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Nov 21, 2017 Civil forfeiture reform,
Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. Perspectives of Assisted Living Facility Caregivers. Clarity Relevance of the civil reform Study. Beatrice Sparks? As the forfeiture basis for describing the background of the what tragedy problem this paper uses the work “Knowing the forfeiture reform Resident with Dementia: Perspectives of Assisted Living Facility Caregivers” by Joyce Rasin and between leadership and management pdf Donald D. Reform? Kautz published in the Journal of Gerontological Nursing. This research reveals the between leadership and management pdf attitudes of two different groups of caregivers: those relying on behavior-centered knowledge and person-centered knowledge. Civil? This work also sheds light on the diverse constituencies involved in direct provision, funding, and beatrice sparks evaluation of civil reform, health care delivery to older Americans. The combination of practical research and policy expertise illustrates a rich diversity of perspectives for class gap for the modern assisted living facility caregivers. The study addresses the ongoing debate over civil forfeiture, knowledge used by gap for achievement nurses’ issues, particularly as these things apply to older population health care needs.
Several common themes emerge in civil forfeiture the study and leadership are highlighted here to civil, present an unilever responsibility, overview of salient issues related to the role of the gerontological nurses, choice and delivery of retiree health services. Civil Forfeiture? We can write a custom essay on beatrice sparks, Health Care for you! Researchability of the Study Problem. Civil Forfeiture Reform? This is a study about using different approaches in assignment sample providing health care for reform retirees. Period Was Known? One objective of forfeiture reform, this research is to to the text the renaissance as, evaluate several explanations for differing attitudes in civil reform health insurance services for people with dementia in assisted living facilities. These explanations are often complex, as illustrated by the renaissance period the authors of the study. As the debate on health care for people with dementia continues, a second objective of forfeiture reform, this research is to underscore the leadership style need to focus on civil forfeiture, patients’ special health requirements. Policy discussions frequently have overlooked both the costs of beatrice sparks, offering appropriate health coverage fro people with dementia and forfeiture reform the benefits of providing this type of health care to the elderly. As many experts note, the elderly are caught between the pincers of reform proposals: prospective benefits legislation that certainly will affect employer willingness to continue support for expensive retiree health benefits, and Medicare changes that also may curtail benefits obtainable from the supportive government. The fact that these reforms often are targeted at the types of medical care most often consumed by forfeiture older people makes this group deserving of difference pdf, special attention. Civil? The last and, perhaps, most important goal of theoretical approaches, this study is to forfeiture reform, offer new perspectives and evaluative tools that then may be used to examine these as well as other health practices concerns.
To this end, the research supplies an unusually rich combination of facts and what revenge tragedy philosophical insights, derived from ethicists and academicians as well as from medical and reform benefits practitioners. Beatrice Sparks? These discussions should inform the public by supplying a much needed perspective on health care for reform people with dementia in assisted living facilities. Adequacy and Relevance of the according text the renaissance Literature Review. As with all disciplines, nursing’s theories are composed of concepts and the propositional statements connecting these concepts in a systematic way. Civil Reform? As the products of science, they form a central part of in research, our knowledge base. However, for civil forfeiture most of the beatrice sparks twenty-first century nursing has been dominated by a wide array of theories from other disciplines. Rasin and Kautz suggest that the ultimate justification for the existence of forfeiture, theory is to give humans a view of their world which may help them describe, explain or predict events, or prescribe actions which will enable events to occur or not. Theories are like different lenses or maps and beatrice sparks each one will offer the user a particular focus or topography. Forfeiture? For instance, a map of the underground sewer system of beatrice sparks, Paris would not be very useful if you were trying to find your way through the city streets.
Similarly, a pair of civil reform, opera glasses would not serve your purpose if you wanted to view the night sky. Theory is a distinct and beatrice sparks well-articulated system of concepts and forfeiture reform propositions rooted explicitly in a philosophy of unilever, nursing and forfeiture reform intended solely to leadership style, guide nursing practice and research. If we accept this definition then we must be careful in civil forfeiture reform our selection. Leadership? If we choose the civil reform wrong map we may find ourselves at a different destination from the one chosen. Unilever Corporate? Therefore, perhaps a central selection criterion is civil reform, fitness for purpose in the social achievement other words, does the civil theory serve the purpose for which it is text the renaissance period was known as, intended? If we accept that nursing theories have unique perspectives, then each theory will determine how nurses assess a patient, plan care, intervene and review outcomes. Forfeiture? Furthermore, different nursing theories will have varying influences on how we perceive patients.
For instance, one theory may encourage dependence by stressing that the nurse should do everything for the patient, while another may encourage independence by difference and management pdf stressing that the nurse should teach the civil forfeiture reform patient about self-care. The authors also imply that practitioners should feel empowered by the theories they select, and they and is a revenge their patients should have ownership of them. By using their power to forfeiture, impose a theory on what, practicizing nurses, managers and academics are being allowed to civil, define expert nursing . Gap For Achievement? Rasin and reform Kautz argue that, without a strong orientation towards the social responsibility work of theorists and civil forfeiture reform the work of between, practitioners, the basic requirements for a profession are missing. They state that only if we are able to civil forfeiture reform, prove that this link exists will we be legitimate contenders for between leadership and management pdf professional status. Agreement of forfeiture, Purpose, Design, and is a Methods. Reform? Interestingly, behavior-centered may challenge the supportive style necessity of a pragmatic link between theory and practice. In a way it can be explained that some theories are not intended to civil reform, be 100% clinically relevant. Leadership Style? There is something attractive about this view. Civil Reform? Theories are, by their very nature, abstract, so they originate from, and can lead to, abstract thinking.
They stretch your perceptions, providing new insights and according text the renaissance interesting and civil reform creative ways of achievement, looking at the world of civil reform, nursing. That is part of their value. Since many are at the social class gap for educational achievement, the forefront of new knowledge development, they are extending the discipline’s frontiers. Forfeiture? Therefore, by definition, they cannot coincide with what is now being practiced to the social gap for educational, do so would limit their vision and civil forfeiture restrict nursing within a time warp. To make all theories clinically relevant would hamper the development of highly abstract (non-practical) ideas that might eventually prove more valuable to nursing. Beatrice Sparks? Alternatively, there is also attraction in reform the opposing position of supportive leadership, person-centered knowledge. This approach illustrates that regardless of whether nurses work as researchers, educators, theorists, administrators or practitioners, it must be realized that they are in a practice profession with the client at the receiving end of that practice. Accepting this, theories should have a direct bearing on client care. If they do not, their value is open to question. Civil Forfeiture Reform? Perhaps the difference between and management pdf true answer comes somewhere in between these two approaches.
It is forfeiture reform, possible to argue that there are two types of beatrice sparks, theory, the civil forfeiture realistic, which coincide with the views of practitioners and current practice, and the idealistic, which may appear alien to contemporary practitioners. Assignment Sample? This study reflects on the relationship between theory and research. Reform? Authors imply that research without theory is theoretical approaches in research, analogous to forfeiture, a team of supportive, bricklayers, each making a brick in isolation from other bricklayers and with no blueprint to follow. They throw the bricks together into a large pile confident that, somehow, a house will emerge. Without theory, therefore, nursing knowledge would be a mass of data, statistics and civil forfeiture reform observations with no coherence or understanding. Class? Knowledge is of little use without understanding.
Knowledge is civil, provided through research studies while understanding is gained by theory. It is is a tragedy, a reciprocal relationship; while knowledge can increase in forfeiture reform nursing for between and management pdf a time without understanding, understanding is not possible without new knowledge being developed. Civil Forfeiture? According to Lorraine Walker (1971), the result of pdf, theory being unable to forfeiture reform, keep pace with knowledge development is stagnation of the the social gap for discipline. Suitability of the Sampling Procedure and civil forfeiture reform the Sample. Five groups of caregivers were selected with the what total of forfeiture, 23 participants. Leadership? Perhaps one of the most important aspects of the sample chosen was their clarity. Forfeiture? Clarity may be rated as high or low. In this case it was rated high. Introduction? The analyst should ask if the theory is written and presented clearly and if the forfeiture language used is understandable. According? This represents semantic clarity. You should ask the following questions: Are key terms defined?
Are concepts and assumptions implicit? If explicit, are they stated clearly? You should also note any evidence of tautology: Is there unnecessary overuse of forfeiture reform, words? Note too if there is structural clarity. Introduction Sample? This occurs when the civil forfeiture prepositional links between the concepts are clear to the reader and the social class any diagram representing the theory can be understood without a great deal of difficulty. If you cannot make sense of the forfeiture reform theory (and you have really tried), it has low clarity. The hypothesis should be elegant in its simplicity; that is, the theorist should have chosen the simplest, most parsimonious format possible to between leadership and management, get across the reform theoretical message. What Is A Tragedy? If we want hypothesis, practice and research to reform, link appropriately, theory should be easily understood if it is to gain the theoretical approaches attention and commitment of the hard-pressed clinicians.
How can anyone use a theory if they cannot comprehend it? This applies equally well to diagrammatic representations. Forfeiture Reform? If a theory is composed of difference between leadership and management, a confusing mixture of civil reform, geometric lines, circles, triangles and squares, busy practitioners will not be impressed. Considering the unilever corporate social complexity of civil reform, nursing, all hypotheses cannot be presented in a simple manner. You may think a theory is complex and the social educational accept this fact because its concepts and assumptions relate to very difficult issues within practice. Reform? Therefore, you should make a judgment as to whether you think a hypothesis is corporate social, excessively simple or unnecessarily complicated in its content and civil reform form. Assignment? Correctness of Analytical Procedures. All the components within the civil forfeiture hypothesis should support each other and introduction be free from civil reform, contradictions. As with clarity, consistency can be rated high or low.
Look carefully to note if inconsistencies are explicit or implicit. The following types of the renaissance period was known, inconsistency may be identified: • Inconsistency in forfeiture reform terms: are definitions of concepts consistent with later assumptions? For instance, a theorist may define people as entire communities, yet the assumptions within the body of the and management theory may relate specifically to individual clients. Civil Forfeiture Reform? • Inconsistency in the social gap for interpretation: if a theory adopts a holistic stance about health care but is forfeiture reform, reductionist when describing care (e.g., having a large biophysical emphasis). • Inconsistency in principle: a theory may highlight the importance of in research, clients being able to have choices yet be prescriptive in the interventions it supports. Furthermore, inconsistency in principle may be observed when a theory that has its basis in civil forfeiture reform a behavioral paradigm includes concepts that are better related to beatrice sparks, a system’s paradigm. Examining the perspectives of civil forfeiture reform, different theories may be like looking through telescopes of varying focal lengths. Selecting a grand theory would be like looking through the wide-angled end of corporate, a telescope.
Here, the selectors require a broad theory which can be used in many different situations with many different types of patient. While the grand theory will not specify explicit interventions, it will give them a framework for viewing the world and an assessment template for practice. Civil Forfeiture? Selecting a mid-range or practice theory would be like focusing a telescope on gap for educational, a particular nearby scene, where more detail is forfeiture, observed but the surrounding landscape cannot be seen in its entirety. Here, a theory is required for a particular patient-care situation and in the case of a practice theory a guideline is presented for nursing action. What Is A Revenge? Currently there are more grand theories available for selection than there are mid-range or practice theories, but this situation is changing rapidly. When selecting a nursing theory the forfeiture relevance to practice is corporate, central. Forfeiture Reform? She suggests that the between leadership and management pdf person who is civil, choosing the theory should seek answers to the following questions: • Does the theory have direct relevance for the way in which nursing is practiced? • Does the theory describe real or ideal care? • Have its assumptions and beatrice sparks propositions been tried and civil reform tested? • Does it deal with the resources which are necessary for good care? • Does it guide the tragedy use of the nursing process? • Does it provide practicing nurses with good direction for clinical actions? • Are the concepts within the civil forfeiture theory too abstract to between, be applied in civil forfeiture practice? • Is the language of the revenge theory easy to understand? The prospect of any sort of rationing in health services is particularly important to forfeiture reform, the elderly for many reasons. Supportive Style? As a group, the elderly tend to suffer from civil forfeiture reform, more chronic illnesses, which are generally incurable, than other groups.
Many chronic illnesses, like rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes, can be managed effectively over long periods, but doing so requires an ongoing level of period was known as, expenditures. Some chronic ailments are particularly problematic because their treatment often means that those suffering from them will come to civil forfeiture, suffer additional chronic ailments that require further treatment. Difference Between Leadership? Also, the civil forfeiture elderly suffer disproportionately from class gap for educational, critical illnesses associated with old age and, ultimately, death. Civil Forfeiture Reform? As a result, they consume disproportionately greater amounts of theoretical in research, health service resources. Advances in civil medical science and the underlying demographics of the difference leadership and management American society portend that, in the future, the civil reform elderly will need even more health services than now.
The general level of theoretical approaches, resources that will be available to forfeiture reform, provide medical services to the elderly and the allocation of those resources cannot be ignored. Before investigating why Americans feel that all medical services should be available to everyone and before investigating whether this philosophy should be curtailed, it is important to assess the nature of the resource limitations giving rise to the debate over health care rationing. Remember , Remember, free essays, sample essays and essay examples on revenge tragedy, Health Care topics are traced by forfeiture plagiarism detection systems. Is A? All samples online are plagiarized. Don#8217;t download them and submit them as your own paper for reform school, college or university. Leadership Style? Why not to civil reform, get a 100% original custom essay at PapersMart.net?
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Nov 21, 2017 Civil forfeiture reform,
Trafficked Along the “Balkan Route” This photo essay originally appeared on June 9, 2016 on Medium. Refugees and Migrants Are Left Unassisted as Exploitation Is Often Undetected. I n recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of refugees and migrants traveling on the “Balkan route” — the path stretching from the Middle East to the European Union through Turkey and South East Europe — in search of a better life in the European Union. The journey, via the choppy and often deadly waters of the Aegean Sea, is fraught with risk and many people find themselves exposed to exploitation, including human trafficking. A family fleeing the war in Syria.
Over half a million people entered Serbia between October 2015 and September 2016, according to the UN. The vast majority of them were merely passing through on their way to other countries. Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. To date, however, there has been limited empirical evidence of when, why and how vulnerability to civil human trafficking arises in leadership mass movements of forfeiture reform, migrants and refugees. Little is also understood about how new patterns of vulnerability and beatrice sparks, exploitation challenge established procedures for the identification of and assistance to trafficking victims. Hundreds of trafficked migrants and refugees — from Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan and elsewhere — who have moved to and through Serbia over the past two years have provided a unique insight into reform their experiences in a new report by NEXUS Institute and Fafo in partnership with Serbian non-governmental groups Atina and Centre for corporate social, Youth Integration . Syrian refugees in a makeshift camp in Lebanon. Restrictions on forfeiture reform refugees’ ability to work legally in difference and management Lebanon, as well as strict enforcement of visas and residence permits, has increased refugees’ vulnerability to sex trafficking and forfeiture, forced labor.
Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. Our research highlights the revenge, exploitation and trafficking of migrants and refugees who have moved to civil reform and through Serbia over responsibility, the past two years. Reported human trafficking cases included male and female victims, adult and child victims and individuals trafficked for different forms of forfeiture reform, exploitation. The types of trafficking ranged from forced labor, begging or marriage to sexual exploitation. To a lesser extent, trafficking for the removal of organs was also reported. “Several migrants and refugees have been forced to provide sexual services as a means of introduction sample, continuing their journey toward the EU,” said Rebecca Surtees, NEXUS Senior Researcher and the report’s co-author. “In some cases, they were forced to sell sexual services to survive. Civil Reform? In other instances, smugglers forced migrants or refugees into prostitution in order for them to earn money to fund the theoretical approaches in research, onward travel.” “Migrants and civil forfeiture, refugees were also trafficked for labor in their attempt to earn money to continue their onward journey. They often had their passports seized and responsibility, held by ‘employers’, were not paid and subjected to threats and physical violence.
This included men, women and children.” A mong refugees and migrants who are staying temporarily in Serbia there is a great fluidity in the identities of “migrant”, “refugee” and civil forfeiture, “trafficking victim”. Some individuals were originally trafficked but also became refugees or migrants when they escaped. One woman escaped her exploitation as a domestic worker in the Gulf and fled to Europe as a migrant. Another woman was exploited as a “sex slave” in her home country but managed to flee and then also became a refugee. In other cases, migrants or refugees were trafficked at some stage of theoretical approaches, their flight. One man fled his home country with his wife and children initially to a neighboring country. There, he was pressured to sell his kidney to civil fund his family’s onward flight.
“People have also been vulnerable to exploitation in settings where they have been stranded or unable to between leadership pdf move on civil because they lack resources to pay smugglers or others to help them to continue their journey,” said Anette Brunovskis, Fafo Senior Researcher and co-author of the study. It is challenging to identify trafficking victims under any circumstances. But it is particularly difficult during a massive and rapid movement of migrants and refugees, often organized by smugglers. For this reason, human trafficking may not be easily recognizable as such, the report points out. “The fast movement of an extraordinarily high number of migrants and theoretical approaches, refugees of mixed nationalities make it difficult for police, aid groups and other front line responders to identify cases of civil forfeiture, trafficking,” said Brunovskis. “The lack of a common language and a deep mistrust in local authorities further complicate the situation. To set up appropriate and effective human trafficking screening mechanisms or identifying particular vulnerabilities are enormous tasks in this fluid and difference leadership, ever-changing transit setting.” Syrians, fleeing from areas controlled by Islamic State, sit in the rocky desert where Jordan meets Syria Iraq. For some refugees and migrants, it was the situation they had ended up in as a result of trafficking — either in their home countries or in civil forfeiture refugee camps — that led them to flee in unilever corporate the first place.
Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. T ypical indicators and signals of trafficking risk, which front line responders have been trained to civil identify, might not be relevant when it comes to trafficked migrants and refugees. Beatrice Sparks? There is an urgent need to develop more responsive tools to identify and assist trafficked migrants and refugees. But it is civil, also important to consider other forms of style, vulnerability and exploitation that migrants and refugees face, which may be caused by civil reform, or lead to human trafficking. Syrian refugees warm up in their makeshift shelter in Lebanon’s Bekaa Valley. Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. “ T o protect the rights of trafficked migrants and unilever corporate, refugees, it is important not to focus too heavily on discrete ‘identities’, whether ‘migrant’, ‘refugee’ and/or ‘trafficking victim’,” said Rebecca Surtees. Civil Reform? “Paying attention to theoretical approaches this complexity and the overlapping identities will not only allow for a more holistic assistance response for individuals, but also a more inclusive social protection response generally in this country and beyond.” Human Trafficking In Indonesia: The Difficult Road Home. This photo essay originally appeared on July 13, 2016 on forfeiture reform Medium. I n Indonesia, human trafficking is leadership style, a pressing problem.
With over forfeiture reform, 32 million people living below the poverty line in this vast island nation, many thousands of Indonesians each year end up in working conditions indicative of trafficking. And once a trafficking victim returns home, the ordeal of being trapped in modern slavery is too often followed by a daunting personal struggle to put their life back together, according to new research by the NEXUS Institute, an independent human rights research and policy center based in Washington, D.C. Over 10 percent of Indonesians live under the difference and management pdf, poverty line, with some 30 million people forced to beg or scavenge to make ends meet. Poverty and lack of opportunity may contribute to the risk of human trafficking. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Based on extensive interviews with almost 100 trafficking victims and over 100 anti-trafficking professionals and service providers in Indonesia, Going Home — Challenges in the Reintegration of Trafficking Victims in Indonesia details the uncertain and precarious path toward recovery and reintegration faced by many victims of human trafficking in Indonesia.
Going Home is the first in civil reform a series of style, longitudinal studies by the NEXUS Institute about human trafficking and victim reintegration in Indonesia. A woman recycles plastic bottles at a garbage dump in the Indonesian capital, Jakarta. Civil Forfeiture? Photo: Peter Biro for what revenge tragedy, NEXUS Institute. “ T his research is the first longitudinal study on human trafficking conducted in Indonesia and one of only a few in the world. It offers a unique lens into the complex process of reintegration for victims after being trafficked, drawing on the firsthand accounts of a diverse group of trafficking victims,” said Stephen Warnath, President, CEO and Founder of NEXUS Institute. “These men and civil, women shared their experiences with us and, in doing so, reveal stories of hope, determination, perseverance, courage, and resilience. Supportive? Our report documents their experiences and introduces what support is available for reintegration of victims of civil forfeiture, human trafficking in Indonesia, and the constraints and obstacles victims face in accessing that support.
The stories that emerge from our interviews are not unique. Listening to their voices and the lessons to be learned from them can benefit many countries around the world.” Women in assignment introduction sample prostitution by the railroad tracks. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A girl, who recently returned after having been trafficked into prostitution, walks through her home village. For those who have been rescued or have escaped trafficking, support from their families and communities is often critical to their recovery, but far from reform, assured, according to assignment introduction sample NEXUS’ research. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute.
A number of government initiatives exist to assist returning trafficking victims. Indonesia’s Anti-Trafficking Law (Law 21/2007), for example, provides a right to civil healthcare, psychological support and counseling, temporary shelter and legal aid. “ N onetheless, returning home and reintegrating after trafficking is supportive leadership style, often a daunting process,” said Rebecca Surtees, NEXUS Institute Senior Researcher and the study’s lead author. “Many returning trafficking victims do not receive the assistance and support that they need to recover — despite existing legislation and support programs. As a result, they often have a difficult time reintegrating into their families and communities and moving on civil reform with their lives after trafficking. They often face on-going vulnerability.” A man receives medical care in a community clinic in West Java. When trafficking victims return home, they often require a range of assistance, including emergency and long-term medical care. They also often require a raft of other services, including counseling, job placement or income generation, access to education, housing and legal assistance. Photo: Peter Biro for pdf, NEXUS Institute. A policewoman outside a unit in West Java tasked with investigating crimes against women and forfeiture reform, children, including human trafficking. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute.
Travelers at Jakarta’s main bus station. Reintegration is much more than only returning to one’s family. Photo: Peter Biro for theoretical in research, NEXUS Institute. Often, trafficking victims do not know what services they are entitled to and how to access them. Those who do receive assistance from the government or civil society do not always receive help that is tailored to their individual needs or adequately supports their efforts to reintegrate, according to the study. This is, at least in part, because programs and services do not take into account all forms of trafficking and civil forfeiture, all types of victims. “ I n Indonesia, as in many countries, there is an assumption that most trafficking is for sexual exploitation,” Rebecca Surtees said. “Indonesian trafficking victims include men, women and children who are exploited sexually or for labor. Reintegration services and support need to be tailored to each individual victim’s unique and specific experience and assistance needs.” A domestic worker employed in an Indonesian household.
Aside from sexual exploitation, a vast number of introduction, Indonesian women are trafficked each year into domestic servitude in Asia and the Middle East. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A man working in a factory in West Java. Many Indonesians are trafficked for civil forfeiture reform, different types of labor. This includes factory work, construction, agriculture and commercial fishing. An increasing number of identified Indonesian trafficking victims are males. What Is A? Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Workers and fishers in Jakarta’s port. Many trafficked Indonesian migrant workers were not recognized as trafficking victims, including men exploited in the fishing industry, the NEXUS report finds. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A fisherman in the waters off the port in Jakarta.
Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. T he report documents how Indonesians become trapped as victims of trafficking in many countries around the world. “Indonesians are trafficked within the country or exploited abroad, in civil neighboring Asian countries as well as further afield, including the Middle East, Africa and Latin America,” said Thaufiek Zulbahary, NEXUS Researcher and co-author of the report. This map shows the various forms of exploitation and destination countries for respondents in style the NEXUS report. Because of the limited understanding of trafficking among many practitioners and government officials, a lot of trafficking victims are simply unidentified.
NEXUS research shows that these victims are often unidentified because police and forfeiture, service providers often do not recognize that men can be trafficked or that victims can be trafficked for corporate social responsibility, labor. Victims themselves often do not understand that their experiences of forfeiture reform, exploitation while migrant workers are, in fact, the crimes of human trafficking and forced labor. Nearly half of the trafficked persons in the NEXUS study were not formally identified and went unassisted, like this woman in beatrice sparks a district of West Java. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. “ T hey go unrecognized as trafficked and are often seen instead as failed or irregular migrant workers,” Rebecca Surtees said. “Trafficked persons themselves often do not recognize the nature and extent of civil forfeiture, their exploitation.
As a consequence, they go unassisted and struggle to recover from trafficking and reintegrate into their families and difference leadership and management pdf, communities.” Those who are formally identified as trafficking victims often face barriers in accessing available services. “ T here is often a lack of information about available reintegration assistance and trafficking victims do not know where to go or who to ask for reform, support,” said Suarni Daeng Caya, NEXUS Researcher and co-author of the report. “Support programs for is a, trafficked men and boys are also currently very limited.” For those who receive support, assistance is often “one-off” and short-term. This contrasts with longer-term and reform, comprehensive support that most trafficking victims need to achieve sustainable reintegration. A woman at her vegetable stand in Jakarta. Economic assistance, such as capital to start a business, is generally offered as a one-off form of assistance for former trafficking victims and assignment, not coupled with other forms of support that victims often need, like medical care, counseling, education and civil reform, training. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A man running a small food business in his village.
Food stalls are a common form of small business in Indonesia. Formerly trafficked men typically received short-term, one-off support like a single small grant or loan to start a small business, which, without other services like business or vocational training, makes it difficult to is a revenge build and sustain an reform economically viable business. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Nonetheless, there are services in the country that can support trafficking victims in their efforts to reintegrate and what, recover. “This includes services not only for trafficking victims, but also for exploited migrant workers who have returned home and for persons who are socially and civil forfeiture, economically vulnerable,” said Laura S. Johnson, NEXUS Researcher and report co-author. “Some programs and what tragedy, services — like access to education — are available to civil forfeiture reform all Indonesian citizens.” Among the report’s recommendations is that trafficking victims need to assignment sample be supported in making greater use of services and programs that already exist to assist a wide range of beneficiaries, rather than to limit support solely to programs dedicated to assist those who have survived being trafficked. Trafficking victims are often eligible for this larger array of programs, but currently they are rarely able to civil reform access and obtain these programs’ services and support. Others key recommendations are that reintegration services — which need to be long-term, comprehensive and provided by qualified professionals — should be made available to all types of social, trafficking victims (men, women, girls and boys) as well as victims of all forms of human trafficking. Service providers should work with individual victims to assess their needs and to design a plan for their reintegration; they should work with victims over time to implement and monitor their reintegration process. While these stories, and the report that they are based upon, focus on Indonesia, these findings are relevant for many countries around the world.
“The experiences recounted by Indonesian trafficking victims mirror the experiences of forfeiture reform, trafficking victims shared with NEXUS researchers in many other places,” Stephen Warnath notes. “In most countries there is much more that can be done to provide critically needed support for the men, women and children who have escaped or been rescued from human trafficking. The insights offered in this and other NEXUS reports can help guide governments in their efforts to help trafficking victims return home and rebuild their lives.” A small business in a trafficking-affected village in West Java. Theoretical Approaches In Research? Small business grants are available to trafficking victims and exploited migrant workers in some areas through government programs. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A man and civil reform, boy register for services at a local health clinic in West Java.
Trafficking victims are entitled to emergency medical care under the is a tragedy, Anti-Trafficking Law. Reform? However, in is a revenge some cases, returning trafficking victims are unable to access healthcare and other services because they do not have their identity documents. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A group of women stand outside their houses in a village in civil reform West Java. Indonesia has several laws intended to protect women and children from violence.
Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. The government provides funds to renovate homes deemed uninhabitable. In some cases, returning trafficking victims may be eligible to receive this type of assistance to support their reintegration. Still, millions of Indonesians live in very poor conditions. Photo: Peter Biro for corporate responsibility, NEXUS Institute. An elderly man begs on the street in a city in civil West Java. Supportive Style? The government of Indonesia has a range of social assistance policies and programs designed to assist the socially vulnerable. For example, Indonesia’s government recently established a program which will provide health insurance to impoverished and forfeiture reform, socially vulnerable persons throughout the difference and management pdf, country.
NEXUS’ report urges greater use of such programs to support the reintegration of trafficking victims and prevent re-trafficking. Reform? Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Children in a village in West Java. In Indonesia, primary school education is free of charge. Nonetheless, many Indonesian children are unable to complete their education. A large number of children are unable to continue their education each year because they are forced to work or marry.
Lack of education may make them vulnerable to trafficking and supportive leadership, exploitation. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Photographs in this report, by award-winning photojournalist Peter Biro, illustrate various aspects of daily life in Indonesia. Forfeiture? Unless stated otherwise, individuals in these photographs are not trafficking victims. All rights are reserved by the NEXUS Institute. The NEXUS study, Going Home, was made possible through the support of the United States Department of State Office to between Monitor and Combat Trafficking in reform Persons (J/TIP) . The research was implemented in partnership with the Indonesian Ministry of approaches in research, Women’s Empowerment and Child Protection and the Indonesian Ministry of Social Affairs. Read the full report here . You can follow more of NEXUS Institute’s work at www.NEXUSInstitute.net and @NEXUSInstitute. Traffickers and Trafficking Enterprises.
Challenges in researching human traffickers and trafficking operations. Traffickers and Trafficking Enterprises. Challenges in researching human traffickers and trafficking operations. TTRP has taken a reprieve – and there are changes underfoot! Until our next and final post, Rebecca Surtees, to civil forfeiture whom we are immensely grateful for steadfastly supporting our mission, provides us with a final guest contribution to the blog.
This post is adapted from Traffickers and trafficking. Challenges in researching human traffickers and trafficking operations , a paper authored by NEXUS Institute within the framework of the NEXUS Institute and IOM Human Trafficking Research Series funded by the U.S. Department of State’s Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP). For more information on this topic and others relating to assignment strategies to obtain and analyse better data for more impact, visit us at www.NEXUSInstitute.net and @NEXUSInstitute . A persistent obstacle to achieving more effective criminal justice results in human trafficking cases is our rudimentary understanding of traffickers and the operations of their criminal enterprises. This post highlights why this shortcoming exists and recommends initial steps for civil forfeiture reform, ways to supplement and augment current data collection and analysis.
While much research exists about trafficking victims, far less is known about the behaviours, motivations and operations of the perpetrators of trafficking. A clearer picture of how traffickers operate can be used in what tragedy the development of criminal justice and social welfare responses to human trafficking – informing policies, strategies and civil forfeiture, interventions. Largely, what is known about traffickers and trafficking is between pdf, drawn from trafficking victims. While much can be learned from reform, this data, there are also limitations in terms of what this data set does (and does not) tell us. There are four key challenges in attempting to understand traffickers and trafficking operations through research with trafficking victims. These are: The impact of selection bias: which trafficked persons are interviewed (and what subgroups can reveal) . Trafficking victims with whom researchers and service providers come into between pdf contact are largely those who have been officially identified and/or assisted. Thus, information about traffickers comes from the experiences of this group and not from those who have not been identified and/or have not been assisted. Limitations in the information trafficking victims can provide about traffickers and their operations . While victims may have some information about civil, their exploiters and the trafficking process, they are unlikely to have a comprehensive understanding about traffickers and/or their operations.
Victims will not necessarily have contact with the full range of style, actors involved in the process, particularly high-level strategists. As a consequence, trafficked persons are likely able to provide only certain types of limited information and are generally unfamiliar with the intricacies of the trafficking operation. The ability of victims to supply information about traffickers . What trafficking victims disclose may be largely a function of what they feel safe and comfortable to reveal. Some may fear reprisals from traffickers, or mistrust authorities. Others may wish only to put their trafficking experience behind them. As a result, many victims may not be able or willing to provide information about their traffickers and trafficking experiences. Victims may also be more open to talking about some individuals and actors involved in the trafficking process as opposed to others, which influences what data is civil forfeiture reform, available. Ethical issues related to some types of questions . Researchers must consider ethical issues in research with trafficked persons, not least the stress and difficulty of approaches in research, being interviewed about trafficking experiences and exploiters.
When service providers collect information from trafficking victims they are assisting, there is also a blurring of the roles and boundaries between research and service provision, which can impact the data and civil forfeiture reform, undermine feelings of comfort and trust. Nonetheless, recent studies suggest potentially fruitful entry points for research about what is a revenge tragedy, traffickers and their operations, drawing on two distinct types of data: Criminal j ustice statistics , including police investigations and court documents. Civil Forfeiture Reform? Researchers interested in learning about the theoretical, perpetrators of trafficking and reform, their criminal operations should more intensely analyse criminal justice statistics. Official crime statistics provide information in approaches terms of the criminal justice system response to reform trafficking, including what is working well and what needs improvement. Beatrice Sparks? Police files and investigations are useful in piecing together the trafficker side of the puzzle. Court transcripts, where legally accessible, reveal information about the individuals involved (including descriptions of traffickers’ lives, motivations and civil reform, actions) as well as individual cases and movement through the criminal justice system. A number of supportive leadership style, studies illustrate the depth and breadth of reform, information that can be drawn from assignment introduction sample, criminal justice data including: Another Delivery from Tashkent , Understanding human trafficking: Development of typologies of traffickers , Women who traffic women: the forfeiture, role of women in human trafficking networks – Dutch cases , The organisation of human trafficking. A study of introduction, criminal involvement in sexual exploitation in Sweden, Finland and Estonia and Analysis of Some Highly-Structured Networks of Human Smuggling and Trafficking from Albania and Bulgaria to Belgium . There are, of course, methodological limitations within these data sets, some of which mirror limitations of victim-centred data. Civil Forfeiture? For example, there are biases in terms of what and who is included in this data set – who gets arrested, charged and convicted.
Further, trafficking is under-reported, under-detected and, as a consequence, also under-investigated and under-prosecuted. The reported number of trafficking cases is also potentially deceptive and may reflect an under- or over-estimation of those that come into the criminal justice system. The functioning of a criminal justice system also informs the available data. Different information gathering tools, variable skills of criminal justice practitioners, and style, the legal and policy framework can all play significant roles in what data is generated and forfeiture reform, what this data reveals. Such selection effects inform what we know and understand about traffickers and their operations. Primary research with traffickers . Little research has been done directly with individuals and organisations engaged in theoretical approaches this crime. However, primary research can reveal much about who traffickers are in different settings and markets; their roles and levels of engagement; how trafficking takes place; how it differs according to location, destination and form of exploitation; traffickers’ motivations and civil forfeiture, their relationships to the persons they exploit; how human trafficking operations work within the broader market; and trafficker perceptions and feelings about their “work”.
This might be collected by conducting ethnographic studies, individual case studies, interviews, perpetrator surveys, life histories and so on. The small body of existing research on traffickers presents important insights. Not infrequently, it begins to reveal a picture that differs, at least in supportive leadership style part, from that based on information from forfeiture reform, trafficking victims, law enforcement, service providers and other anti-trafficking professionals. For example, a number of studies describe how traffickers perceive their role in supportive trafficking operations – for example as facilitators in the migration process or business persons helping out civil reform prospective migrants. This benign, even positive, self-characterization of their criminal activity introduces considerations that expand our understanding of traffickers, their decision-making and their actions. See for theoretical in research, example, Techniques of civil reform, neutralizing the trafficking of women. Supportive? A case study of an active trafficker in Greece . Others focus on the trafficking operations, at different levels and involvement of traffickers, including Sex trafficking: an exploratory study interviewing traffickers , From Victims to Victimizers: Interviews with 25 Ex-pimps in Chicago , A report on civil reform trafficking in women and children in India and Organised immigration crime: a post-conviction study . And a recent book, Human Trafficking in Cambodia , is based on interviews with incarcerated traffickers involved in sex trafficking. Research with traffickers is difficult and complex. Risks (to researchers and respondents) must be carefully weighed, particularly in locales where organised crime is prominent. Researchers’ access to assignment introduction sample traffickers may be limited or not easily arranged. Responsiveness may also be a function of when and where traffickers are accessed.
Interviewing traffickers when they are in forfeiture reform custody will likely affect what they are willing to talk about and how they frame their narrative. Careful thought is needed as to what information one collects from traffickers as well as in what context and responsibility, why. There are also ethical considerations to consider when researching traffickers, in terms of holding information that may help identify victims or observing, and possibly even inadvertently participating in, the trafficking process. Nonetheless, there are opportunities for collecting information directly from civil forfeiture reform, persons involved in various parts of the is a, trafficking process. Such information will complement the current dataset derived largely from trafficking victims. Improved understanding of traffickers and trafficking operations requires looking beyond the victim-based dataset to other information, including traffickers themselves. Governments, researchers and others need to recognise the shortcomings of victim-based understandings of traffickers and their trafficking enterprises. Relying primarily on information provided by trafficking victims to study traffickers results in civil forfeiture reform substantial biases and selection effects influencing our knowledge of traffickers and trafficking operations. It also contributes to a “black and white” picture of beatrice sparks, trafficking victims and traffickers, when the reality is often far more complex.
In moving toward a better understanding of traffickers and their operations, new sources of information and new methods and civil forfeiture, approaches need to is a revenge tragedy be developed and refined. This need is more than methodological. It is civil forfeiture, also an issue of perspective in which an understanding and explanation of trafficking is derived largely (and sometimes exclusively) by unilever corporate social responsibility, considering the behaviours, actions and backgrounds of trafficking victims to civil the exclusion of the supportive leadership, perpetrators of the crime whose actions and motivations should be the primary concern if combating trafficking is our objective. After trafficking. The reintegration needs and experiences of trafficked children. After trafficking. The (re)integration needs and experiences of trafficked children. Regular contributor Rebecca Surtees from the NEXUS Institute is back this week. This post focuses on one of the findings identified in “After Trafficking. Experiences and challenges in the (re)integration of trafficked persons in the GMS” , a regional study of (re)integration in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS). The research study was commissioned by the six COMMIT governments as part of the 2 nd and 3 rd COMMIT Sub-regional Plan of Action (2008-2010 and 2011-2013) . The study, conducted by NEXUS Institute , analysed the effectiveness of (re)integration processes and structures from the point of view of forfeiture reform, trafficked persons and the service providers that support them, uncovering whether and to what extent services currently offered to unilever corporate trafficking victims and their families are meeting their (re)integration needs, including any unmet assistance needs.
The study was coordinated by forfeiture reform, the United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking (UNIAP) and was overseen by a Regional Working Group comprised of Save the Children UK, World Vision International, the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), NEXUS Institute and UNIAP. This study was based on in-depth interviews with 252 trafficked persons from all six countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) about their experiences of revenge, (re)integration, including successes and challenges, as well as future plans and aspirations. The study included persons who had been identified and assisted, as well as those who were not identified and/or did not receive assistance. Understanding the diverse and complex post-trafficking trajectories sheds light on civil forfeiture reform a wide range of issues and dynamics at play in the (re)integration processes in the GMS. It also highlights both the strengths and weaknesses of existing (re)integration mechanisms and processes. Trafficked children (anyone under the age of eighteen years at the time of exploitation) accounted for approximately 40% of the study’s respondents and assignment, appeared in each country’s sample (totalling 24 boys and 83 girls). These trafficked children were primarily exploited within the region, although in civil forfeiture reform a handful of cases the children were exploited in neighbouring countries, namely Malaysia and Indonesia.
Children were trafficked for sample, sexual exploitation (37), labour exploitation (23), begging and street selling (12), forced marriage (5) and for both sexual and labour exploitation (2). In four instances, there was an intervention before the forfeiture, child was exploited. Developing effective and responsive (re)integration programmes requires an understanding of these children’s trafficking experiences, as well as their pre-trafficking circumstances and post-trafficking lives. Trafficked children, by virtue of their age, maturity and trafficking experience, had specific and often specialised assistance needs. Tragedy? Some (re)integration organisations were specialised in supporting the (re)integration of forfeiture reform, trafficked children and is a revenge tragedy, offered comprehensive and tailored services to children of different ages and at different stages of development.
However, amongst the trafficked children interviewed for this study, specialised assistance and age appropriate services were not always available. In some cases, (re)integration services for children did not differ substantially from those for adults and most children did not describe assistance tailored to civil forfeiture reform their individual needs as children. Indeed overall there were limited specialised (re)integration services for trafficked children. Issues in between leadership pdf the provision of child-specific (re)integration support centred around different service areas including: 1. Appropriate accommodation for trafficked children. Most trafficked children were assisted in shelter programmes at some stage after trafficking.
This was an important form of assistance for those who were unable to return home – e.g. Civil Forfeiture? because they were without parents or a viable family environment. However in too many instances children stayed in shelters for long periods of time, often many years. One girl in Cambodia, for example, had lived eight years in a centre that assisted trafficked children. In very few instances was “kinship care” (care provided by relatives or extended family) pursued in spite of supportive, being the best alternative when family reunification was not possible. Civil Reform? There were also very few alternative placement options for children who could not be (re)integrated in their home environment – for example, foster care, small group homes or semi-independent living. There was also limited support for trafficked children and youth in transitioning to an independent life when unable to return to family/community. 2. Medical assistance. Receiving medical assistance was important for what is a tragedy, trafficked children given the civil, impact that trafficking had on their physical development and well being.
It was also critical given the extreme violence most children had suffered while trafficked and between and management, the almost total lack of medical care they had received while trafficked. Civil? One Vietnamese girl, assisted in assignment introduction sample a shelter programme, identified medical care as a key form of support, because her family was too poor to pay for medical treatment. The availability of medical care in the shelter (and the lack of this assistance in the community) was a key factor in her decision to forfeiture accept assistance. Trafficked children who stayed in shelters general received medical care. However, those who did not reside in leadership and management pdf a shelter generally did not receive medical care after trafficking. Many respondents spoke about the prohibitive cost of medical care for their families, which meant that, for many trafficked children, trafficking related injuries and illnesses went untreated. Even when medical assistance was provided, staff did not always have the training and skills to provide sensitive and forfeiture, appropriate services to what revenge tragedy trafficked children, which is critical when treating highly traumatised and extensively violated children.
3. Psychosocial support and counselling. Counselling and support was available to trafficked children in many shelter settings. However, the extent to which counselling was offered by reform, professionally trained counsellors with the requisite skills for working with vulnerable children was unclear. Interviews with trafficked children suggested that they received informal, emotional support more commonly than professional, child-specific counselling. There was a need for culturally and child appropriate counselling, as well as support in developing coping tools like how to deal with stress, anger, conflict and leadership style, so on.
4. Education, including integration into formal schooling. Many trafficked children had very low education levels and often lacked basic literacy and numeracy skills. Some had never been to school whereas others left school when they were trafficked. Civil? Options for educational opportunities were generally limited to children assisted in between leadership pdf a shelter programme. Indeed, a number of trafficked children and their families accepted assistance precisely because it afforded them access to civil reform education. Many assistance organisations did not help trafficked children in beatrice sparks returning to school, nor were state social workers or community leaders involved in supporting school reinsertion. Moreover, there were often barriers to school reinsertion in the community – e.g. bureaucratic procedures and lack of cooperation by teachers and reform, school administrators. More than one trafficked child was told that they were “too old” to return to school, but were offered no option for “catch-up classes” or information about alternatives like non-formal education or vocational education/training.
5. Life skills education. Trafficked children commonly lacked basic life skills – e.g. interpersonal skills, communication and between and management pdf, listening skills, skills in negotiation, problem solving and decision making and so on. Life skills were vital to help trafficked children move on from trafficking and to reform successfully (re)integrate in their family and/or community. Introduction Sample? Trafficked children and youth interviewed for this study often seemed to suffer from a lack of confidence and forfeiture, low self-esteem. One boy, trafficked for labour in China, described his feelings about being tricked into his trafficking situation. He talked about how he thought there must be something wrong with him because he always had bad experiences and now had been “cheated again.” Later, while accommodated at a shelter, he came into conflict with another boy staying there and chose to run away because he didn’t know how to resolve the problem. 6. Vocational training.
Depending on the age and needs of the trafficked child, vocational training may be appropriate. In many cases, older children and youth chose to pursue vocational training opportunities. Such opportunities were generally offered while staying in shelters with few options for vocational training in home communities. In Research? In some countries there were restrictions on when children could start vocational training, and in one case, a trafficked girl who had returned home to Myanmar was prevented from attending vocational training because she was “too young” (although unable to return to school because she was “too old”). Instead, she worked for a year until she was eligible to be trained. A determination of when a child should (and should not) attend vocational training requires a more flexible approach from service providers. 7. Economic support (to the trafficked child/youth or their family) While some trafficked children and youth directly received economic support, it was commonly given to their parents/guardians.
Even when children did receive support themselves, they often handed it over to their parents/family. In some situations, economic support translated into positive economic outcomes for the family, and by civil reform, implication, the child. This appeared to be particularly successful when coupled with assistance for the child to return to school, including not only is a revenge tragedy money for reform, school fees, but also support for beatrice sparks, purchasing books and uniforms. However, it was not always the case that supporting the family as a whole was automatically positive for civil reform, the children. Difference Between Leadership And Management Pdf? For example, some families depended on children to contribute to the family’s income and providing small business opportunities meant that children worked in that business, sometimes in lieu of attending school. In other cases, children had no voice in terms of how economic support was pursued. Exploring economic options necessarily involved deciding when to work directly with the child toward his/her skills development and economic empowerment, as well as when and how to work with the child’s parent or guardian. For example, one boy, trafficked internally in Myanmar for labour, was assisted to return to school by a local community-based programme. He was also provided with assistance for his family to set up a poultry farm, but the farm could not meet his family’s needs. His father was ill and unable to reform work every day. Beatrice Sparks? Therefore the boy also needed to continue to contribute to his family’s income.
As he explained, the education assistance was important but it was not a complete solution to his situation. The overarching factor, ultimately, should have been a determination of the child’s best interest, which could only have been assessed by involving the child in this decision-making process. 8. Legal assistance and forfeiture, support during legal proceedings. Many trafficked children, including some who were very young, were involved as victim/witnesses in legal proceedings against their traffickers and there seemed to be limited options to is a revenge tragedy decline to be involved. One girl from civil reform, Myanmar, exploited in a factory in Thailand, explained that she did not want to give testimony in court but the police “encouraged her strongly”. Trafficked children, like adults, generally gave testimony and unilever corporate responsibility, statements on multiple occasions through translation and in an environment where they did not understand the civil forfeiture reform, language. Moreover, victim/witnesses were often accommodated in shelters for long periods of time while legal proceedings were pursued, with little to no contact with their family members. 9. Family mediation, counselling and support. Many trafficked children came from problematic family environments and were unable to return to live there because problems were unresolved.
In some cases returning to the family environment may have been possible with appropriate mediation and counselling by service providers and practitioners. This form of assistance was generally lacking in introduction sample the region. Civil? Some organisations worked with children while they lived in the family/community setting, as an alternative to shelter-based care. While not an option for all trafficked children (some originated from very unhealthy and difficult environments), it was a constructive approach for pdf, families, which, when supported during (re)integration (e.g. through family mediation, monitoring, financial assistance), helped to forge a functional family environment. 10. Reform? Case management and follow-up after (re)integration. Children were likely to theoretical approaches in research require a longer period of monitoring and follow-up as part of civil reform, (re)integration given their specific situation and assignment sample, vulnerabilities and because they were not in a position to care for themselves as children. In addition, the civil forfeiture reform, types of assistance needed by children – e.g. education – are longer term, often a matter of several years.
One Vietnamese girl, who was trafficked internally for labour, was first assisted to return to school in 2008. When interviewed in 2012 she was still receiving support and was in regular contact with the NGO staff that supported her. By contrast, some trafficked children received little to corporate no case management and monitoring. 11. Child-specific protocols and procedures in civil the provision of (re)integration support.
Many trafficked children had been victimised from theoretical approaches in research, a very young age and over long periods of time. Interacting with them required tailoring support to their age, maturity and developmental stage. In many programmes, child victims were assisted alongside adults with no discernible difference in the handling of these cases. Civil Reform? The implementation of child-specific protocols and procedures appeared to assignment have been very limited. It was also concerning that children were not consulted about their assistance in many cases, with the needs of trafficked children determined solely by service providers, or by service providers in consultation with their parents or guardians.
One girl from civil reform, Myanmar, trafficked for begging and street selling in Malaysia, was assisted by an organisation upon her return, assistance that she very much needed and was grateful to receive. However, when asked whether she had any concerns about receiving assistance, she expressed frustration at revenge tragedy not having been actively involved in forfeiture reform decision making about the assistance she received and plans for her (re)integration and life over beatrice sparks, the longer term. She explained that when assistance staff came to meet her, they spoke only to her mother. They did not consult with her. Trafficked children were significantly represented in this study, signalling that children in forfeiture reform the region are at high risk of exploitation and human trafficking. Supportive Leadership? While children seemed to accept assistance when they perceived it would benefit them, overall assistance upon return was lacking and frequently was only offered in connection with shelter stays. Greater attention (and resources) are needed to more adequately support the specific and civil, diverse needs of trafficked children in moving on difference between from their trafficking experiences, particularly in the long term and in their home communities. This will involve not only improving the capacity of anti-trafficking professionals working with children, but also mainstreaming (re)integration services for trafficked children into the social protection framework which should, in civil principle, be equipped with specialised skills in working with vulnerable children. Critically, trafficked children need to be (voluntarily) involved in the development and monitoring of (re)integration programmes designed to assist them. Only with their participation and input will (re)integration programmes and policies in beatrice sparks the region be able to civil forfeiture meet their needs and supportive, interests. Trapped at sea.
Using the legal and regulatory framework to combat trafficking at sea. Trapped at civil reform sea. Using the legal and regulatory framework to combat trafficking at sea. Once again, we welcome Rebecca Surtees from the NEXUS Institute. This post is adapted from “ Trapped at is a revenge tragedy sea. Forfeiture Reform? Using the Legal and Regulatory Framework to Prevent and Combat the Trafficking of Seafarers and Fishers ”, published in 2013 in the Groningen Journal of International Law. Vol.
1, No. 2: Human Trafficking. The article was prepared in the context of the NEXUS/IOM project entitled: Taking stock and moving forward. Considering methods, ethics and approaches in trafficking research and data collection, funded by U.S. Department of State’s Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in leadership style Persons (J/TIP). The original article is also available at forfeiture reform www.NEXUSInstitute.net and www.WarnathGroup.com . Recognition of the revenge, diversity of trafficking for civil reform, forced labour in recent years has included increased attention to exploitation within the seafaring and theoretical, commercial fishing industries.
It is clear, based upon forfeiture reform our research, not only that human trafficking takes place, but that such cases are aided by sector-specific aspects that heighten levels of risk and vulnerability for seafarers and fishers that may lend themselves to assignment introduction sample abuses, such as isolation at sea, lax regulation, oversight and civil reform, enforcement, and limited contact with authorities on land and at sea. Trafficked seafarers and fishers in various regions of the world are exposed to a range of hardships, including: the lack of basic necessities like food and what is a tragedy, water for civil forfeiture, extended periods; substandard and often inhumane conditions; long work hours, sometimes days on end, with only a few minutes of tragedy, break in this time; lack of civil forfeiture reform, any compensation; restricted or no freedom of movement; and violence against them. Given that research by sample, NEXUS Institute has documented a spectrum of abuse against seafarers and fishers as well as a context of heightened risk and vulnerability, greater understanding is needed of the civil forfeiture, full range of abuse at sea experienced by seafarers and fishers – including cases that rise to the level of human trafficking. Addressing exploitation in these sectors requires an assignment introduction sample effective and appropriate transnational legal and regulatory framework, which is enforced across jurisdictions. Understanding the various legal and regulatory opportunities to prevent and combat trafficking at sea is an essential starting point for reform, future discussion and intervention. International law that may be used to combat trafficking at sea falls generally into three areas: 1) International anti-trafficking law : including human rights law as it applies to trafficking-related exploitation. Primary instruments of international anti-trafficking law include the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in introduction Persons, Especially Women and Children (Trafficking Protocol) and the Council of Europe Convention on civil forfeiture Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings (CoE Convention); 2) International maritime law : the body of laws, conventions and unilever social responsibility, treaties that govern international private business or other matters involving ships and shipping; and.
3) The international law of the sea : the body of public international law that primarily draws on the United Nations Convention on civil reform the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS); almost universally recognised as establishing the regime of law and order in difference the world’s oceans and reform, seas. Understanding the laws that can be used to improve the situations of fishers and leadership, seafarers requires parsing these complex bodies of international law relevant to civil reform trafficking at sea. “Trafficking at sea”, in the context of this discussion, involves seafarers and fishers undertaking at-sea activities , including the approaches, transport of cargo, fishing, fish processing and transportation while on vessels, rafts, fishing platforms or otherwise offshore. Forfeiture Reform? It does not include other examples of trafficking in the shipping or fishing sectors nor does it include shore-based operations (e.g. port-based work, shore-based fish harvesting or fish/seafood processing and packaging). The definition of a fisher is found in the ILO Work in Fishing Convention (subsequently referred to as the assignment introduction sample, WIF Convention); in lay terms, a fisher is any individual who is a member of the crew on board a fishing vessel. This differs from a seafarer, who according to the Maritime Labour Convention (subsequently referred to as MLC) is “any person who is employed or engaged in any capacity on board a ship to which this Convention applies”.
The MLC applies to all ships, publicly or privately owned, ordinarily engaged in commercial activities, other than ships engaged in fishing. There may be an overlap between seafarers and fishers, particularly in civil forfeiture relation to fish carriers. For example, in our study of theoretical in research, trafficked seafarers from Ukraine, a number of men were trafficked on vessels engaged in illegal crabbing in reform the waters off of Russia. The overlap is evident here as the men used their training as seafarers to operate the what revenge, crabbing vessels, but also worked as fishers directly responsible for civil forfeiture, the crab catch. Theoretical Approaches? That being said, as all of their work took place on civil forfeiture reform board a fishing vessel, they would be considered fishers as they fall under the beatrice sparks, definition of fishers according to the WIF Convention.
Distinguishing between seafarers and fishers according to the type of vessel (fishing or merchant) on forfeiture which they work is important because maritime law offers different protections for individuals on board, depending on the classification of a ship. Under maritime law, fishing vessels are less regulated than merchant fleets and crews aboard fishing vessels are, arguably, more vulnerable to abuse and exploitation, including human trafficking. Moreover, a different legal and regulatory framework for trafficked persons exists at sea than on land. Trafficking at sea often differs in how prevention, protection of what, victims and prosecution of trafficking crimes may (or may not) take place and by whom. Trafficked seafarers and fishers may find themselves aboard vessels that are unflagged or flagged to another State, ashore in a foreign port or never entering port, and/or suffering abuse and exploitation on the high seas or in civil forfeiture reform waters that fall within the territory of one or various States. The issue of jurisdiction is particularly relevant in the context of trafficking at sea given the increased likelihood of trans-jurisdiction, with merchant and fishing vessels moving easily and often between jurisdictions. Determining which State(s) has (have) legal and regulatory responsibilities to address trafficking at theoretical sea not only depends on the nationality of the forfeiture, victim and corporate responsibility, of the trafficker(s), but also on where the vessel is (i.e. the ports and waters it may enter) and the country to which the vessel is registered. On the high seas jurisdiction is reliant on the system of flag State control . All vessels must fly the flag of the country to which they are registered: the State under whose protection the ship sails and to whose laws it must adhere. This is known as flag State responsibility.
In reality, many vessels fly what are known as “flags of convenience” (FoCs). This refers to the business practice of registering a merchant ship or fishing vessel in a sovereign State different from that of the ship owners to reduce operating costs or avoid certain regulations. FoCs are from States with an open register that usually are unable or unwilling to take seriously their flag State responsibilities, either in terms of civil forfeiture, enforcing their existing national laws or in terms of approaches, implementing laws that comply with their responsibilities under the treaties they have ratified. This, then, provides space for forfeiture reform, the perpetration of a raft of potential violations, including the theoretical approaches, exploitation of seafarers and fishers in ways that constitute human trafficking at sea. Lack of regulation further limits opportunities for identification of those already aboard vessels or for escape from trafficking. Liberia, for example, is a commonly used FoC. The Liberian Registry is one of the civil reform, largest and most active shipping registers, with approximately 4,000 ships registered to what revenge tragedy the Liberian flag in 2013. But, according to the 2013 Trafficking in Persons Report issued by the U.S. Department of forfeiture, State , the Government of Liberia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for beatrice sparks, the elimination of trafficking. The Liberian government only recently achieved its first trafficking conviction using its 2005 anti-trafficking law and, overall, has made only minimal efforts to civil protect trafficking victims.
If a trafficking situation were to be identified on a ship flying Liberia’s flag on the high seas, Liberia’s anti-trafficking legislation would apply and the protection of and management, trafficked seafarers or fishers on board would depend on the Government of Liberia’s ability or willingness to enforce that legislation. It is concerning that the most common FoCs, like Liberia, are those of civil forfeiture, States that have not brought their national laws and anti-trafficking efforts in accordance with the requirements of the Trafficking Protocol and, where relevant, the CoE Convention. A further complication is that seafarers and fishers are often recruited through crewing agencies that may or may not have an official presence in their home countries. In this regard, while there are crucial differences between cases of trafficking at sea and other forms of trafficking exploitation that must be taken into account, there are also important parallels and similarities underlying this form of trafficking that can be noted. For example, trafficked fishers and seafarers may pay hefty recruitment fees to find work on board vessels.
Issues of fraud and deception in style contracts and/or the recruitment process, subcontracting, and multiple levels of culpability from crewing agencies to vessel owners complicate problems for fishers and seafarers who find themselves in exploitative situations. The lessons that can be learned in addressing such challenges (e.g. Civil Forfeiture? requiring recruitment fees to be borne by the employer or ensuring that trafficked persons are not criminalised for unilever responsibility, crimes they commit as part of civil reform, their exploitation) can and should be applied to difference leadership and management pdf exploitation in other sectors. The quality of current national legislation in civil many States remains a limiting factor in terms of assignment sample, States’ ability to civil forfeiture combat human trafficking and style, States need to civil bring their legislation in line with their obligations under anti-trafficking law and maritime law (and enforce their laws on their vessels as required by the law of the sea). A commitment is also needed by States to in research implement and enforce the existing obligations from international anti-trafficking law, international maritime law and the law of the sea to combat trafficking at sea. This will require education and training of those working in the anti-trafficking and fishing and seafaring sectors as well as cooperation and coordination between the different sectors. It will also require monitoring and forfeiture, enforcement by and of States, and approaches, also likely incentives and sanctions for those States who do not live up to their obligations to prevent and combat trafficking at sea. Ethical principles in the re/integration of civil forfeiture, trafficked persons. Experiences from the Balkans. Ethical principles in the re/integration of trafficked persons. Experiences from the Balkans. This week we welcome back Rebecca Surtees.
Rebecca is Senior Researcher at NEXUS Institute, an international human rights research and policy center in Washington, DC. NEXUS Institute is dedicated to combating human trafficking as well as other human rights abuses. This post is written in beatrice sparks conjunction with a newly released report on forfeiture reform developing common ethical principles within anti-trafficking re/integration. In the Balkan region, human trafficking continues to be a pressing issue. Approaches? One central aspect of anti-trafficking work is re/integration; the process of recovery and economic and social inclusion following a trafficking experience. Civil Forfeiture Reform? Re/integration services are often key to beatrice sparks trafficked persons’ ability to forfeiture reform recover and move on with their lives. And yet few organisations and programmes have developed ethical principles according to which their re/integration work is implemented, monitored and evaluated. In response to this gap, a set of ethical principles for re/integration programmes and policies have been developed in style the Balkan region. These principles – a new and significant development in re/integration work – were developed by NEXUS Institute in civil reform collaboration with eleven re/integration NGOs supported under the Trafficking Victims Re/Integration Programme (TVRP), funded by leadership style, the King Baudouin Foundation and GIZ.
These principles, grounded in direct re/integration work and developed collaboratively from the bottom-up, aim to hold re/integration practitioners and forfeiture, policy makers to a higher standard and to be accountable in their work. They are a first step for all of us working on re/integration toward enhanced re/integration support for theoretical approaches, trafficked persons. Ethical principles provide a foundation for the development, implementation and evaluation of a rights-based re/integration response to human trafficking. Principles underpinning re/integration work relate to attitudes, rights and duties about human welfare – for example: “respect for the autonomy of service users” or the “promotion of human welfare”. Principles are much broader in scope than standards , which are, very generally, a set of rules for ensuring quality re/integration programming and regulating a professional and accountable system of re/integration service provision. Standards serve as the foundation for the development of practical guidelines that are used by service providers in their day-to-day re/integration work with trafficked persons, in a variety of care settings. Civil Reform? Guidelines are instructions on how to do something; they are the instruments that service providers use in order to assignment sample put standards into operational practice. Standards and guidelines exist in some places and reform, not in others. Beatrice Sparks? In any case, ethical principles are the starting point from which standards and guidelines get articulated and underpin the theoretical framing of re/integration. Professional ethics concern matters of right and wrong conduct, good and bad qualities of character and the professional responsibilities attached to relationships in a work context.
Ethical principles are intended for use by any professional working in the field of anti-trafficking re/integration, whether for GOs, NGOs or IOs, from a range of different fields including social work, psychology, medicine, law enforcement, law and reform, so on. Because ethical principles are the foundation of a human rights based response to trafficking and re/integration work, they are relevant for policy makers and legislators as well as service providers and practitioners. Some of these ethical principles are mandated by beatrice sparks, international and national legislation, making their safeguarding not only an issue of ethics but also a legal requirement. Forfeiture? For example, there are a range of legal issues associated with the in research, collection, transfer and sharing of sensitive data (sometimes the subject of legislation on data protection), such as data collected in the context of civil reform, re/integration case management. In some cases, re/integration programmes and theoretical, activities may be governed by multiple legal and ethical codes – for civil forfeiture reform, example, the country of the organisation managing the programme, the country where the programme is being implemented (if different from the former) and/or the country funding the programme – making implementation challenging. Twelve ethical principles in the re/integration of trafficked persons. Principle #1. ‘Do no harm’. Re/integration programmes and policies should “do no harm” to trafficked persons. Principle #2. Informed consent.
Trafficked persons have the right to full and accurate information about re/integration assistance and their consent in leadership accepting this support should be fully informed. Principle #3. Confidentiality. Trafficked persons’ confidentiality must be strictly guarded in the context of re/integration work. Principle #4. Anonymity. Re/integration professionals must ensure that all information shared is sufficiently anonymous to prevent trafficked persons from being identified.
Principle #5. Civil Forfeiture? Privacy. Trafficked persons have the right to privacy, to be free of unwanted or unsanctioned intrusion at all stages of their re/integration. Principle #6. Non-discrimination . Trafficked persons should not be treated unfavourably or face negative or prejudicial attitudes due to what is a revenge their trafficking experience. Principle #7. Safety and security. Trafficked persons’ safety and civil reform, security is theoretical, paramount and must be assessed (and responded to) throughout the re/integration process. Principle #8.
Sensitivity. Trafficked persons must be treated with sensitivity and respect throughout the re/integration process. Principle #9. Civil Reform? Empowerment. Trafficked persons should be equipped with the skills, ability and confidence to recover and lead an autonomous life. Empowerment should be fostered throughout the re/integration process. Principle #10.
Beneficiary participation. Beneficiaries should be (voluntarily) involved in introduction their own individual re/integration plan as well as, where appropriate, the civil forfeiture, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the assignment introduction, re/integration services, programmes and policies. Principle #11. Data protection . Data collected about trafficked persons in the context of re/integration must be strictly protected in adherence with national and international legal standards. Principle #12. Civil Reform? Child protection and the “best interests of the child” . Re/integration programmes and policies should ensure that trafficked children are protected and their best interests are the primary consideration. These ethical principles are often interrelated and so will often be considered in combination. For example, confidentiality and anonymity are complementary in that keeping the identity of programme beneficiaries anonymous is one means of maintaining confidentiality when working toward re/integration.
Similarly, protecting confidentiality is essential to ensure both the in research, safety of victims and also data protection. Maximising beneficiary participation is often central in ensuring non-discrimination. And practising non-discrimination and approaching victims with sensitivity are elements of ensuring that the re/integration ‘does no harm’. The real life impact of ethical principles on civil forfeiture reform the re/integration of trafficked persons in the Balkans. Supporting beneficiary participation and empowerment.
One re/integration organisation spends a great deal of leadership pdf, time resolving administrative issues with beneficiaries – e.g. civil registration, obtaining new documents and so on. Caseworkers explain to beneficiaries the different steps involved in the process – e.g. what office to contact, how to get there, how to civil forfeiture reform fill in assignment forms and how to submit documents. The organisation supports this process but requires beneficiaries to directly undertake this process to civil forfeiture reform learn how to beatrice sparks take on this responsibility themselves. Gaining informed consent. “Fadila” was offered to stay in a shelter because she faced conflict in her family and discrimination from family members. However, she declined this assistance because she was told that the shelter was closed and she could not have contact with her family while there. The state social worker, the police officer and the social worker from the re/integration programme spent time with her and her family to explain the civil forfeiture reform, programme, including that it was voluntary and she could leave at any time. They provided both written and verbal explanations of the programme and services offered. Eventually she agreed to enter the programme.
Breeching the principle of ‘do no harm’ “Emina”, a trafficked girl, was involved in two legal proceedings related to her trafficking experience – one for human trafficking, the other for rape. Staff from the assignment introduction, Centre for Social Work arranged for Emina to provide testimony in both cases on forfeiture the same day to save time and reduce travel costs. Emina, however, was heavily traumatised by having to cope with both cases at the same time as well as facing both her trafficker and rapist. Afterward, she suffered a nervous breakdown and tried to assignment sample commit suicide. Breeching confidentiality, anonymity, privacy, child protection and data protection. One organisation working on re/integration faced a situation in forfeiture reform which it was legally obliged by the state social services to share case files of their child beneficiaries. However, the staff subsequently learned that these case files had not been securely and revenge tragedy, confidentially stored but rather had been left in boxes in the corridors of social services’ offices, accessible to anyone who wished to look at them. Breeching sensitivity, privacy and confidentiality. “Marija” was a trafficking victim who approached the national employment agency in her hometown in an effort to find a job as part of her re/integration. A clerk at reform the admissions desk recognised her and leadership style, began asking her questions about her life. The clerk also told the social workers who were accompanying her very personal things about her family and private life, many of civil forfeiture, which were negative and leadership style, which Marija found embarrassing.
After this incident, Marija chose not to register with the national employment agency and, moreover, expressed a wish to forfeiture leave her hometown and and management, be integrated in another community instead. While ethical principles have often been implicit in the work of re/integration organisations, there is great value in identifying and explicitly articulating them. Forfeiture? This includes how an organisation’s ethical principles’ can be operationalised in difference between leadership and management day-to-day re/integration work and civil reform, if/how organisations face challenges in adhering to these principles. It will also be important to continue to discuss and adapt ethical principles, not least because re/integration is a dynamic process and regularly involves new issues and challenges. Approaches In Research? To ensure successful, sustainable and ethical re/integration programming and policies, new ethical principles (or the further articulation of these existing principles) are likely to be needed as well as the tools for implementation and monitoring of those principles. Researching the unseen: Challenges in human trafficking research. Researching the unseen: Challenges in human trafficking research.
TTRP is pleased to have Rebecca Surtees as a guest blogger this week. Rebecca is Senior Researcher at NEXUS Institute, an civil international human rights research and policy center in Washington, DC. NEXUS Institute is dedicated to combating human trafficking as well as other human rights abuses. Leadership Style? Recent research studies include: Trafficked at sea. The exploitation of Ukrainian seafarers and fishers; No place like home. Challenges in the reintegration of trafficked women; Trafficked men, unwilling victims; Out of sight?
Challenges in the identification of trafficked persons; Leaving the past behind: Why some trafficking victims decline assistance; Beneath the surface. Methodological challenges in trafficking research ; and Measuring success of counter trafficking interventions in the criminal justice sector . Researching the unseen. Much human trafficking research is based on data from trafficked persons who have been formally identified and assisted by anti-trafficking organisations and professionals. This type of forfeiture, research reveals a great deal about beatrice sparks, their pre-trafficking situations and vulnerabilities, their trafficking experiences and their assistance experiences and needs, all of which is essential in informing policies and forfeiture reform, interventions to prevent and combat trafficking. However, there are certain biases in terms of the information that we get from trafficking victims who have been identified and assisted, which means that our picture of leadership, trafficking is only partial.
That is, not all trafficked persons are offered (or accept) assistance and there are also differences in terms of forfeiture, which trafficked persons researchers will have access to and why. Moreover, there is an implicit assumption that information from identified and assisted victims is the same as what we would learn from trafficking victims who are not identified and assisted. And yet the little research that has been done with unidentified or unassisted victims suggests systematic differences between the two groups. Unidentified and unassisted. Identified victims are those who have been determined to be “trafficked” according to formal identification procedures involving designated authorities. Assisted trafficking victims are those who are identified as trafficked by beatrice sparks, relevant authorities and assisted within the anti-trafficking framework or the more general social assistance system. Many trafficking victims are identified but not assisted – for example, they decline to civil forfeiture be labelled “trafficked”, are unsatisfied with available assistance, do not wish to return home, do not trust service providers, do not need assistance or have other forms of support.
Many others are never identified – for example, because of poor identification processes, limited capacity of anti-trafficking professionals, specific legal or administrative procedures, not understanding their experience as “trafficking” or because they avoid being identified. These two groups – identified but unassisted victims and unidentified trafficking victims – are generally of unknown sizes, boundaries and nature. It is unclear the extent to which they are (and are not) represented by the experiences and characteristics of assisted victims, including how these experiences might fluctuate from place to place and over time. Factors which influence who does (and does not) come into the anti-trafficking framework are diverse and context specific. They include not only individual or family characteristics (e.g. Social Responsibility? attitudes to and knowledge of assistance, access to other forms of support, (not) needing assistance, (positive or negative) family relations and so on) but also social or cultural norms, policy or legislative frameworks, how programmes are designed and funded and political commitment to anti-trafficking efforts within a country. Moreover, these factors may change over time and in response to forfeiture various external factors such as the broader political environment, donor interest, funding and so on.
Reaching the unreachable. A more rounded and carefully derived picture of trafficking (and assistance needs) must include not only those who have been identified and assisted but also the unseen – those who have not been identified or assisted. Beatrice Sparks? Unidentified and unassisted trafficking victims can be accessed at different stages of their trafficking and post-trafficking lives – while they are still in a trafficking situation (that is, while still abroad or at home); upon return to the home country/community; after trafficking (that is, once they are back in their community and/or some time after their return). Determining the appropriate research method and civil forfeiture reform, approach to be used at each stage of trafficking/post trafficking will depend on the scope and nature of the beatrice sparks, research. But at all stages and with all methods there are challenges to reform be borne in mind, not least in terms of biases that influence the data and the myriad ethical issues which arise.
Moreover, these experiences are still sub-samples of trafficked persons and their stories must be fit and beatrice sparks, framed within the broader (and diverse) picture of human trafficking. Researching persons still in trafficking situations. Sampling currently trafficked persons – for example, those still on a labour worksite or in prostitution – is one means of accessing the “unidentified”. However, access to worksites and prostitution arenas differ greatly from civil, setting to setting and some sites of exploitation (arguably the most exploitative ones) are largely inaccessible to between pdf researchers. Moreover, access is generally arranged through gatekeepers, which means that access (and the boundaries of the research sample) is informed by civil, the mandate, work and relationships of these agencies or institutions as well as any motives they may have or perspectives they wish to advance – e.g. What Revenge Tragedy? ideological perspectives of trafficking, positions on prostitution, a desire to civil forfeiture reform highlight certain issues and so on. Trafficked persons may also be limited in what they are able (or willing) to disclose while still trafficked, posing risks to respondents and researchers. Others may not recognise that they have been trafficked. Finally, researchers have an ethical obligation to provide assistance and ultimately an exit strategy to trafficked persons with whom they are conducting research. Researching in the return process.
Respondents may be accessed after trafficking ends but prior to or during their return home – for example, while detained, awaiting or following deportation, preparing to introduction sample or testifying against traffickers or following deportation. Gatekeepers at forfeiture these stages might include prison officials, immigration authorities, law enforcement and/or lawyers. However, such settings (as well as the stress and corporate, anxiety generally experienced in the period after exit from trafficking) are not necessarily conducive to civil reform full and comfortable disclosure. Moreover, some respondents may not feel able to decline to leadership and management be interviewed or may hope that participation will lead to a more positive outcome – for civil forfeiture, example, some assistance or reprieve in the deportation process. Here too there are ethical obligations for researchers in terms of providing information about social, assistance options abroad and/or at home. Researching after trafficking. Accessing unidentified and unassisted respondents in their homes and communities (including after some period of time) can be complicated, particularly in terms of forfeiture reform, how it can (negatively) influence relations with family and community. What? There is, for example, the civil, risk of “outing” people as trafficked to their families and social, communities, which can have serious implications in situations where discrimination and stigma of reform, trafficked persons is commonplace. This type of sampling may be more viable in others settings (for example, where stigma related to prostitution is less and ? or socially manageable) or for other forms of trafficking (for example, less stigmatised forms of exploitation like labour). However, the extent to which victims (of different forms of trafficking and in different contexts) may suffer (different forms of) stigma or discrimination has not been extensively studied and caution is therefore needed. Even if we are able to find and ethically access unidentified and unassisted trafficking victims at this post-return stage, it remains an open question as to leadership pdf what extent these trafficked persons will divulge their exploitation experiences to (unknown) researchers.
Disclosure will be impacted when there may be implications for reform, divulging – for sample, example, retribution from civil forfeiture, traffickers, fear of social, stigma, being forced to testify, fear that their story will be made public and so on. Equally, disclosure may increase when there are (at least perceived) benefits to divulging – for example, payment for forfeiture, participation, referral for difference leadership and management pdf, services, helping others from suffering in the future and a chance to forfeiture talk about their difficult experience. There are additional layers of complication (and ethical considerations) when accessing persons who have proactively avoided identification and assistance. Why research with unidentified and unassisted victims matters. Understanding trafficking through the difference between and management pdf, lens of unidentified and unassisted trafficked persons often provides a different picture than is civil reform, commonly presented in trafficking research and discourse. This generally means including less considered profiles of in research, victims (for example, men and boys, the forfeiture reform, elderly, older women), other forms of exploitation (for example, different forms of forced labour, forced marriage, begging) and a wide range of assistance and protection needs. It also potentially calls into assignment introduction question some assumptions about trafficking and trafficking risk, which, in turn, will mean reconsidering how some assistance is designed and offered. Interventions designed for identified and assisted victims will not necessarily respond to the needs of other (and all other) trafficked persons.
This is of particular concern given that many (and arguably very many) trafficked persons are never identified and/or assisted. Forfeiture? Expanding research to include these under-considered trafficked persons is vital if policies and programmes are to respond to the needs of both visible and less visible trafficking victims. Moving beyond the heavy reliance on research solely with assisted victims has real life implications for unidentified and unassisted trafficked persons and their families. Their stories and experiences and needs must be part of introduction sample, our understanding of, and response to, the issue. They can translate into a more well-rounded anti-trafficking response in civil forfeiture reform identifying the types of programmes and policies that this group of trafficked persons needs and supportive, wants as well as more targeted (and appropriate) prevention efforts.
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11 Phrases Never to forfeiture reform Use on Your Resume. If you want a job and don't want to die at the hands of HR follow these tips. It’s a tricky tightrope to walk, crafting the perfect resume one that stays within the right conventions of a profoundly conservative format while revealing a spark of difference between leadership and management pdf, originality. One way to make it easier? Avoid these 11 stinkers. Reform! Unless you know someone who knows someone, the reality is that your resume is most likely going to is a be one of hundreds maybe even thousands sitting on the desk of an overworked HR staffer.
The first thing they’ll be looking for when pruning the stack of forfeiture reform, CVs on their desk is reasons to lighten their load as quickly as possible. A goofy headshot? Gone. Aggressively coloured paper-stock? Gone. Notes from theoretical approaches in research, mom attached? Posted up in civil forfeiture reform, the coffee room for everyone to have a chuckle over.
Once the obvious non-candidates have been weeded out for sticking out, there’s another level of sins that HR staff come across as, day after day after day, they plow through the remaining mountains of unilever social, same-y resumes and civil reform cookie-cutter job applications: clichés, buzzwords and tired, overused phrases that, for some of them, grate more harshly than Hello Kitty stickers on a pink cover sheet. 1. I am a good communicator/I have excellent communication skills. If you feel you must, in this day and age, list your ability to talk and listen on a resume, be specific. Give examples of a communications project you worked on. But in general, assume that the ability to communicate is a widespread human skill. Corporate Social! Why not leave it off to civil forfeiture reform make room for other, more concrete achievements? WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: Be specific and list a position that shows your ability to take in and relay information: “I worked with both the Vancouver and introduction Toronto offices on the 2010 website launch. One of the most over-used clichés out reform, there, sure to what revenge induce at least one eyeroll. Again, these days the civil forfeiture reform, ability to theoretical work with others is civil reform, considered a given for most members of our species, especially those of us attempting to join an organization.
Leave any talk of teams and supportive style your ability to play on them back in the locker room. Your social aptitude should be evident from the civil forfeiture reform, context of your other resume entries. WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: Again, be concrete and specific: “I worked on the eight-person Standards 2011 Task Force.” Cutting-edge, envelope-pushing: these were deadly clichés back when cell-phones were the pdf, size of suitcases. Using them makes you sound quaint, deluded and boastful. Let the advanced technology or innovative procedures you worked with speak for themselves. WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: I created a promotional film for the firm using Final Cut Pro 7. As noted in the introduction, sometimes you will find a job ad that specifically asks for a multi-tasker there are plenty of jobs, such as personal assistant that require the forfeiture reform, ability to juggle a variety of tasks.
If this is the sort of thing you’re applying for, then go ahead. Social! But even then be aware that multi-tasking is increasingly, thanks to the prevalence of studies that find it to be inefficient at best, seen as a bad work practice. WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: Again, be specific and list multiple, contemporaneous projects if you need to. But let the employer figure it out for civil, herself. Is there any more meaningless word in the English language, or more clear sign that the speaker is in sample, love with antiquated corporate jargon? Any sentence that is not improved by the removal of the forfeiture reform, word proactive? No. What should you say in assignment, its place?
Nothing at all. WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: Seriously. Nothing. Civil Reform! 6. I interfaced with our legal team on the McKenzie case. How about saying “met with.” Or “worked alongside.” Both mean pretty much the exact same thing, and don’t have that trying-too-hard-to-be-a man-machine air to them. Assignment! If you ever find yourself attempting to forfeiture facilitate interface, you are, quite possibly, a Cylon. And you are much too tedious to hire. WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: I worked closely with the legal team on the McKenzie case. Most organizations already have a resident detail obsessive.
They are a mixed blessing at best, able to theoretical in research spot the tiniest flaws before they cause trouble, but also able to hang up projects for far too long while they focus on less-than-important fidgeting. Forfeiture Reform! Best to let your love for the little things come through in the flawlessness of your application. WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: Ensure your resume doesn't include any egregious errors. That should take care of it. Unless you’re submitting a technical resume for an engineering position, perhaps avoid industry jargon.
Even in IT, the most jargon-heavy field of corporate social responsibility, all these days, the buzzwords change, fall out of favour or become meaningless with such speed that it is best to limit their use as much as possible. Make your accomplishments as broadly understandable as possible. Civil Reform! WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: Keep it simple, and be sure to update frequently. This month’s Final Cut Pro 7 is next month’s Adobe Pagemaker. And try to never use the latest buzzword: there’s almost always someone in the company who thinks it’s a bunch of baloney. Sadly, a lengthy career can be a double-edged sword in today’s marketplace. In most fields, technological and structural change has become so rapid that a resume that’s a little too long can be as much of a deterrent as one that’s too short. Edit with this in in research, mind.
Don’t go so far as to fake your age, but try to forfeiture avoid looking too grizzled. WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: Just leave out your 1940s high school graduation date. Beware the modifier! Words such as skillfully, effectively, carefully, quickly, and expert can hurt more than they help. They are unverifiable, for one thing, and and management pdf can sound boastful or conceited. List your accomplishments and performance in a measurable way, and let the employer decide how skilled you are. WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: Include awards, nominations or concrete recognition of your skills. WHAT YOU'RE TRYING TO SAY: “I’m perfect.” In general, avoid mentioning any personality traits you might happen to share with absolutist monarchs. Life is civil forfeiture reform, not perfect and revenge neither is the civil, workplace.
In both, you’re going to have to compromise if you want to get anything done. The best employees know how far to pursue perfection, and when to bend to the demands of reality. WHAT YOU SHOULD SAY: Avoid defining your character on theoretical, your resume. It just isn’t the reform, place, and you should let your record speak for itself. The 9 Dumbest Fads Ever to Make Money. The 13 Worst Bosses from Movies and TV. The 11 Dumbest Quotes from Powerful People.
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Definitive Guide to Resume – 71+ Free Resume Templates in Word, PSD #038; MAC. A resume is the most important watchword when it comes to applying for jobs, regardless of the civil forfeiture reform industry. Whether you are a fresher straight out of college or a veteran industry professional looking to move up the ladder, a resume is social a basic prerequisite. It can be safely stated here that your job application is simply incomplete without a resume template . It can be dubbed as your primary representative to the company or the hiring manager, who you have to face for your interview. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. The function of the resume is to present you as a possible candidate for the job you are applying for. Thus, it will shed some light on your educational qualifications, professional caliber, experience, and reform any special skills acquired or any relevant industry training you have taken, that would be useful for the proposed job.
In short, the assignment sample resume template will highlight your knowledge base and all the hard and soft skills that you possess and have developed, which could leverage your potential as a prospective candidate before the hiring manager. Added to all these, the civil reform resume will also include your personal details like name, contact information and sometimes, your picture. Besides, the resume would include any special achievements, awards or recognitions that you have received, which can highlight your position as a credible candidate for the job. As mentioned earlier, your resume is your primary representative before the hiring manager and hence you have to difference pdf, ensure the best possible impression with your resume. There are different resume formats, based on your experience level, job type, and industry. Civil Forfeiture Reform. Are you looking for guidelines on sample how to draft a striking resume?
The article below explains how to come up with an invincible resume for your next job application. Yes, it’s true that a resume can be customized as per civil forfeiture reform, the needed job requirements but still there are some basic points that you should include to ensure a standard resume. Without these points, no matter how intelligent, well educated or skilled you are, your resume might not be noticed by the hiring manager. A career objective will clarify your thoughts, missions, and goals regarding your career. Be careful to align your career objective in line with the specific requirements of the job you are applying for theoretical in research, – it should mean to civil, fulfill the company’s need. Do not go for style, a generic objective. Your mentioned career objective will play a great role in expressing how much you have thought in terms of forfeiture that particular job and beatrice sparks designation. The summary of qualifications is civil forfeiture reform another important point to what revenge tragedy, leverage your position as a prospective candidate for the job. Civil Forfeiture Reform. It is meant to approaches, state the different kinds of training and experiences that you have gathered, which could be relevant for the designation you are applying for. You should also mention the certificates you have earned that attest the qualifications mentioned on forfeiture reform the resume.
The potential of a candidate seeking a job is in research always measured in terms of the skill he or she has mastered. Are you reputed for your excellent communication and negotiation skills? Does your boss always praise you for civil forfeiture reform, your fantastic team-work attitude? Does your office team want to have you as their leader always? All such skills must be mentioned in your resume, if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. Your resume is assignment incomplete without mentioning your educational qualifications. You might not have to begin with school, but you must mention your college and university education with the forfeiture percentages scored and the institutions and courses attended. A resume is a dynamic document depicting your career biography, which can be tailored as per your industry and job type. For example, a person applying for a creative job in an ad agency would have a different resume layout compared to theoretical approaches, that of a banker. Forfeiture. Here are 5 main categories of resumes, availabe in Word, PSD, and MAC formats: A graphic resume would be mostly embedded with different graphic elements.
These include infographics, charts, and graphs to discuss your personal and professional skill sets, talents, experience graphs and assignment sample so on. These templates are intended for personal use only. Civil Forfeiture Reform. In case of unilever corporate commercial use, please give credit to this post. It’s boring to reform, read long lines of text; a graphic resume runs high on readability quotient any day, with its easy-to-understand charts, bars, and infographics. The graphic industry, undoubtedly, is the best for difference and management pdf, graphic designers or for any sort of designers. It can also be used by software professionals. However, it’s better not to be used by academic professionals. Quite literally, the main differentiating features of a graphic resume are the civil forfeiture reform various graphic elements like infographics, bar graphs, and charts. Unlike regular resumes, they do not have long lines of text. Portfolio comes from the word “portafoglio”, where portare means “to carry” and foglio means “paper or leaf”.
Thus, Portfolio refers to an album carrying work samples, mostly with images and minimal text. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. When you have to present a visual representation or samples of your work, which cannot be exactly described in words, a portfolio is the best form of is a resume for you. A portfolio resume is especially meant for those professionals who need to prove their caliber through visual presentations of civil forfeiture reform their works such as photographers, artists, and beatrice sparks designers like fashion, website, and graphic designers. Unlike the civil regular resumes, the most important features of a portfolio resume lie in assignment introduction the pictorial representations through images, website screen shots, on-site media data, as well as letters or praise from the distinguished clients.
A clean / basic resume format follows a minimalistic approach. It comes with plain fonts, no graphical elements, brief lines of text, short paragraphs, a few bullet points, as well as a simplistic layout. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. When you are looking for a resume that needs to cover the basic details of civil forfeiture your career, a clean resume is the best thing for you. It’s simple yet professional. A clean resume format is for all those who are looking to apply for what, formal jobs like administrative professionals, banking positions, medical designations or academic positions. It would also be great for freshers who do not have an civil reform elaborate career history. Is A Tragedy. The most important differentiating features of a clean resume are a neat and basic layout, no use of graphic elements, plain and simple formal fonts, brief paragraphs, as well as a spacious framework.
A modern resume generally follows a sleek format with popular, formal fonts and a professional outlook. It must be machine-readable. Civil Forfeiture. Such resumes usually stick to a neat and clean structure. These templates are intended for personal use only. Difference And Management Pdf. In case of commercial use, please give credit to civil reform, this post. A modern resume assures easy readability with its sleek and smart structure as well as legible fonts. It’s a text-only document with a few bullet points and beatrice sparks minimal graphical elements. A modern resume can cater to almost any kind of professional, hailing from any industry. However, it would be best for senior executives, engineers, doctors, accountants, and civil academic professionals. The most important differentiating feature of a modern resume is that it’s always a text-only document and does not necessarily include the image of the approaches applicant.
And, it’s remarkably formal. A creative resume, as the forfeiture name implies, does not follow any specific resume framework rules when it comes to presenting the assignment sample resume. It can take the form of civil reform a Facebook Timeline Page, a soda glass, and so on. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to corporate responsibility, this post.
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When your work needs a visual representation, go for the portfolio category rather than a clean or modern resume. The hiring managers have a lot of reform resumes to go through and hence you have to what revenge, include proper keywords in your resume to ensure that it is easier for them to understand your key potential, skills and qualifications at a glance. You have to be particular about the job objective mentioned at the beginning of your resume. Make sure you customize it as per the industry and designation you are applying for. The qualification summary is an important section to present yourself in the best light possible before the hiring manager. You have to include the professional training you have undergone and the certificates you have earned, provided all of them relate to civil, the job you are applying for. This point is especially important if you have been in a field for a particular period of time and are applying for a job in unilever responsibility the same industry. Experience generates wisdom, better craftsmanship, and improved knowledge and is a great asset for any organization. If you have received any awards, felicitation or special honors in your field of expertise, you must include all the relevant achievements in your resume.
They give you a competitive edge over the regular candidates applying for civil, the same job. Your educational qualification is important even if the job you are applying for has no connection with the academic degrees that you have attained. You have to mention the degrees along with the percentage obtained, as well as the name of the institutions you have graduated from. Checklist for Writing a Winning Resume. After you write your resume, there are some points that you have to check to ensure that your resume is on par with the standard resume expectations. Social Responsibility. Is your resume in proper alignment with the forfeiture job and designation you are applying for? Is your resume legible enough, with a neat structure and readable font? Have you been able to maintain a professional tone and active voice throughout? Are there any grammar, spelling or typo mistakes? Is all the contact information given correct and professional?
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There are separate resume templates for junior lawyers as well. You have to be accurate to the point when it comes to writing a resume. But are you too busy to draft your entire resume by yourself? Or do you need help and reform guidance in creating a standard resume format? In that case, you have a great host of resume builder tools available online today. These are extremely easy to use and your basic computing skills would be enough to handle them.
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Creddle has developed a good rapport with many recruiters who seek aspirants like you. Thus, your resumes are just one push away in most cases. Visualcv simplifies the process of narrowing down your search and applying for a job. Civil Forfeiture. Just get registered and fill in in research the details. You can count on them till you set up an interview with your employer and establish a career in forfeiture reform your desired field. An experienced resume should have umpteen things to cover. Alongside the professional contour and what revenge tragedy career conduit, the resume should depict the forfeiture reform technical acumen and assignment the language section. In this knowledge, Cakeresume designs resumes for vastly experienced professionals such as Project Managers, Product Managers, and even for Vice Presidents of organizations.
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Download it today from professionals. Make your first point of contact and your testament, bullet proof. Shriresume helps greatly in all your resume needs. Applicant Tracking Systems or ATS is one of the important tools used by companies for civil forfeiture reform, screening resumes. Around 50% of mid-sized companies, as well as all the MNCs employ an ATS for scanning the pile of submitted resumes.
Also known as “Candidate Management System”, ATS can be defined as a handy software application which is geared to help enterprises by between and management, efficiently screening the incoming applications for civil forfeiture, a job opening. The software will help the hiring managers to beatrice sparks, post employment opportunities on forfeiture reform the company websites, screen resumes and generate interview requests for approaches, potential candidates through email. The other features of ATS include various tracking activities, such as that of civil forfeiture reform individual applicants, requisition, automated resume, tailored input forms, responses, pre-screening questions, and assignment introduction sample multilingual capabilities. How does it affect the reform way your resume is screened? One of the supportive leadership main functions of civil forfeiture reform ATS is to beatrice sparks, screen the candidates’ resumes. Once a resume is civil forfeiture reform submitted online, it has to be screened through an ATS before it reaches the hiring manager. ATS will scan a candidate’s resume for particular job-specific keywords and assignment sample if the resume does not contain those needed keywords – it is most likely to get rejected. In fact, this database-type program helps the civil forfeiture reform employers in storing and organizing, as well as screening, sorting, keeping a tab and replying to difference between leadership and management pdf, each resume received. For every job opening, a hiring manager would specify some particular job-relevant keywords into the ATS. As the civil resume goes through an ATS, it will start looking for those pre-programmed keywords in your resume and if it cannot find an adequate number of those, your resume would be outright rejected.
There are some points you must follow when you are looking to pass the ATS test with flying colors: Submit your resume online in .txt, .docx or .doc format. Approaches In Research. Text must be simply formatted and civil legible. Don’t forget to include job title on your resume. Place “email” and “phone” before relevant information. Style. While mentioning qualifications chronologically, dates must be mentioned on the right side.
Be careful when you are using accented words. Your credentials must not be placed beside your name and should be mentioned on a separate line. Don’t use too many font sizes and types. Make sure there are no spelling mistakes and typo errors in your resume. Make sure to include specific job-related keywords. Proper capitalization and punctuation are a must. Don’t forget to submit a customized resume. How to identify the keyword to get past the ATS?
As mentioned earlier, the civil reform ATS will scan your resume based on the job-specific keywords and hence you must be careful to include the potential keywords in approaches in research your resume. Civil. The keyword suggestions you can use here are: Job titles that you have held or currently holding; and the job title which you are aspiring for – Manager, Assistant, etc. Tools specific to your industry – the popular hardware, software or techniques that are pertinent to between and management pdf, your profession and designation. Civil Forfeiture. Relevant education and training, degrees, diplomas, certifications, licenses etc. Common terms which can describe your work or responsibilities such as “team leader”.
Technical and professional acronyms Professional memberships. Though a CV and a resume are often used interchangeably, there are some stark differences between these two. What Is A Tragedy. In fact, there are some companies which might reject your candidature if your offer a resume instead of a CV, and vice-versa. Here is civil reform a brief on the major differences between these two, but you should know their definitions first: The acronym for Curriculum Vitae, CV, translates to beatrice sparks, “Course of Life”. Forfeiture Reform. It is is a revenge tragedy a comprehensive document with complete details of your educational qualifications and achievements, spanning over 2 pages. It will also cover your accomplishments like publications, honors, awards and reform so on.
It maintains a chronological approach throughout. A resume focuses on supportive leadership concise information and does not go beyond a page, or a maximum of 2 pages. A resume covers your career biography, with the basic focus on your qualifications, training, skills, and achievements which would be relevant to the job. A CV is a detailed document and articulates your entire career in forfeiture an elaborate order till date. It can be a document of between leadership pdf 4 pages or more. A resume is forfeiture always short, and mostly limited to 1 page.
A CV stresses on the academic accomplishments, while a resume concentrates on difference and management your skills. A CV is required while applying for academic positions, grants, and forfeiture reform fellowships. Unilever Corporate Social. A resume is required for applying for a job in an industry. A CV always starts with the educational qualifications, while a resume starts with the work experience if you have worked for at least one year in your industry. The function of your resume is to present your candidature for the job in the best light possible, before your hiring manager. Writing an invincible resume is no rocket science, but you have to be strategic in your approach. Civil Forfeiture Reform. On one hand, you have to make sure that your resume is introduction sample able to represent your potential for the job in the right way and on the other hand, you have to check that it’s legible and professional enough.
These days, you have templates and resume builder tools to help you with the task. Civil Forfeiture. You should ensure that your resume is customized to the job you are applying, and be strong enough to withstand the scrutiny of the what revenge tragedy Applicant Tracking Systems.
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Once you#039;ve found your perfect template, read through our guide on how to customise it quickly and easily! Self taught freelance graphic designer and revenge photographer. He loves collecting and showcasing good fonts and typefaces at his blog Fonts Collector.