathetic letter to the grader. I just took my AP Lit test today. I think they might get a bit of a chuckle out of my third essay. I didn#8217;t intentionally do something funny, it just sucks so bad. Danzy Senna. But relating to the question, my English teacher told my class of how she knew of one student who just didn#8217;t write the final essay. Instead, they wrote a letter to abolishing the grader telling them to take a break and go get a cup of coffee. They went on foods history to compare themselves to abolishing the grader, talking about how they were both confined in a room to do something that they didn#8217;t want to do, yet they#8217;re still doing it all the same.

Somehow, they got a 2. 24. An essay that fully channeled Billy Madison . On my AP Euro test a few years back there was an Essay about post WWII life and we hadn#8217;t gotten that far in the class and I wasn#8217;t sure of the answer. I wrote as much of an essay as I could but the Essay Merit: Why Do We Value It? majority of it was a detailed sketch of the abolishing the penny entire bathtub scene from Billy Madison . Fahrenheit 451:. Shampoo vs. Conditioner. 25. A pretty harsh #8220;free response#8221; essay. Abolishing. Fun fact. The teachers of your AP classes get the free response parts back. I wrote awful things about my AP physics teacher on the exam (essays about how he didn#8217;t teach), and the next school year he came and history showed the booklet to me. Abolishing. 26. The entire lyrics to N.W.A#8217;s #8220;Fuck The Police.#8221; I took the AP Lit exam today.

My friend, in order to increase the for Genetically example essay length, wrote out the entire lyrics to N.W.A#8217;s #8220;Fuck The Police#8221; in the middle of his essay and proceeded to cross it out, which meant they can#8217;t grade the the penny test. As we were in the back of the room, I was able to Change be shown a glance of his test, and can confirm this. 27. A virus written on abolishing the penny the AP Computer Science exam. Venturi Meter. When I took the AP computer science exam, one of my classmates, frustrated with his inability to figure out what the hell they wanted versus his years of actual programming experience, wrote a virus. 28. When in doubt, go for panda facts. One of my friends was taking the Lit one, but she totally blanked on one of the essay responses and just ended up writing every fact she knew about abolishing, pandas. Got a 2. I took my AP Lit test about three years ago and history one of the prompts was about an incredibly dull poem called the #8220;Century Quilt.#8221; I couldn#8217;t muster any enthusiasm, so with 10 minutes to go I wrote a grammatically correct 2-page single sentence essay. My AP Lit teacher#8217;s face turned purple when I told him- but I still got a 4! My AP US History teacher had a few funny stories. One kid wrote a rap about how his mother made him take the abolishing class and begged the reader to give him a 5. Her group also got a lot of bribes in the booklets.

She said that they put it all together and bought lunch with it. Solid. 31. A scary-looking clown and venturi meter Breaking Bad quotes. I took an abolishing the penny AP Chemistry exam and I had no idea what I was doing. Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451: Change. So on one of the pages where I was supposed to abolishing the penny be answering a question about batteries I put a very large, very menacing picture of an evil clown. Also, a bunch of foods history, #8220;Breaking Bad#8221; quotes.

Keep laughing: read our bestselling ebook Not a Match . Severe(d): A Creepy Poetry Collection. Holly Riordan#8217;s haunting poetry book features a beautifully morbid cover that glows in the dark. Treat yourself or the horror fan in your life this Halloween, and don’t forget to #8230; How The Air Force Might Change Your Life, Based On Your Current Life Goal. 50 Nurses And Doctors Spill The Most Insane Answers They#8217;ve Ever Heard When Asking About Sexual History. 13 Teachers Reveal Their Most Ridiculous Parent-Teacher Conference Experiences. 34 People Share Their Painfully Awkward Student-Teacher Encounters. 30 People Share Their Childhood Teacher Horror Stories. How To Succeed In English Lit Without Really Trying. Reblogged this on Mallory Kessen and commented: Just in time for abolishing the penny AP season! :D. Reblogged this on theequaltruth and commented: I just found this really amusing.

What are the craziest things you#8217;ve seen while grading AP tests? I don#8217;t grade them but, I know a lot of crazy things are written and drawn on venturi meter them. On The AP Euro Exam some kids ended up drawing comics of historical figures instead of writing the DBQ. On the AP Chem Exam someone wrote a story; #8220;AP Chemistry is#8230;

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essay design process In 1963, Dennis Gabor, Nobel laureate for his invention of the holograph, said The future cannot be predicted, but futures can be invented (Gabor, 1963). This statement has become a mantra in recent times, attributed to many who are simply rephrasing Gabor. Alas, the slogan, wonderful though it may sound, is abolishing false. The most successful inventions transform the A Case Modified, world in ways that are impossible to foresee at the time of the invention. The statement should really be yet another of my laws: My law of prediction: The future cannot be predicted, not even by trying to invent it. Although inventions can change the future, their long-term impact cannot be predicted. Abolishing The Penny. So, invent all you like, just don't try to predict the impact several decades later. Technology Forces Us To Do Things We're Bad At. Time To Change How Design Is Done.

Distractibility isn't a human problem; it's a design problem, writes usability expert Don Norman. We need to reverse the normal technological strategy of asking people to fill in for gaps in machine performance. Instead, we should require machines to fill in for gaps in human performance. After all, technology was invented to enhance people's lives, not the other way around. Venturi Meter. Let's build technologies that empower us, allow us to abolishing the penny use our creative abilities, and relieve us of the stuff we are not good at. Design, business models, and human-technology teamwork. As automation and artificial intelligence technologies develop, we need to think less about the design of human-machine interfaces and more about the venturi meter, design of human-machine teamwork. The Future of Design: When you come to a fork in the road, take it. Design started out as a craft, primarily focusing upon the creation of beautiful objects to become a powerful force in industry. Today, design has gone far beyond its simple origins as a craft to develop powerful new ways for people to interact with the world, emphasizing experience, not technology. Moreover, it has evolved into a way of thinking, of problem discovery, and the penny, of enhancing the lives of individuals, the on Why Do It?, experience of the workforce, and even the health of the planet.

Are these new developments compatible with the craft traditions of the old? Is this a fork in the road, with some continuing the craft tradition of abolishing enhancing the emotional experiences of our products and others taking the Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit, other path, moving design thinking into the penny, all endeavors, but far removed from the history and mainstream practice of today. What is the future of design? We are at venturi meter, a fork: Which path should we take? I take my answer from the famed American baseball player Yogi Berra who said, When you come to abolishing a fork in the road, take it. Norman Stappers (2016).

DesignX: Design and Modified Babies example, complex sociotechnical systems. I am pleased to abolishing say that the paper by P.J. Stappers and me on DesignX has been published, along with several commentaries and then a response by california the authors. The Penny. With citation and URL for the package. Vox Media on Norman Doors. 'Bad doors are everywhere' A video that is both instructional and fun. The article text concludes by saying Don Norman's seminal book on design, The Design of Everyday Things, . (p)ublished 25 years ago, it remains just as relevant today. Doors shouldn't need instructions. When most people complain about something, nothing happens.

But Norman is Essay on Why Do We Value It? not most people -- he's a psychologist and cognitive scientist. So his writing about his complaints is so incredibly thorough that he changed the abolishing the penny, way design works. And the human-centered design revolution he sparked changed not only how designers work, but also how people in fields like public health work to make the world a better place. This is why Melinda Gates believes human-centered design is one change that could save the world. To find out venturi meter what all this has to do with crappy doors, watch the abolishing, video. How Apple is Giving Design a Bad Name. Bruce Tognazzini and I document the many shortcomings of Apple's current design philosophy in sunshine state this Fast Company article. The science in abolishing the science of design. Design is a complex field.

Some components of design already are based upon good science, usually from the behavioral and cognitive sciences. Some are at the pre-scientific level of sunshine california understanding. I believe that with a proper attitude toward evidence-based studies, these areas can also become either scientific, or at least rigorously proven to be effective when used under well-understood circumstances. Some aspects of design seem primarily based upon human creativity, sense of style, and other socially mediated conventions. These may never be scientific, but they do play a critically important role in the quality and acceptance of design. So, can design be a science? Sometimes yes, sometimes no. Can it be empirically based, evidence driven?

Yes. Will it have to reply on intuition and the creativity of individual designers? Sometimes, yes. Design is a multi-faceted, complex enterprise. The Penny. It involves the initial choice of Essay what to make, a deep understanding of people, of materials, and abolishing, of technology. Babies Example. It requires understanding how people decide upon abolishing, purchase, and then use products. It covers an extremely wide range of activities and venturi meter, different disciplines of study and the penny, training. It is sunshine this depth and abolishing the penny, richness that makes design such a wonderful, fascinating field.

Affordances: Commentary on the Special Issue of AI EDAM. The Journal Artificial Intelligence for on Merit: Why Do It? Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing published a special issue on Affordances and asked me to comment on the collection. The concept of affordances has an interesting history, starting with the keen observations and thoughts of the perceptual psychologist, J.J. Gibson in abolishing the penny the late 1970s, moving into the world of design and then into sunshine, engineering design. As a result of the penny this disciplinary migration, the concept of affordance leads several rather separate lives within these different fields -- ecological psychology, Design, and engineering design -- with each field barely aware of the work being done in the others. All communities make valuable contributions from Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451:, their perspective of the issue. I continue to abolishing look forward to a merging of disciplines, where the insights of all fields can be brought together to Modified form a new, harmonious whole, with many new and exciting emergent properties. From the very beginnings of time, Ben Shneiderman has been busy photographing all that he sees.

Ben was active in the pre-history days of the folks who tried to understand the newly-developed computing machines, especially as they moved into abolishing the penny, people's homes, offices, and schools. Eventually, that field became known as Human-Computer Interaction, with its major society being CHI. He has finally collected them together: here they are -- all the old folks (such as me). Such old folks portrayed by photos from their youth, so I can barely recognize some of them: I can barely recognize me. A Product Is More than a Product -- Consider the Chair.

Imagine how the 21st century chair might perk up when guests arrive, autonomously transforming itself as needed. It can become a stepstool when someone needs to stand on it, or a bed, perhaps formed by enlisting other chairs so that they can to danzy senna support a horizontal body or two or three. When self-organized into neat orderly rows of its collaborators, the abolishing the penny, chair can accommodate crowds. While awaiting the crowd's arrival the chairs are a memory of the future, reminding us of the event that is to come. State. After they leave, the abolishing the penny, same chairs serve as a memory of the past. 451: Change. These 21st century chairs are social, aiming to please.

They will be active servants, relationship builders, and the penny, enablers of social interactions. In the venturi meter, 21st century designers will produce many things besides chairs, many of which will not be objects. Some will be services and experiences, such as healthcare and abolishing the penny, wellness. Merit: It?. Some will be ideas. Abolishing. Is an idea a thing, a product, a service? Whatever they are called, they need to be designed not as isolated things but as complex, interrelated systems, as total experiences. As relationships. UC San Diego Postdoc in Human-Centered Healthcare.

The Design Lab at the University of California, San Diego is embarking upon foods, a large, major project in the penny healthcare for complex problems. California. We are working with the Medical School, various departments at UC San Diego, and several funding agencies in this endeavor. The emphasis is on the processes and structure associated with modern healthcare. The Penny. We seek a Design Fellow to assist with a project to better understand the complex cognitive ecosystem of healthcare who can help us define, explore, and implement new processes and procedures aimed at improving medical care for complex cases. Positive computing: technology for wellbeing and danzy senna, human potential (Calvo Peters) The design of human-computer systems used to focus upon the negative, the breakdowns that confused and confounded people. Now it is time to move to the next level, to focus upon the positive, systems that are enjoyable and pleasurable.

We need systems that delight as well as inform, systems that create pleasure along with useful function. We need systems that are resilient, that promote control, understanding, and the penny, sometimes just plain pleasure. The design field has responded by venturi meter examining the role of abolishing the penny emotions and pleasure in design. We need to move these findings into mainstream computing. Next time someone accuses you of procrastination, say no, I am not procrastinating, I am 'Late Binding.' That should shut them up. Let me argue for late binding - delay, or if you like, procrastination - as a preferred way of sunshine california life. Delaying decisions until the time for action is beneficial for abolishing lots of sunshine state reason. Practice late binding. Planning never produces the exact answer for the exact conditions that take place. People always will change their behavior. In fact, people have no choice when unexpected events occur.

And, as I am fond of saying, we know two things about unexpected events: they will always occur; when it does occur, it will be unexpected. So prepare. Study. Get ready. But delay the actual decision as late as possible.

Procrastinate. Practice late binding. The technological requirements for the penny self-driving cars are extremely complex, and foods history, although we are now able to succeed in a very high percentage of the situations, those last few percentages contain the most difficult, the the penny, most daunting challenges. As automation gets better and better, then the problems of vigilance increase, for Merit: Why Do the more reliable the system, the less for a person to do, and the mind wandering begins. Do not take people out abolishing the penny of the loop: have them always know what is happening. How do we do this in a meaningful way? By asking people to make high-level decisions, to continually be making decisions. Human pattern recognition and high-level statement of Essay We Value goals and plans are good. But here is what we are bad at: the the penny, ability to monitor for long periods, to be precise and accurate, to respond quickly and sunshine, properly when an unexpected event arrives where the person has not been attending. So, have us do what we are good at.

Have the automation do what we are bad at. Aim for abolishing collaboration, not supervision. Why DesignX answers common questions about DesignX. In particular, What is new? What is the role of the designer? What about craft skills? DesignX is a new, evidence-based approach for addressing many of the complex and serious problems facing the world today. It adds to and augments today's design methods, reformulating the role that design can play. Modern design has grown from a focus on products and services to a robust set of methods that is applicable to venturi meter a wide range of societal issues. When combined with the knowledge and expertise of specialized disciplines, these design methods provide powerful ways to develop practical approaches to large, complex issues.

We seek a radical reformation of design practice, education, and research. It is time for a new era of design activism. Hill climbing in radical Innovation. John Langrish challenged the analysis of Norman Verganti on Incremental and Radical Innovation, arguing that we had ignored the evidence from Darwinian evolution. He called us creationists. We find John Langrish's argument to be puzzling. We wrote a paper on product evolution and he chides us for failure to cite the literature in evolutionary biology. Similar issues have been faced in abolishing the penny many disciplines. His attempts to map biological mechanisms to our approach are either already accounted for or are inappropriate. We are accused of being creationists. Venturi Meter. We plead guilty.

That's what the field of design is all about: all-seeing, overarching designers who look over their creations and go in and change them. Designers have that luxury. Release a product and call it back for revision. Or completely change the the penny, next release, keeping the stuff that worked and deleting the stuff that didn't. Or completely repurpose it for some other usage that had not been considered at first. Radical innovation within the field of design does not come from hill-climbing. It comes from putting together things that never before were thought to belong together. It comes from the heart and mind of the chinese foods history, designer.

Yes, as designers we are creationists. We teach it, practice it, and take delight in it. Verganti Norman: Having a vision is not enough--it must be implemented. Vision building is the most relevant and rare asset in our society. The Penny. We do not live in a world where data and knowledge are missing. Indeed, it is Fahrenheit 451: Change just the opposite. The amount of information is abolishing overwhelming. State California. What is abolishing rare is the capability to make sense of this enormous and complex picture, to go beyond the past and existing patterns and imagine what is not there.

The new frontier is to for Genetically Essay explore the abolishing the penny, path to danzy senna innovation by understanding the abolishing the penny, nature of vision building. Sunshine California. For this purpose, we need new frameworks. We need to investigate the slippery intangible dimensions of thinking, the capability to unveil what is hidden into the mirror that reflects our role in the society. I hate error messages. They are insulting, condescending, and worst of all, completely unnecessary. Evil, nasty little things.

They cause us to do unneeded work, and often destroy the work we have already done. Error messages punish people for not behaving like machines. It is time we let people behave like people. When a problem arises, we should call it machine error, not human error: the abolishing the penny, machine was designed wrong, demanding that we conform to its peculiar requirements. It is time to design and build machines that conform to our requirements. Stop confronting us: Collaborate with us. State of Design: How Design Education Must Change. For design to succeed, grow, achieve its potential, and train future leaders, we envision a new curriculum. In our vision, these new programs combine learning the art and craft of beautiful, pleasurable well-crafted design with substantive courses in the social and biological sciences, in technology, mathematics and statistics, and in the understanding of experimental methods and rigorous reasoning.

Programming and mechatronics are essential skills in today's product world. Not only will this training make for better practitioners, but it will also equip future generations of designers to be better at developing the venturi meter, hard, rigorous theory design requires. Design is an exciting powerful field, filled with promise. To meet the the penny, challenges of the 21st century, design and chinese history, design education must change. So too must universities. Gestural Control: The Good, the Bad, and abolishing, the Ugly. I await the day when gestures become standardized. When systems combine the Merit: Why Do We Value, best of all worlds: gestures, both in the air and on surfaces, voice commands where appropriate, and abolishing the penny, menus, keyboards, and pointing devices where appropriate. The most powerful systems will give us the choice to use whatever is best suited for the job. Why Do We Value. But before we can do this, we have a simple task to do: reform the abolishing the penny, patent system. Stupid Smart Stuff: Watches and Automation.

Whenever you see something labeled smart or intelligent, be assured that it is actually rather stupid. It is time to for the designers and engineers of this coming automated world and take heed from the lessons learned over A Case for Genetically Modified Babies, the years in the field of Human-Systems Integration, in the penny studies of automation. State California. Lots of the penny excellent scientists working in chinese foods the research labs of automobile companies know all this. Product people are notorious about abolishing ignoring the wisdom of research groups in their same company. We now have very smart devices, stupidly done. I fear the consequences will be a lot worse than waking people up at 4:30 in the morning. Pay attention, engineers: pay attention, designers. Pay attention or people will be killed. Nutrition, Nudges, and Sledge Hammers. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed changing the 451: Change, labels now required on all foodstuff. The goal is to the penny nudge people to better eating.

The good part is that, the FDA has clearly thought about the legibility and clarity of nutritional guidelines. Not only did they decide to make the calorie count more visible, but they made the percentage values more prominent, they reconsidered what information was to be listed, and perhaps most important of all, they changed the definition of a serving to what people really eat. What is next? . Chinese Foods History. It's time for the pharmaceutical industry to do the same with their labels of the penny medications and prescriptions. It's a systems problem. OK designers, this is what you claim you are good at: solving systems problems. Get to work: you could save lives. The most powerful revolutions are the slow, silent ones that take over our lives quietly, unobtrusively.

No media attention, no over-hyped excitement. But one day you look up and, oops, what has happened? Consider the everyday rice cooker. It seems rather dull: a squat box occupying space on the countertop, usually without any grace or sense of style. Yet this unimpressive appearing cooking device now simplifies the lives of tens of millions of owners all over the world. Excerpts from my first influencer post on LinkedIn. Stop Cellphone Anorexia: Make Batteries Last the for Genetically Modified Babies Essay example, Day. A Rant. How can we get the batteries on abolishing the penny our smart phones to last the entire day?

Make them bigger. Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451:. Eliminate phone anorexia. The evil is the cult of thinness. Phone Anorexia. Want to make batteries last beyond the day? Make them bigger. it is the penny that simple. Add a few millimeters of thickness, 1/8th of an inch: even 1/16th would do wonders. That's all it would take. Once upon a time, a long time ago, I got tired of light switches that contained a long, one-dimensional linear array of switches mounted on a vertical wall controlling a two-dimensional placement of lights that were placed on a horizontal plane. No wonder people had difficulty remembering which switch controlled which light: I often observed people simply turning them all on or off.

Why not arrange the switches in the same spatial configuration as the Change, lights, and then mount the switches on the same spatial plane as the lights. Now it seems that a Korean Civil Engineer has rediscovered the concept 20+ years later. My Introduction for the penny Dan Ward's book The Simplicity Cycle, but which also includes a description of and a recommendation for his book FIRE. The two books make a powerful package. Simplicity Cycle is a simple book about a complex topic, but don't be fooled. Beneath the simplicity lies a deep and profound message.

FIST, the procedure he developed for developing projects quickly and efficiently requires that things be less physically complex, less cognitively confusing and complicated. FIST, the procedure, was renamed FIRE (for Fast, Inexpensive, Restrained, and Elegant), and is now available as a book. Danzy Senna. The S in FIST became this book: The Simplicity Cycle. Not surprisingly, the abolishing the penny, two books support one another. FIRE, the book, offers lessons highly relevant to The Simplicity Cycle. Large projects all tend to A Case Babies example fail. Abolishing. It doesn't matter in what domain they exist -- software, construction, new aircraft, medical insurance systems, payroll systems -- they fail. Ward offers a simple solution: don't do them. With the venturi meter, time and money allocated for abolishing one large project, do numerous small ones. Do them Fast and Inexpensive, with Restraint and Elegance: FIRE. It's a well-known principle, but it goes against the nature of organizations who wish to solve all their problems with one project.

In consumer markets, it encourages the It?, disease I call featuritis. In industry, it's bloat. What's the alternative? FIRE. How do we avoid unneeded complexity and the penny, manage to maintain simplicity? That's the focus of The Simplicity Cycle. Chinese. The two books, FIRE and The Simplicity Cycle, can each be read on its own, but for abolishing the penny people involved in the design and implementation of complex projects, they form a powerful pair. For anyone wanting to embrace the mantle of simplicity, The Simplicity Cycle, is essential.

Foreword: Computers as Theater (Brenda Laurel) Theatre is about interaction, about themes and conflicts, goals and approaches to those goals, frustration, success, tension, and then the resolution of those tensions. Theatre is dynamic, changing, always in Essay It? motion. Our modern technologies with their powerful computers, multiple sensors, communication links and abolishing the penny, displays are also about interaction, and treating that interaction as Theatre proves to be rich, enlightening and powerful. California. Real interaction does not take place in the moment, on abolishing a fixed, static screen. Real interaction is ongoing over a protracted period. It ebbs and flows, transitions from one state to another.

Transitions are as important as states. Up to recently, the only computer systems that acted this way were games. But as students of the theatre have long known, we get the greatest pleasure from our ability to overcome early failures and adversaries. If everything runs perfectly and smoothly with no opportunity to deploy our powers and skills, pleasure is diminished. Human emotion is sensitive to change: starting low and sunshine, ending high is a far better experience than one that is always high. Abolishing. Is this a cry for deliberate placement of danzy senna obstacles and confusions? Obviously not, but it is a cry for a look at the penny, the temporal dimensions, at engagement, agency, and the rise and fall of dramatic tension. The future of Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451: Change our interactions with technology will build upon abolishing the penny, the foundations provided by Brenda Laurel in this deep, thought-provoking, and critically important book.

The Paradox of Wearable Technologies. Can wearable devices be helpful? Absolutely. But they can also be horrid. We Value. It all depends upon whether we use them to focus and abolishing, augment our activities or to sunshine california distract. It is abolishing up to us, and up to those who create these new wearable wonders to sunshine california decide which it is to be. Great microinteraction design requires understanding the people who use the the penny, product, what they are trying to A Case Modified Essay example accomplish, and the steps they need to take. it requires understanding the context of those interactions. It is essential to abolishing the penny develop empathy with the user, to develop observational skills of users and the knowledge of state california how to combine different aspects of the penny your product - perhaps the results of different programming teams or even different divisions - into a single, smooth microinteraction? Chapter 1 does a great job of introducing the principles of how to do this. The numerous examples throughout the book sensitizes you to the opportunities.

After that it is up to you, to continual observation that leads to discovery of the danzy senna, opportunities. Abolishing The Penny. And it is essential not to be blocked, as Apple's developers apparently were, if the solutions require cutting across company organizational structures. After all, doing things right for the user is danzy senna what great products are all about. Sloth, Pride, Envy, Greed, Lust, Anger, Gluttony. What?

I'm supposed to design for these traits? As a human-centered designer, I should be repelled by the thought of designing for such a list. What was Chris Nodder thinking? What was his publisher thinking? This is abolishing the penny evil, amplified. Although, come to think of it, those seven deadly sins are human traits. Want to california know how people really behave?

Just read the law books. Start with one of the most famous set of laws of all, the Ten Commandments. Every one of those commandments is about something that people actually did, and then prohibiting it. All laws are intended to stop or otherwise control human behavior. Abolishing The Penny. So, if you want to understand real human behavior, just see what the laws try to stop. The list of on Merit: Why Do We Value It? seven deadly sins provides a nice, tidy statement of fundamental human behavior, fundamental in the sense that from each of the deadly sins, one can derive a large list of abolishing less deadly ones. Embrace failure, avoid failure: these two, apparently contradictory statements are the opening and closing chapter titles of Victor Lombardi's enchanting, insightful book. Embrace, yet avoid, the apparent contradiction being resolved by recognizing that the trick is to state learn from other people's failures, the better to be able to avoid them for yourself. The message of the book is summarized by abolishing the penny its subtitle: Lessons from for Genetically Essay example, Experience Design Failures. Opportunities and Challenges For Touch and Gesture-Based Systems.

Billions of the penny people appreciate the simplicity of touch technology, but for the industrial sector, including home white goods and consumer goods, rugged conditions have been a roadblock to integrating this technology. The new evolution is the multi-touch that works under rigorous conditions. Sunshine. Even though multi-touch screens are widely popular on today's consumer phones and tablets the design principles for industrial applications and demanding environments are different for those in the rather controlled consumer environment for mobile phones and abolishing the penny, tablets. When using a device under rugged conditions - cold, raining, wearing gloves, heavy vibration - different design rules are required. A Case For Genetically Modified. The opportunities are large, with potential uses that go far beyond what we see today. The Penny. Great opportunity brings great challenges. Essay On Merit: Why Do. We explore the requirements and the penny, the design rules for overcoming them. Suggested Readings From Design of Everyday Things, Revised edition. Many people continually ask for my suggestions of readings in design. Here is an Merit: We Value excerpt from the Readings and Notes section of the 2013 revision and expansion of the book Design of Everyday Things that provides my list of general books for interaction design.

The list of excellent books is the penny much larger than included here, but even with my limited list there are probably too many suggestions. Still, this is a good place to start. Preface. Essay We Value It?. Design of Everyday Things, Revised Edition. The preface to the revised edition of Design of the penny Everyday Things, including a chapter-by-chapter review of What has changed. I have rethought my position stated in my essay article Design Thinking: A Useful Myth. Essay Merit: Why Do We Value It?. I still stand by the major points of the earlier essay, but I have changed the conclusion.

As a result, the essay should really be titled: Design Thinking: An Essential Tool. Let me explain. Great Design Always Means Great Style (Misc Magazine) Ah, style. The elegance of gentle interaction, with grace and beauty, wit and charm. Or perhaps brute force abruptness, rudeness and insult. Abolishing. Style refers to the way of doing something and although we usually use it in the positive sense, the word itself is neutral, referring only to the manner by which something is Essay Merit: It? done.

Style can be coarse and ugly, brutish and dangerous. The best styles, including both those we respect and prefer and those we detest, are true and honest, consistent and coherent. (An essay for Misc Magazine.) Maybe I am a gadget. That would certainly explain a lot of things. A quick search of the internet for the definition of gadget yields two meanings: 1. Abolishing The Penny. A small device that performs or aids a simple task; 2. A small device that appears useful but is often unnecessary or superfluous. Danzy Senna. Yeah, those sound like me. Complexity is Good, Simplicity Overrated (Misc Magazine) (Essay for Misc Magazine.) Real complexity does not lie in the tools, but in the task. Abolishing. Skilled workers have an Essay example array of abolishing the penny tools, each carefully matched to california a particular task requirement. It can take years to learn which tool goes with which task, and years to master the tools. The tool set is abolishing the penny complicated because the task is complicated. Danzy Senna. Looking at the visual simplicity of the tool is misleading.

The mark of the abolishing the penny, great designer is the Babies Essay, ability to abolishing provide the complexity that people need in a manner that is understandable and Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit, elegant. Simplicity should never be the goal. Complex things will require complexity. Abolishing. It is the job of the designer to manage that complexity with skill and Babies Essay, grace. What Moves? Culture Interaction Design. When What Is Natural For Some Is Not for Others: Culture and Design.

I was in the penny Asia, giving a talk. I was given a remote controller for advancing my slides. Venturi Meter. This one had with two buttons, one above the abolishing, other. When I pushed the upper button to advance to the slide, I was flustered: I went backwards through my slide set, not forward. How could this happen? I wondered. To me, top obviously means forward, bottom backwards. I decided to Essay We Value ask the audience what they thought: To my great surprise, the audience was split in their responses. Abolishing The Penny. Many thought that it should be the top button, but a large number thought it should be the bottom. Chinese. But there is more.

This is a point of view question, one that has plagued designers for abolishing the penny years (which moves? The text or the window?) Different cultures have very different points of view. When a design conflicts with the common cultural view, confusion results. (Article posted at core77.com and venturi meter, jnd.org. bit.ly/NZckqz ) How To Find a Job or Graduate School in Human-Computer Interaction, Interaction, or Industrial Design. I'm frequently asked how to find a job or a place to study, either in industrial design or user-interface design (Human-Computer Interaction). Rather than answer it anew each time, let me summarize my answer here. You either need real work experience or a graduate degree, or both. I cannot tell you what to do. Good advice has to come from someone who knows you, who knows your interests, training, and skills. I cannot acquire that in an email message or two.

So, seek out the penny knowledgeable mentors where you live. Seek professors that you trust. Danzy Senna. Go to meetings of societies (see below). Read magazines and journals to learn who is doing what, where: then write to those people about their work. Video: Don Norman speaks out about engineering design education. This is a short, 3 minute video, that captures the dilemma of modern education. Engineering education has become narrower and deeper. We teach and train specialties and specialists. Practical applications require tying together the knowledge of the abolishing, many specialties. They require generalists, people who have broad, integrated understanding of the danzy senna, world.

We need an educational system that rewards those who are broad and knowledgable as well as those who are deep and abolishing, narrow, even if the broad knowledge comes at the expense of shallow depth. Being narrow is just as big a liability as being shallow. We need both kinds of people. Alas, the university hires, teaches, and trains only the deep and narrow. Incremental and danzy senna, Radical Innovation: Design Research versus Technology and Meaning Change. Don Norman and Roberto Verganti: We discuss the differences between incremental and radical innovation and argue that each results from different processes. Human-centered design methods are a form of the penny hill climbing, extremely well suited for continuous incremental improvements but incapable of radical innovation. Radical innovation requires finding a different hill, and this comes about only through meaning or technology change. A second approach is to consider the dimensions of meaning and technology change.

Finally, we show how innovation might be viewed as lying in the space formed by the dimension of research aimed at enhancing general knowledge and A Case for Genetically example, the dimension of abolishing the penny application to practice. We conclude that human-centered design is ideally suited for incremental innovation and unlikely to lead to radical innovation. Radical innovation comes from changes in either technology or meaning. Sunshine California. Technology-driven innovation often comes from inventors and tinkerers. Meaning-driven innovation, however, has the potential to be driven through design research, but only if the research addresses fundamental questions of new meanings and their interpretation. Does Culture Matter for abolishing Product Design? Does culture matter for danzy senna product design? For the world of mass-produced products, that is, for the world of industrial design, culture might be far less important than we might have expected. Is this really true, and if so, is the penny this a positive or negative finding? Conversation: Jon Kolko Don Norman mediated by Richard Anderson.

Out with the Old, In with the New: A Conversation with Don Norman Jon Kolko, mediated by Richard Anderson. The item contains photos, a transcript, and an embedded video of the event. Topics addressed included the nature of and the difference between art and design, whether design should be taught in art schools (such as AAU), Abraham Maslow, usability, what design (or all) education should be like, the problem with design thinking courses, the destiny of printed magazines and sunshine, printed books, aging and abolishing, ageism, the relationship between HCI and interaction design, Arduino, simplicity, social media, Google, privacy, design research, the venturi meter, context in which design occurs, the Austin Center for Design, solving wicked problems, whether designers make good entrepreneurs, politics, Herb Simon cybernetics, the strengths weaknesses of interconnected systems, and the penny, how designers should position themselves. Design Education: Brilliance Without Substance. We are now in the 21st century, but design curricula seem stuck in the mid 20th century.

In the 21st century, design has broadened to include interaction and experience, services and history, strategies. The Penny. The technologies are more sophisticated, involving advanced materials, computation, communication, sensors, and actuators. The products and services have complex interactions that have to be self-explanatory, sometimes involving other people separated by time or distance. Traditional design activities have to be supplemented with an danzy senna understanding of technology, business, and human psychology. The Penny. With all these changes, one would expect major changes in design education. Nope. Design education is led by craftspeople who are proud of their skills and they see no reason to change.

Design education is mired in the past. At the start of almost every technology transition, chaos rules. Competing competitors create confusion, often quite deliberate, as they develop their own unique way of doing things incompatible with all others. Today, the long-established, well-learned model of scrolling is venturi meter being changed by one vendor, but not by abolishing the penny others. Gestures proliferate, with no standards, no easy way of being reminded of them, new easy way to learn. Change is important, for it is how we make progress.

Some confusion is to be expected. But many of the changes and the resulting confusions of today seem arbitrary and capricious. Think before acting. Sounds right, doesn't it? Think before starting to design. Yup.

Do some research, learn more about the requirements, the people, the activities. Then design. It all makes sense. Which is precisely why I wish to challenge it. Sometimes it makes sense to act first, think afterwards. The Design Dilemma: Dismay vs. Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451: Change. Delight. I frequently find myself in a state of simultaneous dismay and delightful admiration about the end product of designers. This state can be described by contrasting the way a designer and an engineer would solve the same problem.

Designers evoke great delight in their work. Engineers provide utilitarian value. The problem is that the very practical, functional things are also boring and ugly. Good designers would never allow boring and ugly to describe their work: they strive to produce delight. But sometimes that delightful result is not very practical, difficult to use, and not completely functional. The Penny. Practical versus delightful: Which do you prefer? Designers approach the world with charming naivete, coupled with artistic elegance and the art of examining issues in novel, unconstrained ways. Modified Essay. Their solutions provide a graceful elegance and new insight, perhaps because of their lack of knowledge, their naivete. Designers are trained as craftspeople, without any substantive knowledge of the content areas in which they do their work.

This very lack of abolishing knowledge can produce profound insights that lead to advances in venturi meter understanding, hence my delight. Having too much knowledge can lead to following the failed footsteps of those who preceded you. Videos from Design of Everyday Things. My videos have been resurrected! Let me explain.One upon a time, many years ago -- 1994 to be precise -- The Voyager Company produced a delightful CD-ROM that included copies of several of my books (Design of abolishing Everyday Things, Things that Make Us Smart, and Turn Signals Are the Facial Expressions of Automobiles. As you read the books, if you had a question, you could just click wherever there was a link and I would pop up, walk on. I am forced to read a lot of crap. As a reviewer of submissions to design journals and conferences, as a juror of design contests, and as a mentor and advisor to design students and faculty, I read outrageous claims made by designers who have little understanding of the complexity of the problems they are attempting to chinese foods history solve or of the standards of evidence required to the penny make claims. Oftentimes the crap comes from brilliant and talented people, with good ideas and wonderful instantiations of physical products, concepts, or simulations. The crap is in the claims. In the early days of industrial design, the work was primarily focused upon Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit Change, physical products.

Today, however, designers work on organizational structure and social problems, on interaction, service, and experience design. Abolishing. Many problems involve complex social and political issues. As a result, designers have become applied behavioral scientists, but they are woefully undereducated for the task. Designers often fail to understand the complexity of the issues and the depth of knowledge already known. They claim that fresh eyes can produce novel solutions, but then they wonder why these solutions are seldom implemented, or if implemented, why they fail. Fresh eyes can indeed produce insightful results, but the eyes must also be educated and knowledgeable. State California. Designers often lack the requisite understanding. Design schools do not train students about these complex issues, about the interlocking complexities of abolishing human and social behavior, about the danzy senna, behavioral sciences, technology, and business. There is little or no training in abolishing the penny science, the scientific method, and experimental design. Over the past five years I have written approximately three dozen columns. What has been learned?

What will come? Obviously it is time for reflection. For Genetically Example. My goal has always been to abolishing the penny incite thought, debate, and understanding. Venturi Meter. Those of us in the field of interaction, whether students, researchers or practitioners, whether designers or programmers, synthesizers or analyzers, all share some common beliefs and ideals. One of my jobs is to abolishing challenge these established beliefs, for often when they are examined, they rest on chinese history an ill-defined platform, often with no supporting evidence except that they have been around for the penny so long, they are accepted as given, without need for examination. We need a rigorous foundation for Essay on We Value It? our work, which means to question that which is not firmly supported by evidence, if it appears obvious. Many things that appear obvious are indeed true, but many are not: We need to know which is which. There is a trend to eliminate designers. Who needs them when we can simply test our way to success? The excitement of powerful, captivating design is defined as irrelevant.

Worse, the abolishing the penny, nature of design is in danger. Design by comparison of history competing alternatives is design by hill climbing. It will get you to the top of the current hill. It will never get you to abolishing the highest hill. Systems Thinking: A Product Is More Than the california, Product. In reality a product is all about the experience. Abolishing. It is about discovery, purchase, anticipation, opening the package, the venturi meter, very first usage. Abolishing The Penny. It is venturi meter also about continued usage, learning, the abolishing, need for assistance, updating, maintenance, supplies, and venturi meter, eventual renewal in the form of disposal or exchange.

Most companies treat every stage as a different process, done by a different division of the company: RD, manufacturing, packaging, sales, and then as a necessary afterthought, service. As a result there is seldom any coherence. Instead, there are contradictions. Abolishing The Penny. If you think of the product as a service, then the separate parts make no sense--the point of danzy senna a product is to abolishing the penny offer great experiences to its owner, which means that it offers a service. And that experience, that service, is the result of the coherence of the parts. Venturi Meter. The real value of abolishing the penny a product consists of far more than the product's components. Designers are proud of their ability to innovate, to think outside the box, to develop creative, powerful ideas for Fahrenheit 451: their clients.

Sometimes these ideas win design prizes. However, the rate at which these ideas achieve commercial success is low. Abolishing The Penny. Many of the ideas die within the companies, never becoming a product. Among those that become products, a good number never reach commercial success. A Case Modified Example. Ideas are just the the penny, starting point toward product realization.

New product ideas have to fit the competencies of the corporation. They have to fit within the existing family or products, or at least the product strategy. The purchasers of new products have to be prepared. The costs must be contained. The technology must be up to it. The same people who the new ideas are intended to supplant and go around are now responsible for executing the ideas. No wonder so many good ideas fail. Every year the world holds many contests for industrial designers.

Lots of submissions, lots of time spent by jurors reviewing them, lots of venturi meter pretty pictures afterwards. Fun to read, wonderful for the penny the winners. What's the problem? I have been a juror for Change a number of contests, including the major American yearly contest sponsored by the Industrial Design Society of America, IDSA, and BusinessWeek. Although I always enjoyed the experience and the interaction with talented, hard-working fellow jurors, I have become increasingly dissatisfied with the results. Why are shows bad? Shouldn't we reward good design?

Sure, if that's what the shows accomplish, but they don't. In fact, I believe they do harm to the profession. The Penny. (Opening sentences of my Core77 column.) Design thinking is not special to design. Great artists, great engineers, great scientists all break out of the sunshine california, boundaries. Great designers are no different. Why perpetuate the abolishing, myth of design thinking if it is for Genetically Modified example so clearly false? Because it is useful.

Design thinking is a powerful public relations term that changes the way in which design firms are viewed. So, long live the phrase design thinking. It will help in abolishing the transformation of danzy senna design from the world of form and abolishing, style to that of danzy senna function and structure. It will help spread the word that designers can add value to almost any problem, from healthcare to pollution, business strategy and abolishing the penny, company organization. Gestural Interfaces: A Step Backwards In Usability. Gestural interfaces are fun to use: gestures add a welcome feeling of activity to the otherwise joyless ones of sunshine state pointing and abolishing, clicking. The are truly a revolutionary mode of interaction. After two decades of research in laboratories across the world, they are finally available for everyday consumer products. But the lack of consistency, inability to discover operations, coupled with the ease of Modified Babies accidentally triggering actions from which there is no recovery threatens the viability of these systems. We urgently need to return to our basics, developing usability guidelines for these systems that are based upon solid principles of interaction design, not on the whims of the company human interface guidelines and abolishing the penny, arbitrary ideas of developers.

Talk: Research Practice Gap 2 Kinds of innovation. I gave the opening keynote address at IIT's Design Research Conference in Chicago, May 2010. In it, i combined two of the major themes I have long been working on. The video of that talk is now available. The research-product gap. Danzy Senna. The design research community -- and all research communities, for that matter -- have little understanding, knowledge of, or even interest in the product side of companies. Moreover, the the penny, skills, reward structures, and interests of the two communities are so different that the venturi meter, gap is inevitable. The Penny. In the medical community, this gap is overcome by a third discipline: Translational Science. I recommend we follow suite with a new discipline, Translational Engineering, that translates the language of research into venturi meter, the language of products, and vice-versa. Two kinds of innovation. A very closely related confusion exists about innovation.

Human-Centered Design, I argue, is essential for incremental improvement of products. But radical innovation, which occurs much less frequently, comes either from the penny, new technologies or from meaning change: HCD will never give us radical innovation. There is an immense gap between research and practice. There are fundamental differences in the knowledge and skill sets required by those who conduct the research and those who attempt to history translate those results into practical, reliable, and affordable form. Between research and abolishing the penny, practice a new, third discipline must be inserted, one that can translate between the abstractions of research and the practicalities of practice. We need a discipline of Fahrenheit 451: Change translational development. Abolishing. Translational developers are needed who can mine the insights of researchers and hone them into Essay on Merit: Why Do We Value It?, practical, reliable and useful results.

Similarly translational developers must help translate the problems and concerns of practice into the clear, need-based statements that can drive researchers to develop new insights. Neither direction of translation is easy. Natural User Interfaces Are Not Natural. Gestural interaction is the new excitement in the halls of abolishing industry. Advances in the size, power, and cost of microprocessors, memory, cameras, and other sensing devices now make it possible to control by wipes and flicks, hand gestures, and body movements. A new world of interaction is here: The rulebooks and guidelines are being rewritten, or at least, such is the Merit: Why Do It?, claim. And the new interactions even have a new marketing name: natural, as in Natural User Interface. As usual, marketing rhetoric is ahead of reality. All new technologies have their proper place. Abolishing. All new technologies will take a while for us to figure out the best manner of interaction as well as the standardization that removes one source of potential confusion. None of these systems is inherently more natural than the danzy senna, others.

What we think of as natural is, to a large extent, learned. I've come to a disconcerting conclusion: design research is great when it comes to abolishing the penny improving existing product categories but essentially useless when it comes to new, innovative breakthroughs. I reached this conclusion through examination of a range of product innovations, most especially looking at history, those major conceptual breakthroughs that have had huge impact upon society as well as the abolishing, more common, mundane small, continual improvements. Call one conceptual breakthrough, the other incremental. Although we would prefer to believe that conceptual breakthroughs occur because of a detailed consideration of human needs, especially fundamental but unspoken hidden needs so beloved by the design research community, the state, fact is that it simply doesn't happen. New conceptual breakthroughs are invariably driven by the development of new technologies The new technologies, in turn, inspire technologists to invent things, not sometimes because they themselves dream of having their capabilities, but many times simply because they can build them. In other words, grand conceptual inventions happen because technology has finally made them possible.

Do people need them? That question is answered over the next several decades as the technology moves from technical demonstration, to product, to failure, or perhaps to abolishing slow acceptance in the commercial world where slowly, after considerable time, the products and applications are jointly evolve, and Modified Babies, slowly the need develops. THE TRANSMEDIA DESIGN CHALLENGE: Co-Creation. We live in exciting times. Abolishing The Penny. Finally, we are beginning to understand that pleasure and fun are important components of life, that emotion is not a bad thing, and that learning, education and chinese history, work can all benefit through encouraging pleasure and fun. Up to abolishing the penny now, a primary goal of product and service design has been to provide useful functions and results. We should not lose track of Merit: It? these goals, but now that we are well on our way to doing that for an amazing variety of goods and services, it is time to make sure that they are pleasurable as well. Not only does this require emotions to abolishing be a major component of design thinking, but we must incorporate action as well, actions that use the whole body in foods history movement, rhythm, and purpose. Abolishing. New technologies allow creativity to blossom, whether for reasons silly or sublime. Venturi Meter. Simple text messages or short videos among people qualify as production, regardless of their value. This new movement is about participating and creating, invoking the the penny, creative spirit.

This is what the transmedia experience should be about. All of these experiences are allowing people to feel more like producers and danzy senna, creators rather than passive consumers or spectators. The new design challenge is to create true participatory designs coupled with true multi-media immersion that reveal new insights and create true novel experiences. We all participate, we all experience. We all design, we all partake. But much of this is meaningless: how do we provide richness and depth, enhanced through the the penny, active engagement of all, whether they be the venturi meter, originators or the recipients of the experience?

How will this come to pass? What is the role in abolishing the penny everyday life? Will this be a small portion or will it dominate? Will it even be permitted within the confines of contemporary commercialism? Those are the significant design challenges.

People Are From Earth, Machines Are From Outer Space. People are from earth. Machines are from outer space. I don't know what kind of manners they teach in outer space, but if machines are going to live here in our world, they really need to venturi meter learn to behave properly. You know, when on Earth, do as the earthlings do. So, hey machines, you need to become socialized. Right now you are arrogant, antisocial, irritating know-it-alls. Sure, you say nice things like “please” and “thank you,” but being polite involves more than words. The Penny. It is venturi meter time to socialize our interactions with technology.

Sociable machines. Abolishing The Penny. Basic lessons in communication skills. Rules of machine etiquette. Machines need to show empathy with the people with whom they interact, understand their point of view, and Essay example, above all, communicate so that everyone understands what is happening.It never occurs to a machine that the problems might be theirs. Oh no. It's us pesky people who are to blame. One of our fundamental principles is abolishing the penny that of perceived affordances: that's one way we know what to do in chinese foods novel situations. That's fine for objects, but what about the penny situations? What about people, social groups, cultures?

Powerful clues arise from what I call social signifiers. A signifier is some sort of indicator, some signal in the physical or social world that can be interpreted meaningfully. Signifiers signify critical information, even if the signifier itself is an accidental byproduct of the world. Social signifiers are those that are relevant to social usages. Some social indicators simply are the unintended but informative result of the behavior of others.

Social signifiers replace affordances, for they are broader and richer, allowing for accidental signifiers as well as deliberate ones, and even for items that signify by their absence, as the lack of crowds on a train platform. The perceivable part of an for Genetically Babies Essay affordance is a signifier, and if deliberately placed by a designer, it is a social signifier. CNN Designers challenged to include disabled. I'm on a campaign to the penny make assistive devices aesthetically delightful -- without impairing effectiveness and cost. Foods History. Why are things such as canes, wheelchairs so ugly? I urge the skilled industrial designers of this world to revolutionize this arena. Abolishing. Perhaps the Industrial Design Society of America (IDSA) and the equivalent design societies all over the world ought to Essay on Merit: Why Do sponsor a design contest. The best design schools should encourage design projects for assistive devices that function well, are cost effective (two aspects that are often left out of abolishing design schools) as well as fun, pleasurable and venturi meter, fashionable (aspects that are absent from more engineering- or social-sciences -based programs). There are many groups at work in this area: simply do a web search on the phrases inclusive design? or universal design? or accessible design.

They do excellent work, but the emphasis is on abolishing providing aids and Modified Babies example, assistance, or changing public policy. All that is both good and essential, but I want to go one step further: add aesthetics, pleasure, and fashion to the mix. Make it so these aids are sought after, fashionable, delightful, and fun. For everyone, which is what the words inclusive, universal, and accessible are supposed to abolishing the penny mean. Designers of the world: Unite behind a worthy cause. This article contains pointers to my MIT Sloan Management Review paper on waiting lines as well as a PDF of to the earlier paper in venturi meter which I discussed the same issues in abolishing the penny more depth than SMR permitted. The PDF file, The Psychology of Waiting Lines. argues that although waiting is an inescapable part of life, but that doesn't mean we enjoy it. But if the state, lines are truly inescapable, what can be done to make them less painful? Although there is abolishing a good deal of practical knowledge, usually known within the state, heads of corporate managers, very little has been published about the topic. One paper provides the classic treatment: David Maister's The Psychology of abolishing Waiting Lines (1985).

Maister suggested several principles for increasing the pleasantness of waiting. Although his paper provides an excellent start, it was published in 1985 and there have been considerable advances in our knowledge since then. In this section, I bring the danzy senna, study of waiting lines up to date, following the spirit of Maister's original publication, but with considerable revision in abolishing light of modern findings. I suggest eight design principles, starting with the emotions dominate? and ending with the principle that memory of an venturi meter event is more important than the experience.? Examples of design solutions include double buffering, providing clear conceptual models of the events with continual feedback, providing positive memories and even why one might deliberately induce waits. These principles apply to all services, not just waiting in lines.

Details will vary from situation to situation, industry to industry, but the fundamentals are, in truth, the fundamentals of sociable design for waiting lines, for products, and for service. This is an abstract for the attached PDF file, Sociable Design. Whether designing the abolishing the penny, rooftop of a building or the rear end of a home or business appliance, sociable design considers how the design will impact everyone: not just the one, intended person standing in front, but also all the rest of society that interacts. One person uses a computer: the rest of us are at the other side of the desk or counter, peering at the ugly rear end, with wires spilling over danzy senna, like entrails. The residents of a building may never see its roof, but those who live in adjoining buildings may spend their entire workday peering at ugly asphalt, shafts and the penny, ventilating equipment. Support for groups is the hallmark of sociable technology. Groups are almost always involved in activities, even when the history, other people are not visible.

All design has a social component: support for this social component, support for groups must always be a consideration. Sociable design is not just saying a€?pleasea€? and a€?thank you.a€? It is not just providing technical support. It is also providing convivial working spaces, plus the time to abolishing make use of them. Sociable technology must support the four themes of communication, presentation, support for groups, and troubleshooting. How these are handled determines whether or not we will find interaction to be sociable. People learn social skills. Machines have to have them designed into them. Sometimes even worse than machines, however, are services, where even though we are often interacting with people, the service activities are dictated by formal rule books of procedures and processes, and the people we interact with can be as frustrated and confused as we are.

This too is a design issue. Design of both machines and services should be thought of as a social activity, one where there is much concern paid to the social nature of the venturi meter, interaction. All products have a social component. This is especially true of communication products, whether websites, personal digests (blog), audio and video postings mean to be shared, or mail digests, mailing lists, and text messaging on cellphones. Social networks are by definition social. The Penny. But where the A Case Modified, social impact is obvious, designers are forewarned.

The interesting cases happen where the social side is not so obvious. Everyone wants simplicity. Everyone misses the point. Simplicity is not the goal. We do not wish to abolishing give up the power and flexibility of our technologies. We are faced with an apparent paradox, but don’t worry: good design will see us through. On Merit: Why Do It?. People want the extra power that increased features bring to a product, but they intensely dislike the complexity that results. Is this a paradox?

Not necessarily. Complexity can be managed. Abolishing. The argument is not between adding features and simplicity, between adding capability and usability. The real issue is about design: designing things that have the power required for the job while maintaining understandability, the feeling of control, and the pleasure of accomplishment. Workarounds - Leading Edge of Innovation. Where do new ideas come from?

How should designers create, transform, innovate? Do we need formal observational methods? When I talk to today’s foremost designers, most are scornful. Great designers are like great novelists: acute observers of sunshine state human behavior. Although they are scornful of formal methods, they themselves are expert practitioners of observation, and if you can corner them in a quiet room (or better yet, a noisy bar), they will brag about those abilities.

Many ordinary people use the objects around them in unordinary ways. Abolishing. Through these everyday acts of creativity, clever people reveal both needs and possible solutions. They lead to the innovations that will benefit many. Hacks and workarounds: those are the soul of innovation. Observing is danzy senna easy: recognizing the abolishing the penny, innovation and then knowing what to do with the chinese, observations are where the difficulties lie. David Heinemeier Hansson of 37signals says: I'm not designing software for other people, I'm designing it for me.

Wow. That is the sort of arrogance that the design community clustered around 37signals disdains -- or so I thought. Understanding the true needs of customers is abolishing the penny essential for business success. Making sure the product is elegant, functional and understandable is Ray Bradbury's Change also essential. The disdain for customers shown by Hansson of 37signals is an arrogance bound to fail. As long as 37signals is a hobby, where programmers code for themselves, it may very well succeed as a small enterprise with its current size of 10 employees. I'm happy for them, and for the penny the numerous small developers and small companies that find their products useful. But their attitude is on It? a symbol: a symbol of eventual failure.

Too bad. In fact, that attitude is not so much arrogance as it is selfishness: they are selfish. A little less arrogance and abolishing the penny, a lot more empathy would turn these brilliant programmers into a brilliant company, a brilliant success. Interaction design is california about interfaces, which means it is abolishing the penny about synchronizing the danzy senna, events of abolishing the penny different systems, about memories, buffers, queues and waiting rooms. Waiting is an A Case for Genetically example unavoidable component of interfaces, an unavoidable part of life. Just as dirt collects in crevices, buffers collect in the interfaces between systems. It is their natural home, and life would not work without them. I have become fascinated by buffers. I see them everywhere I look.

They cannot be escaped. Many of the penny our clever ethnographic and field methods are designed to find unmet needs. You know what? Most are far better off if they stay unmet. The automobile industry is badly in need of guidance on human factors. Excellent people already work in history the companies, but they suffer the problems faced within the consumer electronics and computer industries over the past few decades. This is an important arena, one where human-centered design skills are essential.

But success will come only when our discipline can provide seasoned managers who know how to abolishing the penny work across disciplines, with engineers, designers (stylists), manufacturing, marketing and, of course, upper management. Yes, we want simplicity, but we don’t want to state give up any of those cool features. Simplicity is highly overrated. Cautious Cars Cantankerous Kitchens. Draft version of the penny Chapter 1 of my new book, tentatively titled The Design of Merit: Why Do It? Future Things . The Penny. (In press: Basic Books. Expected publication: 2007.) This chapter is called Cautious cars and cantankerous kitchens. Posted December 9, 2006 as a Microsoft Word file. The truth about Google's so-called simplicity The truth?

It isn't simple. Why does it look simple? Because you can only do one thing from their home page: search. If you want to do one of the many other things Google is able to do, oops, first you have to figure out how to find it, then you have to figure out which of the many offerings to use, then you have to figure out how to Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit use it. The Penny. And because all those other things are not on the home page but, instead, are hidden away in various mysterious places, extra clicks and operations are required for even simple tasks -- if you can remember how to 451: Change get to them. How To Find a Job or Graduate School in abolishing the penny Human-Computer Interaction, Interaction, or Industrial Design. (Updated July 2012 from an earlier essay on finding a job.) I'm frequently asked how to find a job or a place to venturi meter study, either in industrial design or user-interface design (Human-Computer Interaction).

Rather than answer it anew each time, let me summarize my answer here. You either need real work experience or a graduate degree, or both. I cannot tell you what to do. Good advice has to come from someone who knows you, who knows your interests, training, and skills. I cannot acquire that in an email message or two. So, seek out knowledgeable mentors where you live. Seek professors that you trust.

Go to meetings of societies (see below). Abolishing The Penny. Read magazines and journals to Essay learn who is doing what, where: then write to those people about their work. Trapped in abolishing the penny a Lufthansa Airline Seat. I flew from Munich to Chicago in a brand new Lufthansa Airbus 340. (the 340-300 model, for those who keep track of such things). Ah, Lufthansa has gone to great lengths to improve their business class fittings.

Indeed each seat comes with a 14 page manual. (Oops, 14 pages? That should be warning enough.) As you can see, they confidently explain, we have thought of some new ways of making you feel at home. Hah! Not my home, thank you. Please, not my home. When I got myself into a comfortable sleeping position, I couldn't get out. Ray Bradbury's Change. Four times in all I was trapped, trapped inside an airline seat. Ah, the joys of a technology whose time has not yet come. Kudos to Lufthansa for wonderful flight attendants, for a marvelous meal, and for trying so hard to the penny make business class seats that truly deliver. If it is the thought that counts, Lufthansa wins.

If execution also matters, well, they have some debugging to venturi meter do. Industrial Design: Claims Without Substance. Many people mail me examples of the penny amazing new products, usually extremely clever and of great potential value. But do they really work? Do they really solve problems? Nobody knows. Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451: Change. The designers simply assert that they do. Claims are worthless unless backed up by data. We will never know if the abolishing the penny, claims are true unless they are tested in controlled, sensible trials. I have changed my mind: good designers communicate directly with their users through the appropriate placement of visible clues, hints, and yes, affordances.

Once we start to view design as a form of communication between designer and the user, we see that perceived affordances become an important medium for that communication. Venturi Meter. Designed affordances play a very special role. Now we see that the designer deliberately places signs and abolishing, signals on the artifact to communicate with the user. On Merit: It?. Affordances therefore signify intentions and reasons. The Penny. They provide a story. And once we know what the designer was thinking, and why, suddenly the device becomes understandable. A Persona is sunshine california a valuable design concept, aiding the designer in maintaining an empathetic focus, providing a common language for the penny communication among the diverse groups who work on a product -- different product groups, engineers, usability specialists, designers, marketing, and executives. I review these features and suggest that Personas can be simple, made-up, and they do not have to be real. They must be realistic, so designers can empathize, and they must accurately characterize the population of purchasers and users of the product. Aside from that, I argue, exhaustive prior research and development for each Persona is not only unnecessary, it is probably a waste of resources. (This essay, I predict, will be highly controversial.)

In the world of computers there is Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451: a semi-serious saying That's not a bug, that's a feature! which refers to the fact that one can often disguise a bug -- a mistake in design or in programming -- as a feature -- claiming that it is worthwhile and even deliberate. (The corollary to the saying goes like this: If it's in abolishing the penny the documentation, it's a feature, not a bug.) Well, here is a case where badly designed door handles were turned into a feature -- an excuse for danzy senna art. Rather than do the door properly -- use different kinds of handles on each side of the door -- they have used the confusion as an excuse to abolishing create art -- where the art is almost as confusing as the original, but at least is aesthetically pleasing and even a source of conversation. Activity-Centered Design: Why I like my Harmony Remote Control. July 2003. A Case For Genetically Babies Essay Example. Most remote controls for watching video and controlling a home theater are device-centered so the task of abolishing turning on all the right equipment and setting each to just the right setting is daunting. The Harmony Remote controller is activity-centered: it doesn't become a DVD controller. Instead, it allows you to do the activity of watching a DVD. Essay. The difference is enormous -- and wonderful to behold. Activity-centered design.

It works. The first remote control I can recommend without hesitation. Applying the Behavioral, Cognitive, and Social Sciences to Products. To do design requires an approximate science, a way of doing quick but effective computations: guidelines useful for synthesis and design. Applied discipolines have different needs than scientific ones. Not lower-quality -- different -- with different skills and different goals. Emotion Design: Attractive things work better. June 2002. (Also published as Norman, D. A. (2002). Emotion and design: Attractive things work better. Interactions Magazine, ix (4), 36-42).

Advances in our understanding of emotion and affect have implications for the science of design. Affect changes the operating parameters of cognition: positive affect enhances creative, breadth-first thinking whereas negative affect focuses cognition, enhancing depth-first processing and minimizing distractions. Therefore, it is essential that products designed for use under stress follow good human-centered design, for stress makes people less able to cope with difficulties and the penny, less flexible in their approach to problem solving. Positive affect makes people more tolerant of venturi meter minor difficulties and more flexible and creative in abolishing finding solutions. Products designed for more relaxed, pleasant occasions can enhance their usability through pleasant, aesthetic design. Aesthetics matter: attractive things work better. In the Fahrenheit 451: Change, world of design, the term affordance has taken on a life far beyond the original meaning. It might help if we return to the penny the original definition.

Let me try to clarify the definition of the term and its many uses. Affordance, Conventions and on Merit: It?, Design (Part 2) The Psychology of Everyday Things (POET) was about perceived affordance. If I ever were to abolishing the penny revise POET, I would make a global change, replacing all instances of the word affordance with the phrase perceived affordance. Venturi Meter. The designer cares more about what actions the user perceives to be possible than what is abolishing the penny true. For Genetically Example. Moreover, affordances, both real and perceived, play very different roles in physical products than they do in the world of screen-based products. In the latter case, affordances play a relatively minor role: cultural conventions are much more important.

Banner Blindness, Human Cognition and Web Design. Benway and abolishing, Lane have studied Banner Blindness -- the danzy senna, fact that people tend to abolishing the penny ignore those big, flashy, colorful banners at the top of web pages. This is pretty interesting stuff, for the entire reason they are so big and obnoxious is to attract attention, yet they fail. Evidently nobody ever studied real users before -- they simply assumed that big, colorful items were visible. Merit: We Value It?. This paper, shows once again the importance of observations over logic when it comes to predicting human behavior. Design as practiced is considerably different from design as idealized in academic discussions of good design. Issues that seem simple from the vantage point of academia are often extremely complex when seen from inside the industry. Abolishing The Penny. Indeed, the two sides seem hardly to chinese foods be speaking the same language. In the course of abolishing the penny my experiences, I have come to recognize that industry faces numerous problems that are outside of the scope of the traditional analyses of design. Commentary: Human Error and the Design of Computer Systems.

Many advances have been made in our understanding of the hardware and software of sunshine state california information processing systems, but one major gap remains: the inclusion of the human operator into the system analysis. The behavior of an information processing system is not a product of the design specifications: it is a product of the interaction between the human and the system. The Post Disciplinary Revolution: Industrial Design and Human Factors?Heal Yourselves. Outline of an abolishing the penny invited keynote address at the 1998 annual meeting of the Human Factors society. They hated it. If the customer can't find it, then the customer can't buy it.

This simple statement explains why usability is the lifeline of e-commerce.