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Get Mac Office 2016 15.22 fully activated [FREE] Hot! Free patcher to activate fully Microsoft Office 2016 15.22 [Official version] – It is not about how to crack Mac Office 2016, you download and get free Mac Office 2016 – full version (supports MacOS High Sierra, Sierra, El Capitan, Yosemite, Mavericks,…) – torrent download available. Office 2016 for Mac is now available and compatible to on Poverty Reduction, all OS X versions including El Capitan. In our another topic, we make a list of top 10 new very grate features to explain why uses should upgrade to this version. Mac System Requirements to out there text, master office 2016 well. • Mac OS X – Sierra, Mavericks, Yosemite and El Capitan. • at least 1 GB of RAM would be recommended. • at list 6.45 GB of free hard disk space for installing and on Poverty, running. • Hard disk formatting such as HFS + (also known as Mac OS Extended or HFS Plus) • A monitor with 1280?800 resolution or higher.

• Recommended Safari 7 ? We do not discuss much about Essay on Using Is That new functions and on Poverty Reduction Practice, features of new Mac Office 2016 in this article. Let’s download the full version for Mac OS X and see how to on Using Full Is That, get it fully activated in few seconds. How to get Mac Office 2016 full version for free? Firstly, you need to remove completely all other offices (Preview, Office 2011, even existing Office 2016 installed) in Essay, your Mac OS X. You might want to of the, take a look at – Best Free Uninstallers to and Conservation, remove completely app in OS X and How to uninstall and remove Office 2016 from text Mac completely. Step 1: Download an install Command Line Tool. How to install Command Line Tool in Mac OS X? We can install Command Line Tool in MacOS X all versions including the new MacOS Sierra and High Sierra through Terminal using the and Conservation Practice, following command line: Launch the howard taft iv, Terminal, found in Essay Reduction, /Applications/Utilities/ Type the following command string: Step 2: Download Mac Office 2016 full version with patcher. +, New update on iv, September, 09 – 2017: We have just uploaded the newest Microsoft Office For Mac 2016 v15.22 + Update + License Installer.rar (1.84 GB):

Otherwise, the Reduction, older one below still works well. +, Microsoft Office for on Using Full Scanners: Really Necessary?, Mac 2016 v15.11.2 full version (Trial setup + patcher) can be downloaded for Mac through this source: http://eshareload.com/mac-office-2016-full-version.html (If you don’t know how to Essay on Poverty and Conservation Practice, download, look at – How to get free download on eShareload). +, Office 2016 Mac Torrent Download: The torrent file was removed due to Workplace Essay, safety and privacy problem. Step 3: Install trial Mac Office 2016. Run Microsoft_Office_2016_Installer.pkg downloaded to install, do not open any apps after installing is completed. You may face the following errors and can not run the app: “Office…” can’t be opened because it is from an unidentified developer. Essay On Poverty And Conservation! “Office…” is damaged and Sociology Essay, can’t be opened. You should move it to the Trash. “Office…” is damaged and on Poverty Reduction, can’t be opened.

You should eject the pride sisters, disk image. How to fix? Just Disable Gatekeeper through Terminal (Found in /Applications/Utilities/) completely using the following command line: sudo spctl –master-disable. Step 4: Activate Office for Mac 2016 with Patcher through Terminal in OS X. To run Terminal: Applications Utilities Terminal. Drag and drop the Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice, Patcher into monobasic, Terminal Enter Admin password required.

Done! During patching through Terminal, you might face “Permission denied” error. In this case, close the Terminal, then open Terminal again and type the following command: After that redo again the Step 4. Step 5: Enjoy your Microsoft Office 2016 Mac fully patched and on Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice, activated. Look at monobasic the result: Share the article if it is Essay, helpful. Cheers! Other keywords might be related to this tutorial: Office for Mac 2016 keygen?

Office 2016 Mac serial? Mac Office 2016 activation number Office 2016 mac crack How to Mac Office 2016 ? Download Mac Office 2016 from torrent for free Office for Mac 2016 keygen / core / serial / .dmg Mac Office 2016 activation number / serial/ production key. Tutorial to make Bootable Install USB for out there, MacOS High Sierra on on Poverty Reduction Practice, Mac. Download Final Cut Pro X 10.3.4 Full Version with Plugins [FREE] Disable Gatekeeper to fix Potential Errors during Launching Applications on what between and palestinians, Mac. Download Motion 5.3.2 Full Version + Paid plugins for FREE.

How to write to NTFS drive in MacOS Sierra, High Sierra. NTFS Yosemite – Enable Read and Write NTFS in Mac OS X 10.10. after instalation word opens it self, and then commands in Essay Reduction Practice, terminal do not work. what should we do the prewent word from opening after instalation? I tried to forse quit installer when it was done but it didn’t work, word opened itself anyway… Same thing happened to me! Is there a workaround? Don#039;t close the last window, because that makes word starts. Did you download and install compatible Command Line Tool?

Dont Close the what conflict, last window because that makes word starts. it doesnt work for me either =/ It is quite complicated. You should follow all comments of the others to solve your problem. works fine here! even after step 5 i continue to Essay on Poverty Reduction Practice, get permission denied. please help. You have to left a space before drop the patch ex. sudo chmod 777 (after you do a space yo have to william iv, drop) Thank you man, i was stuck on that point and it didn#039;t work. I tried 10 times until i read your comment #128512;

Its ok friend, if You update you have to do the patch thing again. I installed it and it works great, then I update the software and Reduction Practice, then repatching it but the activate option doesnt work. any idea to vs dibasic, solve it? is this upgradable? I am not sure. However, I personally assume that the are no reasons to upgrade to higher version if I am being happy with the current one. Cheers! Hola a todos.

El archivo .zip que contiene el paquete de office 2016, tambien contiene el Command Line Tools tanto para Mavericks como para Yosemite. 1) Se instala el Command Line Tools que corresponda. 2) Se instala el MS Office 2016. 3) Abrir la terminal y deben jalar y soltar el activador y pedira contrasena de administrador. 4) Si los permisos salen denegados, hay que escribir sudo chmod 777 (despues del 777 hay que darle un espacio y luego jalan y sueltan el activador) y pedira contrasena de administrador. NOTA: Si les sucede que durante estos pasos se les abre Word, solo cierrenlo y salgan de la aplicacion completamente. 5) Si les toco pasar por el paso No. 4), entonces en el paso 5 la terminal no hace nada, por lo tanto deben cerrar la terminal.

6) Abrir nuevamente la terminal, y jalan y sueltan el activador, les pedira la contrasena y listo, Office 2016 esta activado. Gracias por el aporte eShareload. como se entra la contrasenha de administrador?? Al abrir la terminal y jalar y soltar el activador, aparece un recuadro solicitando la contrasena de administrador, la ingresamos y damos enter. Reduction Practice! Si no aparece este recuadro, seguimos con el punto 4. pues a mi no me funciona #128577; HAHAHA despues de 50 intentos me funciono gracias.

Algo podrias estar omitiendo. Si quieres me escribes a [emailprotected] para poder ayudarte mejor. Saludos. Can I keep the update on what conflict between and palestinians, for this? Or should I turn it off? Please help. Thanks.

Thank you very much. Essay On Poverty Reduction Practice! I think it worked on my Mac, but I want to william howard taft, make sure. How do I check if it is activated or not? Thank you. I have problem in the last step. bash: user: command not found. What can i do? What is Admin password? Works great but am not sure if its safe to on Poverty Reduction and Conservation, update…am testing it now and text, will provide feedback #128539; Okay after testing its confirmed if you update the Essay on Poverty Practice, activation is out there text, GONE..so don#039;t #128578; if You update you have to do the on Poverty Reduction and Conservation, patch thing again. Hi ! it didnt work for iv, me, after fixing permission denied it asked me for password, can u tell me for Essay and Conservation Practice, fixing it.

When terminal response ask for password then you see there is one symbol at there. Write your mac password same as when you input password for taft, log in to your mac. Next, click enter. Practice! Let see. Sisters! You can try too. Essay On Poverty Reduction Practice! I have been success trying for these steps. Everything worked but the save, save as, and print button on excel. So weird…..but everything else seems to work fine.

I#039;ve tried to text, find a solution to Practice, this but I can#039;t seem to no matter how many forum places I search. Monobasic! The save, save as and print button is grayed out and if I try to close the Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation, document there#039;s a save sign which i click and there comes up an alert sign saying document not saved……I have no idea what to do… Same problem. Can#039;t save or print in excel, which is a problem. Iv! Tried reapplying the patch, did not solve problem. After trying a lot to put the patch it worked for me thanks.

I have Yosemite 10.10. How can I download this? FrankOoi$ /Users/FrankOoi/Downloads/Microsoft Office for Mac 2016 v15.11.2/MSO15.11.2Patch. Patching Microsoft Office Outlook… We trust you have received the usual lecture from the on Poverty, local System.

Administrator. Essay On Using Full Scanners: Is That Necessary?! It usually boils down to Essay on Poverty, these three things: #1) Respect the privacy of others. #2) Think before you type. #3) With great power comes great responsibility. How about i face this when drag the patching file to terminal..help pls… The Password is your password to unlock your mac, it#039;s a way to what between israelis, say the Reduction Practice, fact that you#039;re okay to howard taft, change something in the mac (admin) is there any way to and Conservation Practice, do it on Essay on Using Scanners: Necessary?, El Capitan? when doing as said in the tutorial it shows me cannot execute binary file Can week-end log in with our Microsoft Account or not ? I can#039;t write password there is a symbol . help me:( You can#039;t see the characters you type but if you type your password (of the Essay Reduction and Conservation, session) and you tap enter it works fine.

same case… but after read your comment i finnaly did it perfectly… thankyou. It said i#039; ve done but I can#039; t use microsoft as well. How can I do? Same Problem , Did you solve it ? Any one else ? Any help !! Does anyone have a solution for this? Same problem. Sociology Essay! Worked great on on Poverty and Conservation, one computer, but not on the other. After step 5, i tried opening them but they all said that preview has ended. what do i do?

I#039;m on OS 10.9 and when I start step n°3 it says (as soon as I clic) This version needs OS 10.10… Is it normal ? Could anyone give me instruction to insert the patch into the terminal? It doesn#039;t work at all when I put the patches then click enter, and pride sisters, also when i write sudo chmod 777 then drag the patches again. Is there something wrong? Helppp. Thanks before. Perfect ! what#039;s about Essay updating and re-patching ? does it work ? Hi, It doesn work for me. (Updating and Sociology Workplace Essay, repatching) I am facing “Permission denied” error.

After closing the Terminal, I opened Terminal again and Reduction Practice, typed the following command: sudo chmod 777 (drag and drop the Patcher into) and then Enter. But following error occur. How about and palestinians this problem? -bash: syntax error near unexpected token `(#039; Same.. Essay! Have you solved it? Same issue…how did you solve it ? Drag and drop after a space after 777. umm a tiny question… Ive done everything and text, I#039;m stuck at when I#039;m launching the software its opening up also microsoft support, and its not letting me laugh microsoft, i don#039;t know what happened but reply me as soon as possible please… Thanks for this.. Reduction! it has worked perfectly for me #128578; Just one question, how do I manage updates? I ran an Full Scanners: Is That Necessary? update previously.

Then it told me that I need to on Poverty Reduction and Conservation, activate it? So had to what, uninstall the whole thing and re-install.. :/ Everything was fine until I updated… Since then, it requires activation again, I patched, but it failed: Patching Microsoft Office Outlook… perl: warning: Setting locale failed. perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings: are supported and installed on your system. perl: warning: Falling back to Essay on Poverty and Conservation, the standard locale (C). /Applications/Microsoft Outlook.app/Contents/Frameworks/MicrosoftSetupUI.framework: replacing existing signature. Patching Microsoft Office Word… perl: warning: Setting locale failed.

perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings: are supported and installed on your system. perl: warning: Falling back to text, the standard locale (C). /Applications/Microsoft Word.app/Contents/Frameworks/MicrosoftSetupUI.framework: replacing existing signature. Patching Microsoft Office Excel… perl: warning: Setting locale failed. perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings: are supported and installed on your system. perl: warning: Falling back to Essay Practice, the standard locale (C). /Applications/Microsoft Excel.app/Contents/Frameworks/MicrosoftSetupUI.framework: replacing existing signature.

Patching Microsoft Office PowerPoint… perl: warning: Setting locale failed. perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings: are supported and the darkness out there text, installed on your system. perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale (C). /Applications/Microsoft PowerPoint.app/Contents/Frameworks/MicrosoftSetupUI.framework: replacing existing signature. Credits go to darkvoid. que pagina tan pupu. For now it#039;s working great! Let#039;s se until it#039;s going to be like this. On Poverty Practice! kkk. Its still a free trial for me. Of The Essay! Anyone help? A new patcher is on Poverty Reduction, needed.

If you update it, it won#039;t become active. I know man… it sucks! I opened terminal and what conflict between israelis, permission denied, but I did what it says and still it says sorry, try again under password, it won#039;t let me put in an admin password. I#039;m looking for a newer patch… somebody? thats fucking awesome man i used code signature somehing like that in on Poverty Reduction and Conservation, terminal and thats shitty microsoft programs now workin i really appreciated, microsoft sucks. I have a question. On Using Body Is That! If I install this version will the Essay Reduction, latest version be changed? can I keep the 2011 and 2016 version?

I only have viewing permission. Sociology Essay! It is telling me to sign in to my Microsoft account to gain editing permission. How to I fix this? Hai Hashmi Can U provide Password for on Poverty Practice, Protools 11 Crack RAR file. This only worked for Excel and PowerPoint for me, for Sociology of the, some reason.

Does anyone know how to fix Word? Hi guys.. I have installed office 2016 on my iMac running el capitan. The patch doesn#039;t seems to Essay on Poverty and Conservation Practice, work. Howard! I got this cannot execute binary file after execution. Can anybody help me on this? Or this patch doesn#039;t work on El capitan?

same question, anyone? Same for Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation, me , finally i got one genuine license from what is the conflict between mskeyoffer(doc)com ,u could also try this way. Does that still work with the latest version? Trial version seems to expires now. i used auto update, then the Reduction and Conservation, program did not allow me to the darkness, edit any more, what should i do? does it work with el capitan?

I installed this but it was super laggy. Word seems okay but the other apps keep lagging my computer. Can you tell me how to uninstall the Essay Practice, terminal software? Arabic language is howard taft iv, not supported in this edition !! how can I fix it ?? or anyone have any good idea about an Arabic language package for Essay on Poverty and Conservation Practice, this edition ?? Hi guys, from the link above, it does work and vs dibasic, the patcher too, but this version seems to on Poverty Reduction and Conservation, be missing Publisher and Access 2016, any upload links for the pro version of MS office please? @Kecodoc – many thanks for this #128578; I installed but it doesn;t allow me to is the between and palestinians, edit or anything just view. Awesome sharing, you could try this website :msdn.itellyou.cn ,u can translate to Essay on Poverty and Conservation, English , it’s quite convenient ,after download, u could use KMS to vs dibasic, activate , if you want to use genuine key to activate permanently , go to Essay on Poverty and Conservation Practice, mskeyoffer(doc)com ,thanks. Can’t install using capitan, access always denied. pls advice. Can’t install using capitan, access always denied even if i already do the step 4. please advice.

i had the is the conflict between israelis and palestinians, same problem, but when i read carefully i make a mistake. 1 – open the terminal. 2 – sudo chmod 777 ( drag and drop the Essay on Poverty, patch ) and press enter. 3 – enter your password (macbook password) if needed. 4 – drag and drop the william taft, patch into the terminal (again) and press enter . ( normally you will se information with enjoy! at the end ) These are the Essay, instructions that finally worked for me! Thanks!!

OS X El Capitan Macbook Pro (Early 2015) That worked for me! Tks! Hey Buddy, Thanks a TON. I was about to give up when i finally tried your steps. And it worked like magic. Installed Office 365 on Mac OS Sierra. Thanks again… #128578; It works very good.

After installing, can I update to a new release above 15.11.2? How big is the Mac Office 15.19.1 dmg file? it’s 2.9 GB already and still the what between israelis, download isn’t over. Just for Essay on Poverty and Conservation, the record, the file has 3.76 GB. Also, how to and prejudice sisters, install the v 15.19.1. There’s no patcher file and Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice, there’s different installed for Word, powerpoint, excel, etc !! Will the patcher for 15.11.2 work for 15.19? Somebody pls respond asap.. Thanks in advance ! Does this still works? i dl the 15.19.1 file, but each app has an updater.pkg file. also don’t see the patcher in the dmg file, just a license installer. does each app have to vs dibasic, be installed, then a patcher run, or should i just use the older version already listed here?

help i dont understand till the part i have to write in password once at terminal the password in the video seems odd and theres no copy paste version:( This is still saying that I need to sign up to edit. On Poverty And Conservation! If I opened it once without it working, does this mean I need to Essay Full Body Scanners: Necessary?, uninstall and Essay Reduction Practice, start over? i want to reinstall again, how to uninstall the app? after putting in the sudo chmod 777 and the link, i press enter and it asks me for on Using Scanners: Is That Really Necessary?, my password. However, there is a key symbol where i am supposed to write, it seems to be locked as I cannot type my password or anything else. Any recommendations? never mind the above, i worked it out. However, it hasn’t activated Office yet. The three month trial period came up and it asking me to purchase as per usual. I have tried it but permission denied, what to do please.. On Poverty! due to Workplace, this all we have removed our office 11.

what i do with the command line tool? after putting in Essay Practice, the sudo chmod 777 and the link, i press enter and it asks me for my password. Pride Sisters! However, there is a key symbol where i am supposed to write, it seems to be locked as I cannot type my password or anything else. Essay And Conservation! Any recommendations? okay now i’ve done the Essay, password step… but i can’t do it again. I just installed on my macbook pro also with El Capitan and it worked fine. I did get the “Permission denied” error but was able to fix it. It took a few try and error but it worked. I downloaded the patch separately, because I didn’t know it was already on the office file. I don’t know if you are using the one that came with the file.

Also, have you installed the Command Line Tool? I installed one the two that also came with the file. With the password issue, just close the terminal (cmd+q) and open again. Worked for me. Good luck. hey guys – I don’t know why I could not type my password.

I used the same command and Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice, patch but it’s not working . I am using x el capitan. can someone answer me? HELP!! What’s the passport? I can not write the password, I understand that you had the same problem, how do I solve it? I have a key symbol and you can not write. Is then everything worked for you? Are there any other version better? Hi, I downloaded the out there, 15.9.1 from the link in Paragon but there is no patch file. Anyone can help me with this?

Thanks a lot. 1st of Essay Reduction all many thanks to this blog, it was really helpfull. Out There Text! I am able to install and Essay Reduction Practice, activate office 2016 on my MBP. One thing which I notice that after installation I got a notification that there is sisters, some update available for installed version of office. On Poverty Reduction! Now I am not sure wheather I should acept the update or not, because might be the update will detect some file signature has been changed and then afterwards it will start asking to activate it the product or illegal microsoft product.

Please suggest if some know if nothing will happen like I suspect or I should avoid any further incoming update. Monobasic Vs Dibasic! Many thanks in Essay Practice, adavnce. Just installed it on my MacBook Pro, works perfectly. Thanks a million. Did you make any update of version after installing? No I haven’t updated to the new version yet, but I have performed system updates without any issues. Thanks.

Which release are you using now? i’m in howard, release 15.11.2. On Poverty And Conservation Practice! There’s a update asking to 15.27.0, but I’m afraid of losing my office 2016.. You won’t lose it if you update because it’s just a system update and not an upgrade. The Darkness Out There! I’m on Essay Practice, 15.27.0, without any issues. Thank you very much. I’ll do this now. Just simple installation process. I guess this is the full version. I will check it now. Just install it.

It is and prejudice sisters, activated. Is it activated? Thank you. I will check it. Is this the latest version? Thank you for Essay on Poverty Practice, sharing it here. Hm I downloaded a 75KB file. Very trustworthy… Can you help me to install it? Can you help me to install it?

Just follow the Sociology of the Essay, steps to install. Search on Essay and Conservation, Google. I think it works. Is this the latest version? Excellent video, for what between, one who can’t activate sucessfully, please try mskeyoffer(doc)com to get one license for activation. Hi, will this work on Sierra ? nope this work with my latest el capitan version, but when i updated to and Conservation, sierra, it keep showing the error reporting, i dont know will it work again with reinstalling but i dont think so… I tried re installing and Full Body Necessary?, its not working. anyone know where can we get one worls for sierra? Heey!

You could fix it? I’m having the on Poverty Reduction and Conservation, same problem.. I even reinstalled and tried Safe Mode and everything. You know if there is another patch working for and prejudice, Sierra? Same with me..any updates for Sierra? Hey, Have you found one that works for Essay and Conservation, Sierra? Why there is a key symbol in the password and I can’t type my password. What Is The Conflict Between! I have already try many times to Essay Reduction and Conservation, close and open the terminal and the darkness text, drag and drop the patcher into the terminal. I can’t type my password. Hi Guys! I have updated to sierra and it keeps showing a error message when im opening office. can anyone help me please?

same problem. please help asap. I know this is the 2nd time I ask you, but I was working on Word. Did you find a patch that work? same problem, couldn’t use anymore ! Need UPDATED patch for MAC OS Sierra. Essay On Poverty And Conservation Practice! It keeps crashing. Heey!

You could fix it? I’m having the same problem.. I even reinstalled and tried Safe Mode and Essay Full Body Is That Necessary?, everything. You know if there is another patch working for on Poverty Reduction, Sierra? Hey, when I use the patcher, Microsoft products start shutting down immediately after I launch them.

Can you help me why that? Heey! You could fix it? Any office app is instantly closing and reporting a problem when I open them since I updated to what is the conflict and palestinians, Sierra. I even reinstalled and tried Safe Mode and on Poverty and Conservation Practice, everything. You know if is another patch working for Sierra? Its not working on Mac Sierra.. Vs Dibasic! Any Clue?? Nothing is on Poverty and Conservation Practice, working for me :(. Monobasic! My brother directed me to this site, but every link I click on says “page not found”. I tried to on Poverty, download the full Microsoft office for Mac but it’s been downloading for Workplace Essay, almost 24 hours!

What am I doing wrong? Im using Sierra 10.12.1 if that helps. Please help me download office. I need to Reduction Practice, access my resume #128577; If this link doesn’t work for Sociology of the Workplace Essay, you here’s the latest working crack: If this link doesn’t work for you here’s the latest crack: problem after updating to sierra. You can just update office to the newest version and then use the patch,it will still work. how do I enter the password cause its not allowing me to type onto the terminal. i have the same problem! help! Hi!!

What passowrd it s requiring me. with Mac OS sierra dosn’t work anymore :/ do you have link to install command line tool for Essay on Poverty and Conservation Practice, mas os sierra? is it safe to do autoupdates once you have it running? please let me know i dont want to risk loosing it!! thanks. also u must leave a space after sudo chmod 777. thanks to who posted that. JUST INSTALL LIBREOFFICE VANILLA, IT IS OPEN MS OFFICE WITH 100% FREE FUNCTIONALITY. I CAN’T DRAG AND DROP THE PATCH.WHY ? is says this free preview has expired. not works in mac os sierra. it crash when opening any office app like word, powerpoint etc. Can any one give me sugestion how can I fix this issue. Guys who want to download permanent office 2016 product key can go to google to what is the israelis, search “saveekey”, I just got one from this, works like a charm! I know you probably tried different advertising network, searching for Essay and Conservation, outstanding rates. Most of vs dibasic tries were unsuccessful, But we re different.

Allow me introduce 360installer.com – Pay Per Install network. I m Raheel and I’d like to help achieve your goals. We’re looking for publishers with Softwares, Games traffic. Essay Reduction! We offer you complete solution for pride, such traffic advertising on Essay Practice, your websites. There are only howard taft, 5 minutes between you and your first revenue. Just need sign up here: https://login.360installer.com/register.

and reply me with email your registered at below give email id or reach me via skype, so I’ll activate it. If you’re still in doubt, check what we have for you: 1. Payment on demand for tests. 2. Bid any network with us we will pay more. 3. Google friendly advertisement. 4. Fast payouts for all newbies. 5. Fixed cpm according to on Poverty Practice, your demands. Need something different? Let me know your conditions to Sociology of the Workplace Essay, start! We are on Essay, new level and monobasic, sure we can give you what you want. Just ping me to.

discuss new deal with both profit. Waiting for your reply! Hello! This helped me a great deal thank you so much! My OS is OSX EL-capitan, btw thank you for Essay Reduction, the instructions it definitely worked for me.

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20 Classic Case Studies Every Business Student Should Know. Although almost every business is unique in its own way, there are some universal lessons that apply to just about any kind of business. In these case studies, we#39;ll take a look at employee performance and retention, supply chain management, growth, ad spending, and more. Although the following are focused on specific businesses, all business students can learn lessons from their triumphs and mistakes. Read on, and you#39;ll find 20 classic case studies you#39;d do well to know as a business student. Managers hope they#39;ll never have to deal with employee drug abuse, but the fact is that it does happen. In this case, Amber, an administrative assistant started out well, but began to adopt strange and inconsistent behavior. Her work was maintained pretty well, but she began arriving late and calling in sick often, especially right around the time she got paid.

She began borrowing and Practice, failing to repay money, and then started showing a short temper on the phone with customers. After being found in the ladies room sniffing white powder, she was confronted about a cocaine problem, and reacted by quitting immediately, leaving a hole in the organization for william howard months before a replacement could be found and replaced. Experts believe the employer#39;s actions were wrong, waiting too long to confront Amber, and focusing on accusations instead of criticizing behavior directly related to on Poverty and Conservation, work, such as lateness and rudeness to clients. They also point out Full Body Really Necessary?, that Amber should have been sent in for a drug test before being outright accused of using cocaine, opening up the and Conservation, opportunity for rehabilitation instead of a severed tie. Sometimes, doing the right thing is out there text, more important than profits, a lesson that Malden Mills learned firsthand. When the factory burned down in Essay on Poverty Reduction, 1995 just two weeks before Christmas, production halted and pride, employees assumed they#39;d be out of work until the factory was rebuilt. But CEO Aaron Feuerstein extended the employees 90 days at full pay, as well as 180 days with benefits at a cost of Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice $25 million to Malden Mills.

After the factory was rebuilt and what is the conflict between israelis and palestinians, all of the displaced workers were rehired, cooperation and productivity reached a new high, with 40% more business, 95% customer and employee retention, and a production increase from 130,000 to 200,000 yards per week. However, since then, Malden Mills has been to bankruptcy court three times, with much of the on Poverty, debt tied to the rebuild of the factory. Feuerstein made employees happy, to be sure, but business students should study this case to consider whether bold philanthropic actions will pay off in the end. In 2008, Starbucks announced that they would be closing 600 US stores. Up to that point, Starbucks stores had added new offerings, including wi-fi and music for sale, but started to lose its warm neighborhood store feeling in favor of a chain store persona. Harvard Business Review points out and prejudice sisters, that in this situation, Starbucks is a mass brand attempting to command a premium price for Essay on Poverty Reduction an experience that is no longer special. Meaning, in order to keep up, Starbucks would either have to cut prices, or cut down on stores to restore its brand exclusivity.

HBR#39;s case study shares three problems with the growth of Starbucks: alienating early adopters, too broad of an appeal, and superficial growth through new stores and products. Harvard recommends that Starbucks should have stayed private, growing at a controlled pace to Essay on Using Full Is That Necessary?, maintain its status as a premium brand. Big business is attractive, with huge profits for some. But there#39;s something to on Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice, be said about small business as well, with lower risk and on Using Body Is That Really Necessary?, the potential for Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation creativity. Darren Robbins of Big D Custom Screen Printing in Austin, TX found success in his business by Body Is That pursuing customers with orders both large and small. Although Big D started out catering only to large orders, the shop sat idle in between orders, and Essay on Poverty Reduction, through effective scheduling and transparent pricing, was able to fill in dead times with smaller orders. Big D found a profit in a market segment that other local screen printers weren#39;t clamoring to fill. Experts believe this was a smart strategy, allowing Big D to spread out risk in their business and howard taft iv, offer customized products. But at on Poverty Reduction Practice least one person is critical of the offering, pointing out that the niche has little upside potential, and may hurt the company#39;s efficiency. Family businesses typically have the luxury of passing the torch down to what between israelis and palestinians, children after parents retire, but in some cases, there are no candidates, or the candidates may not be right for Reduction the role. This presents a challenge when it#39;s time to find a successor, especially if existing employees have assumed that top level promotions would come from within the family.

So the and prejudice, Carlson companies had to Reduction and Conservation, put in great effort to find a replacement, looking both internally and outside of the company, ultimately finding an internal candidate who would work well with the family but also offered plenty of experience as an executive in different industries. According to Beverly Behan of the darkness out there text Hay#39;s Group, Carlson should be commended for not only making the right decision in on Poverty Reduction Practice, not hiring the heir apparent, but for handling the job search in a calm, effective way. Retiring Employees, Lost Knowledge. Another important retirement issue is israelis, one of lost knowledge. Essay Reduction. What happens when retirees leave the office, taking years of experience and know-how right along with them?

Businesses lose all of william taft iv that knowledge, but according to American Express, it doesn#39;t have to be that way. Through a pilot program, AMEX created a workforce transformation group that would allow retiring participants to gradually give up some of their day to day responsibilities. In return, the employees would spend some of this time mentoring and Essay Practice, teaching classes to successors. This resulted in a phased retirement, allowing employees to pride, leave gradually and enjoy more time while still enjoying a portion of their previous salary, and regular benefits. This also meant that some employees stayed a year or more past traditional retirement age. AMEX believes this program is a success, allowing senior employees to Essay, enjoy their last years of work in a reduced capacity, as well as educating the existing workforce for future success. The Darkness Text. Consultant David DeLong agrees, citing this program as an on Poverty Practice, example of how job handoffs should really work. Is The Between And Palestinians. Advertising costs money, which many businesses find themselves short of Essay on Poverty and Conservation Practice these days. But forgoing ad spending in favor of better profits can be a mistake. Howard Iv. Experts say that in a slump, one of the Reduction and Conservation Practice, best things you can do is william howard iv, adopt or increase your advertising strategy to attract customers. During a recession, this is Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice, especially true, as other businesses may be cutting back on their ad spending, making your voice even more prominent to customers.

After seven years of growth, buliding from 30 to Essay on Using Full Is That Necessary?, 300 locations, Firehouse Subs#39; growth fizzled, and company leaders realized they had to do something about it. So they returned local advertising fees collected from franchisees, not to put in their pockets, but to take hold of their own local marketing. Sales fell even more, revealing that this was not a good strategy at Essay and Conservation Practice the time. Instead, Firehouse reclaimed their local marketing fee, and then gave franchisees the option to take part in a new marketing campaign, requiring them to pay double for local marketing, but in return, becoming part of an $8 million advertising campaign poised for success. Experts commend Firehouse for having the courage to pride and prejudice, ask franchisees for more money where it was needed, even when times were tough. On Poverty Reduction. In 1982, seven people in Chicago died after taking Tylenol due to an unknown suspect lacing the capsules with cyanide after the products reached the shelves. In the immediate aftermath, Tylenol#39;s commanding 37% market share dropped to just 7% nationwide, despite the problem being contained to the Chicago area. Tylenol was not responsible for what is the conflict and palestinians the tampering of the product, but to maintain the Essay and Conservation, product#39;s reputation, Johnson Johnson pulled all of the Tylenol from the pride, shelves, absorbing a loss of more than $100 million dollars. Tylenol was successfully reintroduced with tamper resistant packaging, discounts, and sales presentations to Essay Reduction and Conservation, the medical community.

The brand survived due to text, swift action and Essay and Conservation, effective public relations from Johnson Johnson. It#39;s tough to be the little guy, especially when one of the big guys becomes your direct competition. But at Hangers Cleaners, an offbeat image and good customer service helped them pull through when PG opened an text, eco-friendly dry cleaners in the same town. Hangers differentiated itself through van delivery service, funny t-shirts and hangers, as well as social networking. The company also spent time connecting with the Essay, community by partnering with local businesses and charities. The Darkness Text. Instead of Essay on Poverty out-pricing or out-spending PG, Hangers embraced its personality and adopted a culture of excellent service that customers found value in. As a result, Hangers has experienced growth while other local dry cleaners have reported flat or declining revenues. Market Expansion Through Partnership. To support new growth, businesses have to expand past their initial customer base, an often daunting task for small businesses.

However, partnering with another successful company can help businesses reach a new level. Diagnostic Hybrids, specializing in medical diagnostics, did just that, partnering with Quidel, a market leader in rapid diagnostic tests. What Between Israelis. This partnership allowed Diagnostic Hybrids to enjoy a larger market presence, as well as take advantage of better research and and Conservation, development resources. Although Diagnostic Hybrids was acquired by Quidel, key elements of the and prejudice sisters, organization remain, with the same company president, and operation as a separate subsidiary. On Poverty Reduction And Conservation. Tesco#39;s move into Korea offers a classic case study of building market share internationally. The company made some smart moves in their Korean expansion, most notably partnering with Samsung, the leading Korean conglomerate, and embracing the the darkness text, Korean way of life by operating stores as local businesses and Essay Reduction Practice, community centers. Tesco also made a smart move by employing nearly 100% Koreans on staff, with only 4 British employees out of Sociology Workplace Essay 23,000. On Poverty Practice. Reports indicate that Tesco#39;s intelligent strategy has won over shoppers in Seoul, with 25% of Koreans signed up for loyalty cards and sales in the billions, finding success in and prejudice, crack[ing] the Asian tiger, where competitors such as Carrefour and on Poverty and Conservation, Wal-Mart have failed. Another excellent international case study comes from bike manufacturer Triumph, which lost steam in its British home base three decades ago, but found new life by heading overseas.

In 2010, Triumph sold just 7,562 bikes in the UK, but 50,000 worldwide, indicating that an international interest paid off for the company. Triumph#39;s famous factory in Warwickshire closed up shop in 1983, but the Indian factory remained, and these days, the Sociology of the Essay, motorcycles have become the country#39;s Harley Davidson. Essay And Conservation Practice. The company struggles to meet demand in India, with a six month waiting list and a new factory being built. India#39;s middle class has embraced the vehicle as an affordable commodity, even giving them as dowries in weddings. Background Checks for Job Candidates. What Is The Between Israelis. Background checks are an issue faced by many companies, as sensitive information is now more public than ever. OfficeDrop is no exception, as the company scans paper into digital files, including patient records and Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice, minister sermons, most of which require trustworthy employees who can handle documents discreetly. Many companies offer quick, superficial checks, but for OfficeDrop owner Prasad Thammineni, more information was required.

He found a company that would allow research to delve into a number of different sources and perform a more comprehensive search. Other business owners offered somewhat critical opinions of Thammineni#39;s choice, pointing out that instead of Googling to taft, find a background check company, he should have asked his business network who they were using. They also recommended that he take advantage of free resources, including online searches and checking out social media sites to learn more about Practice job candidates. Howard Iv. Employee Engagement in Essay and Conservation, Tough Times. When Gamal Aziz stepped in as president of the MGM Grand Hotel Casino, he didn#39;t just take on out there a $400 million spruce up of the hotel, he worked on the employees as well. Essay And Conservation Practice. He asked rank and file employees to share their insight through a hotel, discovering that there was a disconnect between what was going on at the hotel and the knowledge of staff.

He implemented an easy fix, creating short meetings at the start of every shift to inform employees of daily happenings so that staff could offer more to guests, improving customer loyalty, return visits, and spending. Experts laud Aziz for differentiating the MGM grand with top quality service from the employees. Social Media Serves Up Creme Brulee. Marketing is key, whether you#39;re a multibillion dollar company, or just a guy with a cart full of creme brulee. But just doing it isn#39;t enough: you have to market effectively. Curtis Kimball, the man behind the Creme Brulee Cart, put Twitter to what between, work for him amassing thousands of followers and growing his business by allowing people to follow the cart through the on Poverty and Conservation Practice, online service.

Kimball engages with customers and develops a personal relationship with followers online, asking for suggestions on flavors and cart locations. Pride. Perhaps the on Poverty, most impressive part of pride this story is the fact that Kimball has no marketing budget (Twitter is a free service), yet enjoys an incredibly popular status and high ratings on Yelp. Overreaching Products, Suffering Sales. You can#39;t be everything to everyone, as Hickory Farms found out. A company that started out with holiday gift baskets including sausage, ham, and cheese at one point had an offering of 2,500 different products, sprawling the company and resulting in a loss of on Poverty and Conservation favor with customers. Recognizing this issue, Hickory Farms streamlined itself, slashing their number of products from 2,500 to 300 with more modern visuals, descriptions, and other features, including less packaging and more recycled content. The company also overhauled their website, making it easier to out there text, shop online. All of this streamlining resulted in a price reduction of Reduction Practice 13% that Hickory Farms was able to pass on to their customers. Brand strategist Jennifer Woodbery believes that this was a smart move, making the most of Hickory Farms#39; trusted name and image with an effective rebranding of offerings. Maintaining Consistently Good Employees. It happens all the time: good employees get a promotion, and suddenly, they#39;re not so good anymore.

Such is the case for cat shelter Paws Need Families, as Della, a cleaner turned assistant manager, then manager started arriving late, letting applications sit, and slipped on inoculations, all serious offenses. Instead of confronting Della directly, general meetings were held, and an assistant manager was hired to compensate for Della#39;s shortcomings. The Darkness Out There Text. Ultimately, Della never cleaned up her act, and on Poverty and Conservation Practice, was fired. Ken Blanchard, co-author of The One Minute Manager believes this situation could have been avoided with frequent meetings and support with a system of review, both of which can identify issues before they become real problems. William Howard Taft. In 2009, Maclaren issued a recall for and Conservation Practice every stroller it had sold in Essay Full Scanners: Really Necessary?, the US for a decade, which came to 1 million units. The strollers were recalled so that a cover could be installed to prevent amputation of a baby#39;s fingers, which could happen if the baby were to be in the stroller in the wrong spot. As a luxury brand, this incident was damaging even though it was a misuse of the on Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice, product and text, not a defect. Experts believe that Maclaren did the Practice, right thing in the aftermath of the pride and prejudice, recall, asking for a fast track recall from the on Poverty Reduction Practice, Consumer Product Safety Commission, and monobasic vs dibasic, got out in front of the on Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice, recall as it started spreading through the press, saving face and further embracing a mission of child safety. We all hope that clients will pay on time, but the fact is what is the israelis and palestinians, that most businesses have to deal with lateness at some point or another. How you deal with it can make all the difference, and this case study reveals a smart strategy.

When a client wrote to check in on the progress of work, a web developer replied that she was hesitant to work quickly for Essay Reduction and Conservation Practice that client because she was still waiting on payments for conflict between month-old work. This immediately got the attention of the clients, who contacted her and discovered that their checks were not going to the right address. The problem was solved almost instantaneously, enforcing both leverage and rewarding positive behavior. However, it was risky, and Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation, the client criticized her for not sharing a warning before coming to a difficult point. In 2000, a fire at vs dibasic the Philips microchip plant affected phone manufacturers Nokia And Ericsson.

The companies reacted in different ways, and ultimately, Ericsson did not do well, quitting the mobile phone business and Essay Reduction and Conservation Practice, allowing Nokia to win over vs dibasic the European market. While Ericsson had tied up all of Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice its key components in a single source and planned to monobasic vs dibasic, wait out the problem with the fire, Nokia worked to snatch up spare chips from other plants and suppliers, as well as re-engineered some of their phones to Reduction and Conservation Practice, adapt to different chips from of the Essay new suppliers. It#39;s not hard to imagine what happened after that. Nokia kept trucking along, while Ericsson suffered from months of lost production and sales, allowing the market to be dominated by Nokia. This incident and fallout is a classic lesson in supply chain risk management. Copyright Online Colleges 2017.

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essay on leverage Folks who do systems analysis have a great belief in “leverage points.” These are places within a complex system (a corporation, an on Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice economy, a living body, a city, an pride and prejudice ecosystem) where a small shift in one thing can produce big changes in and Conservation Practice everything. This idea is not unique to systems analysis — it’s embedded in legend. The silver bullet, the trimtab, the miracle cure, the secret passage, the magic password, the pride single hero who turns the tide of history. The nearly effortless way to cut through or leap over huge obstacles.

We not only want to believe that there are leverage points, we want to know where they are and Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation, how to get our hands on them. Leverage points are points of power. The systems analysis community has a lot of lore about leverage points. Monobasic. Those of us who were trained by the great Jay Forrester at MIT have all absorbed one of his favorite stories. “People know intuitively where leverage points are,” he says. “Time after time I’ve done an analysis of a company, and I’ve figured out a leverage point — in inventory policy, maybe, or in the relationship between sales force and Essay on Poverty and Conservation Practice, productive force, or in personnel policy. Then I’ve gone to the company and discovered that there’s already a lot of conflict israelis, attention to that point. Everyone is Practice, trying very hard to push it IN THE WRONG DIRECTION!” The classic example of what between israelis and palestinians, that backward intuition was my own introduction to systems analysis, the world model. Asked by the Club of Essay Reduction, Rome to william howard taft show how major global problems — poverty and hunger, environmental destruction, resource depletion, urban deterioration, unemployment — are related and how they might be solved, Forrester made a computer model and came out with a clear leverage point 1 : Growth. Not only population growth, but economic growth.

Growth has costs as well as benefits, and we typically don’t count the on Poverty Reduction costs — among which are poverty and hunger, environmental destruction, etc. — the whole list of problems we are trying to solve with growth! What is needed is much slower growth, much different kinds of growth, and in some cases no growth or negative growth. The world’s leaders are correctly fixated on monobasic, economic growth as the answer to virtually all problems, but they’re pushing with all their might in the wrong direction. Another of Forrester’s classics was his urban dynamics study, published in 1969, which demonstrated that subsidized low-income housing is a leverage point. 2 The less of on Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice, it there is, the monobasic better off the city is — even the low-income folks in the city. This model came out at a time when national policy dictated massive low-income housing projects, and Forrester was derided. Now those projects are being torn down in city after city. Counterintuitive. That’s Forrester’s word to describe complex systems.

Leverage points are not intuitive. Or if they are, we intuitively use them backward, systematically worsening whatever problems we are trying to solve. The systems analysts I know have come up with no quick or easy formulas for finding leverage points. Essay On Poverty. When we study a system, we usually learn where leverage points are. But a new system we’ve never encountered? Well, our counterintuitions aren’t that well developed. Give us a few months or years and we’ll figure it out. And we know from monobasic vs dibasic, bitter experience that, because of counterintuitiveness, when we do discover the and Conservation Practice system’s leverage points, hardly anybody will believe us. Very frustrating, especially for those of us who yearn not just to understand complex systems, but to text make the world work better.

So one day I was sitting in Essay on Poverty Reduction a meeting about how to make the world work better — actually it was a meeting about how the new global trade regime, NAFTA and GATT and the World Trade Organization, is likely to make the world work worse. The more I listened, the more I began to simmer inside. “This is a HUGE NEW SYSTEM people are inventing!” I said to myself. “They haven’t the SLIGHTEST IDEA how this complex structure will behave,” myself said back to me. “It’s almost certainly an example of cranking the the darkness out there text system in Essay the wrong direction — it’s aimed at growth, growth at any price!! And the pride control measures these nice, liberal folks are talking about to combat it — small parameter adjustments, weak negative feedback loops — are PUNY. ” Suddenly, without quite knowing what was happening, I got up, marched to the flip chart, tossed over to Reduction a clean page, and wrote: (in increasing order of effectiveness) 9. Constants, parameters, numbers (subsidies, taxes, standards). 8. Regulating negative feedback loops. 7. Driving positive feedback loops. 6. Material flows and nodes of is the israelis, material intersection. 5. Information flows. 4. The rules of the system (incentives, punishments, constraints). 3. The distribution of and Conservation Practice, power over the rules of the system.

2. The goals of the system. 1. The mindset or paradigm out of Sociology, which the system — its goals, power structure, rules, its culture — arises. Everyone in the meeting blinked in surprise, including me. “That’s brilliant!” someone breathed. “Huh?” said someone else. I realized that I had a lot of explaining to do. I also had a lot of thinking to do. As with most of the stuff that come to on Poverty Reduction and Conservation me in boil-over mode, this list was not exactly tightly reasoned. As I began to share it with others, especially systems analysts who had their own lists and activists who wanted to put the list to immediate use, questions and comments came back that caused me to rethink, add and delete items, change the order, add caveats. In a minute I’ll go through the list I ended up with, explain the pride jargon, give examples and exceptions. The reason for this introduction is to place the list in a context of humility and to leave room for evolution.

What bubbled up in Essay me that day was distilled from decades of monobasic vs dibasic, rigorous analysis of many different kinds of systems done by many smart people. But complex systems are, well, complex. It’s dangerous to generalize about them. What you are about to read is a work in progress. It’s not a recipe for finding leverage points. Rather it’s an invitation to think more broadly about Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice system change. Here, in the light of text, a cooler dawn, is a revised list: (in increasing order of effectiveness) 12. Constants, parameters, numbers (such as subsidies, taxes, standards).

11. The sizes of Essay on Poverty and Conservation, buffers and and prejudice sisters, other stabilizing stocks, relative to their flows. 10. Reduction. The structure of pride and prejudice, material stocks and flows (such as transport networks, population age structures). 9. Practice. The lengths of delays, relative to the rate of system change.

8. The strength of negative feedback loops, relative to the impacts they are trying to correct against. 7. The gain around driving positive feedback loops. 6. The structure of information flows (who does and does not have access to information). 5. The rules of the pride sisters system (such as incentives, punishments, constraints). 4. The power to add, change, evolve, or self-organize system structure. 3. The goals of the system.

2. The mindset or paradigm out of and Conservation, which the system — its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters — arises. 1. The power to and prejudice sisters transcend paradigms. To explain parameters, stocks, delays, flows, feedback, and so forth, I need to start with a basic diagram. The “state of the system” is whatever standing stock is of importance — amount of water behind the dam, amount of harvestable wood in the forest, number of people in the population, amount of money in the bank, whatever. System states are usually physical stocks, but they could be nonmaterial ones as well — self-confidence, degree of trust in public officials, perceived safety of a neighborhood. There are usually inflows that increase the stock and outflows that decrease it. Deposits increase the Essay Reduction Practice money in the bank; withdrawals decrease it. River inflow and rain raise the water behind the dam; evaporation and discharge through the Workplace spillway lower it. Births and immigrations increase the population, deaths and on Poverty and Conservation Practice, emigrations reduce it. Political corruption decreases trust in public officials; experience of a well-functioning government increases it.

Insofar as this part of the Essay on Using Body Really system consists of physical stocks and Essay Practice, flows — and they are the bedrock of any system — it obeys laws of conservation and accumulation. You can understand its dynamics readily, if you can understand a bathtub with some water in it (the state of the system) and howard taft iv, an inflowing faucet and outflowing drain. If the inflow rate is higher than the outflow rate, the stock gradually rises. If the outflow rate is and Conservation Practice, higher than the inflow, the stock gradually goes down. Essay Is That. The sluggish response of the water level to what could be sudden twists in the input and output valves is typical — it takes time for Essay on Poverty Reduction Practice flows to accumulate, just as it takes time for water to fill up or drain out of the tub. The rest of the diagram is the information that causes the flows to change, which then cause the stock to change. If you’re about to take a bath, you have a desired water level in mind. You plug the drain, turn on the faucet and watch until the water rises to the darkness out there text your chosen level (until the discrepancy between the desired and Reduction, the actual state of the system is zero). Then you turn the water off.

If you start to howard taft iv get in the bath and discover that you’ve underestimated your volume and are about to produce an Reduction and Conservation overflow, you can open the drain for awhile, until the water goes down to your desired level. Those are two negative feedback loops, or correcting loops, one controlling the inflow, one controlling the conflict outflow, either or both of which you can use to bring the water level to your goal. Notice that the Essay and Conservation goal and the feedback connections are not visible in the system. If you were an extraterrestrial trying to Body Is That figure out why the and Conservation Practice tub fills and empties, it would take awhile to figure out that there’s an monobasic invisible goal and a discrepancy-measuring process going on in the head of the creature manipulating the faucets. But if you watched long enough, you could figure that out. Very simple so far.

Now let’s take into account that you have two taps, a hot and Reduction Practice, a cold, and that you’re also adjusting for another system state — temperature. Suppose the hot inflow is connected to a boiler way down in the basement, four floors below, so it doesn’t respond quickly. And you’re making faces at yourself in the mirror and not paying close attention to the water level. And, of course, the inflow pipe is connected to a reservoir somewhere, which is the darkness out there text, connected to the whole planetary hydrological cycle. The system begins to get complex, and Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice, realistic, and interesting. Mentally change the of the Workplace Essay bathtub into your checking account. Write checks, make deposits, add a faucet that keeps dribbling in Essay on Poverty Practice a little interest and a special drain that sucks your balance even drier if it ever goes dry. Attach your account to a thousand others and Essay, let the bank create loans as a function of your combined and fluctuating deposits, link a thousand of Practice, those banks into a federal reserve system — and you begin to see how simple stocks and flows, plumbed together, make up systems way too complex to figure out. That’s why leverage points are not intuitive. And that’s enough systems theory to proceed to the list.

12. Constants, parameters, numbers (subsidies, taxes, standards). “Parameters” in systems jargon means the conflict israelis and palestinians numbers that determine how much of a discrepancy turns which faucet how fast. Maybe the Essay Reduction faucet turns hard, so it takes awhile to get the water flowing or to turn it off. Maybe the drain is blocked and can allow only a small flow, no matter how open it is.

Maybe the faucet can deliver with the force of a fire hose. These considerations are a matter of numbers, some of which are physically locked in and unchangeable, but most of which are popular intervention points. Consider the national debt. It’s a negative bathtub, a money hole. The rate at which it sinks is called the annual deficit. Tax income makes it rise, government expenditures make it fall. What Is The Between Israelis. Congress and the president spend most of their time arguing about the Essay Practice many, many parameters that open and close tax faucets and monobasic vs dibasic, spending drains. Since those faucets and drains are connected to us, the voters, these are politically charged parameters. But, despite all the fireworks, and no matter which party is in charge, the money hole has been sinking for years now, just at different rates.

To adjust the dirtiness of the air we breathe, the government sets parameters called ambient air quality standards. To assure some standing stock of forest (or some flow of money to logging companies) it sets allowed annual cuts. Corporations adjust parameters such as wage rates and Essay Practice, product prices, with an eye on the level in on Using Full Body Scanners: their profit bathtub — the Essay Reduction bottom line. The amount of land we set aside for and prejudice sisters conservation. The minimum wage. How much we spend on AIDS research or Stealth bombers. The service charge the bank extracts from Essay on Poverty Reduction Practice, your account. Out There Text. All these are parameters, adjustments to faucets. Essay On Poverty Practice. So, by the way, is firing people and on Using Full Necessary?, getting new ones, including politicians. Putting different hands on the faucets may change the rate at which the faucets turn, but if they’re the same old faucets, plumbed into the same old system, turned according to the same old information and goals and Essay on Poverty and Conservation, rules, the system isn’t going to change much. Electing Bill Clinton was definitely different from electing George Bush, but not all that different, given that every president is william taft, plugged into the same political system. (Changing the way money flows in that system would make much more of Essay Reduction and Conservation, a difference — but I’m getting ahead of myself on this list.)

Parameters are dead last on my list of powerful interventions. Diddling with the details, arranging the deck chairs on the Titanic. Probably 90, no 95, no 99 percent of our attention goes to Sociology of the Essay parameters, but there’s not a lot of leverage in them. Not that parameters aren’t important — they can be, especially in the short term and to the individual who’s standing directly in on Poverty the flow. People care deeply about parameters and fight fierce battles over them. But they RARELY CHANGE BEHAVIOR. If the Body Scanners: system is Essay Reduction Practice, chronically stagnant, parameter changes rarely kick-start it. If it’s wildly variable, they don’t usually stabilize it.

If it’s growing out of control, they don’t brake it. Whatever cap we put on campaign contributions, it doesn’t clean up politics. Monobasic. The Feds fiddling with the interest rate haven’t made business cycles go away. (We always forget that during upturns, and are shocked, shocked by the downturns.) After decades of the strictest air pollution standards in Essay Reduction and Conservation the world, Los Angeles air is less dirty, but it isn’t clean. Spending more on police doesn’t make crime go away. Since I’m about to get into some examples where parameters ARE leverage points, let me stick in a big caveat here. Parameters become leverage points when they go into william iv, ranges that kick off one of the items higher on this list. Interest rates, for example, or birth rates, control the gains around positive feedback loops. System goals are parameters that can make big differences. Sometimes a system gets onto a chaotic edge, where the on Poverty tiniest change in a number can drive it from order to what appears to be wild disorder. These critical numbers are not nearly as common as people seem to think they are.

Most systems have evolved or are designed to stay far out of critical parameter ranges. Mostly, the numbers are not worth the sweat put into them. Here’s a story a friend sent me over out there text the Internet to makes that point: 3. When I became a landlord, I spent a lot of time and energy trying to figure out what would be a “fair” rent to charge. I tried to consider all the variables, including the relative incomes of my tenants, my own income and cash flow needs, which expenses were for upkeep and and Conservation, which were capital expenses, the equity versus the interest portion of the mortgage payments, how much my labor on the house was worth, etc.

I got absolutely nowhere. Finally I went to someone who specializes in giving money advice. She said: “You’re acting as though there is a fine line at which the rent is fair, and at any point above that point the tenant is being screwed and at any point below that you are being screwed. In fact there is a large grey area in which both you and the tenant are getting a good, or at least a fair, deal. Stop worrying and get on with your life.” 11. The sizes of buffers and other stabilizing stocks, relative to their flows. Consider a huge bathtub with slow in and outflows. Now think about a small one with very fast flows.

That’s the pride and prejudice sisters difference between a lake and Essay on Poverty Reduction Practice, a river. You hear about catastrophic river floods much more often than catastrophic lake floods, because stocks that are big, relative to their flows, are more stable than small ones. Essay. In chemistry and Essay on Poverty Practice, other fields, a big, stabilizing stock is known as a buffer. The stabilizing power of buffers is why you keep money in the bank rather than living from the flow of change through your pocket. It’s why stores hold inventory instead of calling for pride sisters new stock just as customers carry the old stock out the door. It’s why we need to maintain more than the minimum breeding population of an endangered species. Soils in the eastern U.S. are more sensitive to acid rain than soils in the west, because they haven’t got big buffers of calcium to neutralize acid. You can often stabilize a system by increasing the capacity of Essay on Poverty and Conservation Practice, a buffer.

4 But if a buffer is too big, the system gets inflexible. It reacts too slowly. And big buffers of pride and prejudice sisters, some sorts, such as water reservoirs or inventories, cost a lot to build or maintain. Essay On Poverty Reduction Practice. Businesses invented just-in-time inventories, because occasional vulnerability to fluctuations or screw-ups is cheaper (for them, anyway) than certain, constant inventory costs — and because small-to-vanishing inventories allow more flexible response to shifting demand. There’s leverage, sometimes magical, in is the and palestinians changing the and Conservation Practice size of buffers. But buffers are usually physical entities, not easy to change. The acid absorption capacity of eastern soils is text, not a leverage point for Essay on Poverty and Conservation alleviating acid rain damage. Workplace Essay. The storage capacity of a dam is literally cast in Essay on Poverty and Conservation Practice concrete. So I haven’t put buffers very high on the list of leverage points.

10. Scanners: Really. The structure of material stocks and Essay Reduction, flows and of the Workplace Essay, nodes of intersection (such as transport networks, population age structures, flow of and Conservation Practice, nitrogen through soil). The plumbing structure, the stocks and Essay on Using Scanners: Is That Necessary?, flows and their physical arrangement, can have an Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation enormous effect on how the system operates. When the Hungarian road system was laid out so all traffic from one side of the nation to the other has to pass through central Budapest, that determined a lot about Sociology air pollution and commuting delays that are not easily fixed by pollution control devices, traffic lights, or speed limits. The only way to fix a system that is laid out wrong is to rebuild it, if you can. Amory Lovins does wonders of energy conservation by straightening out bent pipes and enlarging too-small ones. If we let him do energy retrofits on Reduction and Conservation Practice, all the buildings of the nation,we could shut down at least half of our electric power plants. But often physical rebuilding is the slowest and most expensive kind of pride and prejudice, change to make in a system.

Some stock-and-flow structures are just plain unchangeable. The baby-boom swell in the U.S. population first caused pressure on Reduction and Conservation Practice, the elementary school system, then high schools, then colleges, then jobs and housing, and now we’re looking forward to supporting its retirement. Vs Dibasic. Not much we can do about it, because five-year-olds become six-year-olds, and sixty-four-year-olds become sixty-five-year-olds predictably and unstoppably. The same can be said for the lifetime of destructive CFC molecules in the ozone layer, for Essay on Poverty and Conservation Practice the rate at which contaminants get washed out of aquifers, for the fact that an inefficient car fleet takes 10-20 years to turn over. Physical structure is crucial in a system, but rarely a leverage point, because changing it is rarely quick or simple. The leverage point is in proper design in the first place. Monobasic Vs Dibasic. After the structure is built, the leverage is in understanding its limitations and bottlenecks, using it with maximum efficiency, and refraining from fluctuations or expansions that strain its capacity. 9. The lengths of delays, relative to the rate of and Conservation, system changes. Remember that bathtub on the fourth floor I mentioned, with the water heater in the basement?

I actually experienced one of those once, in an old hotel in London. It wasn’t even a bathtub, it was a shower — no buffering capacity. The water temperature took at least a minute to out there respond to my faucet twists. Essay On Poverty And Conservation. Guess what my shower was like. Right, oscillations from hot to cold and back to hot, punctuated with expletives. Delays in what between and palestinians feedback loops are critical determinants of system behavior. They are common causes of on Poverty and Conservation, oscillations. If you’re trying to adjust a system state to your goal, but you only receive delayed information about what the Sociology of the Workplace system state is, you will overshoot and Essay on Poverty and Conservation, undershoot. Sociology Essay. Same if your information is timely, but your response isn’t.

For example, it takes several years to build an on Poverty and Conservation electric power plant, and and prejudice, then that plant lasts, say, thirty years. Essay On Poverty. Those delays make it impossible to build exactly the right number of plants to supply a rapidly changing demand. Even with immense effort at forecasting, almost every electricity industry in the world experiences long oscillations between overcapacity and pride, undercapacity. On Poverty Reduction. A system just can’t respond to short-term changes when it has long-term delays. That’s why a massive central-planning system, such as the Soviet Union or General Motors, necessarily functions poorly.

Because we know they’re important, we systems folks see delays wherever we look. The delay between the time when a pollutant is howard, dumped on the land and when it trickles down to Essay the groundwater. The delay between the birth of a child and the time when that child is ready to have a child. The delay between the first successful test of a new technology and Sociology of the Workplace Essay, the time when that technology is installed throughout the economy. The time it takes for Essay on Poverty a price to adjust to a supply-demand imbalance. A delay in a feedback process is critical RELATIVE TO RATES OF CHANGE (growth, fluctuation, decay) IN THE STOCKS THAT THE FEEDBACK LOOP IS TRYING TO CONTROL. Pride Sisters. Delays that are too short cause overreaction, “chasing your tail,” oscillations amplified by the jumpiness of the response. Delays that are too long cause damped, sustained, or exploding oscillations, depending on how much too long.

At the extreme they cause chaos. On Poverty And Conservation Practice. Overlong delays in a system with a threshold, a danger point, a range past which irreversible damage can occur, cause overshoot and collapse. I would list delay length as a high leverage point, except for the fact that delays are not often easily changeable. Things take as long as they take. You can’t do a lot about the construction time of a major piece of capital, or the maturation time of a child, or the growth rate of a forest. It’s usually easier to SLOW DOWN THE CHANGE RATE, so that inevitable feedback delays won’t cause so much trouble.

That’s why growth rates are higher up on the leverage-point list than delay times. And that’s why slowing economic growth is a greater leverage point in Forrester’s world model than faster technological development or freer market prices. Those are attempts to speed up the rate of adjustment. But the world’s physical capital plant, its factories and boilers, the concrete manifestations of its working technologies, can only change so fast, even in the face of new prices or new ideas — and prices and ideas don’t change instantly either, not through a whole global culture. There’s more leverage in of the slowing the Essay and Conservation system down so technologies and william taft iv, prices can keep up with it, than there is in wishing the delays away. But if there is Essay on Poverty and Conservation Practice, a delay in your system that can be changed, changing it can have big effects. Watch out! Be sure you change it in the right direction! (For example, the great push to Essay Full Is That Really reduce information and money transfer delays in financial markets is just asking for on Poverty Practice wild gyrations)

8. The strength of howard taft iv, negative feedback loops, relative to the impacts they are trying to correct against. Now we’re beginning to move from the physical part of the system to the information and control parts, where more leverage can be found. Negative feedback loops are ubiquitous in systems. Nature evolves them and humans invent them as controls to keep important system states within safe bounds. A thermostat loop is the classic example. Its purpose is to keep the and Conservation Practice system state called “room temperature” fairly constant at a desired level.

Any negative feedback loop needs a goal (the thermostat setting), a monitoring and signaling device to detect excursions from the taft goal (the thermostat), and a response mechanism (the furnace and/or air conditioner, fans, heat pipes, fuel, etc.). A complex system usually has numerous negative feedback loops it can bring into play, so it can self-correct under different conditions and impacts. Some of those loops may be inactive much of the time — like the emergency cooling system in a nuclear power plant, or your ability to Essay Reduction sweat or shiver to maintain your body temperature — but their presence is of the Workplace Essay, critical to the long-term welfare of the system. One of the big mistakes we make is to strip away these “emergency” response mechanisms because they aren’t often used and they appear to be costly. In the short term we see no effect from doing this. In the long term, we drastically narrow the range of conditions over which the Essay on Poverty and Conservation system can survive. One of the most heartbreaking ways we do this is in encroaching on the habitats of endangered species. Another is in encroaching on what is the between and palestinians, our own time for rest, recreation, socialization, and meditation. The “strength” of Essay and Conservation Practice, a negative loop — its ability to keep its appointed stock at or near its goal — depends on the combination of all its parameters and links — the accuracy and rapidity of monitoring, the quickness and power of Full Scanners: Really Necessary?, response, the directness and size of corrective flows.

Sometimes there are leverage points here. Take markets, for example, the negative feedback systems that are all but worshipped by economists — and they can indeed be marvels of self-correction, as prices vary to moderate supply and demand and Essay on Poverty and Conservation, keep them in balance. The more the price — the central piece of information signaling both producers and consumers — is kept clear, unambiguous, timely, and Necessary?, truthful, the more smoothly markets will operate. Prices that reflect full costs will tell consumers how much they can actually afford and will reward efficient producers. On Poverty Reduction And Conservation. Companies and governments are fatally attracted to the price leverage point, of course, all of them determinedly pushing it in the wrong direction with subsidies, fixes, externalities, taxes, and other forms of the darkness out there, confusion. These folks are trying to weaken the feedback power of market signals by twisting information in Essay on Poverty Reduction their favor. The REAL leverage here is to keep them from doing it. Hence the necessity of and prejudice, anti-trust laws, truth-in-advertising laws, attempts to internalize costs (such as pollution taxes), the removal of perverse subsidies, and other ways of leveling market playing fields. None of which get far these days, because of the weakening of another set of negative feedback loops — those of democracy. This great system was invented to put self-correcting feedback between the people and Essay on Poverty and Conservation, their government.

The people, informed about what their elected representatives do, respond by voting those representatives in or out of office. William Howard Taft. The process depends upon the free, full, unbiased flow of information back and forth between electorate and leaders. Billions of dollars are spent to limit and Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation, bias and dominate that flow. Give the people who want to monobasic distort market price signals the power to pay off government leaders, get the channels of communication to Essay on Poverty be self-interested corporate partners themselves, and none of the necessary negative feedbacks work well. What Conflict Between And Palestinians. Both market and democracy erode. The strength of a negative feedback loop is important RELATIVE TO THE IMPACT IT IS DESIGNED TO CORRECT. If the Essay on Poverty Reduction impact increases in strength, the feedbacks have to be strengthened too.

A thermostat system may work fine on a cold winter day — but open all the windows and its corrective power will fail. Pride And Prejudice Sisters. Democracy worked better before the advent of the brainwashing power of centralized mass communications. Traditional controls on fishing were sufficient until radar spotting and drift nets and other technologies made it possible for a few actors to wipe out the fish. The power of big industry calls for the power of big government to hold it in check; a global economy makes necessary a global government and on Poverty, global regulations. Here are some examples of strengthening negative feedback controls to improve a system’s self-correcting abilities: preventive medicine, exercise, and good nutrition to bolster the monobasic vs dibasic body’s ability to fight disease, integrated pest management to encourage natural predators of crop pests, the Freedom of Information Act to reduce government secrecy, monitoring systems to report on environmental damage, protection for and Conservation whistleblowers, impact fees, pollution taxes, and vs dibasic, performance bonds to recapture the Essay on Poverty Reduction Practice externalized public costs of private benefits. 7. The gain around driving positive feedback loops. A negative feedback loop is self-correcting; a positive feedback loop is self-reinforcing. Sisters. The more it works, the more it gains power to work some more. The more people catch the flu, the more they infect other people. The more babies are born, the more people grow up to have babies.

The more money you have in the bank, the Essay on Poverty and Conservation Practice more interest you earn, the more money you have in the bank. William Howard Taft Iv. The more the Essay Reduction and Conservation soil erodes, the less vegetation it can support, the fewer roots and what israelis and palestinians, leaves to soften rain and runoff, the more soil erodes. The more high-energy neutrons in the critical mass, the more they knock into nuclei and generate more. Positive feedback loops are sources of growth, explosion, erosion, and and Conservation Practice, collapse in systems. A system with an Essay unchecked positive loop ultimately will destroy itself.

That’s why there are so few of them. Usually a negative loop will kick in sooner or later. The epidemic will run out of on Poverty, infectable people — or people will take increasingly strong steps to avoid being infected. The death rate will rise to equal the sisters birth rate — or people will see the consequences of unchecked population growth and Essay on Poverty Reduction, have fewer babies. The soil will erode away to the darkness bedrock, and after a million years the bedrock will crumble into new soil — or people will stop overgrazing, put up checkdams, plant trees, and stop the erosion.

In all those examples, the first outcome is what will happen if the positive loop runs its course, the second is what will happen if there’s an intervention to reduce its self-multiplying power. Reducing the Essay on Poverty Practice gain around a positive loop — slowing the Essay on Using Full Scanners: Is That growth — is Essay Reduction, usually a more powerful leverage point in systems than strengthening negative loops, and much preferable to letting the positive loop run. Population and economic growth rates in the world model are leverage points, because slowing them gives the many negative loops, through technology and markets and other forms of william, adaptation, all of which have limits and delays, time to Essay Reduction and Conservation Practice function. It’s the same as slowing the car when you’re driving too fast, rather than calling for more responsive brakes or technical advances in steering. Another example: there are many positive feedback loops in society that reward the winners of pride sisters, a competition with the Essay on Poverty and Conservation Practice resources to win even bigger next time. Systems folks call them “success to the successful” loops. Of The. Rich people collect interest; poor people pay it. Essay On Poverty Reduction Practice. Rich people pay accountants and lean on politicians to reduce their taxes; poor people can’t. Rich people give their kids inheritances and good educations; poor kids lose out.

Anti-poverty programs are weak negative loops that try to counter these strong positive ones. And Prejudice. It would be much more effective to weaken the positive loops. That’s what progressive income tax, inheritance tax, and universal high-quality public education programs are meant to do. Essay On Poverty Reduction Practice. (If rich people can buy government and weaken, rather than strengthen those of measures, the government, instead of balancing “success to the successful” loops, becomes just another instrument to monobasic vs dibasic reinforce them!) The most interesting behavior that rapidly turning positive loops can trigger is chaos. This wild, unpredictable, unreplicable, and yet bounded behavior happens when a system starts changing much, much faster than its negative loops can react to it. For example, if you keep raising the capital growth rate in the world model, eventually you get to on Poverty and Conservation Practice a point where one tiny increase more will shift the economy from exponential growth to oscillation. Another nudge upward gives the and prejudice oscillation a double beat. And just the tiniest further nudge sends it into chaos. I don’t expect the world economy to turn chaotic any time soon (not for that reason, anyway).

That behavior occurs only in on Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice unrealistic parameter ranges, equivalent to monobasic doubling the size of the economy within a year. Real-world systems can turn chaotic, however, if something in them can grow or decline very fast. Fast-replicating bacteria or insect populations, very infectious epidemics, wild speculative bubbles in money systems, neutron fluxes in the guts of nuclear power plants. These systems are hard to Essay on Poverty control, and control must involve slowing down the positive feedbacks. In more ordinary systems, look for leverage points around birth rates, interest rates, erosion rates, “success to the successful” loops, any place where the more you have of william howard taft, something, the more you have the possibility of having more. 6. The structure of information flows (who does and does not have access to information).

There was this subdivision of identical houses, the story goes, except that for some reason the electric meter in some of the houses was installed in the basement and in others it was installed in the front hall, where the Practice residents could see it constantly, going round faster or slower as they used more or less electricity. With no other change, with identical prices, electricity consumption was 30 percent lower in the houses where the meter was in the front hall. We systems-heads love that story because it’s an example of a high leverage point in Body Scanners: Is That the information structure of the Reduction and Conservation Practice system. And Prejudice Sisters. It’s not a parameter adjustment, not a strengthening or weakening of an existing loop. It’s a NEW LOOP, delivering feedback to a place where it wasn’t going before. A more recent example is the Toxic Release Inventory — the U.S. government’s requirement, instituted in 1986, that every factory releasing hazardous air pollutants report those emissions publicly every year. Suddenly every community could find out precisely what was coming out of the Essay on Poverty smokestacks in town. There was no law against those emissions, no fines, no determination of “safe” levels, just information. But by monobasic 1990 emissions dropped 40 percent. They’ve continued to go down since, not so much because of citizen outrage as because of corporate shame.

One chemical company that found itself on the Top Ten Polluters list reduced its emissions by 90 percent, just to “get off that list.” Missing feedback is one of the most common causes of system malfunction. Adding or restoring information can be a powerful intervention, usually much easier and Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice, cheaper than rebuilding physical infrastructure. The tragedy of the commons that is crashing the william howard taft world’s commercial fisheries occurs because there is Reduction and Conservation Practice, no feedback from the state of the fish population to the decision to the darkness text invest in fishing vessels. Essay On Poverty Reduction Practice. (Contrary to is the between israelis and palestinians economic opinion, the price of fish doesn’t provide that feedback. As the fish get more scarce and hence more expensive, it becomes all the more profitable to go out and catch them. That’s a perverse feedback, a positive loop that leads to Essay on Poverty Practice collapse.)

It’s important that the missing feedback be restored to the right place and in compelling form. To take another tragedy of the commons, it’s not enough to inform all the users of an aquifer that the groundwater level is howard taft iv, dropping. That could initiate a race to the bottom. It would be more effective to set a water price that rises steeply as the pumping rate begins to exceed the Essay on Poverty Reduction recharge rate. Compelling feedback. Suppose taxpayers got to specify on their return forms what government services their tax payments must be spent on. Essay Full Scanners: Is That Really. (Radical democracy!) Suppose any town or company that puts a water intake pipe in a river had to put it immediately DOWNSTREAM from its own outflow pipe. Suppose any public or private official who made the decision to invest in a nuclear power plant got the waste from that plant stored on Reduction Practice, his/her lawn. Suppose (this is an old one) the politicians who declare war were required to spend that war in vs dibasic the front lines. There is a systematic tendency on the part of human beings to Essay avoid accountability for their own decisions. That’s why there are so many missing feedback loops — and why this kind of leverage point is so often popular with the the darkness out there masses, unpopular with the powers that be, and effective, if you can get the powers that be to permit it to happen (or go around them and make it happen anyway). 5. The rules of the system (incentives, punishments, constraints).

The rules of the system define its scope, its boundaries, its degrees of freedom. Thou shalt not kill. Everyone has the right of free speech. Contracts are to be honored. The president serves four-year terms and cannot serve more than two of Essay Practice, them. Nine people on a team, you have to touch every base, three strikes and you’re out. If you get caught robbing a bank, you go to jail. Mikhail Gorbachev came to taft power in the USSR and opened information flows ( glasnost ) and on Poverty Reduction and Conservation, changed the economic rules ( perestroika ), and monobasic, look what happened. Constitutions are the strongest examples of social rules. Essay On Poverty Practice. Physical laws such as the conflict israelis second law of thermodynamics are absolute rules, whether we understand them or not or like them or not. Laws, punishments, incentives, and informal social agreements are progressively weaker rules.

To demonstrate the power of rules, I like to ask my students to imagine different ones for a college. And Conservation Practice. Suppose the students graded the teachers, or each other. What Between And Palestinians. Suppose there were no degrees: you come to college when you want to learn something, and you leave when you’ve learned it. Suppose tenure were awarded to professors according to their ability to solve real-world problems, rather than to on Poverty publish academic papers. Suppose a class got graded as a group, instead of as individuals. As we try to imagine restructured rules like that and the darkness out there text, what our behavior would be under them, we come to understand the power of rules. They are high leverage points. Power over the rules is Reduction and Conservation, real power. That’s why lobbyists congregate when Congress writes laws, and why the Supreme Court, which interprets and delineates the Constitution — the rules for writing the rules — has even more power than Congress.

If you want to understand the deepest malfunctions of systems, pay attention to the rules, and to who has power over them. That’s why my systems intuition was sending off alarm bells as the new world trade system was explained to me. It is what is the conflict between israelis, a system with rules designed by corporations, run by corporations, for the benefit of corporations. Its rules exclude almost any feedback from on Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice, any other sector of society. Most of monobasic, its meetings are closed even to the press (no information flow, no feedback). It forces nations into positive loops “racing to Essay on Poverty Practice the bottom,” competing with each other to weaken environmental and social safeguards in order to attract corporate investment. William Howard. It’s a recipe for on Poverty Reduction unleashing “success to the successful” loops, until they generate enormous accumulations of power and huge centralized planning systems that will destroy themselves, just as the Soviet Union destroyed itself, and for similar systemic reasons. 4. The power to add, change, evolve, or self-organize system structure.

The most stunning thing living systems and iv, some social systems can do is to change themselves utterly by creating whole new structures and behaviors. In biological systems that power is on Poverty Reduction and Conservation, called evolution. In human economies it’s called technical advance or social revolution. In systems lingo it’s called self-organization. Self-organization means changing any aspect of a system lower on this list — adding completely new physical structures, such as brains or wings or computers — adding new negative or positive loops, or new rules. The ability to self-organize is the strongest form of system resilience. A system that can evolve can survive almost any change, by changing itself. The human immune system has the Sociology Essay power to develop new responses to (some kinds of ) insults it has never before encountered. The human brain can take in new information and Essay Reduction, pop out and prejudice, completely new thoughts. The power of self-organization seems so wondrous that we tend to regard it as mysterious, miraculous, manna from heaven. Economists often model technology as literal manna — coming from nowhere, costing nothing, increasing the productivity of an economy by some steady percent each year.

For centuries people have regarded the spectacular variety of Essay and Conservation, nature with the same awe. Only a divine creator could bring forth such a creation. Further investigation of self-organizing systems reveals that the divine creator, if there is one, does not have to produce evolutionary miracles. He, she, or it just has to write marvelously clever RULES FOR SELF-ORGANIZATION. These rules basically govern how, where, and what the system can add onto or subtract from itself under what conditions. Pride And Prejudice. As hundreds of self-organizing computer models have demonstrated, complex and delightful patterns can evolve from quite simple evolutionary algorithms. (That need not mean that real-world algorithms are simple, only on Poverty Practice that they can be.) The genetic code within the on Using Full Body Scanners: Is That Really Necessary? DNA that is the basis of Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation, all biological evolution contains just four different letters, combined into words of three letters each. That pattern, and the rules for replicating and rearranging it, has been constant for something like three billion years, during which it has spewed out an sisters unimaginable variety of failed and successful self-evolved creatures. Self-organization is basically a matter of an evolutionary raw material — a highly variable stock of information from on Poverty, which to select possible patterns — and a means for experimentation, for selecting and testing new patterns. For biological evolution the raw material is DNA, one source of variety is spontaneous mutation, and the testing mechanism is something like punctuated Darwinian selection. For technology the raw material is the body of understanding science has accumulated and stored in libraries and in the brains of its practitioners. The source of variety is human creativity (whatever THAT is) and the selection mechanism can be whatever the market will reward, or whatever governments and foundations will fund, or whatever meets human needs.

When you understand the power of system self-organization, you begin to understand why biologists worship biodiversity even more than economists worship technology. And Prejudice Sisters. The wildly varied stock of DNA, evolved and accumulated over billions of years, is the source of Essay and Conservation Practice, evolutionary potential, just as science libraries and Workplace Essay, labs and universities where scientists are trained are the source of technological potential. Essay On Poverty And Conservation. Allowing species to go extinct is a systems crime, just as randomly eliminating all copies of particular science journals, or particular kinds of scientists, would be. The same could be said of human cultures, of course, which are the store of behavioral repertoires, accumulated over and prejudice sisters not billions, but hundreds of thousands of years. They are a stock out of which social evolution can arise. Unfortunately, people appreciate the precious evolutionary potential of cultures even less than they understand the on Poverty Reduction preciousness of every genetic variation in the world’s ground squirrels. I guess that’s because one aspect of almost every culture is the belief in the utter superiority of that culture. Insistence on a single culture shuts down learning. Cuts back resilience. Any system, biological, economic, or social, that gets so encrusted that it cannot self-evolve, a system that systematically scorns experimentation and wipes out the raw material of innovation, is doomed over pride and prejudice the long term on this highly variable planet. The intervention point here is obvious, but unpopular.

Encouraging variability and experimentation and Essay on Poverty Practice, diversity means “losing control.” Let a thousand flowers bloom and ANYTHING could happen! Who wants that? Let’s play it safe and push this leverage point in the wrong direction by the darkness wiping out on Poverty Practice, biological, cultural, social, and market diversity! Right there, the diversity-destroying consequence of the push for control, that demonstrates why the goal of monobasic, a system is a leverage point superior to the self-organizing ability of a system. If the goal is to bring more and more of the world under the control of one particular central planning system (the empire of Genghis Khan, the world of Islam, the People’s Republic of China, Wal-Mart, Disney, whatever), then everything further down the list, physical stocks and flows, feedback loops, information flows, even self-organizing behavior, will be twisted to conform to that goal.

That’s why I can’t get into arguments about Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice whether genetic engineering is a “good” or a “bad” thing. Like all technologies, it depends upon who is wielding it, with what goal. Pride And Prejudice Sisters. The only thing one can say is that if corporations wield it for the purpose of generating marketable products, that is a very different goal, a different selection mechanism, a different direction for evolution than anything the Essay on Poverty Reduction planet has seen so far. As my little single-loop examples have shown, most negative feedback loops within systems have their own goals — to keep the bathwater at the right level, to keep the room temperature comfortable, to keep inventories stocked at sufficient levels, to keep enough water behind the dam. Those goals are important leverage points for pride and prejudice sisters pieces of systems, and most people realize that. Essay On Poverty Reduction And Conservation Practice. If you want the room warmer, you know the thermostat setting is the place to intervene. Essay Full Scanners:. But there are larger, less obvious, higher-leverage goals, those of the entire system. Even people within systems don’t often recognize what whole-system goal they are serving. To make profits, most corporations would say, but that’s just a rule, a necessary condition to Essay stay in the game.

What is the point of the on Using Full game? To grow, to increase market share, to bring the world (customers, suppliers, regulators) more and more under the control of the corporation, so that its operations becomes ever more shielded from uncertainty. John Kenneth Galbraith recognized that corporate goal — to engulf everything — long ago. 5 It’s the goal of a cancer too. Actually it’s the goal of every living population — and only a bad one when it isn’t balanced by Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation higher-level negative feedback loops that never let an upstart power-loop-driven entity control the world.

The goal of keeping the market competitive has to trump the goal of each corporation to william iv eliminate its competitors (and brainwash its customers and Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation, swallow its suppliers), just as in Workplace Essay ecosystems, the goal of Essay on Poverty Reduction and Conservation, keeping populations in balance and evolving has to trump the goal of each population to reproduce without limit. I said awhile back that changing the william taft iv players in Essay Reduction Practice the system is a low-level intervention, as long as the players fit into the same old system. The exception to that rule is at the top, where a single player can have the power to change the monobasic system’s goal. I have watched in wonder as — only very occasionally — a new leader in an organization, from Dartmouth College to Nazi Germany, comes in, enunciates a new goal, and swings hundreds or thousands or millions of perfectly intelligent, rational people off in Essay on Poverty Reduction Practice a new direction. That’s what Ronald Reagan did, and we watched it happen. Not long before he came to office, a president could say “Ask not what government can do for you, ask what you can do for the government,” and no one even laughed. Reagan said over and over, the goal is not to conflict between and palestinians get the Essay on Poverty Reduction Practice people to help the government and not to get government to help the people, but to iv get government off our backs. One can argue, and Essay on Poverty, I would, that larger system changes and the rise of corporate power over monobasic vs dibasic government let him get away with that. But the thoroughness with which the Essay and Conservation public discourse in the U.S. and even the world has been changed since Reagan is testimony to monobasic the high leverage of articulating, meaning, repeating, standing up for, insisting upon new system goals. 2. The mindset or paradigm out of which the on Poverty and Conservation system — its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters — arises.

Another of Jay Forrester’s famous systems sayings goes: it doesn’t matter how the tax law of vs dibasic, a country is written. There is a shared idea in the minds of the society about what a “fair” distribution of the tax load is. Whatever the on Poverty Practice rules say, by fair means or foul, by complications, cheating, exemptions or deductions, by howard taft iv constant sniping at the rules, actual tax payments will push right up against the accepted idea of “fairness.” The shared idea in the minds of society, the great big unstated assumptions — unstated because unnecessary to state; everyone already knows them — constitute that society’s paradigm, or deepest set of beliefs about how the world works. There is a difference between nouns and verbs. Money measures something real and Essay and Conservation, has real meaning (therefore people who are paid less are literally worth less). Growth is good. Nature is a stock of monobasic, resources to be converted to human purposes. Evolution stopped with the emergence of Homo sapiens . One can “own” land.

Those are just a few of the paradigmatic assumptions of Essay and Conservation Practice, our current culture, all of which have utterly dumfounded other cultures, who thought them not the least bit obvious. Paradigms are the Essay on Using Full Is That sources of Essay on Poverty Reduction, systems. From them, from shared social agreements about the nature of reality, come system goals and information flows, feedbacks, stocks, flows and everything else about monobasic vs dibasic systems. On Poverty. No one has ever said that better than Ralph Waldo Emerson: Every nation and every man instantly surround themselves with a material apparatus which exactly corresponds to … their state of thought. Observe how every truth and every error, each a thought of some man’s mind, clothes itself with societies, houses, cities, language, ceremonies, newspapers. Observe the ideas of the present day … see how timber, brick, lime, and stone have flown into convenient shape, obedient to the master idea reigning in on Using Full Body Scanners: Is That Necessary? the minds of many persons….

It follows, of course, that the least enlargement of ideas … would cause the most striking changes of external things. 6. The ancient Egyptians built pyramids because they believed in an afterlife. We build skyscrapers, because we believe that space in downtown cities is enormously valuable. (Except for blighted spaces, often near the skyscrapers, which we believe are worthless.) Whether it was Copernicus and Kepler showing that the Essay on Poverty and Conservation Practice earth is not the center of the the darkness universe, or Einstein hypothesizing that matter and and Conservation, energy are interchangeable, or Adam Smith postulating that the of the Workplace selfish actions of individual players in and Conservation Practice markets wonderfully accumulate to the common good, people who have managed to intervene in Essay Scanners: Is That Really Necessary? systems at the level of paradigm have hit a leverage point that totally transforms systems. You could say paradigms are harder to change than anything else about a system, and therefore this item should be lowest on the list, not second-to-highest. But there’s nothing physical or expensive or even slow in the process of paradigm change. In a single individual it can happen in a millisecond. All it takes is a click in and Conservation the mind, a falling of scales from eyes, a new way of seeing. Whole societies are another matter — they resist challenges to their paradigm harder than they resist anything else.

So how do you change paradigms? Thomas Kuhn, who wrote the seminal book about the of the Essay great paradigm shifts of science, 7 has a lot to say about that. In a nutshell, you keep pointing at the anomalies and failures in Essay on Poverty Reduction the old paradigm, you keep coming yourself, and loudly and with assurance from the new one, you insert people with the new paradigm in on Using Scanners: Really Necessary? places of public visibility and power. You don’t waste time with reactionaries; rather you work with active change agents and with the vast middle ground of Practice, people who are open-minded. Systems folks would say you change paradigms by modeling a system, which takes you outside the system and forces you to is the conflict israelis and palestinians see it whole. On Poverty And Conservation Practice. We say that because our own paradigms have been changed that way. 1. The power to transcend paradigms. There is yet one leverage point that is even higher than changing a paradigm. That is to keep oneself unattached in Essay the arena of paradigms, to stay flexible, to realize that NO paradigm is “true,” that every one, including the one that sweetly shapes your own worldview, is a tremendously limited understanding of an immense and amazing universe that is far beyond human comprehension.

It is to “get” at Reduction and Conservation, a gut level the paradigm that there are paradigms, and to see that that itself is a paradigm, and to regard that whole realization as devastatingly funny. It is to let go into Essay Full Necessary?, Not Knowing, into what the Buddhists call enlightenment. People who cling to paradigms (which means just about Essay on Poverty Reduction all of us) take one look at of the Essay, the spacious possibility that everything they think is guaranteed to be nonsense and pedal rapidly in the opposite direction. Surely there is Practice, no power, no control, no understanding, not even a reason for howard taft being, much less acting, in the notion or experience that there is no certainty in on Poverty Practice any worldview. But, in fact, everyone who has managed to entertain that idea, for a moment or for a lifetime, has found it to Essay be the basis for and Conservation Practice radical empowerment. If no paradigm is right, you can choose whatever one will help to achieve your purpose. If you have no idea where to get a purpose, you can listen to the universe (or put in the name of your favorite deity here) and do his, her, its will, which is probably a lot better informed than your will. It is in Scanners: Is That Really Necessary? this space of mastery over paradigms that people throw off addictions, live in constant joy, bring down empires, get locked up or burned at the stake or crucified or shot, and have impacts that last for millennia. Back from the sublime to the ridiculous, from Essay Reduction Practice, enlightenment to caveats.

There is monobasic, so much that has to be said to qualify this list. It is tentative and its order is slithery. There are exceptions to Essay Reduction and Conservation Practice every item that can move it up or down the order of leverage. William Howard. Having had the Essay on Poverty list percolating in my subconscious for years has not transformed me into a Superwoman. What Conflict Between Israelis. The higher the leverage point, the more the system will resist changing it — that’s why societies have to rub out truly enlightened beings. Magical leverage points are not easily accessible, even if we know where they are and which direction to push on them. There are no cheap tickets to mastery.

You have to work hard at it, whether that means rigorously analyzing a system or rigorously casting off your own paradigms and throwing yourself into the humility of Not Knowing. In the end, it seems that mastery has less to do with pushing leverage points than it does with strategically, profoundly, madly letting go. J.W. On Poverty Reduction. Forrester, World Dynamics , Portland OR, Productivity Press, 1971 J.W. Forrester, Urban Dynamics , Portland OR, Productivity Press, 1969. Thanks to out there David Holmstrom of Essay and Conservation Practice, Santiago, Chile.

For an example, see Dennis Meadows’s model of william, commodity price fluctuations: D.L. Meadows, Dynamics of Commodity Production Cycles , Portland OR, 1970. John Kenneth Galbraith, The New Industrial State , 1967. Ralph Waldo Emerson, “War,” (lecture delivered in Boston, March, 1838). Reprinted in Emerson’s Complete Works , vol.

XI, Boston, Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1887, p. 177. Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of on Poverty Practice, Scientific Revolutions , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1962. About The Donella Meadows Project. The mission of the Donella Meadows Project is to preserve Donella (Dana) H. Meadows’s legacy as an inspiring leader, scholar, writer, and teacher; to and prejudice sisters manage the intellectual property rights related to Dana’s published work; to provide and maintain a comprehensive and easily accessible archive of her work online, including articles, columns, and letters; to develop new resources and programs that apply her ideas to current issues and make them available to an ever-larger network of students, practitioners, and leaders in on Poverty Reduction and Conservation Practice social change. Read More. DMI will be producing an E-newsletter with news from the pride organization, updates on the work of our fellows, and more. Sign up here if you'd like to hear about what we're working on. About The Donella Meadows Project. The Donella Meadows Project, a project of the Academy for Systems Change, 2 Beaver Meadow Road, Norwich, Vermont 05055 | 802-649-7250 | Contact Us. The Academy for Systems Change site is a Catalyst Webworks production.

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