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Identity , Separation , Social group 1399 Words | 4 Pages. The Importance of Mathematics to Everyday Life. The importance of mathematics to everyday life Written by model Tuesday, 22 December 2009 10:30 - Even though Mathematics . undoubtedly has universal applications to life and is an A Career as a Registered Anesthetist Essay essential tool in science, technology, economics, business, commerce and of course in computer design and functioning there is a general tendency for people to model of abnormality, shy away from it for various reasons-some feel it is too difficult while others do not see its practical connection to everyday life . Consequently, we find just. Education , Mathematician , Mathematics 790 Words | 3 Pages. Agriculture , Art , Civilization 642 Words | 3 Pages. need for perfection, worry over grades, parental pressure, competition, sports, or a tough class load. Academic pressure does not begin in on The Taj Mahal college. The . nervous breakdowns, panic attacks, burnouts, and behavioural model of abnormality, depression are also apparent in many younger students . The same situation is not always stressful for all people, and all people do not undergo the same feelings or off-putting thoughts when stressed.
Having a strong support network to fall back on as a Certified Anesthetist Essay, when times get tough at school is critical to staying. College , High school , Social bookmarking 909 Words | 4 Pages. A day in the life of behavioural model a student … Trrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrriiinnngg. and the alarm went off exactly at . 7000hrs. Let me tell you folks it is really amazing how my friend Mr. Vishal Mandowara ( P.G. 'B') manages to press the Snooze button perfectly even without opening his eyes. To The United. Oh, its still too early , I can surely manage to behavioural, squeeze in five more minutes yaaawnn and off he goes back to his dream world. Trrrrrrriiiiing again the alarm shouts its lungs out, but the giant. Vada pav 1362 Words | 3 Pages. Live Tour, was released in May 2012. In addition to School Under-Achievement, the DVD topping the charts in twenty-five countries, its global sales had exceeded 1 million copies . by August 2012. One Direction's first book to behavioural, be licensed in America, Dare to Dream: Life as One Direction, published in the United States in May 2012, topped The New York Times Best Seller list. In June 2012, Nick Gatfield, the chairman and Essay, chief executive officer of Sony Music Entertainment UK, stated how he expects One Direction.
2011 , Album , I Shall Be Released 1107 Words | 2 Pages. Importance of Economics in behavioural model of abnormality Student Life. TOPIC : WHY SHOULD YOU AS A STUDENT , EMBARK THE STUDY OF ECONOMICS? As a student , it is Essay Taj Mahal, important for me to embark the study . of economics due to its strong relation in our daily lives. Economics help students to understand more about the modern world in making the decision for the future. It also helps us to understand the problems caused by the limited resources and helps students , as consumers to make rational choices when making decisions. Besides that, students are able to understand the function. Concept , Economics , Economics terminology 577 Words | 2 Pages. Importance of behavioural model of abnormality Computers to Students. dozens of books to states, find information, students can refine searches and access information in seconds. Students can also receive . more opinions on topics without having to rely on the closest sources of information Technology has been dramatically developed worldwide so far in most of social life aspects, especially Internet and telecommunication.
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The Importance of Teachers in Fostering Students’ Creativity. The Importance of Teachers in Fostering Students ’ Creativity Teacher attitudes, beliefs and classroom practices . are deemed to be of crucial influence in the development of students ’ creativity; however the importance of promoting creativity in schools is a controversial topic. There’s no doubt about it. Creativity is Blaike to Social Enquiry Essay, as natural and necessary for model children as fresh air! By exposing our young learners to creative experiences, we give them the gift of a rich and memorable school experience. Creative Problem Solving Process , Creativity , Education 1031 Words | 3 Pages. ?ACADEMIC ESSAY Importance of Family in Our Life Family is placed in papers on human trafficking the centre and top of behavioural model priority of our . life . Family will take care of our well-being, acts as our role model, and Essay Taj Mahal, they helps develop our values and identity.
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SLiMS is the acronym for . Student Life Management System. It is a new enhanced portal, replacing the current CCA Records system in OASIS. SLiMS will be a record of all your co-curriculum activities throughout your undergraduate studies at SMU. 2. What can we do in model of abnormality SLiMS/scopes of SLiMS? You may log into SLiMS to do the following: (i) Sign up as a member of a club/interest group - Search from ‘ Student Organisation’. Student societies , Student society 2149 Words | 7 Pages. Importance of Chemistry in Essay Daily Life. Importance of chemistry in our daily life Importance of chemistry in our daily life . Everything is made of chemicals. Behavioural Model Of Abnormality. Many of the College Essay, changes we observe in the world around we see that caused by chemical reactions. Chemistry is very important because it helps us to model of abnormality, know the composition, structureamp; changes of matter.
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All That You Can't Leave Behind , Education , Kota Kinabalu 1136 Words | 4 Pages. GORDON KUSSI TABIRI English Writing: From Start to Finish My life as a college student Seven years ago I gained admission to . pursue a B.A program in behavioural model one of the prestigious universities in Ghana. Research Trafficking. The name of the of abnormality, university is Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Blaike Approaches Essay, Technology (KNUST). I was offered a four year bachelor degree program leading to a degree in Sociology and Social Work. Thus, I read BA Sociology and Social Work.
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To know you’re going to die, and to be prepared for it at any time. That’s better. That way you can actually be more involved in your life while you’re living.” (Albom 82). Morrie feels that people refuse to believe that they will come one day die, and therefore, do not lives there. Afterlife , Death , Don Piper 1880 Words | 5 Pages. Speech Outline- Life of a Working College Student. Days of Your Life 1 Days of Your Life General Purpose: To inform Specific purpose: To inform my audience about my culture and . life as a working student . Norman's. Thesis Statement: Introduction For years, college students have been told that their college years would be the “time of their lives”, what people don’t tell us, is what makes it the time of our life . According to behavioural of abnormality, a National Retail Federation survey conducted in 2009, Nearly 49.1 percent of college students will be living at home this year. College , Education , Full-time 937 Words | 4 Pages. Student Politics in Bangladesh The participation of students in Essay on The Taj Mahal politics is concerned it has been a topic of great . disagreement amongst the scholars. The question is whether the students are allowed to take part in politics or not. There are different kinds of opinions.
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Reasons for returning vary but regardless, adult students are an of abnormality increasing presence in the classroom. While adults have the papers on human trafficking, experience and wisdom over the younger students , adults are at. Education , Full-time , Homework 1279 Words | 4 Pages. The role of teacher in students life. power to behavioural, make the Certified, ultimate choice about whether to let the world affect you or to go out and affect the behavioural of abnormality, world.
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Short-term goal setting means setting a goal that will be accomplished in. Goal , Goal setting , Intrinsic value 1263 Words | 3 Pages. Childhood Obesity and Heart Disease, and the Importance of Physical Education in Schools Kristal Brandenburg ENG 122: English Composition II . Instructor Deborah Zeringue April 8th 2012 Childhood Obesity and Heart Disease, and the Importance of research papers Physical Education in Schools INTRODUCTION Childhood obesity across the behavioural, world is amendment states constitution, increasing rapidly. According to Baker, Olsen, and Sorenson (2007), in behavioural of abnormality the United States, there is no sign that the increases in childhood overweight and obesity are slowing. Cardiovascular disease , Childhood obesity , Epidemiology 2461 Words | 7 Pages. The Importance of Water to Life on Earth.
Water is the most important substance in our evolution and our daily lives. Without water, life as we know it would not have been possible. Blaike Norman's Approaches To Social Essay. . This essay will examine the water molecule in order to behavioural model of abnormality, ascertain how it brought about Earth's successful ecosystem and research on human, how important it is to us today. Each water molecule consists of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. The oxygen atom bears a slight electronegative charge while hydrogen possesses a more positive one. Behavioural. Because opposite charges attract, the.
Atom , Chemical bond , Hydrogen 848 Words | 3 Pages. IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION SKILLS The importance of communication skills cannot be underestimated. Good communication skills . are necessary in all walks of life . The lack of effective communication skills have a negative impact on the personal as well as professional life of a person. ? Good communication skills are a prerequisite for healthcare providers. – Ineffective communication, rather than incompetence, precludes the doctor from conveying to the patient that the former has the best. Communication , Graphic communication , Learning 1526 Words | 4 Pages. The Life of High School and College Student. The Life of a High School and College Student Ashley Vaughan Ashford University- English Composition I Craig Smith April 4, . 2011 High school and College has a major influence on one’s life . Everyone has their own personal opinion when they think of school. There are some that enjoy waking up going to class and, on the other hand, there are some who dislike walking through the doors of a school territory. Years from now understanding how important earning a high school diploma and a college. Academic term , College , Education 1120 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of Engaging Students in the Process of A Career Certified Registered Nurse Essay Learning.
?LITERATURE REVIEW “Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember, involve me and I understand.” This quote highlights the importance of . engaging the student thereby presenting him with a more meaningful way to model of abnormality, learn. The conventional approach to science based teaching encouraged rote learning with students sitting upright in straight rows, with the teacher explaining science concepts followed by A Career as a Nurse Anesthetist a filling in model of worksheets with teacher guidance. Essay Taj Mahal. (Peterson Hittie, 2003, p. Of Abnormality. 155). Educators. Education , Educational psychology , Knowledge 1274 Words | 4 Pages. portion of the Unit Test, and submit it to your teacher by the due date for full credit. (15 points) |Score | | | . As A Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist Essay. Your teacher needs help! Before beginning the lessons on the U.S. Constitution, he asked his students to write essays on behavioural model, what they already knew. Now he has to correct those essays.
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Muhammad Y Memon 08/01/2010 ENGR 1200 Dr. Farnsworth Role of Ethics in the life of an Engineering Student As a . college student for the last 2 years, if there is one important thing that I have learned, it is to follow the ethical guidelines of your school. Moreover, maintain the ethical code throughout the semester and more specifically for every course. Behavioural Model. Now, as an engineering student at The University of Texas at Tyler, I have an Engineering Code of Ethics to follow. This, in my opinion. Business ethics , Engineer , Engineering 1671 Words | 5 Pages. Gloucester and on human, Lear's Realizations of the Importances in Life. Gloucester and Lear’s Realizations of the Importance’s in Life In William Shakespeare’s King Lear, Gloucester and model of abnormality, Lear both experience . similar situations in which their children cause them to suffer greatly: The former suffers from blindness and the latter slips from reality into a state of madness.
It is not until Act 4, scene 6 that they come to the realization of the importances in life ; such as true love for and from a child. Gloucester is convinced by his illegitimate son Edmund that his legitimate.
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Panel Stories: Public Lies Private Lives in Panelaks and Sidlistes. Prejudiced and Prefabricated Judgements obscure the lives that were, are and can be lived in behavioural of abnormality, housing estates built during the as a Registered Anesthetist Essay, communist period. Debunking these myths – these panel stories  – can help promote wider and deeper reflections on the communist period, postcommunist transition and the material politics of both the behavioural model, past and Blaike Norman's Approaches to Social Enquiry Essay, the present. By Benjamin Tallis. Despite their best efforts neither jetset shock therapists nor home-grown dissidents and their various governmental inheritors have been able to behavioural model of abnormality make postcommunist transition a clean break with the past.
Apparatchiks and functionaries were denounced and (occasionally) lustrated, only to re-appear as nomenklatura capitalists and united, even government ministers. Statues were removed, but the behavioural, metronomic passing of time in their after-image triggers memory, not forgetting. Streets and metro stations were renamed, but we still know who Evropska and Dejvicka used to be. The persistent presence of the communist past is papers, a key site of struggle for Czech (and Slovak) collective memory. Competing interpretations, both domestic and international, significantly impact the ways in model of abnormality, which people can live today, how post-communist societies are structured and whom they are for. Material reminders of that time have come in for particular criticism and none more so than the panelaky , the concrete-panel blocks that make up the sidliste and A Career as a Nurse Anesthetist, sidlisky which became such prominent features of model of abnormality, Czechoslovak socialist cities. While a nascent revisionism has begun, belatedly and hesitantly, to recognise the architectural quality and even (shock, horror!) beauty of Czech brutalist architecture, it tends to focus on particular marquee buildings (such as the Nova Scena of the National Theatre or the Nova Budova of the National Museum). Meanwhile the School Performance: Under-Achievement, communist-era housing estates are still routinely damned from all sides. However, recent research has shown that both domestic and international criticisms of the panelaky and behavioural model of abnormality, sidliste are wide of the mark. Blinkered by ideology and second to the united constitution, blind to the plurality of panelak and project life lived both then and behavioural, now, these flawed critiques are indicative of wider problems of Performance: Under-Achievement Essay, both understanding and policy in postcommunism. This essay sets out to debunk three of the most significant myths or ‘panel stories’ associated with communist era housing projects: (1) that panelaks and sidlistes were a ‘communist’ idea that were imposed on of abnormality Czechs and Slovaks from elsewhere; (2) that problems with high-density public housing are indicative of the futile and Essay on The Taj Mahal, flawed pursuit of model of abnormality, modernist and A Career Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist Essay, social-democratic goals; and (3) that people lived, live and will live badly in panelaks and sidlistes.
Condemned by some at the time of their construction as “cement deserts” good only as “battle grounds for high-rise brats,” the estates provide an all-too-easy synecdoche for the time of behavioural model of abnormality, their building; “monotonous and amendment to the states, repetitive, banal, inhuman […] poor in quality” or most commonly (and lazily) “grey” or at least “grayish.” Normally nuanced and even-handed judges have been moved to unequivocal castigation of the model, aesthetics and morals of the The Electoral, ‘structural panel buildings’ that make up the vast majority of Czech housing constructed between 1955 and 1990. Sean Hanley of the UCL School for Slavonic and Eastern European Studies describes the “monster estates” as “hideous” and “awful,” and Vaclav Havel famously spoke of “undignified rabbit pens, slated for liquidation.” The controversy and criticism that continue to batter these concrete facades, from behavioural both home and Norman's Approaches Essay, abroad, reflects and of abnormality, reinforces a particular politics of memory, identity and Blaike Approaches Enquiry, belonging. It stems from model of abnormality a combination of blanket judgements on Under-Achievement the communist period, teleological notions of neoliberal postcommunist ‘transition’ and particular (Western European and North American) experiences and ideological interpretations of high-density social housing. Negative Czech judgements on panelaks in popular discourse and the statements of well-known figures seem to stem largely from the circumstances of their making – they were built by the communists and must therefore not only be bad, but are a malaise forced upon Czechs (and others) by unwelcome intruders and occupiers. The popular and academic focus on the myriad crimes and model, appalling injustices of the communist regime have helped to support such views. These are undoubtedly important stories that needed to be told about life in communism. However, they are not the only stories of that time and A Career Certified Registered Anesthetist Essay, cannot be used to sustain uniformly negative views of an era in which, under trying circumstances, people continued to live, laugh, love, have children and make the homes in which they could grow up. The regime failed in behavioural model of abnormality, its totalizing ambitions, but has been posthumously been granted success that it could have only dreamed of in Blaike Norman's Approaches to Social Essay, a totalizing memory of the time that erases the positives of this painful past. Similarly, while institutional design and the processes of re-adopting democratic politics, market economics and re-integrating to international institutional structures have been highly significant, they have often obscured lived experiences of transition, what came before and what may come after. This blinkering, combined with the prefabricated opinions of model, many Americans and as a Registered Essay, Western Europeans towards large scale public housing projects has allowed skewed views of the material and social conditions of sidliste life to dominate past and present. After the fall of the behavioural, wall, it was easy for incoming investors, advisors and other ‘tutors’, keen to school the ‘children of the second amendment to the united constitution, revolution’ in their neoliberal ways, to tar the panelaky with the same brush as their own concrete jungles.
They knew of the riots in Toxteth and model of abnormality, Brixton and heard in the Sidlistes the echoes of the doomed Pruitt-Igoe housing project in St. Louis. The self-styled ‘tutors’ found eager prefects in the dissidents of the communist period, all too happy to run-down the remnants of a hated regime, often with little thought for the people who lived there. Second Amendment To The States Constitution. Unlike many dissidents and behavioural, their quieter sympathisers, the Sidliste dwellers were not waiting for prime real estate to be restituted to them. Many of these tutors also had a double interest in denigrating the communist past. It would both bolster their own superiority (and thus legitimacy as teachers) and enhance the case for neoliberal transition as a greater contrast to what had gone before, rather than a more social-democratic approach. Tearing down the old structures of Essay, ownership and usage was more feasible than destroying the panelaks themselves and raised the potential for Western-owned banks to introduce market rates to these rent-controlled worlds. Social research conducted over the last two decades has questioned the behavioural of abnormality, basis for each of the criticisms leveled at The Electoral College Essay Panelaks and sidlistes, exposing them as mere ‘Panel Stories’. Challenging these stories and telling new tales of panelak life not only has specific relevance to these persecuted places but opens up the of abnormality, possibility of questioning the Blaike Norman's Approaches to Social Essay, socio-political settlements of transition more widely. It can allow us to ask again what type of model of abnormality, societies we want to build, who they are for and how they are constructed, as well to re-examine the various roles of the state, the market, the individual and on The, the collective. Detail from building at Sidliste Invalidovna, Prague.
Panel Story 1: A Communist Idea, Imposed from Outside. Over the last five years, the behavioural of abnormality, writings of Kimberly Elman Zarecor have made a good deal of multidisciplinary Czech scholarship on panelaks and sidliste’s available to Anglophone audiences. Zarecor has exposed the double fallacy of claims that concrete tower blocks were a communist idea and that they were only A Career Certified Registered Nurse Essay accepted in Czechoslovakia under Soviet duress. Zarecor highlights how far from being imposed from behavioural model outside, the specific circumstances of postwar Czechoslovakia spurred the continuation and A Career Certified Anesthetist Essay, development of interwar architectural practices and politics to accelerate and intensify, but not intitiate, the development of model of abnormality, prefabricated structural panel housing in second to the united, the communist era. The construction technology for Czech panelaks owed its development to the Building Department of the Bata shoe company in Zlin, which had been experimenting before the war with prefabricated building technologies. The architects Hynek Adamec and model, Bohumil Kula had continued these experiments during the The Electoral, war and headed the projects on new structural panel housing at the time when the department was incorporated into the communist Stavoprojekt building co-ordination system. Model Of Abnormality. Despite Zlin having been renamed Gottwaldov after Czechoslovakia’s first communist leader, Zarecor points out that Adamec and Kula were still working in the same office when developing the first panelak – the G-building (named for Gottwaldov). Zlin, Bata building from Zlin.cz; Zlin workers housing, pre-war brick (erasmusu.com) and post-war concrete (zippomaniac.fr) Far from following developments elsewhere, Czechs (and Slovaks) were actually ahead of the game in panel building. A Career As A Certified Registered. The crucial breakthrough – as Zarecor shows – came when an innovative solution was found to the problem of of abnormality, joining the united constitution, concrete panels together in a stable way.
The use of a series of steel ‘hooks’ and behavioural model, staples’ allowed for full exploitation of their structural properties and eliminated the College Essay, need for an additional skeleton. The pioneering architects who found this way previously worked for the feted (and avowedly capitalist) Bata company and were actually continuing construction-technology research that had begun long before the communist takeover. It is also significant to note, however, that the ideas which inspired the social aspects of model, both the panelak and the sidliste can also be found in the first Czechoslovak Republic (as well as elsewhere). The First Republic under the ‘Liberator-President’ and Performance:, ‘philosopher king’ Tomas Garrigue Masaryk is of abnormality, widely hailed as the Blaike Norman's Enquiry, Czech golden age, a brief and glorious interlude of independence, after empire and before both Nazi occupation and Soviet subjugation. The wave of creativity in both culture and commerce that was unleashed during this time merits this golden reputation, with companies such as Bata and Tatra stylishly propelling Czechoslovakia into the ranks of the top-six exporting economies in the world. The poetry of Vitezslav Nezval and Jaroslav Seifert; the painting of Frantisek Kupka, Jindrich Styrsky and – the already post-gender – Toyen; the buildings of local talents such as Josef Havlicek and Karel Honzik, Josef Fuchs and Oldrich Tyl, alongside those of proto-starchitects Adolf Loos and Mies van der Rohe, ensured that there was plentiful art to accompany the industry.
Karel Teige, Building and Poem (1927) the behavioural model, Minimum Dwelling (1932). However, like much of Europe at the time, the First Republic was also awash with radical Marxist ideas. A mixture of proactive idealism and reaction to the polarized living conditions of the time inspired those such as Nezval and Karel Teige – writer, architecture critic and ringleader of the radical Devetsil group – to A Career as a Certified Registered Anesthetist Essay rail against the inequalities and injustices they saw around them. They sought collective salvation through both art and industry, but saw that both should serve functional, social goals rather than being beholden to the monied mores of the market. Teige in particular struggled with the tension between instrumental social function and liberating creative expression, but in architectural terms prioritized the former, arguing that beauty would spring from the behavioural, minimal forms that would most efficiently serve their purpose. Demanding that those at the sharp end of the second to the, housing crisis at the time receive only “the best of the behavioural model of abnormality, best,” Teige publically upbraided Le Corbusier for abandoning such functional purity and effectively re-introducing decoration; he slammed Mies’ much-praised Tugendhat Villa as the “pinnacle of as a Certified Registered Anesthetist, modern snobbery.”
Villa Tugendhat, Brno, from the guardian.com. It is therefore no wonder that Zarecor is able to model of abnormality draw a clear line between the second, construction of panelaks and sidlistes in the communist period and social tendencies in behavioural of abnormality, First Republic Modernism, which were, however, also strongly connected to non-marxist Bauhaus figures such as Walter Groupius. Although Stavoprojekt, a state-run system of architecture and engineering offices, replaced private practice in the late 1940s and changed the research papers trafficking, profession profoundly, the vast housing estates in many Czech and Slovak cities are, in model of abnormality, fact, the fulfillment of an interwar vision of modernity that emphasized the right to housing at a minimum standard over the artistic qualities of individual buildings (a debate that Teiger wrestled with and which continues to animate discussions over functionalism and modernism’s social purpose into the present). Zarecor highlights intensified construction of Blaike Enquiry Essay, Panelaks, as the Czech version of what she beautifully terms “Socialism with a Modernist face” in the wake of the success of the Czech pavilion at Expo ’58 – the Brussels Dream of behavioural, ‘One Day in Czechoslovakia’. The socialist students of Karel Teige – notably Karel Janu, Jiri Stursa and Jiri Vozelinek – that rose to prominent positions in Norman's Enquiry Essay, postwar Czechoslovak architecture helped shape the estates. However, so too did Havlicek, Honzik and other non-Marxists who continued to build for the new regime, sharing the common idea that building housing was a social good.
While it is almost certainly true that the model of abnormality, scale and papers on human, scope of panelak-based sidlistes was greater in Czechoslovakia due to the communist takeover, it cannot be claimed that these architectures and urbanisms were imposed on Czechs from model outside, nor that they were a communist-era idea. United. However, emphasizing the links, rather than the rupture, between the First republic and the Communist period goes against the currently dominant and highly Manichean politics of Czech collective memory that divides positive and negative in fairly bald temporal terms – 1918-38: Good ; 1938-1989: Bad . 1989 onward: Good again (we hope). Panel Building at Hloubetin, Prague. Panel Story 2: High-Density Public Housing as Failed Socialist Modernist Dreams. Dissident attacks on panelaks have resonated with wider narratives of behavioural model of abnormality, neoliberal transition about the Blaike to Social Essay, role of government in behavioural model of abnormality, society and Norman's Approaches to Social Essay, related attitudes toward public housing. The ‘End of History’ consensus that laissez-faire, (neo)liberal-market-democracy is the behavioural model of abnormality, only way to govern chimed with hostility towards high-density public housing as architecturally flawed, naively irresponsible and ultimately dangerous social engineering. Scepticism of government born from bad experience of a particular regime has met ideological opposition to Blaike to Social the state as such.
The failure of social housing projects in the West has been conflated with the failure of state socialism in the second world with both used as evidence of dangerous burdens of utopian dreams. Buildings from Sidliste Invalidovna and Sidliste Cerveny Vrch, Prague. Such attacks generally eschew the controversialist, yet architecturally adventurous and open-minded iconoclasm of Charles Jencks. They tend to behavioural model prefer the offended traditionalism of Simon Jenkins, whilst retaining their mutual weakness for decor and ornament – eyebrows simultaneously arched and furrowed in facial gymnastics that Alec Guinness would be proud of. Crucially they often combine this aesthetic position with the selfish Hayekian/Friedmanite socio-economic Darwinism that seeks to entrench power for those who already have money and which, since ’89, has come disguised as freedom. A supposedly hard-headed pragmatism in which politics is disguised as economics; a refusal to be suckered into social dreaming. Often accompanied (in some quarters at Performance: Essay least) by model of abnormality, faux-rueful laments for Approaches Enquiry Essay the failure of model of abnormality, stillborn social schemes that never had a chance, they are wheeled out time and again as evidence for why even marginally idealistic or minimally visionary social endeavours can never work. The Death of Modern Architecture. Long before Jencks famously used the dynamiting of this massive and Blaike Essay, ill-fated housing project to proclaim the death of Modern Architecture “on July 15, 1972 at 3:32pm or thereabouts” the Pruitt-Igoe story had come to symbolise the supposedly hopeless futility of well-intentioned social housing in the US. A recent documentary film, The Pruitt-Igoe Myth,  exposes even this – the nadir of all the panel stories – as just that, a myth.
The documentary, which takes an academically informed, socio-anthropological approach, effectively refutes the charges against the architecture of Pruitt-Igoe (and by implication against the principles of modernist-inflected high-rise and high-density public housing in general). The joy with which the initial residents recall first moving in to the sufficiently spacious and well-appointed apartments (particularly in comparison to the slums where many had previously lived) is manifest. Of Abnormality. One resident – Ruby Russell – who moved into an apartment on the 11 th floor coined the affectionate and memorable term “the poor man’s penthouse” to describe her apartment, while others describe the papers on human, feelings of community, of safety and the possibility this provided for children to play and model of abnormality, adults to live. However, this was not to last. As the documentary shows as it details the The Electoral College, total collapse of this housing project to behavioural model of abnormality the point where the police were afraid to enter and the tower blocks ended up being dynamited, this fate was largely pre-ordained. Approaches Enquiry Essay. Cutbacks to the original design and the failure of the 1949 US Federal Housing Act to provide any maintenance money for such projects – requiring that such funds came from the rents paid by the low-income tenants – was the first nail in its coffin. Racism in both planning policy and the everyday practices of citizens continued de facto segregation policies long after they became de jure impermissible. The combination of ‘white flight’, a declining city population (robbing it of necessary tax revenues to pay for behavioural of abnormality essential services, including housing maintenance), the selling off of the School Essay, downtown to property developers and official encouragement for sprawling suburban, low-density housing at model the expense of the rotting urban core meant that the estate failed within grim socio-economic context. Once the poor maintenance made Pruitt-Igoe a more difficult place to live, those who could, moved out.
Low occupancy rates further diminished the money available for upkeep and repairs, unleashing a vicious cycle of decline and The Electoral Essay, degradation. Behavioural Of Abnormality. As the on The Taj Mahal, documentary powerfully shows, this was not accidental. Rather, it was rather the behavioural model of abnormality, result of the deliberate diminution of governmental power to Under-Achievement act in a socially progressive manner in a politico-economic environment stacked against the most disadvantaged and predicated on the myth of the socially-unencumbered, all-consuming individual. Park Hill, Sheffield, bdonline.com; the guardian.com and Robin Hood Gardens from detail-online.com. Significantly, the documentary specifically links the failure to support social housing to its associations with socialism, which both during the cold war and in the aftermath of model, ’89 made it ‘un-American’ and thus taboo in the US. While European experiences of public and social housing have not been as extreme as Pruitt-Igoe, the second amendment to the united, problems of housing estates such as Park Hill in Sheffield and behavioural, Robin Hood Gardens in London, as well as many of the French banlieues can similarly not be blamed on their modernist (or, too-often, modernish) architecture, nor on the social intentions that inspired their construction. The Electoral College. Rather, it was the failure to behavioural adequately address the papers on human, underlying social conditions that prompted their creation and then the lack of model of abnormality, conviction in backing the School Performance: Essay, estates – with proper materials and maintenance – to provide (part of) the solution that sealed their fate. That this lack of conviction held after the fall of the Berlin wall is behavioural, not surprising.
The very construction of such estates as a response to the demand for rapid urbanization and the ongoing postwar housing crisis in communist countries can be described after ’89 as “arrogant” or dismissed as being “in the best traditions of A Career as a Registered Essay, vulgar Marxism” which apparently implies that, “the Communist regime believed that people were shaped by their environment.” It would be hard to model of abnormality think of a government – or indeed practically any other institution – that didn’t believe people were to second amendment to the united states constitution at least some degree shaped by their environment. Indeed the prospect of people being impervious to their built environments would mean the behavioural model, end of architecture as anything more than art, or worse, decoration. Essay On The Taj Mahal. When Sean Hanley claims that this substantiates his charge that the behavioural, building of the panelaks was ideologically motivated, the Essay on The Taj Mahal, point made by behavioural model, Michel Foucault and echoed by Slavoj Zizek that ideology is at Under-Achievement Essay its most powerful when it is most hidden, should also be considered in behavioural model of abnormality, relation to the ‘pragmatic’, post-’89 treatment of social housing and the damage done more widely to Blaike to Social ideas of social democracy and transformative governance by behavioural of abnormality, the collapse of The Electoral College, communism and the neo-liberal consensus that filled the vacuum. Panel Building at Hloubetin. Panel Story 3: People Lived and Live Badly in Panelaks and Sidlistes. The fall of Pruitt-Igoe, the Brixton and Toxteth riots and the postmodern malaise that long beset the Unite d’Habitation and its ilk have been particularly unkind to millions of behavioural model, Central East Europeans. Second Constitution. They have been forced to belatedly ‘learn’ that the behavioural of abnormality, places in which they grew up, laughed, loved, raised children, realized creative activities, plotted defiance, cohabitation, collaboration or escape and where they created their cosy dens, insulated to some degree from the party regime, were no longer appropriate for their lives as ‘New Europeans’.
Crucially however, as even noted by critics of the appearance and intentions of the panelaks, the social mix of the communist-era housing projects was very different than that of their counterparts in the West. In the second world, largte numbers of people from second amendment united constitution different walks of life and from varied social strata finding themselves (willingly or otherwise) thrust into high-rise neighbourhoods. This is partly due to the sheer number of people who live in model, such developments. Zarecor quotes figures of 3.1 million people living in 1,165,000 apartment units in 80,000 panelaks in Czech Republic. With almost a third of the total population and nearly half the city of Prague living in panelaks, the A Career Registered Nurse Essay, issues facing postsocialist sidlistes are, in behavioural model of abnormality, most cases, very different than those experienced by residents in their deprived and marginalized western counterparts. Building at Sidliste Dablice. Many communist-era estates are well-planned. Well-connected and well-provided for communities: house-proud and successful places. Their abundant and well-kempt common spaces (leafy in summertime, albeit rendered climactically bare in School Under-Achievement, winter) host a variety of public services and private activities and model, allow collective grandmothering in the ample and adventurous social space they provide for children.
There was not the same stigma attached to living in these places and as the artist Eva Kotatkova argues, these were places where many people grew up happily and well, learning to be the creative and independent, experiencing concrete as schoolyard rather than jungle and certainly not succumbing to as a Nurse Anesthetist the attempts to of abnormality create new uniform ‘Socialist [Wo]Man’: I was born in Prague, grew up in one of the typical grey block-houses on the periphery and went to school there. Many people find this kind of architecture awful or boring but I have a strong nostalgia connected with this place – a place of the most formative periods of my life. Many motifs appearing in my work have their origin in the time of my childhood and adolescence and in the specific atmosphere of this location. Kotatkova’s comments are not the isolated opinion of a nostalgic or contrarian artist. Zarecor’s work also draws upon several academic studies that show consistently high levels of on human, satisfaction with sidliste life.
Research conducted in 2001 by Lux and Sunega showed that 64% of Czechs considered their accommodation ideal and only 11% planned to model of abnormality move within three years. Moreover, Zarecor also cites studies that show that this is not a new trend, with many sidliste residents recalling moving to their new Havirov homes in the same excited and reverent terms that the second to the states constitution, Pruitt Igoe tenants did. Recent work by Eva Spackova and Martin Jemelka in the Hranice sidliste in Karvina also shows generally high degrees of behavioural of abnormality, satisfaction, although mixed with calls for further improvements relating to upkeep and noise issues. As Spackova put its in School Performance: Under-Achievement Essay, an interview with Zarecor: Generally it is possible to say that the majority of imperfections in the housing development, according to the opinions of the residents, are not conditional on architectural solutions but rather on of abnormality the unmaintained, disordered, and unsatisfactory control and research, commercial abuse of public space and the former civic facilities.  Hotel Kupa at Jizni Mesto.
In a widely cited ethnographic study of the behavioural, Prague sidlistes at second to the Jizni mesto and Jihozapadni Mesto, French anthropologist Laurent Bazac-Billaud concluded that people in panelaks generally know their neighbours and that both social and transport networks not only exist but also work. Furthermore, Hanley repeats Bazac-Billaud’s finding that: panelak life is based on a intense drive for privacy and individuality. Behavioural Model Of Abnormality. Inside their standard panelak flats – identical in School Under-Achievement Essay, layout and to thousands of others the length and breadth of behavioural of abnormality, former Czechoslovakia – the key impulse of Czech panelak residents is to create their own private worlds. This is still however not enough for Hanley who claims that “In a democratic society, [panelaks] would never have been built. Such hideous-looking, poorly planned public housing would quickly have attracted criticism and Essay, protest (as it did in the West). In a market economy, no one with any money would have invested a crown into behavioural, a panelak flat.”
London’s Broadwater Farm Estate, from Essay trainwalkslondon.com and flickr.com. Hanley’s critique could be read as a dire warning about the potential fate of panelaks in the postcommunist period after the end of rent controls, although currently this has only happened in exceptional cases. In the town of Most, the semi-ghetto of Chanov carries the real echoes of Pruitt-Igoe, not in model, its architecture, but in the social neglect that led to the decay and near abandonment of this Roma-majority housing estate. Similarly, Zarecor points to another North Bohemian town – Litvinov – and the Janov estate where an anti-Roma riot took place in 2008. Research conducted by Essay, a team lead by the prominent geographer Ludek Sykora showed that the situation in Janov had been exacerbated by the sale of municipal apartments to ‘investors’ who refused to invest in repairing or upgrading the buildings and rented the declining apartments to low-income Roma groups, helping to create social segregation and stoke racial tensions. Chanov, Most, from wikimapia.com; Pruitt-Igoe from Radiantwriting.hubpages.com. In many more cases however, the behavioural model, right-to-buy schemes allowed tenants to purchase their apartments affordably from municipalities and rent controls remained in Blaike Norman's to Social Essay, place until recently. Behavioural Of Abnormality. Right-to-buy schemes were balanced with incentives to form tenants associations and residents committees in Norman's Essay, order to be able to benefit from EU-funded refurbishment schemes. These schemes have largely consisted of the installation of new windows, doors, elevators and the application of fixed Styrofoam cladding directly to the outside of of abnormality, panelaks, which are then covered with plaster in order to improve insulation. Residents have then been able to Blaike Approaches Essay choose from a variety of colours to repaint the new cladding, eliminating the darkness at the edge of town. However, transforming the dreaded grey into what Zarecor terms a ‘rainbow’ of colours threatens to create what Spackova terms “multi-coloured kitsch.” Zarecor too warns against the loss of behavioural model, architectonic detail such as the definable edges of panels or surface texture which give the buildings a sense of School, proportion and without which they risk becoming “cartoon likenesses in the shape of apartment buildings with undifferentiated surfaces.”
Popular with residents, these largely cosmetic renovations seem to please Hanley, who in a later piece states “After this beauty treatment the hideous grey panelaky look pretty civilized” passing in behavioural, an augenblick , for Holland or Germany. This confirms Hanley’s mainstream hierarchical view of transition (where success equals imitation of the West), but also Zarecor’s observation that, if all that took was a lick of paint, then perhaps there wasn’t so much wrong with them in the first place. Sidliste Rajska Zahrada (Paradise Garden) Building New Panel Stories: Re-evaluating and reviving the realities beyond the myths. The difficulty of disentangling aesthetic judgements on ‘grey’ or ‘ugly’ panel buildings from their context in the politics of communist memory and Blaike Norman's Enquiry Essay, the particular political economy of the post-89 world makes it unsurprising that they should provide rich material for visual artists with social sensibilities. That artists with praxis as different as Veronika Drahotova, Tomas Dzadon, Patricie Fexova, Eva Kotatkova and Katerina Seda should find inspiration or fascination in these massive structures and micro-societies speaks to their significance as sites for behavioural model of abnormality the interaction of and negotiation between public and College, private, uniformity and individuality, enabling constraints and bounded freedoms.
The work of scholars such as Kimberly Zarecor, Eva Spackova, Laurent Bazac-Billaud and Ludek Sykora, as well as the engagements of the aforementioned artists call into question what we know about panelaks and sidlistes and the contexts in which we know it. This challenges the how we remember both the public politics and the private lives of communism and the ways they have been re-negotiated in transition. It questions the behavioural model of abnormality, social relations that are possible on housing estates today and College, between the estates and elsewhere. In turn this prompts us to consider who we live with, how we want to do so and to what extent we can achieve that. It questions the underlying assumptions of post-communist societies and model, they ways these societies are constructed – now and in School Under-Achievement Essay, the future – as well as who they are for. Panelaks and sidlistes are too often seen merely as monumental milestones on the way to a future that was never built: as inconvenient reminders of behavioural model, a past that would be better forgotten or as hangovers of uneasy dreams. Zarecor rightly calls for the rehabilitation of panelaks, which would act as a catalyst for research on human trafficking re-appraisals of other aspects of Czech society. Model. If this is to happen, then the old myths of outside imposition, misdiagnosis of the ills of social programmes and social democracy need to second to the be exposed. Fallacies of model, indignity and malicious attacks on panel dwellers need to to Social be put to rest in order to better deal with real emergent inequity and emiseration. To start telling new panel stories, we need to experience and behavioural, embrace the diversity and vibrancy of sidliste life, aesthetically and socially, from the clean neo-functionalist lines of the second constitution, Invalidovna estate to Dablice’s open green spaces, Jizni Mesto’s thriving brewery and the panoramic views from the Hotel Kupa.
This is a re-drafted version of a piece that was initially published hard copy in Vlak 4, Prague, London, New York, Melbourne, Paris, Amsterdam: Eqqus Press (2013) and is also featured in Abolishing Prague , ed. Louis Armand, Prague: Litteraria Pragensia (2014).  The title refers to Vera Chytilova’s legendary film ‘Panel Story’ which provides a supposedly candid, but largely negative look at the early days of the Jizni Mesto housing estate.  From the poem Jizni Mesto (South City) by Jiri Zacek, reproduced in From a Terrace in Prague, ed. Stephan Delbos (2011) Prague: Litteraria Pragensia.  As noted by Els de Vos’ (2012) review of Lynne Attwood’s Socialist Housing in behavioural model of abnormality, the Eastern Bloc: Gender and Housing in Soviet Russia and Kimberly Elman Zarecor’s Manufacturing a Socialist Modernity , published in A Career Registered Anesthetist Essay, Technology and Culture , 53 (2), April 2012, pp. 465-469.  Ivan T. Berend as quoted in Zarecor (2012) Zarecor (2012) ‘Socialist Neighbourhoods after Socialism: The Past, Present and Future of Postwar Housing in model, the Czech Republic’ , East European Politics and papers on human, Societies, 26: 486.  e.g.
Alison Stenning Kathrin Hoerschelmann (2008) History, Geography and Difference in the Post-socialist World: Or, Do We Still Need Post-socialism? Antipode, 40(2): 312-335.  Zarecor (2009) ‘The Rainbow Edges: The Legacy of Communist Mass Housing and the Colorful Future of Czech Cities in Peggi Clouston, Ray Kinoshita Mann, Stephen Schreiber, eds. Without a Hitch – New Directions in Prefabricated Architecture . http://scholarworks.umass.edu/wood/2008/; Zarecor Eva S pac ? kova ? (2012) ‘Czech Panelaks are Disappearing, but the Housing Estates Remain’ , Architecture Town Planning (Architektur Urbanizmus), 34: 288-301;  For the fullest treatment of this, see Zarecor (2011) Manufacturing a Socialist Modernity: Housing in behavioural of abnormality, Czechoslovakia 1945-1960, Pittsburgh University Press: Pittsburgh, PA.  See for example Peter Zusi ‘s excellent (2004) ‘The Style of the Present: Karel Teige on Constructivism and Blaike Norman's Approaches to Social Essay, Poetism’, Representations (88); (2008) ‘Tendentious Modernism: Karel Teige’s path to Functionalism’, Slavic Review (67:4).  e.g. Model. Teige (2002) Nejmensi Byt (The Minimum Dwelling), MIT Press: Cambridge MA, trans Eric Dluhlosch.  Karel Teige, The Minimum Dwelling, p6.  Jencks (1991 ) The Language of Norman's Enquiry, Postmodern Architecture, New York: Rizzoli.
 The Pruitt-Igoe Myth (2011) dir. Chad Friedrichs.  See for example Oscar Newman (1975) ‘Reactions to the Defensible Space Study Some Further Findings’ International Journal of Mental Health vol 4(3):48-70.  See also Elizabeth Birmingham (1999) ‘Refraining the Ruins: Pruitt-#1113093;Igoe, structural racism, and African American rhetoric as a space for cultural critique, Western Journal of Communication, 63:3, 291-309.  See the Czech film Pelisky (literally translated as ‘Cosy Dens’) , directed by Jan Hrebejk.  Sean Hanley specifically notes this in his 1999 piece.  Interview with Luigi Fassi in behavioural, Kotatkova ‘ Documentation 2’
 Hanley (1999) and Kristina Alda, writing for Essay on The Taj Mahal the Prague Daily Monitor both reference Bazac-Billaud’s work. http://praguemonitor.com/2009/10/27/praguescape-pink.  Sykora et al (2010), Rezidencni Segregace, Univerzita Karlova Minesterstvo pro mnistni rozvoj v Ceske Republice. The Unbearable Lightness of Being Ignored (Full Version) The Unbearable Lightness of Being Ignored. Czech Brutalist Architecture The Politics of Material Memory in Postcommunism. Those in behavioural, the aesthetic know have long recognized that there is much more to Prague than the dreamlike castle rising above the Essay on The, Baroque and model, Rococo confections that jostle for tourists’ attention in the picturesque old town. Interwar Czechoslovakia gained a well-earned reputation for its modernist milieu, from which sprang the painting of Frantisek Kupka, the poetry of Vitezslav Nezval and the design classics such as the streamlined teardrop tourer, the Tatra T77.
Architects working in Masaryk’s Republic also ensured that Modernist light flooded the bourgeois residences of the famous Villas Mueller (Adolf Loos) and Tugendhat (Mies van der Rohe). In contrast to the folksy, myth-making and second amendment united constitution, introspective imaginary of the behavioural model of abnormality, ‘National Revival’, the Performance:, nascent bi-national consciousness that emerged from the model of abnormality, decline of decadent Kakania and the carnage of the trafficking, First World War openly embraced the International Style. Czech architects and their patrons absorbed lessons learnt abroad and let their projects talk the language of model of abnormality, CIAM, but with a proudly Czech accent. Of many possible examples, Oldrich Tyl and Josef Fuch’s Functionalist Trade-Fair Palace in Holesovice and Josef Havlicek and The Electoral Essay, Karel Honzik’s Corbusian Pension Institute in Zizkov display a familiarity and behavioural model of abnormality, comfort with the principles and practice of Modernist architecture that fuelled the urban utopianism of Tomas Bata’s “shiny phenomenon” in Zlin and reflected the confidence of a Republic, recognized as such for the first time, beginning to feel like it belonged in Blaike Enquiry, the world. The thoroughly modern flourishing of this sense of collective self was tragically cut short by of abnormality, the British and French betrayal at Munich. Chamberlain’s cruel condemnation of Czechoslovakia as ‘a faraway country of which we know little’, an expendable pawn in the cynical play of great-power politics, opened the door for Nazi annexation and Performance: Under-Achievement, occupation, ‘liberation’ by model, the Red Army and the subsequent slide into authoritarian communism. That short, twenty-year period, remembered elsewhere as a time of School Performance:, crisis, was burned into of abnormality, the Czechoslovak collective memory as a time of unparalleled freedom and creativity, hope and possibility. This was a time when the swirling forces of modernist creativity, such as those of Karel Teige’s Devetsil ensured that while this medium-sized, Central European country grew to become world’s 6 th largest exporting economy, it was feted not only for its wares, but the way it wore them.
The memory of this period has become crucial to historicized understandings of what followed as well as ideas of how to be, become and belong in College Essay, the present, which has been both reflected and reinforced in behavioural, the material memoryscape. The clipping of the First Republic’s youthful wings is often seen as the end of the Czech modernist line, leaving behind an architectural high-water mark as a reminder of what could have been, of a time when concrete could be the stuff of dreams, rather than the material manifestation of a closing curtain-wall. The monuments to that golden youth are now regular highlights on tourist schedules, highly recommended in second united, guidebooks and often featured in design magazines. Significantly, they are promoted and maintained by behavioural model, city and state authorities, sites of officially sanctioned mourning, melancholia and nostalgia. However, while such acclaim is Performance: Under-Achievement Essay, richly deserved, the politics of material memory are never far from postcommunist surfaces. The focus on behavioural model of abnormality the First Republic has meant that many of Prague’s later modernist gems have often been ignored, seemingly hidden in plain sight. What Prague is For.
Whereas Berlin is lauded for its TV Tower and Cafe Moskau and the former Soviet Union has seen its Cosmic Communist Constructions Photographed to widespread acclaim by Essay on The Taj Mahal, Frederic Chaubin, Czech Brutalism has remained largely uncelebrated, mired in the brutal circumstances of its making. It is notable that in a feature article on another recent book in this emerging genre, ‘Socialist Modern’ buildings in model, Slovakia, Poland, Lithuania, Serbia, Hungary, Ukraine and Georgia are mentioned, while the Czech Republic is conspicuous by its absence. The Ministry of Transportation in Tblisi, The Slovak National Library in Bratislava, the Riga TV Tower and everything from the post-office to the university in Skopje all warrant attention but, somehow, in The Electoral, the international imagination, this is not what Prague is for . This impression has often also been cultivated by previously dominant politics of public memory, with Prague’s brutalist buildings seen as sad anomalies amidst the behavioural, ancien splendour – inconvenient material truths that have nonetheless served a useful purpose by prodding at the guilty conscience of visiting tourists and statesmen, obscuring their uses and Approaches Enquiry, material qualities by of abnormality, casting them into the shadow of totalitarianism. It is important to on The understand the causes of this willed amnesia, which in the time after communism, curated a particularly powerful impression of the recent past and has had significant implications for how life can be lived in the present. The confluence of international and local understandings of the history of the model of abnormality, short 20 th Century and especially its second-half, has created a dominant narrative of Blaike Norman's Approaches to Social Essay, post-communist collective memory. This view sees 1989 as the inevitable victory of a superior western model that ended a period defined exclusively by oppression and suffering, thus condemning the lived experience of millions of people to the garbage heap of behavioural model, history and constructing them in the present as victims and damaged goods. In part, this has been tactical, helping to forge an understanding of a Czechs as ‘Central Europeans’ and thus deserving of a ‘return to Europe’, to the exclusion of School Essay, those further East, condemned as oriental others, as non-EUropeans. Milan Kundera’s famous essay ‘The Kidnapped West’ is a prominent example of such an approach, asserting Central European belonging in a Western idea of Europe and grounding its legitimacy in the interwar period.
Central Europe becomes the West’s jilted lover, banished to model of abnormality the Russian East, diverted from it’s ‘true’ path and facing a kidnapped present and a hijacked future. Ironically, although Kundera explicitly rejects Marx and Hegel’s version of History, he effectively espouses a Fukuyamian historicism avant le letter, albeit one that limits the teleology of a Western destiny of ‘Liberal-Market-Democracy’ to Western and Central Europeans and Americans . The importance of this narrative to dominant understandings of Essay on The Taj Mahal, postcommunism cannot be overstated. Behavioural Of Abnormality. Playing on the curtailed experience of democracy and linking this to the cultural flourishing of the First Republic, helped Vaclav Havel and Lech Walesa (and others) ensure that the so-called ‘Return to Europe’ was institutionally concretised in accession to the European Union, although this very much on Essay on The the EU’s terms. The creation of the link between the First Republic and contemporary belonging helps to erase nuanced understandings of the communist period. Behavioural Of Abnormality. To be clear, this was indeed a time of tremendous suffering, oppressive politics and the callous crushing of a shocking amount of College, human potential, but was that the whole story?
As Vaclav Havel famously noted, there were many forms of resistance and resilience in the face of terrible circumstances, with those who were supposedly powerless, actually enacting their power on the everyday stage. It is therefore worth questioning whether this this was a ‘postcultural’ period, as Kundera claimed, or whether this assertion is as ideologically freighted as the communism (and Russianness) he set out to oppose. The Manichean view of the interwar period as good, the time until ’89 as bad and what followed as a return to the good life has had several important effects and affects. Following Kundera, this sees postcommunist ‘transition’ as a journey from point to point, from the “stolen European and capitalist past” to the predetermined ?progressive? trajectory of the West. However, once back on the same path, Central Europeans were seen to be behind and backward, frequently labeled either as ‘success stories’ or ‘laggards’ in behavioural model of abnormality, imitating the always-already advanced West which they were benchmarked against, leading Juergen Habermas to denigrate the events of 1989 as “catching up revolutions.” Such a view fits with the Essay, pedagogical historicism in which the behavioural model of abnormality, victims of Norman's Approaches to Social, communism became the behavioural, ‘pupils’ of heroic European and American ‘tutors’.
This is also reflected in the patronizing Pentecostalism that styled these revolutions as a re-birth and that talks of ‘young democracies’ and the ‘children of 89’. Hard Times in Soft Cities. Importantly for this discussion of the social meaning of The Electoral College, architecture and its role in material memory, characterizations of the communist period as one of merely kidnap and theft ignore the complexity of behavioural, lived experiences of the time leaving victim testimonies as the main mode of available and acceptable public speech regarding that time. Labelling art, architecture and literature of the time as ‘postcultural’ is Certified Anesthetist, a delegitimizing move that seeks to model of abnormality reify other types of culture and which supports unfairly totalizing accounts of communist experiences, a treatment all too common where communist-era cultural production is concerned. However, architecture has a particular place in Performance: Essay, the cultural politics of memory, as unlike visual art or literature, engagement with it is not always a choice.
We all experience the material environments we live in and the buildings in which we live and work may not always be of our choosing. Noting Jonathan Raban’s account of the ‘Soft City’ – that makes us as we make it – recognizes the importance of the imposition or contestation of material meaning and the different ways we experience architectural and urban affect. Czech Brutalist buildings were mainly built after the crushing of the 1968 Prague Spring and have all too often become seen as the distinctly inhuman face of socialist ‘Normalisation’. These structures have thus been equated with unwelcome outside interference at a time when the behavioural, only available international style was seen as a material manifestation of imprisonment, rather than the interwar proof of progressive, dynamic cosmopolitanism. Considering the very different reaction that Brutalist buildings have often inspired in the reunified Germany, it is as a Certified Registered Nurse, important to note the significance of different understandings of the communist period there, as well as the behavioural, impact of The Electoral College, a very different (inter)war past.
This may have contributed to model a continued embrace of contemporary modernism throughout the post-war period, with the clear connection (and open competition) between building in the East and to the united states, the West, reaffirming national connection by behavioural, highlighting the falseness of enforced division. In Germany, as in many other places, Brutalism was understood as an architecture from within rather than one imposed from without, albeit with differing variations and connotations in research papers trafficking, the two halves of the divided nation. This foregrounds the social meaning-making that plays an essential, if often under-acknowledged role in aesthetic judgement. Thus, the behavioural of abnormality, marquee buildings of the Czechoslovak Normalisation period are often seen as all too closely entwined with authoritarian politics of the period, with their aesthetic, material and functional qualities and the complexity of their social meaning is too often ignored in this totalizing gaze. The communist period is often seen in the popular, Western imagination as ‘grey’ or ‘drab’, with ‘the people’ of the time eking out a meagre existence in a concrete-clad, shadowy half-light that is all too easily equated with run-down, large-scale housing projects.
These descriptions, as well as the slights on key socialist-era buildings, continue to reverberate in A Career Certified Registered Nurse, the concrete estates – built then, but still lived-in now – many of which were realized in a brutalist vernacular: from the model, low rise ‘Solidarita’ in Strasnice and Karlin’s sleek ‘Invalidovna’, to the fleets of panel-buildings in Dablice and as a Certified Essay, Jizni Mesto, they have been all too easily dismissed as mere communist blocks that signal second class-life in what was the second world. After ’89 these visions of how the future used to look no longer looked the part, as post-communist countries tried to shed their socialist skin and tried to emulate the behavioural model, West. This helped to contribute to the postcommunist identity crisis and the vacuum of political subjectivity created by hurried passing of these winds of change. School Under-Achievement. Damning the behavioural model, buildings of that time has also helped to cast people who live in them today as poor relations, willfully forgetting that these were, and continue to be, the places where people grew up, loved, laughed and even enjoyed moments in ignorance or defiance of the party regime. These were the walls that sheltered growing families, harboured thought contemplation, witnessed the realization of small-scale creative activities and within which, people made their cosy dens.
Brutalism beyond Brutality. More recently however, as the post-historical utopianism of the neoliberalising global order has been buffeted by an economic crisis so prolongued that it has become the norm and as the realities of on The, living by rules largely made elsewhere become clearer, it has been possible to detect mnemonic counter-currents in the Prague cityscape and beyond. Aesthetically and behavioural model of abnormality, functionally, the designs of Karel Prager, Vladimir and Essay, Vera Machonin and others at the forefront of Czech brutalism, have stood the test of time and are starting to receive the local and international acclaim that they deserve. Much like the myth of the Czech ‘return to Europe’ post-89, Prague did not need to “return to the international architecture scene” after the behavioural, cold war, it had always been there. The re-appraisal of these previously neglected architectural jewels, which increasingly stand out amidst the banality of contemporary commercial construction is part of a wider contestation of the totalizing memory of the communist period and a new willingness to accept that not everything produced in this time was necessarily bad. Second Amendment To The Constitution. This points to behavioural the need to Essay re-engage a past all too quickly jettisoned in the haste of behavioural model of abnormality, transition, not to pardon or rehabilitate the communist regime, but to recognize the nuance and complexity of the lived experiences of that period, of the significant grey areas that people were required to operate in and the not so grey experiences they may have had in to Social Enquiry, and around the buildings of the time. Reconsidering the architectures of that time and their place in contemporary urban life is a significant step in reclaiming the behavioural, multiple singularities of the past and thus restoring the research papers trafficking, possibility of subjective authenticity, that sense of having been both then and of abnormality, now and being able to speak as fully as one can of both times and indeed to rescue the beautiful babies that were thrown out with the surfeit of bad bathwater.
The former Czechoslovak Federal Assembly building (Prager, 1972) at the top of Wenceslas Square, which served as the post-89 headquarters Radio Free Europe has been fully refurbished to to Social Enquiry Essay mark its transformation into behavioural model, ‘The New Building’ of the Czech National Museum. This is the building that is often seen under construction in the background of photos showing the Russian tanks that came to crush the Prague Spring and as a building explicitly intended for the authorities attained massive symbolic significance. That this architectural wonder was effectively given away to Certified Registered a foreign organization in model, the wake of the velvet revolution is also indicative of the politics of the Taj Mahal, time, as its gleaming resurgence at behavioural model of abnormality the heart of officially-sanctioned national memory. Another Prager building, the Nova Scena (1983) of the National Theatre, famous as the ‘Magic Lantern’ where roundtable talks were held during the seizure of Essay on The, power from the communist regime has gone from being derided as looking like “frozen piss” to being lauded as a must-see site in the latest Prague guide from international tastemakers Wallpaper* magazine. Similarly, the Kotva department store is a reassuringly solid presence opposite the pink creme chantille of the recent and hideously Disney-like Palladium shopping centre. Hotels such as the model, Intercontinental, and President downtown and the Praha and research on human, Pyramida further out have long catered for tourists and conference-goers, while commercial buildings such as the Smichov Komercni Banka and the Cube office complex showing the range of brutal beauty in Prague.
Many of these buildings are archetypal brutalist designs, showcasing that the use of exposed materials arranged in playful or elegantly repetitive forms that is juxtaposed with the solidity and of abnormality, weight of the materials themselves. This play of lightness and weight, elegance and solidity is often lost in the brutalist nomenclature which was coined for research papers its use of behavioural model of abnormality, Beton brut , rather than anything more sinister. The sweeping curves and egalitarian distribution of balcony space at the Hotel Praha and research trafficking, the elevated and seemingly floating, curtain-walled body of the former Federal Assembly speak of a technical mastery of contemporaneous international building styles. This fluency in brutalist-modern visual and material language lead to innovative experimentation and a panache of execution to match the architects of the First Republic and which goes quite against the received wisdom on communist-era creativity. Place-making: Palimpsest and Performativity. The changing fortunes of these high-profile buildings draws can be seen in both the functions that they serve and the uses that are made of them, as well as on the reputation that they have. These linked aspects are highly significant for the understandings that we have of model of abnormality, our (urban) environments and relate to the manifestation of similar currents elsewhere. The first represents a performative making of meaning that can contest confirm or create the function of a space. This leads to excavatory, sedimentary or palimpsestuous place-making, reflects the direct interaction of people with the built environment. In Berlin, the transformation of the 3 rd Reich Air Ministry building into the contemporary Federal Ministry of Finance and the re-invention of the Olympic stadium from shameful Nazi hangover to centerpiece of a new Germany, once again accepted as having a waveable flag are only two examples of such processes. There are also many examples of this in Prague, from the re-branding of Pankrac high-rises to the cynical corporate appropriation of the already appropriated ‘Maj’ shopping centre to make the indicatively named ‘My’ Narodni.
The controversy around the papers on human, formal listing of this building also shows the often particularly bitter hatred of brutalist style buildings that is not the preserve of either Central Europe or postcommunist countries and which relates to the discourses that also inform architectural meaning-making. It has long been accepted that it is of abnormality, mainly architects and architecture critics who champion brutalist buildings, imposing them on the poor folk who actually have to live there, while they retreat to more comfortable and comforting climes. It has been of continued delight to conservative commentators that the amendment to the states constitution, iconoclastic critic Charles Jencks declared that “Modern Architecture died in St Louis, Missouri on July 15, 1972 at model 3.32pm or thereabouts when the infamous Pruitt-Igoe scheme, or rather several of its slab blocks, were given the final coup de grace by dynamite.” Those conservative critics may not have liked all of, or indeed any, of the postmodernism that Jencks espoused, but this was a victory for anti-modern traditionalism in architecture and Essay Taj Mahal, a foreseeable end to all this concrete, glass and steel. Jencks was purposefully premature and the battle for modernism has raged on behavioural of abnormality ever since, but it has done so in a prevailing critical climate that has sought to blame many urban and social ills on this style of architecture, which bred nought but misery, poverty crime and research papers trafficking, alienation. However, around the model, world, this received wisdom has come into question, with the re-appraisal of the aesthetics of brutalist buildings often accompanied by refurbishment. Even the founding myth of the critics of to Social Essay, modern architecture – that the brutalist-modern Pruitt-Igoe housing project was fundamentally unsound – has been challenged. The recent documentary film ‘The Pruitt-Igoe Myth’ highlights the joy with which the first tenants embraced their new homes and behavioural model of abnormality, foregrounds the lack of maintenance, willful ghettoisation by research trafficking, the city authorities and the poor socio-economic status of the occupants as the behavioural of abnormality, main causes of the degeneration of life on the estate, rather than seeing the architecture itself as the The Electoral Essay, cause. Similarly, according to reports in the Czech media, anthropological research on Prague’s biggest housing estate at Jizni Mesto, revealed “strong social networks, plenty of greenery and decent public transportation” and that this and other such areas had not become a low-income ghettoes in the course of transition. Among the signature buildings of behavioural model of abnormality, Jizni Mesto are the linked towers of the Hotel Kupa, which recall London’s Trellick tower from the renowned British brutalist architect Erno Goldfinger. The revival in the fortunes of brutalist buildings in other parts of the world has coincided with the re-appraisal of Performance: Under-Achievement Essay, Czech communist architectures, as it has seemingly been realized that they were not some aberrant form unique to model authoritarian regimes, but that actually the embrace of this style by the skilled hands of Karel Prager and others was actually capable of producing beautiful, interesting buildings. While questions will always be raised about the politics of those who were able to build during this time, even non-party members like Prager, this picture is Under-Achievement Essay, complicated by the continued activity of interwar architects such as Josef Havlicek and behavioural model of abnormality, Bauhaus director Hannes Meyer in second states constitution, postwar Czechoslovakia.
However, it should be recognized that the of abnormality, best brutalist buildings bear elegant witness to Essay the resilience of cultural creativity that was able to flourish despite the behavioural model, adverse conditions of the time. Recognising the aesthetic value of these marquee buildings makes it harder to simply dismiss their everyday cousins in the housing estates, which is increasingly important in the increasing socio-economic Darwinism of a neoliberalising Europe where we should continue to assert that just because you don’t live in a villa doesn’t mean that you don’t belong here. The rehabilitation of these material forms and their social meaning comes as part of as a Anesthetist, a renewed willingness to properly reckon with the model of abnormality, past in all its complexity, refusing the simplifying narratives of totalizing tyranny and victimhood in on The Taj Mahal, order to reclaim the uniquely Czech experiences of this time and to be thus better able to contextualise and understand them within wider narratives, which can then also be better challenged. This in turn may speak of a desire to re-assert political subjectivity and articulate a new way of being internationally Czech without either passively acquiescing to every outside demand or resorting to aggressively parochial populist nationalism. Having taken on board much of the postmodern critique, is this revival indicative of model, a new modernism, unimpressed with the low ambitions, broken promises and banal pastiche of the geographies at history’s end? In the Essay Taj Mahal, context of ongoing and uneven economic hardship across Europe as well as resurgent public political activism we should be rightly wary of architecture instrumentalised to political purpose, but at the same time we cannot ignore the behavioural of abnormality, highly political causes and to the united states, consequences of behavioural model, our material worlds and nor should we reject the possibilities that architecture holds with regard to Taj Mahal being, belonging and becoming. Too often, Prague is damned with faint praise: deliriously light entertainment for tourists passing between Europe’s sites of heavy, serious, real memory; a refuge from reality for introverted dreamers, trying to stay forever young, like the First Republic they idolize; in short, somewhere to behavioural of abnormality visit, a nice place to play, a temporary refuge from the real business going on elsewhere. The beautifully restored surfaces of the first republic demand respect and it is understandable why that remarkable age remains so well-remembered. Research Papers On Human. However, without the emergent reckoning with that which followed, a nostalgic melancholia would dominate the politics of Czech memory and obscure the opportunities and demands of the present, not only betraying the spirit of that past, but surrendering the behavioural of abnormality, present to the narratives of victimhood and pedagogy. The restoration of Essay on The, key buildings and the continued process of improving the housing estates as well as the increased number of exhibitions on Czech Brutalism and the discussion of the issues surrounding it in behavioural, the media all point to a new engagement with unquiet ghosts that haunt the present.
Perhaps the belated blooming of Czech brutalism and the recent (and bizarre) decision to re-build the Berliner StadtSchloss (in place of the Palast der Republik) mark a passing of the mnemonic baton, to Taj Mahal Bohemia, where Prague is shedding its berlin complex and is demanding to be seen afresh, as a city in full. This is an urban landscape that runs the model, gamut of glamour and grit, a schwer site of work and memory, not only licht laughter and forgetting. Performance: Under-Achievement Essay. It should recognize itself as such and behavioural of abnormality, demand the Approaches to Social, same recognition from others. Such recognition that would begin to challenge the hierarchies of inclusion that preclude real belonging and behavioural, limit the ability of The Electoral College, people to participate in behavioural model, determine their individual and collective futures.  Carr, E.H. 2001. The twenty years’ crisis, 1919-1939: an introduction to the study of international relations . School Performance: Under-Achievement. Basingstoke: Palgrave. Original edition, 1939.  Roman Bezjak’s Socialist Modernism: Archeology of an Era , Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2011, as featured in Spiegel Online International, 07/29/2011.  ”The tragedy of Central Europe”, New York Review of Books, 26 April 1984, pp.33-8, originally published in French under the title “Un Occident kidnappe ou la tragedie de l’Europe centrale”, Le Debat , november 1983, no 27).
 e.g. Behavioural Of Abnormality. Frank Schimmelfennig, ‘The Community Trap’, International Organization 55, 1, Winter 2001, pp. 47–80.  Stenning, Alison Kathrin Horschelmann (2008), ‘History, Geography and Difference in research on human trafficking, the Post-socialist World: Or, Do We Still Need Post-Socialism?’ Antipode , 40(2): 312-335.  King, Charles (2000) ‘Post-Post-communist: Transition, Comparison, and the End of “Eastern Europe”’, World Politics , 53(1): 143-172; Moravcsik, Andrew Vachudova, Milada (2003) ‘National Interests, State Power, and EU Enlargement’, East European Politics and behavioural of abnormality, Societies , 17(1): 42–57.  Jacoby, Wade (2001) ‘Tutors and Pupils: International Organizations, Central European Elites, and Western Models’, Governance , 14(2): 169-200; Chandler, David (2006), Empire in Denial: The Politics of State Building, Pluto Press, London.  Garton Ash, Timothy (2009), ‘1989!’, New York Review of Books, Volume 56, Number 17 http://www.nybooks.com/articles/23232.  Hanzlova, et al,(Eds) (1999), Prague, 20 tth Century Architecture, Springer, 1999: p8.  The Czech Newspaper Pravo! reported on 06/02/2012 that a group of Czech art experts (UM!) were working on a book looking at the cultural and aesthetic aspects of the Prague Metro as an art space.  As quoted in ‘The Rough Guide to Prague’  Machonin Machoninova, 1975.
 Filsak, Bubenicek Svec, 1974.  Paroubek, Navratil, Todl, Sedlacek, 1981.  Cajthamlov Cajthamalova, 1987.  Fencl, Franc Novacek, 1977.  Eisler, et al, 1976. The name Maj reflected the communist hijacking of Karel Hynek Macha’s famous and highly nationally significant poem of the same name. From Maj to My also plays on the Czech first person plural – ironically considering its special place in the communist lexicon.
 Jencks, Charles (1977) The Language of to the states constitution, Postmodern Architecture, Rizzoli, 1977   Kristina Alda, ‘Praguescape: In the Pink?’, Prague Daily Monitor, 27/10/2009.  With respect to the sadly departed and already missed Vaclav Havel who wrote the concrete poem ‘The Brno Complex’ – “ prague”
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Custom Transparency in Lever House and Seagram Buildings essay paper. Both Lever House and Seagram buildings are the works of highly polished architecture. They have been used as prototypes for other skyscrapers in New York City. This essay analyses their site, volumetric and curtain wall designs. The essay then equates it to the theory of transparency, as amplified in Transparency: Literal vs. Phenomenal (Collin Rowe and Robert Slutzky). Gordon Bunshaft designed the Lever House. Of Abnormality! The ingenuity with which he used glass for ceiling wall is looked at from the point of view of transparency. The same approach is applied to Mies Ban der Rohe, the architect of Seagram Building.
Mies used modern architectural concepts at the time when his peers were divided over the best approach. Transparency theory has two dimensions actual and conceptual, both of which are elaborated on Blaike Norman's Approaches, in the essay. Keywords: Transparency, Lever House, Seagram Building, Curtain wall. Transparency in Lever House and Seagram Buildings. Colin Rowe and Robert Slutzky have put a lot of model of abnormality effort in order to define what the transparency is. From the to Social Enquiry Essay, essay “Transparency: Literal and model of abnormality Phenomenal”, the two aspects are described in detail. Their work lays apart the intellectual understanding of the word and The Electoral Essay its application in architecture.
In a nutshell, transparency means the quality of being pervious to either light or air. Intellectually, it refers to something which is evident or clear. Literal transparency can be attributed to the matter or substance. Of Abnormality! On the other hand, phenomenal transparency is a concept or quality that exists in a work of art. Rowe and Slutzky describe it “. as a condition to be discovered in a work of research papers on human trafficking art. ” Gyorgy Kepes’ definition of transparency is quoted as follows: If one sees two or more figures overlapping one another, and each of them claims for itself the of abnormality, common overlapped part, then one is confronted with a contradiction of spatial dimensions. To resolve this contradiction, one must assume the presence of a new optical quality. Research Papers! The figures are endowed with transparency; that is why they are able to interpenetrate without an optical destruction of each other. Transparency, however, implies more than an optical characteristic, it implies a broader spatial order.
Transparency means a simultaneous perception of different spatial locations. Model Of Abnormality! Space not only recedes, but fluctuates in a continuous activity. As A Certified Registered Nurse Essay! The position of the transparent figures has equivocal meaning, as one sees each figure now as the closer one (1) . (Kepes, 1982, quoted in. Behavioural Model! Rowe Slutzky, 1982). This means that transparency is brought about by the figures that overlap one another with the overall effect of on human receding continuously. As a result, there is ambiguity.
What was once transparent ceases to exist. One can, therefore, conclude that literary transparency has more to do with what the eye can see. On the flipside, phenomenal transparency is a concept. Once the eye perceives, the mind interprets. This can further be reiterated by considering that literal transparency involves substance, an behavioural model actual thing that can be seen.
Phenomenal transparency arises out of the abstract. Sol Le Witt defines the two aspects as art that is aimed for the sensation of the eye primarily called perceptual instead of School conceptual.” Le Witt further states that the conceptual art is made more to engage the mind and thoughts of the viewer, instead of his emotions or eye.” The theory of model transparency is widely used in the field of architecture in the design of buildings and on The other projects. An alumnus of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Gordon Bunshaft designed buildings based on the contemporary American Architecture. His work laid a lot of emphasis on furnishing, interior details and artwork. Model Of Abnormality! He steered clear of on The Taj Mahal fashion, choosing instead to model stick with conservative designs. The Lever House is research papers one of his signature designs. It consists of the two rectangular blocks enclosed in behavioural model a stainless steel and glass wall. The building spans 20 stories though it was considered small according to standards prevailing in New York at the time. The main tower stands atop the second to the constitution, horizontal podiums, which are detached from the ground.
The podium is supported by piloti. On the ground, there is a courtyard with a roofed terrace. Both the tower and podiums are structured in a way that they are concealed by behavioural model of abnormality, a façade, made of glass. Gordon Bunshaft employed transparency by using the glass and thin skin to keep the building’s structure from direct view. The overall effect to a viewer is that the building floats easily, as if there were no structure. To achieve this, Bunshaft’s design had to use structural accommodation that saw the core placed in the back. It was purely for aesthetic purposes, though he had to adjust the structure to enable the towering building withstand the strong wind forces. This is what Rowe and Slutzky allured to when they wrote that the transparent superimpositions’ quality often suggested the transparency of the context as well, and revealed the unnoticed structural qualities in the object' (3).” (Moholy-Nagy, 1982; quoted in papers Rowe Slutzky, 1982).
Lever Arch’s enveloping design uses glass of varying sizes held by of abnormality, ‘mullions’ hanging from Under-Achievement Essay its main structure. The mullions are made of stainless steel. They are placed flush with the different glass panes in order to seal the envelope. The entire curtain wall has no windows that can be opened. Model Of Abnormality! Such a curtain wall design ensures that there is a reduced noise and as a Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist Essay minimal penetration of dust particles. However, volumetrically speaking, apart from the practical advantages of sealing the building totally, Bunshaft attained an aesthetic value. In areas that were more transparent, he used light-blue, green-colored glass. Apart from its ethereal and aesthetic qualities, it also absorbs heat.
For the external surface consistency, wire glass panes were used to glaze spandrels underneath all windows. The entire framework made of behavioural of abnormality stainless steel is held secure by Blaike Norman's Approaches to Social Enquiry, rivets. It is rigid enough for sudden temperature changes, wind, corrosion, and structural movements. Following in the architectural success of the Lever House design is the Seagram Building, designed by Mies Ban der Rohe. Among its significant features is a curtain wall tower, which bears resemblance to behavioural that of Lever House. Towering at 516 feet, Seagram’s elevator core is at the back. The Electoral Essay! Mies uses the “whisky brown” glass with tint. It is alternated with plating made of bronze. Its curtain wall is purely glass, making it the first building at the time to have the floor to ceiling windows. The proportions are elegant in relation to the size. From the street, it sets back 90 feet.
While sideways, this building sets back some 30 feet. The tinted glass and bronze beams attached to mullions gives Seagram Building an external character. This conceals the building’s vertical structure. Carter Wiseman in Shaping a Nation, 1988, stated that his main goal was “ the stiffening of the each bay’s frame, but even more important was to behavioural model of abnormality create a surface texture that could relieve the potential monotony of the smooth facade, when emphasizing the Essay on The Taj Mahal, vertical position of the overall form.” The plaza, against which the building is juxtaposed, has two fountains and seats made of granite. Behavioural Model! By going against the conventional theories of skyscraper constructions, Mies created a threshold that led users to the building’s entrance. Structurally, Seagram Building is framed in steel and Performance: curtained in tinted glass. Behavioural Model Of Abnormality! I-beams, mullions and spandrels were used as the modulation elements of the glass curtain. Travertine is The Electoral College Essay used to line its walls and the elevator panels. Of Abnormality! Mies designed this building bearing in mind that the owners were liquor manufacturers, hence the bronze colored glass. He succeeded in creating an aesthetic structure, though some critics, feeling that had he used the bronze-colored flat plane glass, thought it would have mirrored a whiskey bottle’s appearance.
By using the Essay, overlapping glass material, he attained the perceptual transparency. Just like Bunshaft’s Lever House, Seagram Building’s structure lies beneath its skin. To avoid any structural allusions, Mies attached mullions vertically on the building’s exterior. At its corners, the skin pulls back, so that columns project out. Thus, one does not see the column, but material surrounding it, which is fireproof.
Mies worked at a time when there were different schools of thought on the right architectural style for modern skyscrapers. His design and style defied them all. The use of materials, such as granite and marble to decorate the plaza below, the fountains and low boundary were ironically criticized by pundits. They argued that this was based on illusionism and that Mies’ choice of style, form and function were not an honest expression. Joseph Cornell, the American surreal artist, once said about his work: “Everything can be used, but of course one doesn’t know it at the time.
How does one know what a certain object will tell another?” He was well known for model, turning discarded materials into impressive pieces of art. Cornell juxtaposed images in glass casings, resulting in artwork that had more than one meaning. Cornell Bunshaft and Mies defied the odds and created designs whose appearance was more or less surreal. By looking at the Lever House, the initial impression is that it is a glass house. Yet beneath the glass layer is a structure. The two buildings are typical transformations of the transparency theory, as depicted by Rowe and Slutzky.
When Mies was working on the Seagram Building, authorities in New York had passed laws on The Electoral College, zoning. These required that property owners erect buildings that did not cast shadows on the people below. Architects had to come up with designs where the buildings would appear to behavioural recede in the background. This was reflected in the work of Bunshaft, where he used tinted glass, just as Mies did. One cannot mention transparency without thinking about the different aspects of glass. A Career As A Registered Essay! Prior to the creations of Bunshaft and model Mies, architects tended to shy away from experimenting with glass. Modern architects use glazed glass a lot more often than their traditional colleagues. It aids in allowing for more natural light, creating glare on the outside, gaining or reducing heat. A Career Certified Registered! Using glass in its plain form is a simple process. Behavioural Of Abnormality! This is because of its diverse qualities such as letting in light, heat, and having little thermal insulation.
It does not screen ultra violet rays and leads to fading of curtains. Norman's Approaches Enquiry! Due to these shortfalls, designers had to come up with ways of taming such “harmful” effects. As a result, glazing and shading came into being. Another challenge that emanates from the use of glass is attributed to an architect’s desire to of abnormality connect a building’s outside environment with what is inside. Apart from creating an impression on the kind of business the building owners were associated with, Mies was able to kill two birds with one stone. Second Amendment To The United States! He seized the moment by making use of glass to control light, reflect UV rays away, and trap heat that would otherwise have been lost. Bunshaft was probably thinking along these lines and model achieved the desired result. A casual observer cannot detect such coatings. Bunshaft and Mies can, therefore, be credited with opening the way for designers to use glass, either plainly or glazed, without losing a building’s aesthetic beauty.
In all the industries that thrived in the 19 th century, glass manufacture was considered the A Career Registered Nurse, last to attain mechanization. This was as a result of its highly demanding nature. A high level of judgment coupled with manual skill was needed. Behavioural Model! Before mechanization, sheets of glass had to be blown by hand into long cylinders. They were then split and flattened manually.
As a result, this limited the size that could be obtained for construction. The reality of this can be understood by looking at the task that lay ahead during the construction of Crystal Palace. School Essay! Charles Dickens wrote, “ The glass maker promised to supply, in the required time, nine hundred thousand square feet of glass (weighing more than four hundred tons) in separate panes, and these the largest ever made of sheet glass; each being forty nine inches long.” With the developments arising out model of the industrial revolution, mechanization of glass industry was finally attained in USA by 1928. Modern architecture owes a lot of papers trafficking gratitude to these technological developments and of abnormality their creativity. Actually, the to the united constitution, automobile industry fuelled the demand for glass. There was no much activity involving glass in the nineteenth century. Behavioural! Mies and Bunshaft must have been too brave to experiment at a time when the general consensus was that glass ought to have been conservatively used. Blaike Norman's Approaches To Social! In the early 1950’s, most buildings had clear glazings. This transmitted 80-90% of radiation.
The glazing consisted of a single glass layer with an behavioural model of abnormality approximate R value of 1. To counter the effect of cold climatic conditions, another layer of clear glass was then applied on A Career as a Certified Registered Anesthetist, the outer part of a building. Did Bunshaft overcome the conception that literal or perceptual transparency was difficult to attain? The answer is yes. Model! To the naked eye, a clear glass pane reveals too much and lets in a lot of light. Occupants of such buildings are faced with the Blaike Norman's Approaches Enquiry Essay, task of installing curtains. Model Of Abnormality! The curtains have to be drawn and pulled back every now and then. Through the use of double glaze and stained glass, he gave the Lever House a virtual gown. In the end, perceptual transparency was achieved. United States Constitution! He managed to separate the outside environment from the inside in model a perfect way, much to Blaike to Social Essay the amazement of his critics. Model! Riding on the acclaims Lever House received, this was what prompted Mies to use the same approach when designing the Seagram Building. He worked with a concept that had been previously tried, tested, and found to be workable.
Today, one will hardly come across a skyscraper in A Career Registered Nurse Anesthetist New York or other major city where glass has not been creatively used. Other buildings where glazed glass was used to create a curtain wall include the model, Hallidee Building in San Francisco and the Barcelona Pavillion in Barcelona, Spain. However, Lever House is the only one credited with being the A Career Certified Nurse, first skyscraper to make use of tinted glass for behavioural model of abnormality, environmental control. The Electoral Essay! Bunshaft inspired other architects through his striking design of Lever House. Even top critics agreed that what was hitherto thought to be a daunting task had at last been cracked. Hence, the boldness with which Mies applied this concept in behavioural model of abnormality designing the Seagram Building attests to this. It was not until the Blaike to Social Enquiry Essay, 20 th Century that glass was accepted as a major component in the construction of tall buildings.
Traditional buildings consist of a large proportion of solid material and less of glass. Behavioural Model Of Abnormality! As a result, it was difficult to attain perceptual transparency created through glass panes. After the industrial revolution, the construction industry witnessed reduced solid masonry and on human increased use of glass. Changes in behavioural technology practically gifted designers with enhanced creativity. Painters, unlike architects, were able to bring out the concept of literal or phenomenal transparency with ease.
An architect cannot suppress transparency, whereas a painter can move from one to the other. In Transparency: Literal vs. Phenomenal , Rowe and Slutzky reiterate the fact, Literal transparency. Essay On The Taj Mahal! tends to be associated with the trompe I'oeil effect of a translucent object in a deep, naturalistic space; while phenomenal transparency seems to be found when a painter seeks the articulated presentation of frontally displayed objects in a shallow, abstracted space. Behavioural! (48) Photographs taken in the 1950s reveal the contrast brought about by use of glass.
By comparing the Lever House and Essay other surrounding buildings on Park Avenue during this time, one could tell the difference between the glazed curtain wall in Bunshaft’s masterpiece and the 19 th - 20 th century buildings. The other buildings are full of solid masonry, while Lever House stands out as a glass house. Bunshaft’s building uses glass juxtaposed with steel, compared to the small window openings of the adjacent buildings. The way the tower is placed further enhances the contrast. Model Of Abnormality! A large space next to the glazed façade has the effect of allowing sufficient light to reach all the Performance: Under-Achievement Essay, building floors. Phenomenal transparency is achieved by assessing how the human eye perceives the building during the day and at night. The previously hidden interior décor and architectural finish become visible. Past designers would hide this under wooden frames and masonry walls. As a result, only the of abnormality, inward expression of a designer is exposed.
Yet, a lot of people appreciate the building’s aesthetic beauty from its outward appearance. By using glass so vividly, Bunshaft ensured that the entire expression of his architectural and creativity skills came out in School the open. Commonly referred to as Mies by his peers, writers and behavioural students, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is another widely acclaimed architect. Like the architects of his time, Mies wanted to create a different style that represented modernity. Second To The States! He was regarded as a pioneer of modern architecture together with others, like Le Corbusier and Walter Gropius. His style involved the use of materials like steel and glass plate to of abnormality define the interior space. He fondly referred to his buildings as “skin and The Electoral College bones architecture.” He is known for the aphorisms “God is in the details” and behavioural model “less is more”. Like his peers, Mies was inspired by the continuous attack on traditional building styles. Critics of modernism argued that traditional designs were restraining modern technology from Essay Taj Mahal being manifested. By setting up the Seagram tower away from the property boundary, Mies was able to sneak in a fountain and model of abnormality forecourt.
Today, the amendment to the states, style is adopted in many urban skyscrapers. By so doing, Mies achieved literal transparency by behavioural, having a tall tower with an open space at the ground level. This served to enhance the building’s presence. School Under-Achievement! It is sad that few architects could continue his legacy. As a result, his Modernism theory died with him.
However, Seagram building continues to serve as a leaning point for behavioural model of abnormality, many upcoming designers. If the building is observed from the window of an adjacent building, a keen observer can spot its massive wall of glass. School Under-Achievement! The neighboring Empire State building, for instance, cannot be said to be transparent. Mies was able to create an of abnormality architectural ornament rather than a piece of art. It could be described as a “building dressed in a suit.” Literal transparency as defined by Rowe and Slutzky refers to the ability of one to see through or into a building. This is why Seagram building is an example of A Career how architects can attain this quality. Mies designed it using a glass wall to act as the building’s skin. Behavioural! Had he been an second to the 18 th century designer, probably he could have used a solid concrete wall.
The entire wall acts as the window through which a building can be seen. His predecessor, Bunshaft applied the same concept, though for of abnormality, a different purpose. Both attained transparency in unique ways. Phenomenal transparency, as used by Rowe and Slutzky, refers to the space between solid objects, as is found in paintings. As it can be noted elsewhere in this paper, such transparency is difficult to Registered Essay discuss architecturally.
It describes readability within a building. That is to say that a designer’s concept can be gauged from a building’s shape. This means that a modern architectural design does not require any interpretations. The meaning is clear and anyone can see it. By looking at behavioural the work itself, one can arrive at a conclusion. Regardless of the debate, there are two exceptional architects whose designs remain awe-inspiring. Their quest to challenge the status quo gave rise to some of the most fundamental architectural concepts. In a literal sense, a transparent material is that which transmits light, thus enabling the as a, eye to see. From an architectural point of view, it translates to designers using glass as the main material and other minor materials like crystals and lattice screens. The other meaning is the ability to make an interior and exterior space appear continuous. In other words, this is also called literal transparency.
According to Mies, transparency was meant to make elements of architecture clearer and easily perceivable. He wrote: The glass skin, the glass walls alone permit the skeleton structure its unambiguous constructive appearance and secure its architectonic possibilities. () Now it becomes clear again what a wall is, what an opening, what is floor and what is ceiling. Simplicity of construction, clarity of tectonic means, and purity of material reflect the luminosity of original beauty. (Mies, quoted in Roest, 2008). From an architectural point of view, literal transparency is behavioural achievable, while phenomenal transparency is difficult to attain. The Electoral! Generally, transparency is associated with the behavioural of abnormality, aspect of materials. For example, the quality of glass to be either transparent or opaque makes it a unique choice for a designer. Gyorgy Kepes considers transparency to be found in plastics and Essay on The glass. He states that this state is only achievable through a haphazard superimposition of these materials. Siegfried Giedion has a similar perception. He contends, “the presence of an all glass wall at the Bauhaus permits 'the hovering relations of planes and the kind of 'overlapping' which appears in contemporary painting'” (Giedion, 1982, quoted in Rowe Slutzky, 1982).
It is interesting to behavioural model of abnormality note how architects have to as a Certified Essay balance between creating real transparency and model of abnormality virtual transparency. They have to inculcate the A Career as a Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist, concept into reality, something they have achieved with considerable success. When a layman visualizes a transparent pane of glass, receding columns and tinted windowpanes, the designer appears to have achieved the intended purpose. This can be said to be the behavioural of abnormality, case in both Lever House and Seagram buildings, respectively. School Essay! It can be concluded that the model, term transparency is deeper than one could imagine. A Career As A Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist! Architectural students use transparency to describe a building’s material condition “literally.” The way people read and interpret a design is what becomes phenomenal. Behavioural! An architect takes into consideration many factors when faced with a challenging project. Materials to be used, size of the land, topography and the wishes of the soon to be constructed building are some of them. The above discussion on literal and phenomenal transparency should not be used as a litmus test for architectural perfection. Neither is it intended to act as a guideline on papers, architectural concepts. Behavioural Model Of Abnormality! All the same, it helps fuel debate.
Every designer must identify ways to amendment united express the concept behind what they create. Magnificent architectural structures not only behavioural model, reflect creativity, they should also be used as symbols of culture and learning. Neomodernism has taken over from where the likes of Mies and Bunshaft had propelled the dynamic world of architecture and structural design. Glass will for Taj Mahal, a long time remain one of the most sought after materials. Behavioural! One thing is certain though, transparency maintains a top position as a concept worth utilizing in modern designs.