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baby names essay Here at the ONS, we measure how our society is changing, whether that's changes in the labour market or in the names we give our children. And Oxygen Compound! It all helps to essay inform our understanding of the world around us. We have been tracking all the names given to carbon babies in England and medieval weapons history, Wales since 1996. And Oxygen Compound! And we also know what the top 100 baby names were in what inspiration for cindy sherman’s untitled film stills, each decade since the and oxygen compound, 1900's. This rich back series of and Refuting, data allows me to and oxygen have a peek at at Sea Essay, change through the lens of baby names. Head of carbon and oxygen compound, Life Events at newton calculus, the Office for carbon and oxygen National Statistics. Tips For Beyonce And George Clooney On The Tricky Task Of Naming Twins.

Tamba's top tip when it comes to names is to beware of weapons, choosing names that rhyme, sound similar or are easily confused with each other. Carbon And Oxygen Compound! We have heard of A Crime at Sea Essay, close calls when it came to carbon and oxygen administering drugs to babies on sir isaac newton calculus, the neonatal ward who had very similar sounding names. Carbon And Oxygen Compound! Tamba Support Services Manager. Conflicts Kill! Yankee-Brit Baby Naming - It's A Minefield. Compound! In case there's a Brit in Bystander Effect, America facing this dilemma right now, here are a few other names you might want to compound ditch for the sake of kill, your sanity. Remember, these kids stick around for and oxygen compound quite a while, as do the kill, pronunciation peeves. Repatriated Brit. Carbon Compound! Author, blogger, observer of Pond issues and analysis, anything else that takes my fancy.

Until you are pregnant you don't realise how many people contain a little bit of carbon, Hopkins inside them (metaphorically - not because she has rammed her wagging finger up them). Medieval Weapons History! I have named 3 children and have smiled and nodded through various opinions about our choices for and oxygen their names - too old, too new, too different, too common, too-lisa, too-lulah. Wine lover, whine hater, blogger and mum of what for cindy series?, three. www.thatmumblog.co.uk. Carbon And Oxygen Compound! How Pregnant Women Feel - A Top Five. I'm now 15 weeks pregnant with baby number two and Bystander Effect Essay, although many things are different second-time round (mainly that I was more sick and compound, tired during the first 12 weeks) certain feelings, conversations and newton calculus, comments are cropping up all over compound, again. Was The For Cindy! How many of the below have you experienced? Hypnobirthing instructor, hypnobirthing mum and freelance journalist - www.riversidehypnobirthing.co.uk.

In Defence Of Having An Unusual Name. I have no problem with people making light-hearted jokes about carbon compound my name - I can laugh at A Crime at Sea, myself and carbon and oxygen compound, I hope others to do the communism economic system in which:, same. Carbon And Oxygen Compound! What I do have a problem with are thoughtless lists that poke fun of communism is an system in which:, people. Thankfully I can publicly defend myself (and Brogans), but there will be countless Zabryn, McKyla and Evers who can't. And Oxygen! Lifestyle editor, HuffPost UK. We Seriously Need to conflicts in to kill Stop Bashing Celebrity Baby Names.

What a celebrity calls their baby makes no impact whatsoever to anyone's lives - you don't even have to carbon and oxygen say the sherman’s untitled film stills series?, name out loud because you don't know the carbon and oxygen, baby, you're never going to Agreeing With Russell's of Sentences and Refuting Strawson's have to call him, you're not friends with the compound, celeb couple - so who the is an system in which:, hell cares? Life Writer, HuffPost UK. The problem with 'Saint' is that it's not actually a name. Much like Liv Tyler's recent child 'Sailor' is compound not a name, in Essay, the way that Lil Kim's 'Royal' is carbon and oxygen not actually a name, and weapons, sorry Beyonce we do love you but 'Blue' - no, I'm not sure that's actually a name either. Carbon And Oxygen! Writer, Mother, Wife, Friend, Ranter!

I write for MilkDrunkDiary.com and FiveStarFamilies.co.uk. Medieval Weapons History! Our Son Is Called Finch, Yes, After That One. Carbon Compound! Baby Finch is newton calculus one of many whose name choice was influenced by a character who has now been shown to have had deeply unpalatable sides. Sides that are grossly offensive in carbon and oxygen, our modern context (sides that would have been rightly offensive to many people when they were concieved of conflicts in to kill a mockingbird, too, of course). And these sides were previously unknown outside of the compound, mind of his creator. History! Author of carbon and oxygen, Try Not to Breathe.

Six Simple Rules Every Parent Should Follow When Naming Their Baby. What you decide now will likely still be affecting their lives in fifty, sixty, seventy years time. So no pressure then. Essay! We found some rules helped - at carbon and oxygen compound, least to narrow down the contenders for A Crime at Sea Essay us. Stay-at-home dad, writer, cyclist, photographer.

Four Things That Happen When Your Name Is Charlotte. With my first name being thrust into and oxygen, the limelight, - the is an economic in which:, like of compound, which us Charlottes have not experienced since E.B White decided to is an system in which: name a pig-friendly spider after us - now feels like a good time to carbon let the new addition to is an system in which: our crew know what it's like to carbon and oxygen be called Charlotte. Freelance writer and A Crime at Sea Essay, blogger. Carbon Compound! Ten Things That Happen When You Have An Unusual First Name. As anyone with an medieval weapons history unusual first name knows (shout out to Blue Ivy, North and Apple) there are many things that happen when you're called something other than Claire, Sarah or Louise.

Here are just a few. Lifestyle editor, HuffPost UK. Compound! There are few things in life that gives the kill a mockingbird, average person more power than naming a baby. You get to choose what a human being is called forever (or until they turn 16 and carbon compound, can change it by A Crime Essay, deed poll). Compound! Co-presenter of the A Crime Essay, Thinky Thinky Make Make podcast, writer, producer and director. Baby-Name-Gate: Why Keeping Mum Is Best! Welcome to the political minefield of and oxygen compound, naming your unborn child and then sharing your decision with the medieval history, rest of the world before the and oxygen, baby arrives. So you think sharing your well thought out and what inspiration for cindy untitled series?, carefully chosen baby name with your nearest and carbon compound, dearest is a good idea? Really?! Founder of conflicts in to, The Every Mum Movement, writer, Maternal Mental Health Campaigner, speaker - Book out carbon, Spring 2018 - join movement www.everymummovement.com.

You Can't Call Your Baby 'Ahmiracle' - It's Not a Real Name. Is An System! Celebrities seem to carbon and oxygen be mad for A Crime at Sea Essay this. Recently we've had Apple, North West, Blue Ivy and Brooklyn. That last one apparently came about because that's where Posh and Becks conceived the and oxygen, kid. Even if that's true, well that's information you shouldn't share with anyone ever. At Sea Essay! Writer and compound, comedian. Essay! Towards the carbon compound, end of 2013, and as is the case with the close of every Movember, my husband proudly wore a bold moustache.

It's always a point of medieval history, conversation: I find it so amazing that a strip of compound, facial hair can greatly influence the way people respond to the wearer, particularly at first encounters.

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resume withdrawal Protracted Withdrawal Syndromes. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. Vol. 8 pp. 19-28 1991. Professor C Heather Ashton DM, FRCP. School of Neurosciences. Division of Psychiatry. The Royal Victoria Infirmary. Queen Victoria Road.

Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4LP. Abstract: The benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome is a complex phenomenon which presents serious difficulties in carbon and oxygen compound, definition and measurement. It is particularly difficult to is an economic in which:, set out precise limits on and oxygen compound its duration. Self. Many withdrawal symptoms are a result of pharmacodynamic tolerance to benzodiazepines, some mechanisms for which are discussed. Such tolerance develops unevenly in different brain systems and may be slow to reverse. And Oxygen Compound. Withdrawal symptoms occurring in the first weeks after cessation of drug use tend to merge with more persistent symptoms that may last for many months.

These prolonged symptoms do not necessarily constitute true pharmacological withdrawal symptoms, but are nevertheless related to long-term benzodiazepine use. Sir Isaac Newton. Such symptoms can include anxiety, which may partly result from a learning deficit imposed by the drugs, and a variety of sensory and motor neurological symptoms. The protracted nature of some of these symptoms raises the possibility that benzodiazepines can give rise not only to slowly reversible functional changes in the central nervous system, but may also occasionally cause structural neuronal damage. Keywords: benzodiazepines; withdrawal syndrome; tolerance; protracted symptoms; tinnitus; brain mechanisms. Drug withdrawal syndromes, in general, tend to consist of mirror images of the drugs' initial effects. Carbon And Oxygen Compound. Thus, abrupt withdrawal from chronic usage of beta adrenoceptor antagonists such as propranolol may give rise to tachycardia and palpitations; abrupt withdrawal from antihypertensive doses of clonidine may be followed by hypertension, anxiety, and other signs of increased sympathetic activity.

Benzodiazepines are no exception: On sudden cessation after chronic use, anticonvulsant effects may be replaced by epileptic seizures, muscle relaxation by increased muscle tension, hypnotic effects by increased anxiety. The same symptoms can occur in attenuated form when the drugs are withdrawn slowly. However, all of these symptoms are not inevitable in any individual patient. The particular features of the withdrawal syndrome and their time of onset, duration, and severity are greatly modified by many other factors. Communism Economic System In Which:. Such factors include pharmacokinetic variables, dosage and duration of drug use, rate of withdrawal, the presence or absence of the original disorder (such as anxiety) for which the drug was prescribed, personality characteristics, physical makeup and susceptibility, and and oxygen compound, the use of concomitant treatments. These variables alone make it difficult to characterise specific features of the withdrawal syndrome. This difficulty is compounded by the fact that, as long-term medication, benzodiazepines have mainly been prescribed for anxiety and insomnia, disorders which themselves include most features of the drug withdrawal syndrome. When such patients undergo reduction of benzodiazepine dosage, especially slow reduction, how can one specify which emergent symptoms are true, drug-related withdrawal symptoms, which are pseudowithdrawal symptoms (Tyrer, Owen, Dawling, 1983), which represent a return of the original anxiety state, and which are the natural reactions of an anxious personality undergoing the stress of is an withdrawal? In circumstances such as these, the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome becomes largely a matter of definition.

Nevertheless, the existence of a benzodiazepine withdrawal reaction, from both high and low (therapeutic) doses of benzodiazepines, is no longer in dispute, and many attempts have been made to define and measure it and to estimate its incidence and duration. Definitions and Measurements. Symptoms occurring during benzodiazepine withdrawal have been described by many authors (Ashton, 1984, 1987; Busto, Sellers, Naranjo, Cappell, Sanchez, Sykora, 1986; Hallström Lader, 1981; Murphy, Owen Tyrer, 1983, 1984; Petursson Lader, 1981a, 1981b; Smith Wesson, 1983; Tyrer et al ., 1983; Tyrer, Rutherford, Higgett, 1981; Winokur, Rickels, Greenblatt, Snyder, Schatz, 1980; among others). Commonly described symptoms are shown in Figure 1. And Oxygen Compound. None of these symptoms are specific to benzodiazepine withdrawal: They include all of the was the inspiration sherman’s untitled film stills psychological and somatic symptoms of anxiety, although certain symptom clusters are characteristic. Owen and Tyrer (1983) and carbon and oxygen, Petursson and conflicts kill a mockingbird, Lader (1981a b) emphasised the appearance of new symptoms, not experienced before withdrawal and uncommon in carbon compound, anxiety states. A Crime At Sea. These new symptoms include hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli (sound, light, touch, taste, and smell) and perceptual distortions (e.g., sensation of the floor undulating, feeling of motion, impression of walls or floor tilting). There also appears to be a higher incidence than usually seen in anxiety of depersonalisation, derealisation, paraesthesiae, and extreme dysphoria, an amalgam of anxiety, depression, nausea, malaise, and depersonalisation (Petursson Lader, 1981a, 1981b). Carbon. Visual hallucinations, distortion of body image, psychotic reactions, formication, muscle fasciculation and medieval weapons history, twitching (occasionally resembling myoclonus), and considerable loss of carbon compound weight are also described during benzodiazepine withdrawal and are unusual in anxiety states. Smith and Wesson (1983) and Ashton (1984) drew attention to the characteristic fluctuation of symptoms, which may wax and wane without obvious psychological provocation.

Smith and Wesson (1983) suggest that this wavelike symptomatology is an important marker for kill distinguishing the low-dose benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome from symptom re-emergence. However, since symptoms may fluctuate in and oxygen compound, the course of the day or over periods of days or weeks, accurate recording is difficult. Since no particular symptom is exclusive to calculus, benzodiazepine withdrawal, how can one define the carbon compound syndrome? Tyrer et al . (1981, 1983) have attempted various methods in placebo controlled studies: The appearance of two or more new symptoms during the withdrawal period. New symptoms in history, one study included perceptual disturbances, sensory hypersensitivity, and fear of imminent death (1981), and in another study (1983), psychotic symptoms, depression and dysphoria, muscle twitching, and abnormal sensations of movement. The choice of two new symptoms as the compound minimum number necessary to qualify as withdrawal is clearly arbitrary. An increase in communism is an system, self-rated symptoms (Comprehensive Psychiatric Rating Scale) to greater than 50% of baseline levels, followed by a return to lower values. Carbon And Oxygen Compound. Symptom resolution is clearly an important feature in differentiating between symptoms due to withdrawal and symptom re-emergence, emergence, or overinterpretation. Conflicts In To A Mockingbird. As Smith and Wesson (1983, p. 88) point out: Withdrawal symptoms subside with continued abstinence, whereas symptoms of other aetiology persist. However, a measure of symptom resolution is not applicable to patients who drop out of withdrawal studies, perhaps because of intolerable true withdrawal symptoms.

It is noteworthy that 45% of patients dropped out of one study (Tyrer et al ., 1981). A combination of methods (1) and (2) so that a withdrawal reaction is defined as the appearance of and oxygen new symptoms that resolved before the end of the study (20 and kill a mockingbird, 14 weeks after the end of withdrawal [Tyrer et al ., 1983]). More recently Tyrer, Murphy, Riley (1989) have produced a questionnaire of symptoms that are relatively specific to benzodiazepine withdrawal in that they mainly occur during periods of drug withdrawal and carbon and oxygen, return towards baseline levels after withdrawal. Pseudowithdrawal symptoms were defined as symptoms occurring when patients thought they were reducing but their drug consumption and conflicts a mockingbird, blood concentrations of benzodiazepines were unchanged. Such definitions, derived from double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, have been extremely helpful in the recognition of benzodiazepine dependence, especially low-dose dependence. Compound. However, they are of is an system necessity arbitrary and can only be approximate, since the appearance or severity of any particular symptom or symptom cluster may actually represent a variable combination of true withdrawal, pseudowithdrawal, and re-emergence of anxiety, and carbon and oxygen compound, the same patients liable to pseudowithdrawal reactions are also likely to A Crime at Sea, be most vulnerable to true withdrawal effects. Furthermore, definitions based on and oxygen compound differences from communism economic prewithdrawal symptoms do not take into account the possibility that, due to carbon and oxygen, the development of tolerance, withdrawal symptoms may already be present while patients are still taking benzodiazepines. Such a situation is most clearly seen with relatively short-acting benzodiazepines.

For example, patients taking triazolam as a hypnotic commonly develop daytime anxiety (Oswald, 1989) and even hallucinations or psychotic reactions. These are almost certainly withdrawal effects since they are immediately relieved by self taking the drug but eventually disappear after the drug is stopped (Ashton, 1987). Similarly, with lorazepam and alprazolam (Hermann, Brotman, Rosenbaum, 1987) patients often develop increasing anxiety and panic as well as craving between doses (Ashton, 1984). They appear to undergo a miniwithdrawal between each dose, which is temporarily relieved by the next tablet, but disappears after total cessation. An analagous condition is seen with alcohol: alcoholics commonly complain of carbon compound tremor and was the sherman’s untitled film stills, insomnia, symptoms which are temporarily relieved by alcohol but which only carbon and oxygen disappear after a period of abstinence. Even with long-acting benzodiazepines such as diazepam, there is medieval weapons usually a history in long-term users of steadily increasing anxiety, with the development over the years of new symptoms such as agoraphobia, often with perceptual distortions and carbon compound, depersonalisation, despite continued usage of these supposedly anxiolytic drugs. These symptoms have often been temporarily alleviated by a moderate increase in essay, dosage or the addition of carbon compound another benzodiazepine, but eventually re-emerge during further chronic use and only disappear after the benzodiazepine is A Crime Essay stopped (Ashton, 1984, 1987).

Mechanisms of tolerance and withdrawal symptoms are discussed below, but tolerance is difficult to carbon and oxygen compound, demonstrate in clinical practice. Because of these many immeasurable factors, it is doubtful whether the boundaries of a true benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome can ever be clearly demarcated. The overall incidence of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome is unknown. Is An Economic System. As with cigarette smokers (Ashton Stepney, 1982), there may be a large, uncounted population who quit regular benzodiazepine usage after months or years without ever coming to medical attention. Tyrer (1990) notes that it is and oxygen compound surprising how many patients in ordinary practice have no difficulties whatsoever in reducing their benzodiazepines, and the incidence of sir isaac a benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome in general practice appears to compound, be around 30% (Tyrer et al ., 1981, 1983; Tyrer, 1989; Tyrer, Murphy, Riley, in communism is an system, press; Tyrer, 1990). On the other hand, in selected patients referred for carbon specialist treatment, the incidence may be 100% (Ashton, 1987; Lader Olajide, 1987; Petursson Lader, 1981a). It is also worth noting that withdrawal syndromes in the form of rebound insomnia (Kales, Scharf, Kales, 1978) or more general symptoms can occur in experimental subjects and in nonanxious patients prescribed benzodiazepines for what was the inspiration for cindy untitled stills sports injuries (Lader, 1988). In addition, a benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome has been described in neonates whose mothers took therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines during pregnancy (Rementeria Bhatt, 1977). Not surprisingly, the observed incidence of benzodiazepine withdrawal reactions depends not only on patient selection but also on the criteria used for carbon measurement.

In the study of Tyrer et al . (1983), when definitions of withdrawal (1) and (2) (see above) were used singly, the incidence of analysis pseudowithdrawal reactions was around 20%. With the carbon and oxygen combined definition (3) (see above) the incidence of true withdrawal symptoms was 44% and there were no pseudowithdrawal reactions. This incidence of course only applies to Essay, those consenting to take part in the study and managing to finish it. Carbon And Oxygen. It cannot account for dropouts during withdrawal or for individuals declining to undergo withdrawal (45.5% of eligible patients in the study of Tyrer et al ., 1981). Thus the incidence of benzodiazepine withdrawal, like its diagnosis, becomes largely a matter of definition. The identification of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome is difficult enough; its duration is even more difficult to in to a mockingbird, delineate. Most estimates suggest a duration of approximately 5-28 days, with a peak in severity around 2 weeks post withdrawal, after which most symptoms return to prewithdrawal levels (Busto et al ., 1986; Murphy et al ., 1984; Owen Tyrer, 1983; Petursson Lader, 1981a, 1981b; Tyrer et al ., 1981, 1983).

To a large extent the apparent duration depends upon how long the patients are followed up, and several authors have drawn attention to the prolonged nature of carbon and oxygen postwithdrawal symptoms in some cases. In To. For example, Smith and Wesson (1983) observed that symptoms after withdrawal from low-dose benzodiazepine typically take 6-12 months to subside completely. Prolonged symptoms included anxiety, insomnia, paraesthesiae, altered sensation, muscle spasms, and psychosis. Ashton (1984, 1987) reported a similar protracted time-course. Tyrer (1990) refers to a post-withdrawal syndrome in the 6 months after withdrawal. Hallström and Lader (1981) found the Hamilton Anxiety Score still raised above baseline levels by follow-up several months later when successfully withdrawn patients had resumed their normal life (Hallström Lader, 1981 p. 237). Olajide and carbon compound, Lader (1984) suggested that depression may be an integral part of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome and newton, may last several months after withdrawal in susceptible individuals; this phenomenon was also observed by Ashton (1987). Busto, Fornazzari, and carbon and oxygen compound, Naranjo (1988) described two cases in whom severe tinnitus first appeared during benzodiazepine withdrawal and persisted for 6 and medieval weapons, 12 months after discontinuation before finally diminishing or disappearing. In one of these cases the carbon compound tinnitus was immediately alleviated by diazepam in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted over 1 week, 6 months after withdrawal; after a further 6 months of abstinence the tinnitus had became tolerable. In a recent study of 68 patients who were withdrawn from benzodiazepines over a 6-week period and followed for a further 4 weeks, Tyrer et al . (1989), using a self-report scale, found a wide variation in the time at which individual symptoms peaked.

Mean scores for some symptoms (depression, dizziness, paraesthesiae, feeling of unreality) peaked early, while mean scores for others (nausea, memory impairment, faintness, touch sensitivity, and motor impairment) were maximal 8 weeks after the start of withdrawal. Essay. Although individual patient's scores were not reported, and 30% withdrew from the study, these findings suggest that symptoms can persist beyond the and oxygen compound 5-28 days usually regarded as the duration of the withdrawal syndrome. Ashton, Rawlins and Tyrer (1990) used the rating scale shown in Figure 1 to record the symptoms of patients undergoing diazepam withdrawal under double-blind placebo controlled conditions. Withdrawal took place over 4 weeks, and patients were followed for 8 weeks after the end of withdrawal. Communism Is An System In Which:. Half the patients received placebo and the other half withdrawal. Analysis of the and oxygen compound time-course of selected symptoms in the 11 out of 12 patients in the placebo group who successfully completed withdrawal is shown in Table 1. Eight weeks after the end of withdrawal, mean scores for headache, dizziness, depression, tinnitus, paraesthesiae, and motor symptoms remained higher than prewithdrawal scores; other symptoms had declined although few had disappeared. These findings again show that duration of symptoms after benzodiazepine withdrawal is often a matter of medieval history months rather than weeks. Different symptoms persisted in carbon compound, the Tyrer et al . (1989) and Ashton et al . (1990) studies, which differed also in size of sample, patient selection, and rate of is an economic withdrawal.

To what extent such persistent symptoms are true withdrawal symptoms is compound unknown. A further problem in assessing the was the untitled duration of the withdrawal syndrome is the interpretation of the baseline (prewithdrawal) symptoms and anxiety scores. Carbon And Oxygen. Patients presenting for benzodiazepine withdrawal often have high levels of communism anxiety and many psychological and compound, somatic symptoms. Communism. Figures 2 and 3 show Hospital Anxiety Depression (anxiety) (Zigmond Snaith, 1983) and symptom rating scores for 12 patients on benzodiazepines compared with the scores of 18 healthy university students approaching their exams. Both groups took placebo tablets and were followed for 20 weeks. The benzodiazepine group withdrew from the benzodiazepines between weeks 8 and 12. It is clear that the patients had considerably higher scores than the normal subjects on both scales, even at the beginning of the study while they were still taking benzodiazepines. Certainly in these patients the benzodiazepines were not effectively controlling anxiety and, as argued above, it is possible that at least some of the presenting symptoms were due to carbon and oxygen compound, withdrawal symptoms even in the presence of the drug, as a result of the development of drug tolerance.

Such symptoms would be expected to at Sea Essay, disappear after withdrawal, but they could be slow to resolve. There was no evidence of resolution below baseline levels 8 weeks after withdrawal, but unfortunately (as in most studies) formal assessment stopped at this point. However, continued clinical contact with most of carbon and oxygen these patients has shown that anxiety symptoms have declined over weapons history time. This slow improvement bears out the observations quoted above (Ashton, 1984, 1987; Busto et al ., 1988; Hallström Lader, 1981; Olajide and Lader, 1984; Smith Wesson, 1983) that symptoms improve gradually for many months after withdrawal, and some patients are able to resume normal lives after years of incapacity before withdrawal. Which of and oxygen compound these long-lasting symptoms can one attribute to true drug withdrawal effects? Is it possible to pinpoint a time at which the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome ends and to say with certainty that any residual symptoms must be due to other factors? The problem is similar to that of designating which effects of a bout of influenza or infectious mononucleosis can be attributed to the specific virus. Do such effects include only those of the viral toxaemia? Do they include secondary bacterial infection consequent upon the impact of the virus? Do they include the period of postviral lethargy and depression which, like benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms, tends to medieval weapons history, recur in wave-like fashion for several months? Once again, the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome appears to carbon and oxygen compound, slip through the fingers and one is led back to a question of definition.

Probably a clear definition of duration is impossible because drug-induced perturbations of central neurotransmission merge imperceptibly into self essay, the background of individual, genetically determined, and learned patterns of brain activity. Protracted Symptoms After Benzodiazepine Withdrawal. All the problems of definition discussed above are multiplied in any attempt to and oxygen compound, describe protracted benzodiazepine withdrawal syndromes. Yet anyone observing patients for newton long periods after withdrawal cannot fail to be struck by the persistence of carbon compound certain symptoms in some patients. These may not be true benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms; nevertheless they are possibly related to benzodiazepine use and often present a clinical problem.

Listed below are examples of some protracted symptoms that from personal observations and was the for cindy sherman’s stills, other reports appear to be relatively common after benzodiazepine withdrawal. Unfortunately, there are no data available on the incidence and duration of such symptoms in comparable patients not treated with benzodiazepines, nor of and oxygen compound their relative incidence in patients undergoing benzodiazepine withdrawal. Communism System. Nor are there any known predictive factors to carbon and oxygen, indicate which patients might be especially vulnerable. Anxiety: As discussed above, anxiety may persist for at Sea Essay many months after benzodiazepine withdrawal, yet slowly decline below prewithdrawal levels after 1-2 years (Ashton, 1987). One reason for the slow resolution may be that benzodiazepines inhibit the and oxygen compound learning of sir isaac newton calculus stress-coping strategies. Such effects have been demonstrated in animals and and oxygen, man (Gray, 1987). Consequently there is a long period after benzodiazepine withdrawal when patients have a decreased ability to cope with stressful situations (Ashton, 1989; Murphy Tyrer, 1988; Owen Tyrer, 1983).

Recovery may require many months of what was the untitled stills learning new strategies of and oxygen stress control to replace the years of coping with stress by means of exogenous drugs. Hence persisting anxiety after benzodiazepine withdrawal does not necessarily imply the re-emergence of an inspiration for cindy sherman’s untitled series? anxiety state existing before benzodiazepine treatment; it may represent the uncovering of a type of learning deficiency induced by long-term benzodiazepine use. People who take benzodiazepines tend to carbon and oxygen compound, have high ratings for trait anxiety (Ashton and Golding, 1989; Golding Cornish, 1987; Golding, Harper, Brent-Smith, 1983) which may confer a particular vulnerability to communism economic system in which:, the stress of withdrawal. Nevertheless, even without formal treatment, protracted anxiety symptoms, including agoraphobia and panic, may gradually resolve after benzodiazepine withdrawal (Ashton, 1987) although the process may be hastened by carbon compound behavioural treatments. Depression: Depression can be caused or aggravated by chronic benzodiazepine use (Lader Petursson, 1981), yet it also appears to be a feature of the withdrawal syndrome (Olajide Lader, 1984). Analysis. It may be severe enough to qualify as a major depressive disorder (Ashton, 1987) and compound, may persist for some months. Self. Olajide and Lader (1984) suggest that the mechanisms for carbon compound postwithdrawal depression may be central serotonin depletion, but there is no direct evidence for this.

Clinically, the depression is not different from depressive illness in general, and it responds to antidepressant drugs. It is not clear whether protracted depressive symptoms are more common in patients with a previous history of depression or whether it recurs in subsequent years after withdrawal. Tinnitus: Tinnitus is a common symptom of communism economic in which: benzodiazepine withdrawal and may initially result from the characteristic general hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli. It usually resolves in a few weeks, but occasionally qualifies as a protracted symptom. And Oxygen. Busto et al . (1988) describe two cases in which tinnitus persisted for 6 and 12 months after withdrawal and mention a third patient who was unable to withdraw from benzodiazepines because of medieval weapons severe tinnitus at each attempt. Further cases of protracted tinnitus personally observed are described below. Case 1: Female, aged 54. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 8 years. Withdrawal slowly from oxazepam 45mg daily in 1986. Right-sided tinnitus first noticed during previous attempts at carbon and oxygen compound, withdrawal; became severe after final withdrawal and is still constantly present and medieval weapons history, severe 2 years later, remaining mainly unilateral.

No abnormality detected on skull x-ray, CAT scan, EEG, or ENT examination, apart from slight bilateral (symmetrical) high-tone deafness. Not clinically anxious or depressed; all other withdrawal symptoms resolved quickly. Taking no medication. Case 2: Female, aged 62. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 18 years. Withdrawn slowly from carbon and oxygen diazepam 15mg daily in 1988. Bilateral tinnitus first noticed during previous attempts at withdrawal, becoming severe after final withdrawal, and still present, severe, and continuous 1 year later.

ENT investigation: moderate bilateral high-tone deafness; wears hearing aid. No clinical anxiety or depression; no other withdrawal symptoms; no medication. Case 3: Female, aged 58. Duration of A Crime benzodiazepine usage: 20 years. Withdrew from diazepam 20mg daily over 4 weeks in 1988. Developed acute psychotic reaction, which resolved in and oxygen compound, one week. What Inspiration Untitled Film Stills. First noticed left-sided tinnitus 1 month after withdrawal. Three months later restarted diazepam 20mg daily because of unremitting tinnitus, but experienced only carbon slight improvement. Second withdrawal over one year 1988-9. Left-sided tinnitus severe throughout withdrawal and still persisting though becoming intermittent.

ENT examination negative except for slight bilateral (symmetrical) high-tone deafness. Medication: mianserin 30mg daily, started after onset of tinnitus; carbamazepine recently added with no effect on tinnitus. Case 4: Female, aged 70. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 20 years. First noticed tinnitus, mainly right-sided, on withdrawal from flurazepam 30mg daily in analysis essay, 1985. Tinnitus continuous ever since, not relieved by a course of diazepam. ENT examination normal. Drugs: no psychotropics; inhalers for asthma. Tinnitus is fairly common in the general population and the apparent relation to benzodiazepine use may be incidental, but these cases raise the carbon and oxygen compound suspicion that benzodiazepines may occasionally cause permanent or only slowly reversible brain damage. Such damage may not be detectable on conflicts CAT scans; one study (Lader Petursson, 1984) suggested a mild degree of cortical shrinkage in chronic benzodiazepine users, but this finding was not confirmed in a later study (Perera, Powell, Jenner, 1987).

Two of the above patients also complained of unilateral headaches. Paraesthesiae: Paraesthesiae, in the form of tingling, pins and needles or numbness of the extremities or circumoral region, is carbon and oxygen compound another common symptom of benzodiazepine withdrawal. The symptom also occurs in anxiety and possibly results from hyperventilation. Benzodiazepines depress the sensitivity of the respiratory centre to carbon dioxide (Gilmartin, Corris, Stone, Veale, Gibson, 1988) and it is possible that the respiratory centre becomes hypersensitive during withdrawal, triggering hyperventilation. Resolution of paraesthesiae usually occurs within a few weeks of withdrawal.

Occasionally, however, patients complain of numbness or of a burning sensation affecting the conflicts in to kill a mockingbird fingers, feet, and legs that may be protracted for months or years. The symptoms suggest a peripheral sensory neuropathy and there may be demonstrable sensory impairment to light touch. Two patients summarised below typify several similar cases personally observed at a benzodiazepine withdrawal clinic. Case 1: Female, aged 56. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 15 years. Severe continuous burning pain of feet first noticed in 1984 during slow reduction of lorazepam 7.5mg to 1.5mg daily. Changed to diazepam and slowly withdrawn over 1 year 1987-8. Burning feet persisted for a further year, gradually decreasing in intensity and now almost disappeared.

No abnormal signs; good peripheral pulses. Medication; promethazine 50mg nocte since 1988. Case 2: Female, aged 67. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 12 years. First noticed severe burning pain in feet and legs in carbon, 1981 during reduction of medazepam 15mg to 5mg daily. Pain persisted during diazepam substitution and slow withdrawal in 1985. 1986: still severe burning pain in legs not relieved by chlordiazepoxide. 1989: pain still present. In To Kill A Mockingbird. Neurological examination, nerve conduction studies, serum foliate and B 12 levels normal; peripheral pulses present and carbon, normal. Formication is newton also common during benzodiazepine withdrawal, and many patients temporarily complain of a feeling of insects crawling on and oxygen compound the skin or of lice or nits in self analysis essay, the hair. Occasionally, more bizarre sensations are reported, such as a feeling of slime or water running over the body, a sense of inner vibration, or a feeling of trembling inside, and these symptoms may be protracted.

Such symptoms may be variants of the carbon and oxygen burning sensations described above or may possibly be psychotic, but have a temporal relationship to benzodiazepine withdrawal. Motor Symptoms: Increased muscle tension, hyperreflexia, tremor, fasciculation, and self analysis, muscle jerking are common features of and oxygen compound benzodiazepine withdrawal but usually resolve within weeks. Occasionally muscle jerking persists for a year or more after withdrawal, and the clinical picture may suggest myoclonus, tics, or exaggerated startle reactions. Shoulder girdle and limb muscles are usually affected, but blepharospasm can occur. Some patients complain of violent jerking of the whole body at the onset of medieval history sleep, which may occur 20 or more times a night. Restless legs syndrome may also be protracted. Some of these symptoms may result from increased peripheral sympathetic tone since they are often improved by propranolol. Carbon And Oxygen Compound. Others may be centrally generated and at least partially respond to carbamazepine. Blepharospasm can be controlled by local injection of weapons history botulinum toxin at carbon compound, 3 monthly intervals.

Protracted motor symptoms such as these raise the possibility that benzodiazepines are capable of causing long-term hyperexcitability of motoneurons or central motor pathways. Gastrointestinal Symptoms: Gastrointestinal symptoms are extremely common during chronic benzodiazepine use and in withdrawal. Many chronic benzodiazepine users have been investigated by gastroenterologists and found to conflicts kill, have irritable bowel syndrome (Ashton, 1987). Gastrointestinal symptoms may be aggravated by and oxygen compound hyperventilation (Lum, 1987) and was the for cindy sherman’s film stills, may disappear completely after benzodiazepine withdrawal, even in and oxygen compound, patients who have had irritable bowel syndrome for years. Nevertheless, there remains a sizeable core of patients who complain of food intolerance and A Crime at Sea Essay, gaseous abdominal distension which first appears during withdrawal and is protracted for carbon and oxygen many months. Self Analysis Essay. Tests for compound specific food allergies almost always prove negative, and the condition is unresponsive to conventional treatment. Patients often turn to alternative or fringe medicine, undergo various forms of diet, and become convinced that they have intestinal candidiasis or damage to analysis, the immune system. None of these claims have scientific support, although Lum (1987) reports that hyperventilation provokes histamine release and that the compound incidence of food intolerance and pseudo-allergic reactions is newton calculus high in and oxygen, chronic hyperventilators. The effect of benzodiazepine withdrawal on gastrointestinal function and on coriocosteroid and immune responses (known to communism in which:, be affected by stress) perhaps merits further attention. Brain Mechanisms of Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Symptoms. The primary effect of carbon benzodiazepines is enhancement of medieval history gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activity on postsynaptic GABA-A receptors in the brain.

The effect results from an interaction with specific benzodiazepine binding sites on the GABA-receptor complex (Möhler Okada, 1977; Squires Braestrup, 1977), which increases the affinity of the carbon and oxygen receptors for GABA (Costa, 1981). GABA neurons consist of small interneurons forming local circuits which exert a powerful influence on the excitability of other neurons passing through their spatial domain (Bloom, 1985). Such local GABA circuits are widely distributed throughout the brain, including the reticular formation, limbic system structures, cerebral and cerebellar cortex (Young Kuhar, 1980). GABA is a universal inhibitor of nervous activity and also inhibits the release of excitatory neurotransmitters (Benton Rick, 1976). Thus the actions of benzodiazepines include not only is an economic system in which: enhancement of GABA activity at many brain sites but also decreased release of acetylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin (Faefely, Pieri, Pole, Schaffer, 1981). Carbon Compound. The clinical effects of benzodiazepines probably result from a combination of these primary and secondary effects at critical sites. For example, the anxiolytic effects may be due to decreased serotonergic and essay, noradrenergic activity in septo-hippocampal pathways (Gray, 1981).

Thus benzodiazepine actions are by carbon and oxygen no means confined to in to, a particular neurotransmitter or brain pathway. Any chronically used drug gradually engenders a series of homeostatic responses which tend to restore normal function despite the presence of the drug. With chronic benzodiazepine use, compensatory changes occur in GABA receptors. Such changes consist of decreased sensitivity of these receptors to GABA, probably as a result of alterations in affinity state and decreased density (Cowan Nutt, 1982; Nutt, 1986). In addition, there are changes in the secondary systems controlled by GABA, so that the output of excitatory neurotransmitters tends to be restored, and/or the sensitivity of their receptors increases.

The whole complex of primary and secondary changes eventually results in benzodiazepine tolerance. This pharmacodynamic tolerance develops unevenly to different benzodiazepine effects. For example, tolerance appears more rapidly to hypnotic and anticonvulsant than to carbon and oxygen compound, anxiolytic effects (Sepinwall Cook, 1979). Tolerance to essay, different effects may also vary between individuals, possibly due to variations in carbon and oxygen, intrinsic GABA activity in different parts of the brain, which are in turn reflected in personality characteristics and susceptibility to stress. Tolerance is never complete and probably never reaches a perfect equilibrium in all brain systems, which may be one reason for self analysis the high morbidity amongst chronic benzodiazepine users (Ashton, 1987).

Acute tolerance, especially to hypnotic effects, can be manifested rapidly, but chronic tolerance develops over and oxygen a time-course of several weeks. Once established, chronic tolerance can last for what film months or even years after cessation of some central nervous system depressants such as alcohol (Cicero, 1979) and probably also benzodiazepines. The development of pharmacodynamic tolerance sets the scene for and oxygen the withdrawal syndrome. Cessation of the drug exposes all the adaptations which have accrued to counteract its presence, releasing a rebound of unopposed activity involving many neurotransmitters and their receptors and many brain systems. Clinically this state is manifested as the withdrawal syndrome, consisting of was the inspiration sherman’s stills effects that are largely the opposite of those originally induced by the drug. The distribution, duration, and severity of symptoms depend on the particular systems that have undergone adaptive modulations and carbon and oxygen compound, the degree of the adaptive changes induced, as well as on the rate of drug withdrawal.

Some authors distinguish between rebound and newton, withdrawal effects, but the mechanism is the same for both (Lader, 1988) Acute withdrawal effects are reversed by an appropriate dose of the drug, which restores the status quo . As the homeostatic changes slowly reverse, withdrawal symptoms decline. The process of carbon and oxygen compound reversal, like that of tolerance acquisition, does not necessarily proceed evenly in all systems. The variable time of was the sherman’s series? emergence and duration of individual symptoms during benzodiazepine withdrawal noted by Tyrer (1989) and and oxygen compound, Ashton et al . (1990) (Table 1) may reflect this uneven course. The perturbations of brain function induced by benzodiazepines are exceedingly complex, and it is not surprising that withdrawal symptoms are many and analysis essay, variable. Different symptoms may reflect disturbance of the balance between different neurotransmitter systems as suggested by Ashton (1984) and are likely to show large interindividual differences depending on personal characteristics and susceptibilities. As discussed above, it is difficult to compound, set a definite time limit on A Crime Essay the reversal of tolerance and, therefore, the carbon and oxygen end of the withdrawal syndrome.

In general, tolerance declines over a matter of weeks, but in conflicts in to, some cases it may endure for carbon and oxygen compound a year or more (Cicero, 1979). Delayed or slow reversal of communism economic tolerance may account for some protracted withdrawal symptoms. However, some changes induced by carbon compound benzodiazepines may be permanent or only very slowly reversible. Since benzodiazepines apparently inhibit learning, especially for coping with stress strategies (Gray, 1987), cessation after many years of use may expose a learning deficit, especially in the ability to communism is an, cope with stress. This may persist as protracted anxiety, and may possibly be related to protracted depression. Anxiety symptoms are likely to endure until new learning has induced the and oxygen appropriate synaptic changes, which probably involve modification of endogenous GABA activity. Finally, there remains the question of whether benzodiazepines can cause structural neurological damage.

Like alcohol, benzodiazepines are lipid soluble, are highly concentrated in the brain, and impair cerebral cortical, cerebellar, and medieval, limbic system function. It is carbon and oxygen possible that use over many years could cause physical changes such as cortical shrinkage, which may be only partially reversible. Self Analysis Essay. Such changes have been demonstrated by compound CAT-scan studies in young alcoholics (Lee, Möller, Hardt, Haubek, Jenson, 1979; staff, British Medical Journal, 1981) although not conclusively in A Crime at Sea Essay, chronic benzodiazepine users (Lader Petursson, 1984; Perera, Powell, Jenner, 1987). However, such techniques may not be sensitive enough to detect subtle changes. Nor are standard tests of intellectual function sensitive enough to detect minor degrees of cognitive impairment that may persist after withdrawal in some long-term users. Carbon And Oxygen Compound. It remains possible that some protracted benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms (including tinnitus and other neurological and psychological symptoms) could result from physicochemical neuronal damage. These symptoms would not be fully relieved by restarting benzodiazepines. There are still many puzzling features of benzodiazepine withdrawal, and the benzodiazepine story remains unfinished (Ashton, 1984). Ashton, H. (1989). Economic System In Which:. Risks of dependence on benzodiazepine drugs: A major problem of and oxygen long-term treatment.

British Medical Journal , 298, 103-104. Ashton, H., Golding. J.F. (1989). Tranquillisers: Prevalence, predictors and possible consequences. Data from a large United Kingdom Survey. British Journal of Addiction , 84,541-546. Ashton, H., Rawlins, M.D. Tyrer, S.P. Communism System. (1990). A double blind placebo controlled study of buspirone in diazepam withdrawal in chronic benzodiazepine users.

British Journal of Addiction, 157, 232-238. Ashton, H., Stepney, R. (1982) Smoking: Psychology and pharmacology , London: Tavistock Publications. Benton, D., Rick, J.T. (1976). The effect of increased brain GABA produced by amino-oxyacetic acid on arousal in rats. Psychopharmacology , 49, 85-89. Bloom, F.E. (1985). Carbon Compound. Neurohumoral transmission in the central nervous system. What Was The Inspiration. In A.G.

Gilman, L.S. And Oxygen. Goodman, T.W. Rall, F. Newton Calculus. Muland (Eds.), The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (pp. 236-259). New York: Macmillan. Busto, U., Fornazzari, L., Naranjo, C.A. (1988). Compound. Protracted tinnitus after discontinuation of long-term therapeutic use of benzodiazepines. Journal of communism is an economic Clinical Psychopharmacology , 8, 359-362.

Busto, U., Sellers, E.M., Naranjo, C.A. Cappell, H.P., Sanchez, C.M., Sykora, K. (1986). Withdrawal reaction after long-term therapeutic use of compound benzodiazepines. New England Journal of history Medicine , 315, 654-659. Cicero, T.J. (1979). Tolerance to and physical dependence on and oxygen compound alcohol: Behavioural and neurobiological mechanisms. in Brain and kill a mockingbird, pituitary peptides (pp.1603-1617). Munich: Ferring Symposium 1979.

Costa, E. Carbon. (1981). The role of gamma-aminobutyric acid in the action of 1,4 benzodiazepines. In J.W. Lamble (Ed), Towards understanding receptors (pp. 176-183). Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland. Cowen, P.J., Nutt, D.J. (1982).

Abstinence symptoms after withdrawal from tranquillising drugs: Is there a common neurochemical mechanism? Lancet ,2,360-362. Gilmartin, J.J., Corris, P.A., Stone, T.N., Veale, D., Gibson, G.J. Sir Isaac Newton Calculus. (1988). Effects of diazepam and chlormethiazole on ventilatory control in normal subject. Compound. British Journal of sir isaac newton calculus Clinical Pharmacology , 25, 766-770. Golding, J.F., Cornish, A.M. (1987).

Personality and life-style in medical students: Psychopharmacological aspects. Psychology and carbon and oxygen compound, Health , 1, 287-301. Golding, J.F., Harper, T., Brent-Smith, H. (1983). Personality, drinking and analysis essay, drug-taking correlates of compound cigarette smoking. Personality and Individual Differences , 4, 703-706. Gray, J.A. (1981). Anxiety as a paradigm case of emotion.

British Medical Bulletin , 37, 193-197. Gray, J. Self. A. (1987). The neuropsychology of carbon and oxygen compound emotion and in to kill, personality. In S.M. Stahl, S.D. Iverson, E.C. Goodman (Eds.), Cognitive neurochemistry (pp.171-190). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Haefley, W., Pieri, L., Pole, P., Schaffer, R. Carbon And Oxygen. (1981). General pharmacology and self analysis essay, neuropharmacology of benzodiazepine derivatives. In H. Hoffmeister, and carbon and oxygen compound, G. Stille (Eds.), Handbook of experimental pharmacology (Vol.

55, 11, pp. 13-262). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Hallström, C., Lader, M. Medieval Weapons. (1981). Benzodiazepine withdrawal phenomena. International Pharmacopsychiatry , 16, 235-244. Hermann, J.B., Brotman, A.W., Rosenbaum, J.F. Compound. (1987). Rebound anxiety in essay, panic disorder patients treated with shorter-acting benzodiazepines.

Journal of Clinical Psychiatry , 48 (suppl. 10), 22-28. Kales, A., Scharf, M.B., Kales, J.D. (1978). Rebound insomnia: A new clinical syndrome. Compound. Science , 201, 1039-1041. Lader, M. (1988). The psychopharmacology of addiction - Benzodiazepine tolerance and dependence.

In M. Lader (Ed.), T he psychopharmacology of addiction (pp. 1-14). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Lader, M.H., Olajide, D. (1987). A comparison of buspirone and placebo in relieving benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology , 7, 11-15. Lader, M.H., Petursson, H. Analysis Essay. (1981). Benzodiazepine derivatives - Side effects and dangers. Carbon Compound. Biological Psychiatry , 16, 1195-1212.

Lader, M.H., Ron, M., Petursson, R.H. (1984). Computed axial brain tomography in long-term benzodiazepine users. In To. Psychological Medicine , 14, 203-206. Lee, K., Moller, L., Hardt, F., Haubek, A., Jenson, E. (1979). Alcohol-injured brain damage and liver damage in young males. Lancet 2, 759-761.

Lum, L.C., (1987). Hyperventilation syndromes in medicine and psychiatry: A review. Journal of the compound Royal Society of Medicine , 80, 229-231. Möhler, H., Okada, T. (1977). Benzodiazepine receptors: Demonstration in medieval weapons, the central nervous system. Science 198, 849-851.

Murphy, S.M., Owen, R.T., Tyrer, P.J., (1984). Withdrawal symptoms after six weeks treatment with diazepam. Lancet , 1389. Murphy, S.M., Tyrer, P. Compound. (1988). The essence of benzodiazepine dependence. (pp. 157-167). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nutt, D. (1986). Benzodiazepine dependence in the clinic: Reason for anxiety? Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 7, 457-460. Olijade, D., Lader, M. (1984). Depression following withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine use: A report of four cases.

Psychological Medicine , 14, 937-940. Oswald, I. (1989) Triazolam syndrome 10 years on. Sir Isaac. Lancet 1, 451-452. Owen, R.T., Tyrer, P. (1983) Benzodiazepine dependence: A review of the evidence. Drugs , 25, 385-398. Perera, K.M.H., Powell, T., Jenner, F.A. (1987). Computerised axial tomographic studies following long-term use of benzodiazepines. Psychological Medicine , 17, 775-777.

Petursson, H., Lader, M.H. (1981a) Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment. And Oxygen Compound. British Medical Journal , 283, 634-635. Petursson, H., Lader, M.H. (1981b). Benzodiazepine dependence. British Journal of Addiction , 76, 133-145. Rementeria, J.L., Bhatt, K. (1977).

Withdrawal symptoms in neonates from intrauterine exposure to diazepam. Journal of Paediatrics , 90, 123-125. Sepinwall, J., Cook, L. (1979). Mechanisms of action of the benzodiazepines: Behavioural aspects. Federation Proceedings 39, 3024-3031. Smith, D.E., Wesson, D.R. (1983). Benzodiazepine dependency syndromes.

Journal of at Sea Essay Psychoactive Drugs , 15, 85-95. Squires, R.F., Braestrup, C. (1977). Benzodiazepine receptors in the rat brain. Carbon. Nature , 266,732-734. Staff. Weapons History. (1981). Minor brain damage and alcoholism. British Medical Journal , 2, 455-456. Tyrer, P. (1990) Diagnosis of benzodiazepine dependence . Carbon. Unpublished manuscript. Tyrer, P., Murphy, S., Riley, P. (1989). Sir Isaac Newton Calculus. The benzodiazepine withdrawal symptom questionnaire.

Journal of Affective Disorders , 19, 53-61. Tyrer, P., Owen, R., Dawling, S. (1983). Gradual withdrawal of diazepam after long-term therapy. Lancet 1, 1402-1406. Tyrer, P., Rutherford, D., Higgett, T. And Oxygen Compound. (1981). Benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms and propranolol. Lancet , 1, 520-522. Winokur, A., Rickels, K., Greenblatt, D.J., Schatz, N.J. (1980). Withdrawal reaction from long-term low dosage administration of diazepam.

Archives of General Psychiatry , 37, 101-105. Young, W.S., Kuhar, M.J. (1980). Radiohistochemical localisation of benzodiazepine receptors in rat brain. Journal of at Sea Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics , 212, 337-346. Zigmond, A.S., Snaith, R.P. (1983). The hospital anxiety and and oxygen, depression (HAD) scale. A Crime At Sea. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica , 67, 361-370. FIGURE 1. And Oxygen Compound. WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS RATING SCALE. Ratings: 0=none 1=mild 2=moderate 3=severe.

FIGURE 1. Weapons. Withdrawal Symptoms Rating Scale. FIGURE 2. Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) Scale scores for anxiety over 20 weeks in carbon compound, 18 healthy students and 12 patients taking diazepam (7.5 SD 4.6 daily). Patients and students took placebo tablets until week 20. Patients withdrew from diazepam during weeks 8-12. One patient dropped out conflicts a mockingbird after 12 weeks for and oxygen domestic reasons. Circles represent placebo group; triangles represent students. FIGURE 3. History. Withdrawal symptoms scores over and oxygen compound 20 weeks in 18 healthy students and 12 patients taking diazepam (7.5mg SD 4.6 daily).

Patients and procedures as in Figure 2. Symptom rating shown in communism is an economic system in which:, Figure 1. Circles represent placebo group; triangles represent students. TABLE 1. Scores for selected symptoms before, during, and and oxygen, after diazepam withdrawal. ( n = 11; mean total scores on withdrawal symptoms scale shown in Figure 1. (postwithdrawal score equal. to or less than prewithdrawal. greater than prewithdrawal. Sensory hypersensitivity: to light, sound, taste, smell. Anxiety: Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) Scale (anxiety) scores. Paraesthesiae: tingling, numbness, altered sensitivity in limbs, face, trunk.

Motor symptoms: total score for stiffness, weakness, tremor, muscle twitches, ataxia.

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The dates in the column on the left inefficiently occupy important space. The 11 bullets in the first experience section reduce readability. There are distracting links inserted into self analysis, the resume body. Finally, despite this clients years of carbon work experience, his education is listed first. The final resume has a new cleaner and more professional look with more white space. Some of the architects accomplishments are combined; we had conversations with him to determine which bullets could be deleted. Economic! All extraneous, duplicative and unnecessary text was carved away to produce a clean, sharp and beautiful resume a visual match for this accomplished architect, and one that helped him secure a position with a prominent firm in Milwaukee and later a position at Harvard University! Recent Graduate Marketing Resume.

Aaron had applied to several jobs using his existing resume, with no success. It took him just three days to get an interview using his new resume. What did we change? We took his overdone, clunky format and gave him a unique yet much simplified look. Carbon Compound! We took his Objective statement and replaced it with a clear branding statement. Finally, we provided previously absent details of his successes and kill accomplishments. The result: Aaron got an carbon and oxygen compound, edge on his fellow graduating classmates, obtaining a position he loves as a Brand Ambassador at Switch. And his phone continues to ring with more interview offers!

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8 Keywords That Set Your Resume On Fire. This article is carbon and oxygen compound, part of economic system, a series called How to and oxygen, Write a Resume . To start this series from the beginning, read the sir isaac calculus introduction. Does your resume sizzle with the right keywords to get you noticed? Can your resume make it past the and oxygen #8220;reject pile#8221;, get found in a crowded search database, or inspire a job interview? If you#8217;re sitting by analysis essay, the phone waiting for a hiring manager to call, then perhaps it#8217;s time to add the right keywords to your resume. In the previous article we squawked about how action verbs show hiring managers what actions youve taken in previous jobs. Where action verbs activate your resume, keywords are the nouns that explain to hiring managers what things you performed the actions on. Carbon And Oxygen! Employers want to know the communism is an skills and qualifications you offer so explain WHAT skills you possess with the right keywords and get yourself onto the hiring manager#8217;s job interview list. Why You Need Keywords On Your Resume.

Employers use keywords to filter through piles of resumes on and oxygen, their desk. If your resume is handed to them without the keywords that match job requirements, then your application may hit the #8220;reject pile#8221; without a second glace. To find job candidates, some employers use software programs, internet job boards, and essay, resume databases to search for and oxygen compound those applications matching the keywords they target. Other employers are so overwhelmed by the mass number of resumes they receive daily that they streamline their hiring process by digitizing resumes, storing them in a database, searching for communism economic in which: ideal candidates using keywords, and then using the results to compound, create an interview call list. In today#8217;s world of keywords and search engine technology, if your resume doesn#8217;t contain the right mix of job-specific keywords, then your resume may stay buried in conflicts in to a mockingbird the digital dungeon that is a candidate database even if you#8217;re fully qualified for carbon the job. As a job-seeker, using the right keywords on your resume is essential if you want your resume to leap out of communism is an in which:, a pile or be found in a database and land a job interview. You don#8217;t need a degree in English to carbon and oxygen, find your 8 keyword nouns. Keyword nouns tend to what sherman’s untitled stills, be the #8220;hard#8221; skills, industry-specific qualifications, and job-specific terms employers look for in a job candidate. Carbon And Oxygen! Here#8217;s a list of general skill and qualification areas to consider when listing your keywords: Degrees or Certifications University or College Names Job Titles Product Names Technical Terms Industry Jargon Job-specific Buzzwords Company Names Service Types Professional Organizations Software or Hardware Packages Computer Lingo. Communism Is An In Which:! A great place to get keyed into carbon your resume keywords is to review 5 to 10 employment ads with similar job titles in your field and weapons history, see which words are repeatedly mentioned. Once you see a pattern, highlight and list the keywords employers mention and carbon, be sure to include them in your resume and what for cindy film stills series?, cover letter.

After making your keyword list and checking it twice, chances are you#8217;ll have more than 8 keywords to boast about. Perfect! Just be sure not to carbon, make every other word in your resume a keyword to much of weapons, a good thing is painful, and no one likes to read a resume riddled with buzzword bingo overkill so start with 8 keywords and and oxygen, go from there! If you#8217;re still stuck narrowing down a list of skill and qualification keywords for your resume or cover letter, then try using the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to learn about the standard descriptors specific to your occupation. You#8217;ve found and highlighted your keyword nouns, now put them into resume format! When writing your resume, it#8217;s a good idea to precede your keywords with an action verb and then end each statement with specific facts and figures. This brings strength to A Crime at Sea Essay, your resume and sells your skills to a prospective employer. And Oxygen Compound! For example, lets look at a job description for a Junior Technical Writer. Ive highlighted the analysis 8 keywords that match the applicants skills best. And Oxygen! Now lets get these 8 keywords working for us in kill resume format! Notice how I#8217;ve put a few keywords in each sentence along with an action verb!

KEYWORDS: technical documentation, instructional materials. Wrote technical documentation and compound, instructional materials in French and what inspiration for cindy untitled series?, English for an online pharmaceutical website. BONUS: software, specifications, web interfaces, database system. Worked in a team with software developers and carbon and oxygen, pharmacists to design software specifications and web interfaces for a pharmacy database system. Graduated with a Bachelors degree in Communications, with high honors, from Smith University. KEYWORDS: Microsoft Word, Adobe Photoshop, Dreamweaver. BONUS: online, work flows, Microsoft Visio. Wrote, edited, and maintained online help and user manuals using Microsoft Word , Adobe Photoshop , Dreamweaver , and created work flows with Microsoft Visio. Adding keywords to your resume not only sets your skills on fire but can get you noticed in a competitive job market. So go ahead and find your career keywords and land that job interview!

Got your own resume keyword tips to is an economic in which:, share with others looking for work in this challenging economy? Jump in carbon and oxygen compound and speak up in the comments below! Thanks for more great tips in this excellent, timely series. Including the sir isaac newton bonus words does create additional interest #8230; maybe enough to get to compound, the interview stage. When I skim thorough resumes, its the sir isaac calculus keywords that really do catch my eye and further peak my interest to follow up. Some people send me essays with bland generic cover letters that are copies of internet samples#8230;those get glossed over.

The right keywords make all the carbon difference. Good article for anyone trying to polish their resume! Murray Moman says. I don#8217;t know#8230;there may be good information on lachamba but I can#8217;t confirm it. I went to the site and clicked on the behavioural interviews video. I think lachamba#8217;s credibility suffers a bit when you hear a toddler talking away quite loudly in the background. First impressions mean a lot and I tuned out a mockingbird almost immediately. Carbon And Oxygen Compound! I#8217;m applying for another job in just a couple weeks and will DEFINITELY be making use of newton calculus, your resume tips!! in your examples you have #8220;Wrote#8230;#8221;. I#8217;d change one or both to carbon, #8220;Composed#8230;#8221; You know, even though I occasionally write cover letter clinics and in to, resume rehab sessions on my (sadly neglected) blog, I never thought about incorporating keywords into a resume the way you might optimize a website.

But, that#8217;s a great idea! It#8217;s such a simple change we can all make to create more noticeable resumes a real example of the power of small and a change that these days, we really can#8217;t ignore. I love this series#8230;keep it coming! I agree with everyone. Great series!

I always forward your site to people I know who are struggling with the carbon and oxygen compound job hunt right now. Such a good article. While having key words on the resume is important, it is equally important to keep them in check- don#8217;t put them on your resume just to have them. Use them if they are true! Good stuff, thanks. Having keywords is important as long as they are used in the right context. Communism Economic System! I see resumes all of the time and it truly cracks me up to see a job seeker who uses a thesaurus to find #8220;keywords#8221; and ends up using the word in the wrong context. Or they try to use keywords from a job posting without having any idea what they mean! If you are job seeking, you should always try to run your resume by carbon, and impartial person! @NancyBeyond When criticizing others you should #8220;always try to run your [remarks] by and [sic] impartial person#8221; as well or simply utilize basic proofreading skills (no thesaurus necessary). At Sea! Remember those who live in glass houses#8230;.. Yukon Jack says.

An insightful and helpful article, thanks! To follow on from the theme of choosing words carefully, one#8217;s interest is piqued, not peaked (in case this is a word chosen for your resume or cover letter). Thanks for the notes, do you have any idea what key words would help me land a job in the print industry? I graduated from the graphic communications management program but since my internship only gave me production experience, I#8217;m having difficulties landing a larger role -CSR or Premedia, since its been almost 2 years and don#8217;t have experience in those roles#8230; In the meantime I#8217;m attempting to get a part time at and oxygen compound least within the weapons customer service role, in hospitality or tourism#8230; Any help is carbon and oxygen compound, appreciated in either career choice. Weapons! Thanks for included the hint and the link for doing some research on carbon, the Occupational Information Network. REALLY good insight on finding keywords!

It was a very interesting and helpful article. I think candidates will get everything here what they search for regarding the interview tips . And according to me, Keywords are the eye catching feature in conflicts kill a mockingbird a resume. Carbon Compound! The best part of your article is that you have also mentioned about the 8 keywords that the employers search for. A well written article Kerry. Keep up the good work mate ..Voted up #128578; These articles crack me up. So called experts giving their opinion on sir isaac, proper resume creation. Sure, some may have some HR experience, but the compound fact of the matter, these tips mean little to nothing. Everyday the communism is an economic system in which: rules are changed. Depending on your mood, resumes are not viewed the same way everyday.

Your personal bias is the key factor in rejecting a resume. Are there some crappy resumes out in the world, hell yeah, but the majority of and oxygen compound, you are controlled by emotion while reviewing a resume. Conflicts Kill A Mockingbird! You so call experts lack common sense when reviewing resumes. I agree with Charlie. And Oxygen Compound! Resumes aren#8217;t looked at like they used to. People are too lazy to read them. My company still reads them. They don#8217;t look at them for 6 seconds and throw them aside. A Crime Essay! What can#8217;t you possibly learn about someone in carbon compound 6 seconds? Companies are cheating themselves out of great candidates.

I think using keywords is useless. As long as they have the experience. That#8217;s what should count. 5 Steps to sir isaac, open a Registered Disability Savings Plan (RDSP) 6 Ways an interest rate hike affects your finances. Kerry speaks and writes personal finance.

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famous biographers Biographies of compound scientists and explorers. honored in the names of plants. shown on this web site. Last names beginning with A-F on this page. G-M N-Z. K nowing about the people who collected, studied, described, named, and cataloged the plants of an area gives us a better understanding of the history of that area, the relationships among scientists and explorers at that time, the progress of science, and the rigors endured in the quest for communism is an system knowledge and beauty. The botanists who roamed the carbon and oxygen compound, American West in sir isaac newton the 19th century are an especially interesting group because they collected and carbon and oxygen cataloged at a time of worldwide enthusiasm for what was the inspiration stills exploration and carbon scientific advancement. And they were exploring virgin lands where almost every tree and flower was excitingly new. Enthusiasm and history joy in discovery floods out of their reports, journals, newspaper articles, and books.

It was a very heady time for all explorers. The biographies below also indicate that the botanists were not just Botanists; they were intrepid hikers, climbers, campers, geologists, paleontologists, surveyors, and writers. Many of the botanists were college educated, and, interestingly, many of compound them had medical degrees. Their schooling in the use of at Sea Essay plants for medicinal purposes and in the scientific method served them well in their search for new plants and new knowledge. There was, of carbon course, a financial aspect to collecting plants. Expeditions had to be paid for and explorers' city homes had mortgages. Thus it was common to solicit the assistance of self essay philanthropists, intellectual societies, universities, and gardens to carbon and oxygen, finance trips. It was also common to collect multiple specimens in sir isaac newton calculus the field, returning some of these to those who had financed the trip and selling other sets to private collectors, herbaria, and carbon and oxygen universities. If we look only at a neatly typed catalog of self essay plants collected on carbon and oxygen, an expedition, it is easy to medieval weapons history, be unaware of the arduous work that went into collecting those plants.

The explorer/botanists were often out for weeks, months, or years at carbon a time, often in unexplored lands, frequently under the threat of starvation, dehydration, and attacks from natives and ruffians. They lived with sunburn, mosquitoes, ticks, chiggers, cactus thorns, and lightning. Eleven men froze to death on a Fremont expedition, Douglas was trampled to death, Gunnison and his crew were murdered. These are not unusual cases. Sir Isaac Calculus! Collectors worldwide suffered: both Captain Cook and Captain Bligh had botanical collecting as a primary purpose of their seafaring voyages; Cook was murdered and Bligh became (unfairly) a Hollywood villain. Lives were lost and carbon and oxygen compound collections, too, were lost: it was maddeningly common for specimens of plants, rocks, and fossils, and surveying data to be lost when rains and floods soaked them or pack animals carrying them toppled off mountain ledges, or rats on kill, ships ate them. Much of the carbon and oxygen compound, Lewis and Clark botanical collection and some journals were lost in the Expedition's river travels. Fourteen of Fremont's pack animals (carrying all his botanical specimens) fell to A Crime at Sea Essay, their death in a winter crossing of the Sierras. Fendler lost his equipment in a flood and was so discouraged he never collected in the West again. But mounds of carbon and oxygen collected plants (and birds, rocks, skulls, weather information, and maps) did make it East (and to Europe, especially, England) where the in to, preeminent scientists of the time analyzed, classified, and and oxygen compound named.

For much of the 19th century (when thousands upon thousands of plant discoveries in the West were made) the botanical taxonomic authorities were John Torrey and Asa Gray in the United States and history William and carbon and oxygen Joseph Hooker (father and for cindy stills son) in England. These men assigned names that described plant characteristics, geographical locations, and plant relationships, or (relevant to carbon and oxygen compound, our discussion here) honored people who were important botanists, naturalists, and explorers in the West, the United States, or in other parts of the world. Over twenty percent of the plants shown in this web site have a person's name as part or all of their scientific name. (Because a plant bears someone's name it does not mean, though, that person discovered the plant -- or even saw it.) (See also scientific name .) The people honored in plant names have also been honored in other ways. Several fourteen thousand foot peaks in Colorado are named for eminent botanists: Gray's Peak (at 14,274 the weapons, 9th highest peak in carbon Colorado) and Torrey's Peak (at 14,267 the 11th highest peak in Colorado); the Stansbury Mountains of Utah honor Howard Stansbury; birds carry their names (Lewis' Woodpecker, Clark's Nutcracker, Nuttall's Woodpecker, Townsend's Solitaire); and towns, rivers, lakes, and self canyons honor them: Fremont, Gunnison, Lewis, Powell. Threads linking many of the naturalists discussed below weave through the biographies. Many were on expeditions together, were student/teacher, shared botanical and other scientific collections with each other, were brought together by mutual friends, or competed.

Two threads that I particularly enjoyed following were the relationships with Charles Darwin and membership in the National Academy of Sciences. It is compound, fascinating to analysis essay, read about the reaction of major 19th century botanists to the publication in 1859 of carbon compound Darwin's The Origin of Species . Many botanists came through splendidly as open-minded scientists who, when faced with a theory that contradicted some of their most cherished and fundamental beliefs, recanted. They studied The Origin of Species and were awed at the weight of Darwin's evidence and inspiration sherman’s film stills his twenty years of work challenging, analyzing, and ordering this evidence before he published. Asa Gray and Joseph Hooker , the two greatest botanists of the 19th century, studied The Origin of Species and immediately saw the power of Darwin's evidence and the truth of his conclusions. See the entries for Gray and Hooker for and oxygen compound details. Another thread to follow through the following biographies is about the was the for cindy film stills, formation of the National Academy of Sciences by an act of Congress signed into compound, law by medieval weapons history President Lincoln in 1863. Four botanists, George Engelmann, Asa Gray, John Newberry, and John Torrey, all of whom have biographies in carbon this web site, were chosen by Congress to be among the fifty charter members of the Academy. The National Academy of Sciences was soon called on by Congress to settle a complex and A Crime at Sea Essay contentious question about the administrative guidance for the exploration of the West.

The numerous survey parties which detailed the carbon and oxygen, topography, climate, botany, and resources of the West were primarily conducted by the United States Corps of Topographical Engineers (see www.topogs.org/Links.htm ). By the 1860's there were those who believed the task could be better undertaken by more scientifically trained leaders under different federal leadership. The issue was turned over to the National Academy of in to kill Sciences for carbon study and a recommendation to Congress. The Academy's report urged that the a mockingbird, various surveys sponsored by the military under the leadership of Stansbury, Gunnison, Fremont, Hayden, and others be ended and that a new agency, The United States Geological Survey, within the Department of the carbon, Interior, be created. With great debate and compromise, this momentous recommendation was adopted by Congress in 1879. The members of the National Academy of Sciences are dedicated to what sherman’s untitled series?, the furtherance of and oxygen science and technology and to their use for essay the general welfare . There are presently about 2,100 Academy members including 200 who have received a Nobel Prize. See The National Academy web site . Following each person's biography are links to plants named for that person. Numerous web sources and many books, especially those listed immediately below and carbon and oxygen those mentioned in the biographies, provided much of the biographical information. Joseph Ewan's Rocky Mountain Naturalists . Joseph and Nesta Ewan's Biographical Dictionary of Rocky Mountain Naturalists . William Goetzmann's Exploration and Empire: The Explorer and at Sea Essay the Scientist in the Winning of the American West. William A. Weber's Colorado Flora . Thanks to the staff at the Cortez, Colorado Library for their assistance in obtaining books for me.

Allioni, Carlo , 1725-1804: Italian physician, professor, and botanist. Allioni was famous for his work on malaria but became even more well known for his botanical work. Allioni was a strong supporter of the Linnaean taxonomic system. In 1785 Allioni published his 3 volume work, Flora Pedemontana , which describes over 2,800 species of plants. Allionia incarnata. 1763: Physician, Mayor of Williamsburg, Virginia from 1750 to 1751, and compound an associate of the famous botanist John Clayton. The genus is most often said to have been named for an 18th century Virginia physician and medieval weapons traveler, Charles Amson, but research in 2004 by James Pringle shows that Charles probably never existed. Pringle traces the compound, history of the first collected species of this genus, the variety of names given to the plant, and the confusion about the source of the was the for cindy sherman’s untitled film series?, genus name, which Pringle clearly establishes as John Amson, though we know very little about John. See SIDA. Amsonia tomentosa. Assisi, Saint Francis , 1181/11821226: Catholic friar and preacher who founded the Franciscan Order and assisted in and oxygen founding other Orders.

He remains one of the most venerated Christian religious figures. St. Francis led a worldly and self often wild life until he was twenty-two when a vision prompted him to renounce his considerable worldly possessions and live in poverty with the carbon compound, poor. St. Francis is in to kill a mockingbird, known to many as a symbol of kindness to and oxygen, animals, especially birds. In the early 1600s (considerably before the city of San Francisco was named), Franciscan Friars established a missionary at the base of the inspiration for cindy untitled series?, mountains at present day Flagstaff, Arizona.

The Friars gave the name San Francisco to the peaks to honor their Patron Saint, San Francis of carbon and oxygen compound Assisi. The Peaks are, of course, known by many other names to Native Americans. Mertensia franciscana. Bahi, Juan Francisco , 1775-1841: Professor of in to kill Botany at the University of Barcelona in the 19th century. In 1816 the genus Bahia was named for him in Genera et Species Plantarum by Mariano La Gasca, Director of the Real Jardin Botanico de Madrid. Amauriopsis dissecta. Bailey, Vernon Orlando , 1864-1942: Chief Field Naturalist with the Bureau of Biological Survey, United States Department of Agriculture from 1890 to 1933. According to the Smithsonian, Bailey's chief biological interest was the study of the life history and distribution of mammals. During his career with the Biological Survey, he made field investigations throughout the United States, Canada, and carbon Mexico, including intensive biological surveys of conflicts Texas, New Mexico, North Dakota, and Oregon. His bibliography numbered 244 titles and included scientific monographs, as well as publications for the general reader. Among his many publications were Life Zones and Crop Zones of New Mexico and carbon Mammals of New Mexico.

Yucca baileyi. Baker, Charles Fuller , 1872-1927: Botanist, entomologist, Professor of Agronomy and Agriculture, Assistant Entomologist with the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station in Fort Collins. Lived in communism is an economic system in which: and collected in Colorado until end of 1800s and then moved to California, returning to Colorado for carbon and oxygen compound several collecting expeditions. In 1901 Edward Greene published three volumes of Baker's plant collections in Plantae Bakerianae . Baker's 100,000 specimen sheets were left to Pomona College. Oreoxis bakeri Phacelia bakeri. Barbey, William , 1842-1914: Swiss philanthropist, botanist, and student of A Crime Epilobium . Compound! Delphinium barbeyi. Barton, Benjamin Smith , 1766-1815: Physician, Professor of Botany at the University of newton calculus Pennsylvania, author of Essays Towards a Materia Medica of the United States (1798-1804) (the first book on American medicinal plants) and carbon and oxygen compound The Elements of Botany (1803) (the first American botany textbook).

Benefactor of sir isaac newton calculus many botanists including Frederick Pursh and Thomas Nuttall . Carbon Compound! Jefferson held Barton in such high regard that he asked him to teach the latest botanical collecting techniques and taxonomy to at Sea, Meriwether Lewis prior to the Lewis and compound Clark Expedition. See the entries for Pursh, Nuttall, Lewis, and McMahon for more details about Barton and these important times for the beginning of American botany. See also David Townsend . Bertero, Carlo , 1789-1831: Italian physician and highly accomplished and respected botanist who collected plants for many years in medieval history the West Indies and Columbia (1817-1821) and compound Chile (1827-1831). Berteroi disappeared with all others on his ship returning from three months of collecting in Tahiti. Osmorhiza berteroi. Bessey, Charles Edwin , 1845-1915: Student of Asa Gray, Professor of Botany at Iowa State in conflicts in to kill a mockingbird Ames, Iowa, until 1884 and then acclaimed botanist at the University of Nebraska until his death. Bessy began teaching horticulture, botany, and zoology at Iowa State in 1870, the year after the and oxygen, college opened.

His and his students' botanical collections became the A Crime at Sea Essay, Iowa State Herbarium, which he remained Curator of until 1884. (The herbarium is now known as the Ada Hayden Herbarium, after Ada Hayden, who became, in 1918, the first woman PhD from Iowa State. She became Professor of Botany at Iowa State in 1920 and remained at Iowa until her death in 1950 by which time she had increased the herbarium size to over 250,000 specimens). Under Bessey the herbarium had grown to 15,000 species by 1884 when he, now Vice-President of the College, left Iowa State because of a dispute with the state legislature. Bessey eventually became Chancellor of the University of Nebraska and carbon compound a great collector of Nebraska and Colorado plants. He was the first American to make major contributions to conflicts, plant classification based on and oxygen, a phylogenetic system, the attempt to establish the most primitive to medieval weapons, most evolved plants. Bessey was known for his contributions to botanical education: he made laboratory work a standard part of his botany courses and wrote several botanical texts that were widely used for decades. Bessey initiated the Nebraska National Forest, the first completely hand-planted forest in the world. Bigelow, John Milton , 1804-1878: Physician, botanist, and and oxygen member of several Western expeditions in the New Mexico area.

Participated in sir isaac the Mexican Boundary Survey, 1850-1852, which produced over 2,500 botanical specimens. Bigelow was also a member of the Whipple 1853 explorations for a southern rail route and collected numerous new species which Torrey and Gray described. Became Professor of Botany at Detroit Medical College in 1860. Senecio bigelovii , Dieteria bigelovii , Artemisia bigelovii. Brandegee, Townshend Stith , 1843-1925 and. Brandegee, Mary Katherine (Layne, Curran) , 1844-1920: Townshend was a botanist, Civil Engineer, and and oxygen compound surveyor. Asa Gray recommended him to what was the for cindy sherman’s series?, Hayden for the 1875 Survey and from this Brandegee published The Flora of compound Southwestern Colorado in the 1876 Geological and in which: Geographical Survey of the Territories , Bulletin V. 2, #3. He was a highly respected botanist, as was his wife, Mary Katherine Townshend. She was a physician and botanist who published a flora of compound Yosemite and became, in 1883, the self, first woman Curator of the California Academy of carbon and oxygen Sciences Herbarium ( Alice Eastwood succeeded her).

The Brandegees spent their 1889 honeymoon hiking from San Diego to San Francisco collecting plants. The Brandegees are honored in the names of about 120 plants in the U.S.; those dated before 1889 were named for in to kill a mockingbird Townshend and those after were probably named for carbon compound both Townshend and Mary. Mary is also honored in the names of several dozen plants which refer either to her maiden name of Layne or her first marriage name of in to kill a mockingbird Curran. The Brandegees left their library and personal plant collection of over 75,000 plants to the University of California. Trifolium brandegeei is a lovely, hot pink Pea that Townshend Brandegee was the compound, first to A Crime at Sea Essay, collect; it is the only plant in this web site named for carbon him. In The Flora of Southwestern Colorado Brandegee said of his new discovery, [It is] a very showy species, common in the Sierra La Plata. It is still very showy and still common in the La Platas. Bree, William Thomas , 1787-1863: Botanist and Rector of Allesley. Mentioned by Charles Darwin in his correspondence. Breea arvensis (now Cirsium arvense ) Brewer, William , 1828-1910: Principal Assistant, in charge of Botanical Department on the Whitney Geological Survey of California ( 1860-1864) , Chair of Agriculture in the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale, 1865-1903 . Wrote Up and Down California in 1860-1864; The Journal of William H. Brewer (available online at the Library of Congress American Memory).

Co-author with Sereno Watson and Asa Gray of the conflicts kill, first flora of California, the 1876 report of the botanical work of the 1860-1864 Whitney Survey and carbon the King Survey of 1867-1869. Click to read his biography of Sereno Watson. Conflicts In To Kill! Member and carbon and oxygen compound President of the National Academy of Sciences. Navarretia breweri. Brickell, John , 1749-1809: Savannah Georgia physician and botanist who came to the U.S. in 1770 from Ireland. Stephen Elliott (1771-1830) named the genus Brickellia for John Brickell. In Elliott's Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina and Florida , Elliott (a Georgia amateur botanist and communism in which: later Professor of Botany, legislator, banker, and writer) says of the Brickellia plant, I have named it in commemoration of Dr. John Brickell, of Savannah, who at carbon one period of his life paid much attention to the botany of this country, and made known to Dr. Muhlenberg, Fraser, and others, many of the undescribed plants. (Thanks to David Hollombe of conflicts kill a mockingbird California for supplying me with some of and oxygen this information .) This John Brickell was not related to the John Brickell, author in 1737 of in to a mockingbird The Natural History of North-Carolina , a work known to have been greatly plagiarized from a number of people, including the Reverend John Clayton, no relation to the John Clayton of Claytonia lanceolata . Unfortunately, the and oxygen, modern, very nice, and widely circulated book Shrubs and Trees of the Southwest Uplands , published by the Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, indicates that John Brickell (1749-1809) wrote the plagiarized book and incorrectly gives the date of publication as 1787.

Click to see that the publication date was 1737, twelve years before our John Brickell was born. Carruth, James Harrison , 1807-1896: Yale graduate, taught, preached, moved in 1856 to inspiration for cindy untitled stills, Kansas from Massachusetts. Became increasingly interested in the flora of Kansas and cataloged 1,270 plants of that state. Taught botany, presented papers before the carbon compound, Kansas Academy of Science. In a series of 1880 brief biographies of the Yale class of 1832, it was said of Carruth that Except a throbbing in the head, immediately consequent upon too close application to botanical studies in 1876, he is well, and can handle a flail, or a hoe, as well as he could fifty years ago, and can easily walk twenty miles in a day. What Inspiration For Cindy Film Stills! Artemisia carruthii.

Case, Eliphalet Lewis , 1843-1925: School teacher, civil war veteran, plant collector. In 1902 he was elected Treasurer of Sierra County, California. Carbon! Corydalis caseana variety brandegeei. Castillejo, Domingo , 1744-1793: Spanish botanist and Professor of Botany in Cadiz, Spain. The genus Castilleja (Paintbrush), was named for is an system in which: Domingo Castillejo in 1782 (in Linnaeus son's Supplementum Plantarum ) by Jose Celestino Mutis.

Mutis was born in and oxygen compound Cadiz, became a physician with great botanical interests, went to Columbia in A Crime at Sea 1760 where he planned (but never finished) a botany of carbon and oxygen compound Columbia. Mutis sent plants to analysis, the father and son Linnaeus and must have known through them or other botanical sources of his countryman, Domingo Castillejo. There are, according to Intermountain Flora , about 200 species of carbon compound Castilleja, most growing in western North America, several in eastern North America and Asia, and about fifteen in Central and South America. It must have been at least one of the latter that Mutis discovered and named for Domingo Castillejo. Newton Calculus! Castilleja chromosa Castilleja haydenii Castilleja integra Castilleja linariifolia Castilleja liniata Castilleja miniata Castilleja occidentalis Castilleja rhexiifolia Castilleja septentrionalis. Chamisso, Louis Charles de (Ludolf Karl von) , 1781-1838: German poet and naturalist.

Naturalist on Kotzebue's 1815 voyage. Carbon And Oxygen! He is noted for sir isaac calculus having conducted the first complete western North America botanical profile, which included the carbon and oxygen compound, San Francisco Bay area. See Romanzoff and was the inspiration untitled film series? Eschscholtz. Clark, William , 1770-1838: Co-leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Compound! After the conflicts in to, Expedition, Brigadier General of the Militia for the Louisiana Territory and Superintendent of Indian Affairs at St. Louis. Supervised publication of Nicholas Biddle's 1814 compilation of Lewis and carbon and oxygen compound Clark's journals of the Expedition: History of the Expedition under the Commands of Captains Lewis and Clark . See Meriwether Lewis . There are many books and many on-line sources about Lewis and Clark; an excellent on-line starting point is Discovering Lewis and Clark . Medieval! Some of the biographical information about Lewis, Pursh, Barton, and carbon and oxygen compound Douglas on my web site comes from James Reveal's Natural History section on sir isaac, the Discovering Lewis and Clark web site. The original specimens collected by Lewis and Clark are now housed in the Herbarium at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. For the compound, most extensive collection of on-line Lewis and Clark documents see the American Journal. Clayton , John , (1694-1773): Emigrated to Virginia from England in 1715.

Clerk to the County Court of Gloucester County, Virginia from 1720 until his death. Clayton and the great naturalist John Bartram became friends as did Clayton and Mark Catesby, artist and naturalist. Self Essay! Clayton probably joined Catesby on collecting expeditions and when Catesby returned to England, Clayton continued collecting and sent Catesby many specimens. Catesby shared these specimens with J. F. Gronovius who used them (without crediting Clayton) as the basis of his Flora Virginica , 1739-1743. Gronovius shared the specimens with Linnaeus. ( Sir Joseph Banks (of Captain Cook and Captain Bligh fame) bought the Gronovius-Clayton specimens in 1793.) James Reveal tells us of carbon compound Mark Catesby, His travels in in to a mockingbird the Virginia colony were limited but fruitful as it was here that he began to gather specimens of the local flora and fauna, sketching each in varying degrees of exactness.

While there Catesby became acquainted with a young clerk named John Clayton who would play a future role in Catesby’s life and was destined to become a foremost source of Virginia plants prior to carbon and oxygen compound, 1753 for Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus. (From Reveal's A NOMENCLATURAL SUMMARY OF THE PLANT AND ANIMAL NAMES BASED ON IMAGES IN MARK CATESBY’S NATURAL HISTORY (17291747). The herbarium of the Natural History Museum of London is named for conflicts in to John Clayton. Linnaeus named the Claytonia genus for John Clayton. Claytonia lanceolata , Claytonia megarhiza. Clements, Edith Gertrude , 1874-1971: Botanist, ecologist, botanical artist. Edith Clements was the carbon and oxygen, first woman to receive a PhD from the University of Nebraska. She met Frederic Clements at the University, married, and self essay the two conceived of, initiated, and worked in the Alpine Laboratory on Pikes Peak. 1913 authored Rocky Mountain Flowers and in 1920 Flowers of Mountain and Plain , both of which have many beautiful color plates that are still vivid and lovely today.

In 1903 Clementsia rhodantha (now Rhodiola rhodantha ) was named in honor of both Edith and Frederic. Clements, Frederic Edward , 1874-1945: Student of and oxygen compound Charles Bessey at the University of Nebraska. Professor of Botany at the University of inspiration sherman’s untitled film stills Nebraska and and oxygen compound then Minnesota. Originated the plant succession concept. Early in the 20th century established the Carnegie Institution's Alpine Laboratory on Pikes Peak where, during eight summers, he, his wife, and many students and co-workers studied the complex interrelationships of all influences (insects, moisture, sunlight, wind, etc.) on alpine plants. The Clements spent their winters during these years studying the same interrelationships in Essay the desert at carbon and oxygen the Carnegie Desert Botanical Laboratory near Tucson. In 1914 Clements published Rocky Mountain Flora . Clements wrote seminal ecological works such as Plant Succession: An Analysis of the weapons, Development of Vegetation (1916) and Bio-Ecology (1939). In the latter, co-authored with Victor Shelford, Clements argued the importance of studying the and oxygen compound, biome, all the plants and medieval weapons history animals in a given region. In 1903 Clementsia rhodantha (now Rhodiola rhodantha ) was named in honor of both Frederic and Edith. Clover, Elzada , 1897-1980: Curator of the University of carbon and oxygen compound Michigan Botanical Gardens and Professor in the Department of system in which: Botany.

Specialized in and oxygen succulents. In 1938 she and her graduate student, Lois Jotter, botanized down 660 miles of the sir isaac, Colorado River, becoming the and oxygen, first women to float the Colorado River. Sclerocactus cloveriae (now Sclerocactus parviflorus subspecies parviflorus ) Collins, Zaccheus , 1764-1831: Philadelphia merchant and eminent botanist . For over 25 years, he was a correspondent with Baldwin, Bigelow, Ives, Nuttall, Torrey, and other esteemed botanists of the communism economic system in which:, time. Collins was a member of the carbon and oxygen, Philadelphia Academy of Sciences and served as its Vice-President. Was The Stills! Collinsia parviflora. Constance, Lincoln , 1909-2001: Director of the Herbarium at the University of carbon compound California, Berkeley; President of the California Academy of Sciences; Dean, Vice Chancellor, and Professor Emeritus at conflicts a mockingbird Berkeley; and Apiaceae specialist.

Received his Ph.D. from carbon and oxygen, Berkeley where he studied under Jepson. Is An Economic System! Remained at Berkeley from 1937-1976. Carbon Compound! Was a trustee of the Jepson Herbarium, founded in 1950 for the study and collection of California flora and helped edit The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. Constance is considered one of the top plant systematists of the 20th century. In 1986, he received the Asa Gray Award of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists for outstanding contributions to analysis essay, systematic botany. He was a fellow of the compound, American Academy of Arts and medieval weapons Sciences, the California Academy of Sciences, and a member of the Linnaean Society of London and the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences. He served as president of the American Society of carbon and oxygen compound Plant Taxonomists, the California Botanical Society, and the Botanical Society of America. Newton Calculus! Cymopterus constancei.

Cooper, James, 1830-1902: Physician, naturalist. Geologist with the geological Survey of California. Naturalist with the Pacific Railroad Survey of 1853. Carbon And Oxygen! Wrote first book on birds of California. (Cooper's Hawk is named for his father.) Collected plants in the Mojave Desert. Cottam, Walter , 1894-1988: Professor of Botany at Brigham Young University and then at the University of Utah from 1931-1962. Founded the Brigham Young University and University of Utah herbaria. Cottam founded the State Arboretum of Utah and Red Butte Garden and he was one of the founders of the The Nature Conservancy.

Cottam was one of the early ecologists and, from the 1940s on, he published papers and spoke often about land degradation caused by cattle and sheep; he warned that these animals would lead to the desertification of Utah. Cottam was well known for his work on weapons, hybrid Oaks. Astragalus cottamii ( now Astragalus monumentalis variety cottamii ) Coulter, John Merle , 1851-1928: Born of missionary parents in Ningpo, China. Came to Indiana when two years old. Carbon! Received his PhD in 1883 from Indiana University. From 1871-1879 was Professor of Natural Sciences at Hanover College.

During the field seasons of 1872-1875 Coulter served as the Assistant Geologist and what film Botanist to the United States Geological Survey in the Rocky Mountains (the Hayden Survey ). In his lifetime he became a revered Professor, a prolific researcher and writer, President of Indiana University, President of carbon Lake Forest College, and Professor of Botany and Head of the Botany Department (1896-1926) at the University of Chicago. In 1874 Coulter and Thomas Porter published the first Colorado flora, Synopsis of the Flora of Colorado (click the essay, title to read the carbon, Synopsis ). See Porter for details. Click to read Coulter's Botany of Western Texas . Click to read Coulter's A Textbook of Botany for Colleges and Universities . Coulter was the communism is an economic system in which:, found er of the Botanical Gazette and its editor for half a century. He was a member of the American Association of carbon University Professors; the Indiana, Illinois, and Chicago Academies of Science; the Botanical Society of America; and the American Association for the Advancement of medieval history Science (where he served as President). He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1909. Coulter's renown was such that around 1923 he was. engaged as a consultant to [China's] Suzhou [University's] science program.

Coulter advised more serious attention to taxonomy and studies of the local flora, as such data [are] basic to the botanical sciences in any country. Coulter's advice provided strong guidance to compound, N. Gist Gee, China's Suzhou University Biology Department's founder and administrator who significantly affected the direction of science education throughout China in the 1920s and 1930s . (This little known aspect of Coulter's accomplishments is discussed in Biology and Revolution in Twentieth-Century China (p. 68) by Laurence Schneider, my brother.) For more details about Coulter's life, publications, and accomplishments, see the Biographical Memoir of John Merle Coulter by at Sea Essay the eminent botanist, William Trelease. In this Memoir you will find 22 pages listing Coulter's extensive and varied publications in botany. Click for correspondence between Coulter and George Engelmann. The John Merle Coulter Nature Preserve is carbon, a 92-acre Indiana State Nature Preserve located in the City of A Crime at Sea Essay Portage. Crandall, Charles , 1851-1929: Horticulturalist, Professor of Botany and Horticulture and herbarium curator at Colorado Agricultural College (now known as Colorado State University), Professor of Horticulture at carbon and oxygen the University of communism is an economic Illinois; plant collector. Famous for carbon compound initiating breeding studies of crosses of various apples to find apples resistant to fireblight, scab, and powdery mildew. Self! Crandall's crosses of Rome and Malus floribunda 821 apples formed the basis of 20th century apple breeding.

Penstemon crandallii. Cronquist, Arthur , 1919-1992: Taxonomist, Asteraceae expert, and one of greatest botanists of the 20th century. Worked most of his career at the New York Botanical Garden. And Oxygen Compound! Published numerous articles and books, many establishing new botanical concepts. His taxonomic overview was The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants in weapons history 1968. In 1981 he published, An Integrated System of and oxygen compound Classification of Flowering Plants , a work setting forth a revised system of plant classification which eventually was adopted by major botanical projects including the Jepson Manual (1993) and the Flora of inspiration untitled film stills series? North America . In 1991 he and Henry Gleason published the Manual of the Vascular Plants . Cronquist did fieldwork throughout North America, but concentrated on the intermountain region and his field work there led eventually to the publication of the first volumes of Intermountain Flora , the most important work on this area and the most important work for this web site. The eighth and carbon compound final volume was published in 2012.

According to the New York Botanical Garden archives: In the later 1950's Cronquist began a correspondence and collaboration with the Armenian botanist, Armen Takhtajan, of the Komarov Institute in Leningrad, U.S.S.R. His work with Takhtajan and associate biologists at the Komarov proved a critical stimulus in the development of his synthetic projects in general botanic systems. During his association and friendship with Takhtajan, Cronquist studied and became proficient in Essay Russian, visited the (then) Soviet Union on several occasions, and promoted scientific exchanges between the two countries. Photo of Arthur Cronquist from the Hunt Institute. for Botanical Documentation. The New York Botanical Garden archives state: As Director of Botany (1971-74) and Senior Scientist (1974-92), Cronquist carried important administrative duties at the Garden and at its satellite facility, the Cary Arboretum. During this time he also held faculty appointments at Columbia University and the City University of New York, where he served on the Executive Committee on Biology. His many professional affiliations included the American Society of Plant Taxonomists (president, 1962); the Botanical Society of America (president, 1973); the International Association of Plant Taxonomy (council member); and the Torrey Botanical Club (president, 1976).

Professional awards and honors included the Leidy Medal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (1970); honorary vice-president of the XII International Botanical Congress, Leningrad (1975); the Asa Gray Award (American Society of Plant Taxonomists (1985); and the Medal for Botany, Linnean Society of London (1986). Arthur Cronquist was known for his towering physical stature, tall tales, and congeniality as well as for his commanding position as a botanist and educator. His advancement of taxonomy, plant systematics, and floristics was of lasting significance to the science of botany. He died on March 22, 1992 while studying plant specimens in the herbarium of Brigham Young University in Utah. Cutler, Hugh Carson , 1912-1998: Anthropologist, botanist.

Received his Ph.D. in botany from Washington University in carbon compound St. Louis and continued to economic, be associated on and off with that University for the rest of his life. Curator of economic botany at the Field Museum of carbon and oxygen Natural History in essay Chicago and with the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis. Originated the MBG Systematics Symposium in 1954. Famous for his flotation methods of retrieving spores and pollen, especially from archaeological sites. Was a devoted student of compound plants of the Southwest U.S.

Early in his career he became interested in economic botany and the useful plants of the in to kill a mockingbird, New World and their relatives; studies related to the taxonomy of useful plants; research on the wild relatives, variability, and kinds grown by living people; and specimens recovered from archaeological sites. (Cutler's words in his 1964, Career Statement. From the Washington University Archives as quoted on-line in and oxygen compound a biography by David Browman.) Cutler's collection of more than 12,000 ears of calculus native species of compound maize is now with the sherman’s stills, Department of Agriculture at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. And Oxygen! Asclepias cutleri Ephedra cutleri. Dale, Samuel , 1659-1739: British botanist, physician, and gardener. He wrote, Pharmacologia, seu manuductio ad materiam medicam in 1693.

Dale's herbarium is communism is an in which:, preserved in the British Museum, and his labeling of the specimens shows great care to detail. With Bobart and Sherard, Dale completed the third part of carbon Morison's Historia (Oxford, 1699). Dalea candida variety oligophylla. Daniels, Francis Potter , 1869-1947: PhD from the University of Missouri, Professor of Romance Languages at Wabash and Georgia State Colleges, botanist. Spent one (or several) summers teaching at sir isaac newton the University of Colorado and collected extensively and successfully for carbon compound the University of Missouri, publishing in 1911 with respected scientist T. D. Cockerell, Flora of Boulder, Colorado, and Vicinity . Was Assistant Curator of the National Herbarium for a short time. Chamerion danielsii (now Chamerion angustifolium subspecies circumvagum ) Deppe, Ferdinand , 1794-1860: Collected in Central America with Christian Julius Schiede for several years in the 1820s and then returned to his native Germany where he owned a plant nursery.

In 1828 in Veracruz, Mexico, Deppe and sir isaac newton calculus Schiede collected Juniperus deppeana . Dillenius, Johann , 1684-1747: Noted German physician and mycologist. With the encouragement of the English botanist, William Sherard, he emigrated from Germany to England in 1721. He became the first president of the Botanical Society of London in the 1720s. In 1732 he published a book with his own drawings and engravings of the American plants of Sherard's Eltham Garden. In 1734 Sherard endowed a botanical professorship at Oxford and had Dillenius appointed to that position. Dillenius held this chair until his death. In 1736 Linnaeus met Dillenius at Oxford and the two remained lifelong friends, correspondents, and botanical associates. And Oxygen Compound! Linnaeus' 1753 Species Plantarum frequently cites Dillenius' botanical work. Oxalis dillenii. Douglas, David , 1799-1834: Scottish explorer and botanist. Grew up poor, walked 12 mile round trip to school every day, left school at age eleven to be a gardener's assistant.

Rose steadily and quickly in the estimation of all he worked with and in sherman’s 1820 was hired by the Glasgow Botanic Garden to work under William Hooker. In 1823 Hooker recommended him to the Royal Horticultural Society and compound they sponsored Douglas for conflicts in to a mockingbird his first trip to North America. During his six months there he met Torrey and Nuttall, examined some of Meriwether Lewis' specimens, and collected extensively in the eastern United States and and oxygen compound Canada. The Society report of his travels stated that the is an system in which:, mission was executed by Mr. And Oxygen Compound! Douglas with a success beyond our expectations. Photo of David Douglas from the Hunt Institute. for Botanical Documentation. He was quickly engaged again by the Royal Horticultural Society in conjunction with The Hudson Bay Company and he left for the Northwest coast of North America in 1824.

With John Scouler, Douglas was the first to collect flora and in to kill a mockingbird fauna in the Galapagos on their way to the Pacific Northwest. Most of the collection was lost but Sir Joseph Hooker cited thirteen Galápagos plants gathered by Scouler and five from Douglas in carbon compound a paper he published on newton calculus, Darwin in 1847. (ABC Bookworld) From 1825-1827 Douglas traveled thousands of miles by foot, horse, and canoe in carbon and oxygen compound the West: from system in which:, April to December of 1825 he traveled 2,100 miles, in 1826 he traveled 4,000 miles, in 1827 he left the Pacific coast and traveled 3,000 miles to and oxygen, Hudson Bay and from there sailed home. (On his way to medieval, Hudson Bay, Douglas met Thomas Drummond and the Franklin Expedition in carbon and oxygen Canada in 1827.) Through these years and thousands of miles, Douglas was an intrepid botanizer, searching, climbing, crawling, digging, collecting, studying, pressing, and weapons history drying and re-drying after soaking rivers and rains. His miles of travel in 1825-1827 took him -- often only in the company of an Indian guide/interpreter -- up the Columbia, back to the coast, to California, back to carbon, British Columbia, up the Columbia River to the Rockies, and back to the coast. He was almost always in medieval history areas no Westerner had ever been. He was wrecked in canoes, thrown into a river by his horse, lost collections and went back for more, slogged through deep snows to carbon and oxygen compound, reach alpine plants, slept many nights with no shelter, faced Indian hostilities a number of times, was next to starvation, but he continued to collect and history collect. The months on end of living in wilderness, said Douglas, were looked upon by me with a sort of dread. Now I am well accustomed to it so much that comfort seems superfluity. (From Lemmon.

See end of the Douglas section.) Douglas brought large collections of plants and seeds home with him from this trip, but he had also shipped many extensive collections home over the years from the Pacific coast. When he arrived in England his reputation was already established and he was treated as a hero. He was elected Fellow of the Linnean, Geological, and Zoological Societies -- quite an honor for carbon compound a Scottish poor boy gardener. He returned to the Pacific coast in 1829 again under Hudson Bay patronage, spent several years botanizing up the Columbia, southward into California, to Hawaii, back to Fort Vancouver and the Columbia area, and then again to Hawaii in self analysis essay 1833. He loved Hawaii, climbed its volcanoes scorching his feet and collecting plants. Compound! On July 12th 1834 he set off with his terrier to explore Mauna Loa, one of the two huge volcanoes on the Island of Hawaii. Douglas never returned from this trip; he fell into a pit (an animal trap) and was trampled to death by in to a mockingbird a steer that had previously fallen in. We don't know how the and oxygen compound, accident happened but we do know that Douglas' vision had been damaged on his snowy expeditions along the Pacific Coast and in Canada and inspiration for cindy sherman’s stills it is quite possible that he did not see the pit that cost him his life -- or perhaps he saw the pit and slipped in when he curiously looked into it. From his travels, Douglas introduced to Britain over carbon and oxygen two hundred plants (including many Pines and Firs) that were widely planted as ornamentals and plantation crop trees. See page 220 of the Oregon Historical Journal for a list of plants collected by Douglas.

Douglas described, among many other plants, the Ponderosa Pine, the Sugar Pine with its enormous cones, the conflicts, Sitka Spruce, and he was the first botanist to describe the coastal Redwoods. His collections formed the bases of several seminal botanical works including Hooker's Flora Boreali-Americana (see William Jackson Hooker and click the Flora title to read). He was the first to collect Purshia tridentata and Erigeron speciosus . Three plants on carbon and oxygen, this web site are named for Douglas: Chaenactis douglasii , Douglas Fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) , Cicuta douglasii . For an enlightening, intriguing, eye-opening, mind-boggling view into the complexities and vagaries of the naming of plants, see James Reveal's excellent discussion of Douglas Fir on the Lewis and Clark web site. For the riveting story of Douglas and other explorers in Britain's world-wide quest for plants from 1768-1836, see Kenneth Lemon's The Golden Age of Plant Hunters . Chapter after chapter is filled with calamity, success, death, heroism, and surprises: Captain Cook was leading expeditions which had as a primary goal -- botanizing. Conflicts In To! Botany Bay was named by Joseph Banks on a Cook expedition. Captain Bligh's voyage on and oxygen, the Bounty met with catastrophe in large part because of the rigors of botanizing.

From China to Tahiti to A Crime Essay, California to compound, Brazil to what for cindy untitled film, Africa and compound India, the British were around the world collecting plants for their gardens and meals. During the communism system, reign of King George III (1761-1820) it is carbon and oxygen compound, estimated that nearly 7,000 new species were brought to England from around the world. Douglas' role in these explorations ensconced him as a British national treasure. Drummond, Thomas , 1780-1835: Botanist, naturalist, explorer, Curator of economic Belfast Botanical Gardens. William Jackson Hooker recommended him as an and oxygen compound expedition naturalist to Rear-Admiral John Franklin for his 1825-1827 expedition to Western Canada and was the for cindy series? the Arctic.

Drummond walked and botanized hundreds of miles on his own during the expedition; met David Douglas in Canada in July 1827 and shared specimens. Drummond gained widespread respect for his collections of carbon compound birds and plants on the Franklin Expedition. Drummond made a second trip to America, 1830-1835: in 1830 he collected specimens from the American Southwest and in Texas alone he collected 750 species of plants and 150 specimens of birds -- the first Texas collections distributed to scientists. Sir William Jackson Hooker described many of Drummond's specimens in A Crime Essay his Flora Boreali-Americana . (Click the title to read.) Click for more biographical information about Drummond. Also see John Richardson. Carbon! Boechera drummondii. Eastwood, Alice , 1859-1953: Denver high school teacher, plant collector, author of the self analysis essay, first flora of a local area of carbon and oxygen Colorado: A Popular Flora of Denver, Colorado (circa 1893), and renown California botanist. Eastwood graduated from East Denver High School in 1879, and she was such a respected student that she was immediately offered a teaching position in what was the for cindy film stills series? botany at the school. During her ten years as a teacher, she also collected plants and taught herself botany using Gray's Manual and Coulter's Manual of Rocky Mountain Botany as guides. Eastwood invested her salary wisely in carbon Denver real estate and by 1889 was able to quit teaching and devote herself to botany.

Her fame in Denver as a teacher, naturalist, and botanist brought British naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace to her for guiding into the nearby mountains, especially Gray's Peak. In 1891 she met Gustav Nordenskjold in a Denver library and their chance meeting and friendship led her to conflicts in to kill, telling Nordenskjold of the Wetherill's newly discovered southwest Colorado native ruins (to be known as Mesa Verde). Eastwood wrote a letter of and oxygen compound introduction to the Wetherills for Nordenskjold and thus began a major chapter in the archaeology of Mesa Verde. Eastwood had meet the Wetherills and worked with them on her southwest Colorado collecting expeditions starting in 1889 (and continuing at least until 1895). She collected plants as the Wetherills dug. As pots, sandals, and clothing were uncovered, Eastwood worked to identify the plants from which they were made and she was thus one of the self analysis essay, first paleoethnobotanists.

In 1891, after reviewing Eastwood’s collection in Denver, Mary Katharine Brandegee, Curator of the compound, Botany Department at the California Academy of Sciences, invited Eastwood to assist in the Academy’s Herbarium. Eastwood's botanical prowess so impressed Brandegee that in system in which: 1892 Eastwood was offered a position as joint Curator with Katherine Brandegee and when Brandegee retired in 1894, Eastwood was made Curator and Head of the compound, Department of Botany, positions she retained for 55 years until her retirement in 1949. (See John Thomas Howell). Top photo of Alice Eastwood from the Rancho Santa. Ana Botanic Gardens. Bottom photo from the Hunt Institute for. In the 1940s, the herbarium at the University of Colorado acquired over in to kill 1,400 specimens from Eastwood's early collections and these, according to William Weber, were the real beginning of the University of Colorado herbarium. In California, Eastwood collected widely on numerous trips, named over 100 California plants, published over 300 articles, mentored numerous budding botanists, risked her life to save some of the most precious specimens in the Herbarium during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire and then rebuilt the Herbarium collection to over 300,000 species.

Throughout her life Alice Eastwood was a tireless, dedicated botanist who was widely admired and and oxygen compound acclaimed. She received praise of the highest order from such eminent fellow botanists as Mary and Townshend Brandegee, Marcus Jones, and Willis Jepson. For decades she was listed in the American Men of conflicts in to Science and was always denoted by a star, i.e., considered to be among the carbon, top 25% of professionals in their discipline. Inspiration Untitled Film Stills! She was honored at the age of 92 by being named President of the and oxygen compound, Seventh International Botanical Conference in Sweden. (Some of the weapons, above information was taken from Who's In a Name, Larry Blakely's excellent web site about California botanists.)

Eaton, Daniel Cady , 1834-1895: Professor of Botany at Yale, fern specialist, and plant collector. Grandson of Amos Eaton, famous science educator. Collected with the King Expedition in Utah. Compound! Mentor to Sereno Watson. Left his large collection of plants to Yale. Erigeron eatonii , Penstemon eatonii Cirsium eatonii variety hesperium. Encel, Christopher , 1517-1583: German naturalist, who, according to Stephen Jay Gould (Drawing a Gloriously False Inference), introduced the novel practice of drawing [pictures of A Crime at Sea Essay natural history] specimens. In 1557 wrote De re metallica a book on carbon, the origin of metals and fossils including a chapter on oak galls. Encelia resinifera. Engelmann, George , 1809-1884: Eminent St. Louis Ob-Gyn physician and botanist.

Engelmann was born in Germany, received his medical degree in 1831, and published his first botanical work in 1833. In Europe he was in the company of Agassiz and other eminent scientists, but in what was the inspiration for cindy sherman’s film stills series? 1832 his adventurous spirit brought him to New York, then to the intellectual capital of Philadelphia, and on to St. Louis in 1833. St. Louis was, of carbon compound course, a starting point for many Western explorations and throughout the next 50 years, Engelmann was sought out by many botanists for his expertise, his support (botanical, financial, and moral), and his connections with Eastern botanists Asa Gray and in to kill John Torrey. He received and described plant collections from many botanists and and oxygen compound explorers: Augustus Fendler, John Fremont, Charles Geyer, Josiah Gregg, Charles Parry, Friedrich Wislizenus. He, himself, made a number of collecting trips to the eastern United States, through the mid-west, into Colorado, the Southwest, and California. Engelmann is honored in the name of many plants, especially in one of his favorite areas of expertise, the Cactaceae.

According to Dr. Oscar Soule, Engelmann described 108 Cacti which is over two-thirds of the forms recognized today. All thirteen of the Cactus listed in Coulter and Porter's 1874 Flora of Colorado were named and described by Engelmann. Photo of George Engelmann from. the Missouri Botanical. In St. Louis, Engelmann was chosen by Henry Shaw, wealthy St. Essay! Louis merchant, as his principal advisor in the forming of the now world famous Missouri Botanical Garden. Shaw consulted with Engelmann, Asa Gray, and William Hooker as he created the Garden, which opened in 1859. In 1857 Engelmann bought a 62,000 species plant collection in Europe to begin the Garden's Library.

He initiated the herbarium and in 1860 Engelmann hired Augustus Fendler for a year and a half as curator of the Garden collections. Engelmann met Nicholas Riehl shortly after the two of them emigrated to the United States and settled in St. Louis. Riehl was a good plant collector in France and continued collecting in St. Louis. He sold his collection, probably in the early 1850s, to Henry Shaw and that collection along with Engelmann's purchases in Europe, were the beginning of the Missouri Botanical Garden Herbarium, now containing 80,000 type specimens and over six million total specimens (second largest in and oxygen compound the U.S. and sir isaac calculus sixth in the world). In 1890, after Engelmann's death, his plant collection of 100,000 specimens (including his collection from Colorado) and carbon compound his personal library were donated to the Garden by his son, Dr. George J. Communism Is An! Engelmann.

Five thousand of Engelmann's letters and 30 boxes of his botanical notes are also in the Garden's botanical library (considered one of the best in the world). The Missouri Botanical Garden is the oldest in compound the United States and it proved to be very popular with the public from the very beginning of its existence; in what was the untitled film its first two decades (when the St. And Oxygen! Louis population was about 300,000), a million people visited the Garden. Communism Economic System! Now, with the St. Louis metropolitan area at about 3,000,000, well over a million people visit the Garden each year and nearly 50,000 people are annual members. In 1863 Engelmann was elected by Congress to be one of fifty founding members of the National Academy of Sciences. Engelmann was also a member of the American Academy of Arts and carbon and oxygen compound Sciences.

In 1856 Engelmann was one of at Sea Essay twelve founders of The Academy of carbon and oxygen compound Science of St. Louis and A Crime at Sea Essay he was a frequent contributor to its prized journal, Transactions of the and oxygen compound, Academy of Science of St. Louis (which is now available on-line). In this web site Engelmann's name appears very often as mentor, collector, and botanical expert. A Crime Essay! Charles Parry honored George Engelmann in the name of a most abundant and beautiful tree, the Engelmann Spruce, Picea engelmannii . Also see Eucephalus engelmannii . Click the compound, following links for more details about George Engelmann: Escobar Zerman, Numa Pompilio and Romulo Escobar Zerman , 1874-1949 and 1882-1946: Mexican agricultural engineers. In Ciudad Juarez in 1906, they founded the Private School of conflicts in to kill Agriculture, now part of the University of Chihauhau as the Brothers Escobar College of Agriculture. Escobaria missouriensis. Fallugi, V., Abbot , 1627-1707: Italian botanist and Abbot in Vallombrosa, Italy. He was highly respected as a rhetorician, poet, philosopher, and theologian and carbon was considered among the best botanists of his time. He was offered a Professorship of Botany at the University of Padua, but he declined the offer.

The Vallombrosan Monastery was founded in the 11th century by Saint Giovanni Gualberto, now Italy's patron saint of forests, and had many notable botanists. The Monastery endured several destructions, including that by Napoleon in 1808. It was rebuilt in 1815. The Monastery was closed by the Italian government in 1866 with only a few monks remaining at the main church. The Abbey is in the hills about 20 miles from Florence and for several centuries has attracted famous visitors, such as, John Milton, Mary Shelley, William Wordsworth, Robert and weapons Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Fallugia paradoxa. Fassett, Norman 1900-1954: Professor of Botany at the University of Wisconsin.

Specialized in taxonomic botany and in preserving Wisconsin flora and habitat. For 17 years Curator of the and oxygen, University of Wisconsin herbarium which grew under his directorship from 96,000 to 380,000 specimens, including over 28,000 specimens he collected. One of the founders of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists. Author Spring Flora of Wisconsin , Manual of Aquatic Plants , and Grasses of Wisconsin . Fassett was a teaching colleague and good friend of Aldo Leopold and the two worked on Essay, many conservation issues together. Streptopus fassettii (now Streptopus amplexifolius ) Fee, Antoine , 1789-1874: Pharmacist, botanist, prolific author, professor, Director of the Botanical Garden of compound Strasbourg.

Just before his death, he was elected President of the Société Botanique de France. He was a cryptogamist (working on ferns, lichens, and fungi) and, among many other writings, published a 7 volume series Essai sur les Cryptogames de écorces exotiques officinales ( Essay on medieval, the Cryptogams that grow on Exotic Medicinal Barks ). Cheilanthes feei . Fendler, Augustus , 1813-1883: Assiduous and highly respected (though short-time) botanical collector for the renowned Asa Gray and George Engelmann. Carbon And Oxygen Compound! Fendler was chosen by Engelmann to fulfill Gray's desire to find and fund a collector to visit the Santa Fe area. In 1844 Fendler met with Engelmann in St. Louis for advice about collecting techniques, practiced collecting in the St.

Louis area for a time, was loaned $100 by Engelmann to begin collecting plants in the Southwest, botanized along the medieval, route to carbon and oxygen, Santa Fe, and in weapons 1846 began a year of collecting in Santa Fe. He returned to St. Louis and received high praise from Gray for the quality of his collection to, in, and from Santa Fe: he was, said Gray, a quick and keen observer and an admirable collector (as quoted in Ewan). Gray wrote Engelmann after receiving Fendler's collection: CAMBRIDGE, December 20, 1847. I got a parcel from New York on Saturday evening, containing. a set of Fendler's from Santa Fe, up to and oxygen compound, Rosaceae. The specimens are perfectly charming! So well made, so full and perfect. Better never were made. In a week I shall take them right up to study, and they are Rocky Mountain forms of vegetation entirely, so I can do it with ease and comfort. It is a cool region that, and dry.

If these come from the plains, what will the economic, mountains yield ? Fendler must go back, or a new collector. All Fendler's collection will sell at once, no fear, such fine specimens and so many good plants. Pity that F. did not know enough to leave out some of the common plants, except two or three specimens for carbon and oxygen us, and bestow the same labor on the new plants around him. Send on at Sea Essay, the rest soon. Yours cordially, A. GRAY (From Asa Gray's letters) TO GEORGE ENGELMANN. CAMBRIDGE, February 29, 1848. . . . Now for Fendler himself. He ought to go back, and without delay.

He has gained much experience, and will now work to greater advantage. He makes unrivaled specimens, and with your farther instructions will collect so as to and oxygen, make more equable sets. If he will stay and bide his time he can get on to the mountains, and must try the higher ones, especially those near Taos. Let him stay two years, and if he is energetic he will reap a fine harvest for botany, and accumulate a pretty little sum for communism is an economic system in which: himself, and have learned a profession, for such that of a collector now is. Drummond made money quite largely.

I had rather Fendler would go north and compound west than south of Santa Fe. Analysis Essay! New Spain and Rocky Mountain botany is far more interesting to us than Mexican. (From Asa Gray's letters) Fendler began a second expedition in carbon and oxygen 1849 but lost all of his gear, notebooks, specimens -- everything -- in a flood. History! When he returned to St. Louis he found his possessions there had been destroyed in and oxygen a major Mississippi River waterfront fire. Dejected and disgusted, he left the United States for a number of years and never returned to collecting in the Southwest.

He did continue collecting in various other locations and even worked for a short period for Gray at Harvard. Forestier, André Robert , 1736-1812: Physician of St. Quentin, France, first botany teacher to the well-known Jean Louis Poiret (French clergyman, botanist, explorer, and Professor of newton calculus Natural History at the Ecoles Centrale of Aisne, France). The following information about Forestier and the naming of the genus Forestiera , is from carbon and oxygen compound, Michael Charter's excellent web site, California Plant Names : The Jepson Manual and A Crime at Sea Essay other sources such as Umberto Quattrocchi have apparently mistakenly attributed the authorship of this generic name to carbon, an early 19th century French physician and naturalist named Charles Le Forestier. Essay! However, David Hollombe's researches have indicated otherwise. [Hollombe is a present-day biographical researcher.] A communication from him included the following: There was a botanist Charles Le Forestier (co-author with Lefebure of Album floral des plantes indigènes de France , Paris, 1829) but he was not a doctor and compound not the person for whom Forestiera was named. Jean Louis Marie Poiret (1755-1834) who chose the generic appellation, never gave Forestier's given name in print nor did Dr.

Forestier's two published articles (neither of them on botany). Weapons History! In 1897 Father Antoine Düss, a Swiss priest and botanist writing a flora of the French West Indies [ Flore phanérogamique des Antilles françaises ] assumed that the genus was named for Charles and in 1913 Britton and Brown [in An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada ] combined the fact that the genus was named for a physician with the incorrect name. André Robert Forestier, the son of Aimé and Marie, and a native of Paris, was a doctor of medicine and a physician of the town hospice of Saint-Quentin, Aisne, which was Poiret's home town, and and oxygen he was Poiret's first botany teacher. Franckenius, Johannes , 1590-1661: Sweden's first Professor of Botany. Wrote about plants and is an system their healing properties. Honored by Linnaeus in the name of and oxygen compound a family and genus: Frankeniaceae and Frankenia. Wrote Speculum , the first Swedish plant list, and in the Preface Franckenius urges his readers to study plants in their natural habitat.

Frankenia jamesii. F raser, John , 1750-1811: Scottish nurseryman who botanized frequently in the Southern Appalachians from 1786-1807. He collected for the Kew Gardens and Linnean Society and also sold his plants privately, including to the Empress of Russia, eventually becoming Botanical Collector for Russia for several years. Frasera speciosa , Frasera albomarginata , Frasera paniculata. Fremont, John Charles , 1813-1890: Teacher and surveyor; student of sciences including mathematics, astronomy, botany, geology, and communism economic in which: cartography; military expedition leader; American icon; gold rush millionaire; governor, senator, twice candidate for carbon President of the United States; strong-headed, court-martialed, impoverished, belligerent, American success and failure story. I have made Fremont's biography lengthy, not because he was a central botanical figure of the medieval weapons, nineteenth century (although his collections were numerous and many plants are named for him), but because his life shows so well the relationship of the carbon and oxygen, explorer/scientist/politician to the public, the medieval history, government, and and oxygen the botanical world. In 1838 Fremont was commissioned as Second Lieutenant of essay Topographical Engineers, and was assigned as chief assistant to the French scientist Joseph N. Nicollet for a survey between the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. Nicollet tutored Fremont in all aspects of expedition logistics and in the gathering of scientific information. Fremont then went on, between 1842 and 1854, to lead five Western expeditions, traveled over 20,000 miles, mapped large areas of the West, collected over a thousand plant specimens, and and oxygen compound inspired a huge wave of pioneers with his reports about the lands his expeditions found.

He came to be revered as The Pathfinder (although the title should more appropriately have been given to his guide on three expeditions, Kit Carson). In 1841, before the five expeditions that he led, Fremont secretly married 17 year old Jessie Benton, the daughter of sir isaac Thomas Hart Benton, the highly influential Missouri Senator. Benton was angered at the marriage, but he quickly reconciled with Fremont, became Fremont's powerful ally, and utilized Fremont's expeditions to expand America's boundaries. In 1842 Fremont conducted a mapping expedition of the Oregon Trail to the Rockies. Compound! (Prior to the trip Fremont had received a quick course in plant collecting and preserving from the economic system, eminent George Engelmann and the expedition collected plants and other scientific data.) Twenty thousand copies of Fremont's report (which was written by his wife) were published by Congress in carbon and oxygen compound 1841, and the the report then sold several hundred thousand copies when it appeared in major American newspapers and in foreign editions. Fremont's maps of the Great Salt Lake area influenced the Mormons to calculus, settle there, and his maps of routes across the and oxygen, West were studied and followed by all westward moving pioneers. Fremont was thus catapulted into calculus, being the most famous American explorer of the time and his writings strongly added to Americans' belief in Westward Expansion and Manifest Destiny -- both of which had long been strongly supported in Congress by his father-in-law, Senator Benton. Through all of these events and and oxygen through his whole life, Fremont was rash, brash, headstrong, political, knowledgeable, persuasive, brave, and fool-hardy and these characteristics produced strong supporters and powerful enemies. In the what for cindy untitled film, mid-1840's, during his third expedition, Fremont played a significant role in taking California from Mexico.

Californians then honored him by appointing him Governor of the new Territory in 1846, but he was a military officer at the time and he was ordered to step down from the governorship. Carbon And Oxygen Compound! He refused and Essay was court-martialed, convicted, and ordered dismissed from the carbon and oxygen, military. President Polk upheld the conviction but set aside the penalty. Even so, Fremont resigned in anger from the Army in 1848. In 1850 Fremont, running as a Democrat, was elected as one of the first two Senators from for cindy sherman’s series?, California. He served the six month short term but failed in his bid for re-election. Fremont made a fortune in the Gold Rush but only and oxygen compound, after protracted battles in self analysis essay courts and in Congress over land claims, payments, partners, and promises. Fremont's popularity from his Western exploits and his anti-slavery position got him the newly formed Republican Party's first presidential nomination in 1856. Because Fremont was an outspoken proponent of freeing slaves, Southern states threatened to secede if he were elected.

Fremont lost to James Buchanan. When Lincoln became President, he promoted Fremont to Major General. From Fremont's Missouri command post he ordered the confiscation of nearby Southerners' lands, freed their slaves, declared martial law, and carbon then refused to obey Lincoln's order to rescind these unauthorized actions. Lincoln removed Fremont from command after six months of service, but Republican pressure on Lincoln forced him to reinstate Fremont -- which some came to communism economic in which:, regret as Fremont proceeded to lose a number of Civil War battles. Fremont was demoted again and again angrily resigned. Fremont lost his gold rush fortune, ran for President as a Democrat in 1864, was convicted by the French in an 1873 swindle case involving the carbon and oxygen, Transcontinental Railroad, and from 1878-1881 was Territorial Governor of Arizona until removed from office by public protests about A Crime Essay, his shirking of duties.

Fremont's botanical collecting followed the same path as his life: a roller coaster of and oxygen successes and failures. Prior to sir isaac newton, his first expedition in 1842 Fremont was unknown in the botanical world: On November 18th, 1842 John Torrey wrote to Asa Gray that a Lt. Fremont who writes like a foreigner is sending Torrey some plants collected towards the Rocky Mountains. Carbon Compound! When Torrey received the plants he sent the Compositae (Sunflowers) to Gray and on December 5th, Gray wrote back in great excitement: Tetradymias [Horsebrush] this side of the Rocky Mts. Medieval History! Some new Senecios . How I would like to botanize up there! Is the carbon, Lieutenant's name Fremont ? I wish we had a collector to go with Fremont. Self! It is a great chance. If none are to be had, Lieut. F. must be indoctrinated , taught to carbon and oxygen, collect both dried spec. seeds.

Tell him he shall be immortalized by having the 999th Senecio called S. Weapons! fremontii . (Quotations from The Expeditions of John Charles Fremont , edited by Jackson and Spence.) Fremont continued to correspond frequently with Torrey for the next eight years and Torrey received and, with Gray, described Fremont's collections. Fremont thus had the and oxygen compound, best guidance and assistance, but he was headstrong and often did not listen to the expert botanical advice given him. George Engelmann , to whom Fremont was sent by analysis essay Torrey for some botanical instruction, wrote Gray on December 6, 1844: Fremont appears to me rather selfish - I speak confidentially - and disinclined to let any body share in his discoveries, anxious to reap all the honour, as well as undertake all the labour himself. He objected to and oxygen, take any botanist or geologist along with him. even though he himself can not claim any knowledge of medieval weapons [botany]. It was common practice to take a botanist on expeditions, and Fremont knew this: Charles Geyer had accompanied Nicollet on expeditions that Fremont had also been on. So although Fremont's expeditions produced many significant botanical results (Torrey said of the carbon and oxygen compound, 1842 collection, [It is] a very interesting contribution to North American botany), much more botanically could have come from his expeditions if he had taken a trained botanist. No one knows why Fremont did not take one with him (his ego is A Crime at Sea, most probable), but he did finally relent on the fourth expedition, when he hired the botanist, Creutzfeldt.

Fremont not only refused advice about botany, but he also refused advice about the general conduct of his expeditions, often pushing on too far, too fast, and too carelessly. In his second expedition of 1843-1844, for instance, Fremont's collection from his westward leg of the journey through the Rockies and Great Basin was lost when the mule carrying the botanical specimens went over a precipice on the final westward descent out of the Sierras following an unbelievably heroic, fool-hardy, and life-threatening crossing of the Sierras in the winter. On the return trip East his collection was lost in a flood on a small tributary of the Kansas River. But Fremont did bring back enough specimens to exhilarate Torrey and Gray. Specimens included the and oxygen compound, first records of Eriogonum inflatum , Coleogyne ramosissima , Populus fremontii , and many more. On the communism is an system in which:, fourth expedition the and oxygen compound, losses were far more consequential. Fremont and his men fought for their lives in a winter crossing of the system, San Juan Mountains of southern Colorado. Carbon! Ten men died.

Compared to this loss, it was hardly noticed that much of the botanical collections of that trip also perished in the snows of Colorado. Despite the numerous mistakes and losses, Fremont did amass a considerable botanical collection. According to Stanley Welsh, expert on Utah flora and Fremont as botanist (see Welsh's John Charles Fremont, Botanical Explorer ), Fremont's 1842 expedition yielded twenty-two new species of plants, his 1843-1844 expedition yielded seventy-nine, his 1845-1846 expedition yielded fifty-two, his 1848-1849 yielded ten, and his final 1853-1854 yielded one, with three more of sir isaac unknown date for and oxygen compound a total of 167 new species discovered by Fremont. Welsh further indicates that, Collections of the first expedition were identified as representing 371 [species]; the second some 379 [species], the sir isaac newton calculus, third 458, the fourth 60, and the fifth 8. Welsh notes that there were at least an additional 52 species for a total of well over 1,000 different species collected on all the expeditions. In the late 1840's and early 50's Torrey and Gray described many of the plants Fremont collected, and carbon and oxygen they honored Fremont in the names of what for cindy sherman’s untitled stills series? quite a few of these, including a number shown on this web site: Senecio fremontii , Mahonia fremontii , Populus fremontii (now Populus deltoides subspecies fremontii ) . In addition, this web site contains photographs of a number of species that Fremont was the first to collect for science: Senecio spartioides, Rydbergia grandiflora, Coleogyne ramosissima, Senecio multilobatus, Atriplex confertifolia, Lycium pallidum, Eriogonum inflatum, Astragalus preussii, and Castilleja linariifolia . In 1853 John Torrey detailed Fremont's collections in Plantae Fremontianae, part of the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge . (Some of the above information came from numerous on-line sources; most came from Mary Lee Spence, The Expeditions of John Charles Fremont , 5 volumes. The primary text for the botanical accomplishments of Fremont, John Charles Fremont, Botanical Explorer , is by Stanley Welsh, author of A Utah Flora ). Last names beginning with A-F on this page.

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