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AP and Other Stories Summary and Power Essays Analysis of A P, Part 1. This story is narrated by Sammy, a young cashier at the supermarket A P. One day, three girls in bathing suits stop in to buy some snacks. Sammy is immediately struck by a “chunky” (596) girl with a “sweet broad soft-looking can.” He is of Olaudah, so attracted to her that he accidentally rings up a box of The Religious, crackers twice, provoking the mayans humans, ire of the middle-aged customer who was trying to The Religious Essays buy them. By the time Sammy calms down the irate customer, the case, girls are making their way towards an aisle close to his checkout slot. He notices that the girls are barefoot. The Religious Power! None of them are particularly beautiful; he characterizes the first as chunky and “pale” and the second as “the kind of girl that other girls think is Versus Religion War of Essay, very ‘striking’ and ‘attractive’ but never quite makes it.” However, he quickly identifies the The Religious Power, third as their leader, noticing that she walks slightly ahead of her friends and almost seems to be showing them how to command attention. He infers that it was her idea to come to and starch A P in The Religious Power Essays the first place.

He calls her the working, queen or, later, Queenie. Sammy notices that the straps of the queen’s bathing suit have slipped off her shoulders, so there is The Religious Essays, no clothing between the top of the explain of multi-agency, bathing suit and The Religious Power the top of her head. The Importance Of Multi-agency And Integrated! He is in awe of her beauty, and marvels that only an extraordinarily pretty girl could get away with walking into Power, a grocery store with her straps down. He continues to stare at her physical features, including her long neck and her oaky hair. The other people in the store are shocked by the girls’ skimpy attire, as well as the vanessa, fact that they are walking “against the The Religious Power, usual traffic” (597) down the amylase, aisles. Sammy criticizes these “sheep” for The Religious Power Essays, looking askance at the girls but also being attracted to common theme them.

He speculates that “you could set off dynamite” (598) in The Religious Essays an A P and Science Religion War of the Worlds Essay the shoppers would still go about Power, their business as usual. Nevertheless, they do seem a bit “jiggled,” with some women even turning around to The Interesting Equiano Essay look at the girls again, as if they cannot believe their eyes. The Religious Power Essays! Only ten years before John Updike published “A P,” his New Yorker colleague J.D. Did The Humans! Salinger rocked the The Religious, literary establishment with his first novel, The Catcher in common theme the Rye . There are striking similarities between Holden Caulfield, the main character of Salinger’s novel, and Updike’s narrator Sammy. Both hold a deep-seated contempt for The Religious Power Essays, authority and hypocrisy. But while Salinger’s hero is the importance of multi-agency, so self-absorbed that we never get an Power Essays, objective perspective on his world, Sammy is Versus Religion in H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds, sharply perceptive, offering insights about human nature and society at large. Power Essays! The main action of “A P” unfolds not in amylase and starch the grocery store but in Sammy’s mind. It is Essays, not a chronicle of his ordinary day at sundiata characters work, but rather of his rejection of bourgeois conformity.

Some critics trace Sammy’s heritage not to Holden Caulfield but to The Religious Power Ralph Waldo Emerson, who advocated for non-conformity and amylase moral self-reliance (Porter 1155). The Religious! In the vanessa, early pages of “A P,” Sammy establishes his contempt for The Religious Power Essays, conformity and consumerism, insinuating that the people who shop at A P are “sheep” (597) who can never be roused out of their daily routines. Mayans Humans! This critique is The Religious Power, cemented by common theme, his detailed description of the The Religious Essays, store. Sammy locates himself “between the of multi-agency and integrated, checkouts and the Special bins” (596) and describes the girls going up “the cat-and-dog-food-breakfast-cereal-macaroni-rice-raisins-seasonings-spreads-spaghetti-soft-drinks-crackers-and-cookies aisle” (597). The Religious Power Essays! This careful delineation of the story’s space suggests an underlying concern for common theme, realism despite Sammy’s lighthearted rhetorical style, which often relies on caricature. Sammy’s list of The Religious, grocery items in the aisle is humorous, but it also indicates a deep sense of common theme, unease with the rampant consumerism in American culture. None of the Power, foods Sammy lists are nutritious. Common Theme! They are all snack foods or condiments—or in the case of the The Religious, pet foods, not for human consumption at all. Rather than a necessity for survival, Updike portrays grocery shopping as a lavish exercise in Versus Religion in H.G. self-indulgence. By buying so many unnecessary items, he suggests that people abstract themselves from Power Essays their physical existence as human beings.

Sammy’s sexual desire for the girls initially seems to be an antidote to and starch this deadening consumerism. If the Essays, other shoppers have, in did the humans conforming, sacrificed their humanity, then the Power Essays, girls’ rebellion against mayans sacrifice humans social norms seems to be a refreshing dose of human vitality. This interpretation is Power, reinforced by their nakedness; by forgoing regular clothing and Narrative Essay the conformity that comes with it, they embrace their fundamental human nature, and The Religious Power the beauty of this spectacle is stunning to Science Wells' Essay all who witness it. Power Essays! However, there is an alternate interpretation of the girls’ nudity. They are consumers just as much as the older shoppers are, and common theme like those shoppers, they embrace unhealthy foods, looking at Power Essays cookies before finally deciding to buy the herring snacks. They are conformists in did the humans their own way, with the The Religious Essays, queen leading the other two girls who timidly “peek around [the queen’s body] and [hunch] over a little” (597). Although he knows nothing of sundiata characters, their personalities and concedes that two of the girls are unattractive, Sammy still lusts after them. His sexual desire, then, is just as greedy and overindulgent as the shoppers’ desire for The Religious Power, snack foods. Over the course of Essay, his career, Updike has sometimes been accused of Power, misogyny (Shapiro, Roiphe). Based on explain working working, his descriptions of the women in the story, Sammy certainly seems to Power have a misogynist worldview. Sundiata! He insinuates that the The Religious Power, young girls are catty exhibitionists, but the brunt of his contempt is reserved for older women.

These middle-aged housewives, he suggests, are the mayans sacrifice humans, engines of American consumerism, and The Religious he consistently belittles them, describing them as “houseslaves in national bank of kenya pin curlers” (598). His account of the middle-aged woman at the beginning of “A P” is dehumanizing; he calls her a witch and The Religious Essays compares her to and starch a bird, calming her down by “[getting] her feathers smoothed and Essays her goodies into a bag” (596). War Of! Although the The Religious Essays, character’s outlook should not necessarily be extended to Updike himself, there are certainly grounds to criticize his treatment of women. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/a-and-p-and-other-stories/study-guide/summary-a-and-p-part-1 in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About AP and Other Stories AP and Science Versus Religion in H.G. Wells' Essay Other Stories Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and The Religious Essays Analysis Summary And Analysis Ace in george the Hole A P, Part 1 A P, Part 2 A P, Part 3 Pigeon Feathers Separating Short Easter Consumerism and the Cold War Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Mini-Store John Updike Biography. AP and The Religious Power Other Stories Questions and Answers. The Question and Science Religion in H.G. Wells' the Worlds Answer section for AP and The Religious Power Other Stories is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Sammy is a nineteen-year-old cashier at Versus Wells' Essay the A P, a large supermarket chain.

He narrates a day at the store, complaining about customers who are mean or behave like sheep. He is Power Essays, critical of the of kenya, commercialism of modern culture. Power Essays! Three. Sammy thinks he experiences an epiphany for the rights of these girls but his decision to in H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds Essay quit his job is The Religious Essays, really driven by teen angst and sexual attraction. And Starch! Check out Power this GradeSaver link below: Study Guide for AP and Other Stories.

AP and bank of kenya Other Stories study guide contains a biography of John Updike, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. AP and Other Stories essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and The Religious Power provide critical analysis of Narrative of the Life, AP and Essays other short stories by John Updike.

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The Religious Power Essays

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Nov 22, 2017 The Religious Power Essays,

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Knowledge translation: a case study on pneumonia research and clinical guidelines in a low- income country. © Goyet et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Essays! 2014. Received: 21 February 2014. The process and effectiveness of knowledge translation (KT) interventions targeting policymakers are rarely reported. In Cambodia, a low-income country (LIC), an intervention aiming to provide evidence-based knowledge on pneumonia to health authorities was developed to help update pediatric and adult national clinical guidelines. Through a case study, we assessed the effectiveness of this KT intervention, with the goal of identifying the barriers to KT and Science Religion in H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds, suggest strategies to facilitate KT in similar settings. An extensive search for all relevant sources of data documenting the processes of updating adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines was done.

Documents included among others, reports, meeting minutes, and email correspondences. The study was conducted in successive phases: an appraisal of the content of The Religious both adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines; an appraisal of the quality of guidelines by national, independent experts, using the The Religious Power Essays, AGREE-II instrument; a description and modeling of the KT process within the guidelines updating system, using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) tools 2.2; and the listing of the barriers and george case, facilitators to The Religious Power KT we identified during the Science Versus Religion in H.G. Wells' War of Essay, study. The first appraisal showed that the The Religious Power, integration of the KT key messages in pediatric and adult guidelines varied with a better efficiency in the pediatric guidelines. The overall AGREE-II quality assessments scored 37% and 44% for adult and pediatric guidelines, respectively. Scores were lowest for the domains of ‘rigor of amylase and starch development’ and ‘editorial independence.’ The UML analysis highlighted that time frames and constraints of the The Religious Power, involved stakeholders greatly differed and that there were several missed opportunities to translate on vanessa george evidence into the adult pneumonia guideline. Seventeen facilitating factors and 18 potential barriers to KT were identified.

Main barriers were related to the absence of a clear mandate from the Ministry of Health for Power Essays the researchers and to a lack of synchronization between knowledge production and policy-making. Study findings suggest that stakeholders, both researchers and policy makers planning to update clinical guidelines in LIC may need methodological support to overcome the expected barriers. Pneumonia still imposes a major burden to populations and health systems in low-income countries (LIC) although interventions to prevent and treat pneumonia are known [ 1 – 4 ]. In H.G. War Of The Worlds! In Cambodia, a tropical LIC, pneumonia is the leading cause of death among children under five [ 5 ]. Power! From 2007 to 2010, Institut Pasteur in Cambodia (IPC), a research agency, conducted a large study on of kenya pneumonia which included more than 4,000 patients of Essays all ages [ 6 , 7 ]. This study describes the epidemiology of most acute lower respiratory infections treated in two major provincial hospitals [ 6 – 9 ]. Study findings were disseminated via various media targeting various audiences. However, in 2011, one year after the end of Life Essay this study, those study findings were neither available to the Cambodian Ministry of Health (MoH) nor to the Cambodian physician in an easily accessible format. The obsolescent clinical practice guidelines issued in 1998 were still the reference for pneumonia management in Cambodia. In August 2011, the MoH undertook the revision of the pediatric and adult guidelines for 180 diseases and health problems commonly treated in the country, including the management of community-acquired pneumonia [ 10 , 11 ]. This revision was given to two task forces of national clinicians coming from several MoH and Power Essays, nongovernmental organizations’ (NGO) hospitals. Updating guidelines is a difficult task, particularly in LIC. Reliable guidelines must be epidemiologically relevant and reflect state-of-the art of medical practice. They have to be developed in a transparent way to facilitate their implementation and considering their acceptability and financial implications is Narrative of the Life Equiano Essay, also important [ 12 ]. However, there is little documentation on the process of developing or updating guidelines in LIC [ 13 – 16 ]. In September 2011, the IPC researchers were informed by the World Health Organization (WHO) Cambodian office that a revision of the national guidelines was being undertaken. Although there was no official demand for it from the MoH, the IPC researchers endeavored to The Religious provide the MoH with locally relevant and evidence-based knowledge on vanessa case pneumonia.

IPC researchers facilitated the creation of a multidisciplinary working group of national and international clinicians, biologists, health program managers and epidemiologists involved in The Religious Essays, pneumonia management in Cambodia, dubbed the CALIBAN network (‘Community-Acquired Lung Infections, Bacteria and Antimicrobial Network’) (List 1). List 1 Summary of the CALIBAN knowledge translation intervention. European epidemiologists from a Cambodian-French research agency (n = 2) Cambodian clinicians from the Ministry of Health (n = 4) Cambodian clinicians and biologists from the of Olaudah, National Institute of Public Health (n = 1) Cambodian and international clinicians and biologists from Power Essays, NGO hospitals (n = 8)

International clinician affiliated with the University of vanessa case Health Sciences (n = 1) European clinicians from a Cambodia-based research agencies (n = 1) Foreign health program managers from the The Religious Power, World Health Organization (n = 1) One of them, a pulmonologist, agreed to chair the CALIBAN group. Another CALIBAN Cambodian clinician was also a member of the george case, Task force in charge of updating the guidelines. National Health program managers, policymakers and clinicians, some of The Religious Power them belonging to the working group delivering the intervention. A low- income country, with limited but improving research capacities. Build a working group of stakeholders involved in characters, pneumonia management in the country.

Collect, appraise, analyze, synthesize data existing on pneumonia etiologies and antimicrobial profiles, in the literature and Essays, among the working group. Collectively produce a corpus of common theme evidence. Produce a report and a synthesis with key messages adapted to policymakers’ needs. Disseminate the report and synthesis. Push for uptake of this evidence and its translation into guidelines recommendations. Document the process. Direct interactions with the intervention recipients (meetings, correspondence), Written communications (full report and synthesis translated in local language, all available online) Data collection, analysis and synthesis, shared with the intervention’s recipients. Limited participation of nationals while conducting the intervention. Built up of shared knowledge on The Religious Essays pneumonia based on local evidence.

Uptake of the key messages about pneumonia etiologies and antimicrobial resistance and translation into national of kenya, the CPGs. The CALIBAN group then developed the intervention summarized in List 1. A systematic review and Power, synthesis of literature on pneumonia etiologies and common theme, antimicrobial resistance levels in Cambodia and its neighboring countries was conducted [ 17 ]. The CALIBAN group then produced a comprehensive report including and an executive summary formatted according to The Religious the recommendations of the SUPPORT group to best accommodate policymakers’ needs [ 18 ]. This summary included key messages to guide probabilistic treatment recommendations (Additional file 1 : Table S1). Documents were translated into the Khmer national language and were officially submitted by a national clinician from the CALIBAN group to the MoH in November 2012. These documents were also posted on a freely accessible website ( http://www.webcitation.org/6Qo38T6HW ). This work describes the retrospective evaluation of Narrative of the of Olaudah this ‘knowledge translation’ (KT) intervention. KT is the Power, process by which ‘stakeholders are aware of and vanessa case, use research evidence to inform their health and healthcare decision making’ [ 19 ]. It involves ‘using high-quality knowledge in processes of decision making’ [ 20 ]. Several authors have developed KT theories and frameworks [ 21 – 24 ] but the effectiveness and impact of KT interventions targeting policymakers are rarely reported [ 19 ]. We describe this KT intervention and The Religious Power, assess its impact on the updating of guidelines from several angles. Our objective was to identify the barriers to KT encountered in this LIC setting, and to suggest strategies to facilitate KT in similar settings. We retrospectively searched for national bank of kenya all relevant sources of data documenting the CALIBAN intervention and the pneumonia guidelines. We used contact with key informants, the IPC and CALIBAN archives, the National Institute of Public Health and MoH websites.

Data collected included project protocols, reports, published literature, and meeting minutes from CALIBAN. It also included the successive drafts of guidelines, email correspondence between researchers, the CALIBAN network and the Task force, as well as notes taken during interviews with a key informant from the NGO who assisted the guidelines update. The review of these documents enabled us to Power describe and model the KT intervention. Impact of the KT intervention on the updated guidelines. Firstly, we compared the CALIBAN key messages with the updated adult and pediatric guidelines released in 2013 to common theme assess the extent to which the newly issued recommendations were in line with the key messages (Additional file 1 : Table S1).

We also assessed how well the CALIBAN KT messages were integrated by examining the rigor and transparency of the Power, guidelines updating process. For this purpose, we used the internationally validated AGREE-II instrument [ 25 ]. Each guideline was assessed by sundiata characters, three appraisers as recommended by AGREE-II for an optimum reliability. Appraisers were clinicians and public health specialists who did not participate in the CALIBAN KT intervention. The AGREE-II online tool allows appraisers to independently score six domains, i.e ., scope and purpose, stakeholder involvement, rigor of development, clarity of presentation, applicability, and editorial independence. The tool then sums up all the scores of The Religious Power appraisers and amylase and starch, computes standardized domain scores (expressed on a scale of 0–100). Secondly, we modeled and The Religious Power Essays, analyzed the CALIBAN KT process within the ‘guidelines updating’ system, using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) graphical tools. The purpose was to Narrative of the Equiano describe how this intervention worked and to provide a framework for assessing its effectiveness. UML is an object-oriented modeling tool developed in The Religious Power Essays, 1997 for vanessa george case documenting, designing, and The Religious Essays, evaluating complex systems [ 26 ]. War Of The Worlds! It is an Power, effective medium of communication and development for both theorists and practitioners [ 27 ]. Common Theme! It has been used to model different aspects of healthcare systems [ 28 , 29 ] including the analysis of clinical trials [ 30 ]. Use case—Knowledge translation during Clinical Practice Guidelines updating.

Class diagram—Knowledge translation and Clinical Practice Guidelines updating. Modeling was performed in several successive steps using UML 2.2 Visio® Microsoft® software. Identification of barriers and facilitators to KT. Finally, we reviewed our AGREE-II appraisal and The Religious Essays, our UML models and listed the barriers and facilitators to KT that we identified during this exercise. Vanessa George Case! We grouped these factors following a classification recently used by de Goede [ 24 , 31 ]. Barriers at the process level are those encountered during the preparation phase and cover mutual expectations from researchers and policymakers, and those related to research findings communication (transfer). Individual factors comprise of the specific behaviors of the KT receivers: their acceptance of the research outcome and the value they give to it once they have balanced it with their own interests (interpretation).

At the process level, we included in the existing classification some factors relating to the interactions between the stakeholders who produced the evidence on pneumonia (the CALIBAN group) and Essays, those who received and were supposed to use it (the MoH and Task forces). The CALIBAN project was based on anonymized acute lower respiratory infections data – including the vanessa case, IPC study [ 6 , 7 ] - gathered by research studies, all of which had obtained ethical clearance from the Cambodian National Ethics Committee for Human Research [ 17 ]. Our present article only Essays examines the process through which the CALIBAN project was thought up and common theme, developed, and what obstacles were met. The Religious Essays! This paper is based on Life of Olaudah work which in no way involves interventions or research on human subjects or animals, nor do study results name any informants or stakeholders. The Religious! The study did not involve research on human subjects, nor do study results name any informants or stakeholders. The integration of the CALIBAN KT key messages varies across adult and Science Versus Religion in H.G. the Worlds, pediatric guidelines (Additional file 1 : Table S1). The pediatric guidelines are well in The Religious, line with those messages. They recommends antibiotics which CALIBAN found effective against the most prevalent bacterial pathogens responsible for pneumonia in Cambodia (penicillin A for non-severe cases; penicillin A and gentamicin as first-line treatment for severe cases, with a switch to Science Religion in H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds Essay ceftriaxone in case of no improvement or to cloxacillin if staphylococcal pneumonia is suspected). The Religious! It also refers to additional guidelines to treat pneumonia due to the less frequent pathogens cited by CALIBAN and which require specific treatments.

Only one KT message is well integrated in the adult guidelines: amoxicillin with or without beta-lactamase inhibitor is cited as first-line treatment for pneumonia. The guideline cites atypical pathogens as possible pneumonia etiologies although the CALIBAN group could not firmly document their prevalence in the country. The second-line option given for non-severe pneumonia are macrolides which are not effective against and starch, the most prevalent pathogens in adult pneumonia in Cambodia. Macrolides are also inappropriately recommended as single-drug for patients hospitalized in The Religious Power, intensive care with very severe pneumonia. Moreover, the guidelines recommend fluoroquinolones for first-line treatment for severe pneumonia in hospitalized patients and for second-line or alternative treatment for uncomplicated cases. These fluoroquinolones are expensive, have side effects, and should be preserved to avoid resistance and remain a powerful tool against tuberculosis, which is highly prevalent in Cambodia. The Interesting Of The Life Equiano! Finally these guidelines do not mention the possible use of Amikacin in Power, case of severe pneumonia due to Gram-negative bacteria, although this was among the CALIBAN key messages. AGREE-II scores for the adult and the pediatric pneumonia guidelines (standardized domain scores across appraisers), Cambodia 2013. Clinical practice guidelines.

Presentation of scope and purpose. Rigor of development. Clarity of presentation. The AGREE-II criteria on editorial independence scored 12% and george case, 11% for adult and The Religious Power Essays, pediatric guidelines, respectively. These scores mainly reflect the non-disclosure of conflicts of interest of the guidelines authors. Potential conflicts of amylase interest such as those from drug companies could not be assessed because they were not disclosed. Modeling analysis of the guideline updating process. By modeling UML use cases, we identified six main actors directly or indirectly interacting within the ‘guidelines updating’ system (Figure 1 ). The MoH (actor one) commissioned the task forces (actor two) to coordinate the guidelines review.

The NGO (actor three) provided logistical support to the task forces and organized the external review. The experts (actor four) were the The Religious Power Essays, clinician task forces’ members who led the work and wrote the Life of Olaudah Equiano Essay, guideline drafts. The researchers (actor five) were the CALIBAN group who produced the scientific evidence-based knowledge. The external reviewers (actor six) reviewed the guidelines’ drafts. The activity diagram shows the activities of The Religious four actors directly involved in the updating of the adult pneumonia guidelines (Additional file 3 : Figure S2). It illustrates how all four actors interacted several times. Sundiata Characters! It also highlights that actors missed several opportunities to base this adult guideline on evidence (n = 6 red dots in the figure). The time frames and constraints of the The Religious, various stakeholders involved were not the amylase and starch, same.

Researchers were only invited to present information on pneumonia six months after the guidelines updating process started. The experts urged researchers to communicate their results to finalize their task and meet the deadlines, while the researchers, bound to scientific methodology and ethics could not release preliminary and incomplete findings while the review was under way. Researchers issued their final report when the guidelines updating process was well engaged: a second draft of guidelines was already circulating. Essays! This draft was validated four months later without any change. Common Theme! Conversely to what happened with the adult guidelines, the main expert in The Religious Power Essays, charge of updating the pediatric guideline had a long history of collaboration with pneumonia researchers and endorsed the Narrative of the Life of Olaudah, modifications suggested by the external reviewers.The class diagram shows the dynamics and the complexity of a guideline updating process in such settings. Power! It visualizes the common theme, 12 interconnected object classes impacting the Clinical Practice Guidelines (Figure 2 ). Power! Among those, there are the health topics, the scientific knowledge, the international guidelines, and the treatments. This diagram shows how actors operate and interact under certain system constraints. Narrative Of Olaudah Essay! It brought out the The Religious Power, potential role of pharmaceutical industries that produce the medicines.

These industries might influence researchers’ and experts’ judgment by Religion Wells' War of the Worlds Essay, supporting them. In this case study, only researchers declared no conflicts of interests. Experts did not disclose any. Facilitating and impeding factors to KT. Facilitating factors and barriers to The Religious Power KT during the pneumonia guidelines updating, Cambodia 2013. 1. Science Versus Wells' The Worlds Essay! KT intervention provided relevant, accurate, robust, comprehensive and accessible information to Policymakers. 1. The Task force had not planned to request local evidence from locally-based researchers.

2. Being members of the KT intervention group, the Experts had a privileged access to research findings before the final results were available. 2. Limited availability of the Task force -busy with the updating of about 200 guidelines chapters at the same time. 3. MoH did not initially inform the Researchers of the guidelines review process. 4. The evidence readily available at the initiation of the guidelines updating process was not complete enough to be used by Policymakers. 5. The Religious Power Essays! Researchers started working on building evidence seven months after the and starch, process was initiated by the MoH. 6. Policymakers expected the Power Essays, Researchers to provide some evidence quicker. 3. WHO facilitated the contact between Researchers and Policymakers: WHO informed the Researchers that the The Interesting of Olaudah, guidelines were updated.

7. Patients’ representatives were not associated to Power Essays the process. They could not relay the need to base the Wells' War of, Guidelines updating on The Religious Power local evidence. 4. Common Theme! Policymakers received support from an international NGO for some organizational aspects of the process (organization of the Task force meetings, of the External Review Committee…) 8. Limited availability of clinicians with expertise. (limited number of skilled people dealing with too many issues in parallel) 5. The NGO assisting the Policymakers successfully relayed Researchers’ demand to annex the KT messages to the CPGs. 9. Power Essays! The Task force left the Experts deciding to The Interesting Narrative of Olaudah Equiano accept or refuse the External Review Committee’s suggestions for improving the final drafts of guidelines. The Religious! The Expert in charge of the amylase and starch, adult pneumonia guidelines did not accept changes suggested by the External Committee. 6. The Expert who led the work on Power the pediatric guideline agreed to take into account the Versus Religion War of the Worlds, recommendations issued by the External Review Committee. 1.2 Knowledge Translation domain. 7. Research synthesis included key messages. 10.

No communication was released to The Religious Power the media by the Researchers. Therefore the process did not receive any media support. 8. Research synthesis was written in plain and easy English and translated into local language. 11. Research synthesis and report did not present any logo at their front page, except the logo of the KT group. This may have limited the identification of authors and their perceived credibility (but facilitated the sundiata characters, easy appropriation by The Religious Essays, all co authors) 9. Religion In H.G. Wells' The Worlds Essay! Research synthesis was short and compliant with the SUPPORT recommendations.

10. Research synthesis was widely made permanently available online. 1.3 Interactions between policymakers and researchers. 1.3.1 Initiated by Policymakers during Guidelines Updating process. 11. Essays! Policymakers invited the common theme, Researchers to participate in one of their meetings.

12. Participation of Researchers in the Task force was limited to one meeting. 12. A clinician who was familiar with Research was appointed by the Task force to update the pediatric pneumonia guidelines. This clinician had a long lasting history of collaboration with pneumonia researchers.

13. The Expert appointed for Essays the adult pneumonia guideline review had no or limited previous interactions with Researchers. 1.3.2 Initiated by Researchers during the KT intervention. 13. Researchers invited national clinicians and Experts appointed by the Task force to participate in the KT intervention. 14.

Meetings organized during the KT intervention were conducted in characters, English which is not the working language of most clinicians in Cambodia. 15. Power! Researchers’ attempts to alert on Versus Religion Wells' War of the Worlds Essay inappropriate recommendations published in the adult pneumonia guidelines remained unanswered. 2.1.1 Perceived robustness of evidence. 14. Researchers clearly stated the limitations of their Evidence review in their synthesis. 16.

Researchers do not know how the robustness of The Religious their findings was perceived by Narrative of the of Olaudah Equiano Essay, Policymakers. 2.1.2 Perceived credibility of source. 15. Data contributing to the KT intervention were provided bystakeholders known by the policymakers. 16. Researchers analyzed data in the light of current challenges for the national health system (prevention of development of antibiotic resistance, cost effectiveness) 17.

There is Essays, not much mutual knowledge on values, belief systems, preference and traditions between Researchers and Policymakers. Connection with own personal or institutional interests. 17. Researchers declared no conflicts of interest in their evidence review. 18. Policymakers did not disclose potential conflicts of interest in the guidelines. Most barriers to of the Life of Olaudah Equiano Essay KT encountered were related to the lack of synchronization between knowledge production and policy making (Point 1.1.2, Table 2 , n = 5 barriers): researchers were informed of the guidelines’ revision several months after it had started. They had no formal mandate from the MoH. Working intensely, they provided a comprehensive and locally relevant review of evidence within eight months.

However, this pace did not match the policymaker’s time constraints. We also identified barriers at The Religious the policy-making process (Point 1.1.3, Table 2 , n = 3 barriers). Those factors are intrinsic to the current situation in sundiata characters, Cambodia, such as the limited availability of clinicians with expertise, or are more individual-dependent ( e.g ., barrier n.9, Table 2 ). The lack of interactions between researchers and policymakers is also highlighted (Point 1.4, Table 2 , n = 3 barriers), especially regarding the Power, updating of the adult clinical guideline. One-third of the identified facilitating factors relate to the expectation domain (Point 1.1, Table 2 , n = 6 factors). In particular, the policy process received help from Wells' Essay, several external stakeholders: the WHO, NGO and the External review committee (Point 1.1.3, Table 2 , n = 4 facilitators). Other facilitating factors relate to the knowledge translation domain (Point 1.2, Table 2 , n = 4 facilitators). The difference between the process of The Religious Power Essays updating the pediatric and the adult guidelines bears on only two points: the pediatric expert had a long term collaborative experience of with researchers in pneumonia research projects, while the expert working on the adult guideline had very little or none; the pediatric expert agreed to characters take into The Religious Power, account the suggestions made by the external review committee while the adult expert argued that those suggestions came too late in the process. This case-study describes a KT intervention about pneumonia in common theme, a LIC and assessed its impact on the updating of two national guidelines for clinical practice using various methods. The Religious Power! Such studies are needed since these interventions are rarely reported. Religion In H.G. The Worlds! Moreover, there is no consensual guidance to date on The Religious Essays how to update national guidelines in such countries [ 13 , 19 ]. We showed that this KT process, although partially successful, occurred in a dynamic and complex way.

Comparing the The Interesting of the of Olaudah Essay, KT process during the updating of Essays both pediatric and national of kenya, adult pneumonia guidelines allowed us to identify possible facilitating and impeding factors to KT in The Religious Power Essays, similar situations. The pneumonia knowledge produced by amylase, the CALIBAN group was successfully translated into the pediatric guidelines. One reason might be that those were prepared by a clinician who used to collaborate with pneumonia researchers. Findings are consistent with what was described elsewhere: when policymakers have a long and strong experience of collaboration with researchers, knowledge utilization is Power Essays, most likely to occur [ 32 , 33 ]. This principle drives the KT ‘interaction model’ considered as an effective model for optimizing research use [ 31 ]. George Case! When policymakers are aware of research constraints, limitations, and The Religious Power Essays, strengths, they likely incorporate these into common theme, policies [ 33 ]. Essays! Interactions with policymakers may also help researchers to common theme better understand the process of policymaking and Essays, its constraints. This ‘interaction model’ takes into account the complexity of the health systems in their context and the interactive and incremental nature of policy development. The researchers who initiated the KT intervention developed several strategies to increase their chances of success. Of The Of Olaudah Equiano Essay! First, they invited the clinicians in charge of writing the guidelines to chair and Power, participate in bank of kenya, developing the KT intervention. We found, however, that this was not sufficient to impact the adult pneumonia guidelines. Similarly, a study in Canada showed that when policymakers are only The Religious Power Essays involved in the synthesis of research findings, they better understand these findings but do not necessarily use them [ 33 ].

Second, CALIBAN researchers worked on vanessa case the quality of the evidence they intended to transfer. The Religious Essays! They naively expected that providing only relevant, comprehensive, and george case, robust evidence to the right persons would be sufficient to influence the policymaking. The Religious Power! This assumption drives the ‘KT push-model’ [ 34 ] that was found to be inefficient: knowledge utilization does not only depend on supply of research findings [ 21 , 22 , 24 ]. Indeed, we showed that the vanessa, scientific knowledge supplied by the researchers did not spontaneously and simply climb what is called the ‘ladder of knowledge utilization’ [ 34 ]. CALIBAN findings were transmitted to relevant stakeholders (first stage of the ladder). Then it reached the ‘cognition’ level which is when research reports are read and understood. But those reports only Power Essays reached the ‘reference’ echelon (reports are cited) after a strong encouragement from various stakeholders. Next, the ‘efforts’ step is reached when policymakers show intent to adopt research findings. In this case study, we showed that the ‘influence’ level (when results have influenced choices and sundiata, decisions) was actually reached only in the case of the pediatric guideline. ‘Application,’ the ultimate step, is reached when the Essays, evidence gives rise to application and Wells' War of the Worlds, extension by program managers. This ultimate step may never be reached. The last strategy developed by the researchers was to format their messages to meet the expected needs of the health policymakers following international and recognized recommendations [ 18 ]. Indeed, this strategy is reported as a major facilitating factor by The Religious Essays, policymakers by Innvaer’s systematic review of 24 studies [ 32 ]. Researchers also ensured a wide dissemination of their findings as in in H.G. the Worlds Essay, the KT ‘institutional dissemination model.’ However, as shown elsewhere, it probably increased the chances of the CALIBAN messages being integrated into the guidelines, but was not sufficient [ 34 ]. Most barriers to KT we identified were related to Power Essays the poor synchronization between knowledge production and policy making, and to the lack of of the mutual understanding between researchers and policymakers. The timing of activities was a major issue in this KT intervention.

The lack of timeliness on the production of Power research evidence is frequently perceived as an important barrier for amylase and starch the effective use of research data, even in developed countries [ 32 ]. Power Essays! Developing long-term collaborations between researchers and Religion in H.G., policymakers would probably help overcoming this barrier. Study results also suggest that some health policymakers in Cambodia may ignore or mistrust the local research capacity or quality: Western medical textbooks were cited as references, instead of local data. This may be due to the lack of appreciation of the value of locally generated evidence, emerging from poor interactions between researchers and policymakers. The Religious! In other settings, policymakers have expressed that developing good relationships with researchers reduced the mutual mistrust and of the Life of Olaudah, was a significant way to facilitate KT [ 32 ]. Many of the Power, Cambodian MoH staff are highly skilled public health specialists among the Cambodian MoH staff. Involving these Cambodian public health specialists may have prevented the recommendations of non-adapted and expensive treatments that can jeopardize public health, as observed in the adult pneumonia guidelines [ 35 ]. It was difficult to national assess the relative importance of the barriers to KT and what determines them, mostly because of the limited transparency in the updating of the guidelines. The AGREE-II appraisal highlighted the possible lack of rigor of development and of ‘editorial independence.’ Potential conflicts of interest particularly those related to associations with pharmaceutical companies should always be disclosed. Essays! Those companies might be tempted to use guidelines to promote the use of their products and Science Versus Wells' Essay, therefore to influence expert judgment [ 36 ]. Previous studies using AGREE-II showed that guidelines on ‘big-programs’ ( e.g ., HIV, malaria) scored better, demonstrating the positive effect of funding and The Religious Essays, international attention [ 15 , 37 ]. The role of external stakeholders such as the WHO and, the The Interesting of Olaudah, NGO who assisted the task forces and the external review committee was noted as a key facilitating factor of KT in this study.

The WHO and Power Essays, the NGO played a crucial communication role, first of all by informally informing the researchers about the MoH agenda to update guidelines and later by liaising between researchers and policymakers. In this case study, the characters, external review committee gave feedback and comments to both task forces. These were accepted and incorporated by the pediatric task force, but the adult task force did not accept them. Recent recommendations on development of guidelines indicate that a review of the a final drafts must be conducted by The Religious Power, clinicians and The Interesting Narrative Life Equiano, methodological experts not involved in preparing the guidelines [ 13 ]. From the Power, discussion above, we draw a few lessons and tentatively make recommendations to researchers and policymakers seeking to facilitate the KT from research to health policies and guidelines. Consult policymakers about sundiata, their public health priorities to Essays define research questions and do not only base research questions on literature reviews or the advancement of science. Build networks around research thematics, involving stakeholders from different backgrounds: epidemiologists, clinicians, technicians, program managers, policymakers, civil society, local NGOs, and amylase, other relevant partners.

Work on Essays the timeliness and the relevance of evidence shared with policymakers in addition to accuracy and robustness. Besides scientific articles and progress/finding reports, prepare findings synthesis, following the The Interesting Life of Olaudah Equiano Essay, SUPPORT format http://www.webcitation.org/6Qo2OBAXg . Essays! Structured summaries must include key messages, sources and methodology, scope and limits of the results and conclusions. Summaries should be presented in The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Essay, person to The Religious Essays key stakeholders, with time for Science Religion War of the Worlds Essay discussion, rather than simply handed out. Plan the work on the national clinical guidelines ahead of time and formally request data from Essays, researchers. Consider the time it takes to obtain the most robust, comprehensive, and therefore relevant data on which the guidelines must rely.

Publicize the process for sundiata developing/updating of The Religious guidelines. The worst way to develop guidelines is to hold what Agweyu described as: ‘small meetings of experts [making policies] behind closed doors’ [ 16 ]. Seek methodological support. Guidelines for development/update of guidelines are rare but nevertheless do exist. In 2007, the ADAPTE collaboration developed a systematic approach, a manual and tools to amylase facilitate the adaptation of existing guidelines to different contexts ( http://www.webcitation.org/6Qo0xEWDn ). In 2011, WHO published a handbook for guidelines development in LMIC, based on the experience of a European low-resource setting [ 38 ]. Other references can be found in the systematic review of 38 methodological handbooks published in January 2014 [ 13 ]. Involve external experts and Power Essays, officially mandate an External Review Committee. Define a roadmap for the Experts in charge of drafting the characters, guidelines, describing the way to interact with other stakeholders involved in The Religious Essays, the process (in particular the external review committee). To both policymakers and researchers.

Prior to the KT intervention or at its early implementation stage, organize, and facilitate interactions between researchers and policymakers. This potentially makes policymaking and bank of kenya, research more compatible. ‘Blur the boundaries’ [ 23 ], constitute multidisciplinary committees and foster KT platforms where various stakeholders can learn and make decisions together [ 38 ]. Make policymakers and the researchers aware of each other’s agendas, constraints, and The Religious Power Essays, objectives. National! Make clinicians with experience in research participate actively in the policy-making process. Identify and The Religious Power Essays, involve effective KT coordinators/facilitators—sometimes called ‘knowledge brokers’ [ 39 ]. Their tasks could be to organize meetings, liaise with involved stakeholders, retrieve and common theme, format the evidence needed to support the Power Essays, guidelines, prepare recommendation matrices, facilitate consensus, prepare guideline drafts, and coordinate internal and external reviews [ 40 ]. Document and bank, report additional case reports to further support the development of guidelines for developing/updating guidelines. Declaring conflicts of interest should be mandatory for researchers, tasks forces, and expert committees involved in The Religious Power Essays, guideline development, especially with regard to george guidelines that make recommendations on medication alternatives. There must be guidelines or standard operating procedures for guidelines development that all guidelines committees should follow. The use of available evidence as well as the Power, grading of evidence should be part of the above guidelines. Task forces should be provided with tools to common theme grade locally acquired evidence.

Otherwise they may overstate the contribution of western textbooks. The main limitation of this analysis is that it was conducted from the Power Essays, perspective of Narrative of the of Olaudah those who designed and implemented the KT intervention since it was the The Religious Power Essays, only source available. We used the quality and content appraisals of the updated pneumonia guidelines as a proxy for KT impact. Those appraisals were performed by external independent researchers to limit the interpretation bias. The modeling analysis was conducted by five professionals from various backgrounds to of Olaudah Essay also limit potential bias of analysis. Three of them did not participate to any stage of the CALIBAN KT intervention (HB, RF, TL). Essays! Interviews of the task forces’ members would have given a more detailed understanding of the rationale behind individual decisions. Unfortunately, due to technical and institutional reasons we could not have access to this information, However, such an understanding is readily available through studies exploring policymakers perspectives on KT interventions [ 32 ]. An additional element of common theme complexity is that some persons with a key role in the guidelines updating process were also knowledge dispensers. This case study provides an The Religious Power Essays, overview of a partly successful collaboration between researchers and policymakers in a LIC and highlights the main missed opportunities of a KT experience. Longterm and close interaction between researchers and national bank of kenya, policymakers was the main facilitating factor of KT. Essays! Other efforts made by the researchers such as building accurate robust local evidence, formatting it to sundiata the needs of policymakers, inviting policymakers to participate in the KT intervention were not sufficient.

Stakeholders—policymakers and researchers—planning to update clinical guidelines in LIC should receive methodological support to overcome the expected barriers. World Health Organization. Ministry of Health. Clinical practice guidelines. We wish to acknowledge the clinicians who participated in the content and quality appraisals of the pneumonia guidelines. The knowledge translation intervention described in this manuscript was supported by a grant from the Agence Francaise de developpement. The assessment of The Religious Essays this intervention was not funded by any sponsor. Electronic supplementary material. All authors declare that they have no competing interests. SG led the data collection and of kenya, analysis and wrote the manuscript. RF, HB, and The Religious Essays, AT iteratively commented the manuscript drafts and oversaw its development.

HB, TL, JvG, RF, and AT were involved in the data analysis. TL oversaw the UML data modeling. AT and SG initiated and led the CALIBAN intervention. JvG was a CALIBAN member. All authors critically read the manuscript and vanessa george case, have given final approval. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and not necessarily those of their institutions. All authors declared no conflicts of interest. Chopra M, Mason E, Borrazzo J, Campbell H, Rudan I, Liu L, Black RE, Bhutta ZA: Ending of preventable deaths from Power, pneumonia and diarrhoea: an achievable goal. Lancet.

2013, 381: 1499-1506. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Kabra SK, Lodha R, Pandey RM: Antibiotics for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Sundiata Characters! Edited by: The Cochrane Collaboration, Kabra SK. 2010, Chichester, UK: John Wiley Sons, Ltd Google Scholar Zhang Y, Fang C, Dong BR, Wu T, Deng JL: Oxygen Therapy for Pneumonia in Essays, Adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Edited by: The Cochrane Collaboration, Dong BR. 2012, Chichester, UK: John Wiley Sons, Ltd Google Scholar Bhutta ZA, Das JK, Walker N, Rizvi A, Campbell H, Rudan I, Black RE: Lancet diarrhoea and pneumonia interventions study group: interventions to sundiata characters address deaths from childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea equitably: what works and at what cost?. The Religious Power Essays! Lancet. 2013, 381: 1417-1429. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar WHO/WPRO: Cambodia - Country health information profile - Country health information profile.

2011, http://www.webcitation.org/6Qo1HDt9P , Google Scholar Guerrier G, Goyet S, Chheng ET, Rammaert B, Borand L, Te V, Try PL, Sareth R, Cavailler P, Mayaud C, Guillard B, Vong S, Buchy P, Tarantola A: Acute viral lower respiratory tract infections in Cambodian children: clinical and epidemiologic characteristics. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013, 32: e8-e13. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Vong S, Guillard B, Borand L, Rammaert B, Goyet S, Te V, Lorn Try P, Hem S, Rith S, Ly S, Cavailler P, Mayaud C, Buchy P: Acute lower respiratory infections in sundiata characters, ? 5 year -old hospitalized patients in Cambodia, a low-income tropical country: clinical characteristics and The Religious Power Essays, pathogenic etiology. BMC Infect Dis. 2013, 13: 97- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Arnott A, Vong S, Mardy S, Chu S, Naughtin M, Sovann L, Buecher C, Beaute J, Rith S, Borand L, Asgari N, Frutos R, Guillard B, Touch S, Deubel V, Buchy P: A study of the common theme, genetic variability of The Religious Power human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) in Cambodia reveals the existence of a new HRSV group B genotype. J Clin Microbiol. National Bank Of Kenya! 2011, 49: 3504-3513.

View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Arnott A, Vong S, Sek M, Naughtin M, Beaute J, Rith S, Guillard B, Deubel V, Buchy P: Genetic variability of The Religious Power Essays human metapneumovirus amongst an vanessa, all ages population in The Religious Essays, Cambodia between 2007 and 2009. Infect Genet Evol. Vanessa Case! 2011 Google Scholar Clinical practice guidelines for medicine, Cambodia. http://www.webcitation.org/6IWCbEKb1 , Clinical practice guidelines for paediatric, Cambodia. http://www.webcitation.org/6IWBwv4VC , Davino-Ramaya C, Krause LK, Robbins CW, Harris JS, Koster M, Chan W, Tom GI: Transparency matters: Kaiser Permanente’s National Guideline Program methodological processes. Perm J. 2012, 16: 55-62. View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Vernooij RW, Sanabria AJ, Sola I, Alonso-Coello P, Garcia LM: Guidance for updating clinical practice guidelines: a systematic review of methodological handbooks. The Religious Power! Implement Sci. 2014, 9: 3- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Bero LA, Hill S, Habicht J, Mathiesen M, Starkopf J: The updated clinical guideline development process in Narrative of the Life Essay, Estonia is an efficient method for developing evidence-based guidelines. Power! J Clin Epidemiol. 2013, 66: 132-139.

View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Alonso-Coello P, Martinez Garcia L, Carrasco JM, Sola I, Qureshi S, Burgers JS: The updating of clinical practice guidelines: insights from an international survey. Implement Sci. 2011, 6: 107- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Agweyu A, Opiyo N, English M: Experience developing national evidence-based clinical guidelines for childhood pneumonia in common theme, a low-income setting–making the GRADE?. The Religious! BMC Pediatr. 2012, 12: 1- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Goyet S, Vlieghe E, Kumar V, Newell S, Moore CE, Bousfield R, Leang HC, Chuop S, Thong P, Rammaert B, Hem S, van Griensven J, Rachmat A, Fassier T, Lim K, Tarantola A: Etiologies and Science Religion in H.G. War of the Worlds Essay, resistance profiles of The Religious Essays bacterial community-acquired pneumonia in Science Religion in H.G. Wells' War of, cambodian and neighboring countries’ health care settings: a systematic review (1995 to 2012). PLoS One. 2014, 9: e89637- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Rosenbaum SE, Glenton C, Wiysonge CS, Abalos E, Mignini L, Young T, Althabe F, Ciapponi A, Marti SG, Meng Q, Wang J, Bradford HAMDLA, Kiwanuka SN, Rutebemberwa E, Pariyo GW, Flottorp S, Oxman AD: Evidence summaries tailored to health policy-makers in low- and middle-income countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2011, 89: 54-61. Power! View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Grimshaw JM, Eccles MP, Lavis JN, Hill SJ, Squires JE: Knowledge translation of Narrative of the of Olaudah research findings.

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This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the The Religious Power, original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ) applies to the data made available in Narrative Life of Olaudah Essay, this article, unless otherwise stated. Share on Essays Twitter Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on bank Weibo Share on Google Plus Share on Reddit. By continuing to use this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, Privacy statement and Cookies policy. © 2017 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated.

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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in writing custom essays, research and Essays term papers in many fields. MLA essay format is most widely used in the field of humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to bank formatting essays were updated in 2009. Among the new rules of formatting, the Works Cited or References list is the requirement of indicating the The Religious Power medium of publication for every cited source. The Interesting Narrative Of The Of Olaudah Essay. It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing.

Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to The Religious Power use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at vanessa george, the end of the The Religious Power essay. Sundiata Characters. However, if you use footnotes instead of Power Essays in-text citations, you may be allowed to do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . You can use the common theme MLA template for making your work look like a professional one. The text in Power, MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. This rule concerns the basic text of national bank of kenya your essay, along with the Power Essays formatting of in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 12-font size is amylase, preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on all sides of your essay, research or term paper.

Remember that the headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. According to the recommendations of the Modern Language Association, the headings have to be italicized or typed in bold. The first line of each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the left side. You should put page numbers at the top, and justify it to the right. It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the paper is several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the editable fields and follow the guidelines within the Essays text. Here you may find an example of proper MLA essay formatting. While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay written in MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation. The Interesting Narrative Of Olaudah. Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable.

The same concerns indirect in-text references. Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way. The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in MLA style. Short citations If a citation used in the text of The Religious a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks. At the end of the Science Versus in H.G. War of the Worlds citation, you have to state the author’s name and The Religious Power the page number where the MLA citations are from in the text.

This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to quote from characters a book Greenmantle of Power Essays John Buchan from 1916. It will look like this: “There never has been, and in H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds Essay there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154). Note : there is no comma or full stop between the authors’ last name and page number. In cases when the author of a book has been already mentioned in The Religious Power Essays, the sentence , just indicate the Science Religion Wells' War of the Worlds Essay page number in Essays, reference. Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154). Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of vanessa case a typed text, it is called a long citation and has to Essays be placed separately from a new line. Sundiata Characters. Quotation marks are not used in this case. However, the author’s name and the page number should still be indicated in round brackets. Example: One of the characters in Kipling’s novel Kim describes the Mutiny in Essays, the following way:

A madness ate into all the Army, and they turned against their officers. That was the first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. But they chose to kill the Sahibs’ wives and children. Characters. Then came the Essays Sahibs from over the sea and of kenya called them to most strict account (Kipling 77). Reducing of citation If the original citation in The Religious Power, a MLA essay is reduced or you simply omit some words in the cited sentence, you should place three periods in place of those words. The omitting of words in MLA citations is used in cases when you are directly interested in only part of the statement of the author in the original source, which is located in the middle of the quoted sentence. In this situation, you can preserve the key information and omit the sundiata details that you do not need. Example: Lawrence was compared to “a caliph . . . who had stepped out from the pages of ‘The Arabian nights’” (Thomas 16) Adding information . In the MLA essay , it is allowable to add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in The Religious Power Essays, square brackets.

Example: When discussing civil rights, it is hard to not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the words of the bank Emancipation Proclamation: “…a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice” (King 813). More than one source of reference If you cite more than one book in a sentence of a MLA essay , then at Essays, the end of the sentence indicate in brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon. Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as “a legend of the British empire, to whom the Orient added its greatness”, but at the same time as a man whose “brain has dried out under the and starch hot sun of the The Religious desert” (15; 47). Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of work, indicate the title in italics and the page number in the parenthesis.

Example: As stated by the presidential commission … (Report 4) In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the common theme reference and Essays they have to correspond to the information indicated in the Works Cited list at the end of essay. To get detailed information about the formatting of Works Cited list in a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to MLA Works Cited List Format at P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of your research or term paper may become rather difficult. In the MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used.

If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for professional help from P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to assist you in writing and formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week. P rof E ssays.com is and starch, just one click away when you want to order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements. The process of gathering and formatting the information for your custom essay, research or term paper is quite exhausting. Improper formatting of citations may spoil the results of your hard work. Essays. Order you paper at P rof E ssays.com and Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano be sure to get a custom essay, research or term paper that will correspond to the latest recommendations of Power formatting a MLA Style Essay P rof E ssays.com is a custom essay writing service provider that will guide you in writing your MLA format essay . Be sure that our custom essay will correspond to all requirements of formatting both in-text citations with the Works Cited List and footnotes. P rof E ssays.com is the vanessa case best place to Essays buy MLA format essays of the highest quality. The title page in Versus Religion in H.G., the MLA essay format is not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of writing it, never do it. However, there are specific requirements to The Religious Power Essays the first page in MLA essay. Learn how to and starch format your MLA Title Page properly with us.

Type your name, the name of Essays your instructor, the title of the course and the date in the upper left-hand corner of the first page. The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in vanessa george case, the middle of the title page. Remember that the title of The Religious Essays your MLA essay is national of kenya, never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. Power. The text of your MLA essay comes next to common theme the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the cover page in a MLA style.

MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is usually done and even submitted before writing an essay and a final outline that is submitted together with the essay. Needless to say that both can be done in MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page. The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of Power Essays numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to sundiata characters reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the section of outline can’t have only Essays one sub-section. So, logic requires that at each level of the outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on bank, Image to Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the title, the year of publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in a book, periodical, etc. is provided at the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the Woks Cited list.

Every essay or manuscript written in The Religious Essays, MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the author. In cases when there is no author, the national references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by The Religious Power, the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by their title. When you do the references of this kind, you should put the author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. The title of the book is national bank, listed after the author’s name, and then the place of publication, the publishing house and the year of publication. Do not forget to The Religious Power italicize the title of a book. Example: Buchan, John. Greenmantle. London: Abacus, 1916. Print.

Note: According to the update in amylase and starch, 2009 for the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the medium of The Religious Essays publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and common theme the third ones have to be placed in the direct order. So be attentive to how you place the Power first name and then only the last name of the second author. In cases when there are more than three authors of the and starch book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson.

Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print. Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in Power, the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. George. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles.

The formatting of Power newspaper articles in amylase and starch, a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of Essays cited books. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at common theme, first you should indicate the The Religious author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the Science Versus Religion the Worlds day, month and year of publication, followed by the number of pages. Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schools”. The Times.

London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to Power Essays italicize the title of a book, and in george, the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the title of the article. The month of publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). Only May, June and July are never abbreviated.

The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of Power representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the Science in H.G. MLA format rules. However, if your instructor still wants to see the URL in The Religious Power Essays, your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. Common Theme. The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and year of edition. The Religious. Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information. In such cases, list the available information. When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for Narrative Life of Olaudah Essay, on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Web.

Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in The Religious, the choice of on-line sources is given to the official web sites of common theme organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is Essays, indicated in angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and amylase and starch formatting MLA essays . Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and The Religious format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules. Though the preferable format of a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript. The footnotes are indicated at common theme, the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the The Religious Essays MLA footnotes and endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to Science Religion in H.G. Wells' War of the page number at the top of each page. While heading refer to the title of your paper and the the titles of Essays its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms:

The headings of the sundiata characters MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold. The title of the MLA paper should be centered. Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. The Religious. All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .

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Free Information Technology essays. The experienced growth in the use of digital networks has led to The Religious Essays, the need for the design of new communication networks with higher capacity. The telecom industry is expected to continue to grow as demand increases for cable and high-speed internet in previously un-serviced locations and as local telephone companies upgrade their lines in response to increasing competitions. Broadband wireless sits at the confluence of two of the most remarkable growth stories of the amylase and starch telecommunications industry in recent years. Both wireless and broadband have on their own enjoyed rapid mass-market adoption. Wireless mobile services grew from 11 million subscribers worldwide in 1990 to more than 200 billion in 2014.

During the The Religious same period, the amylase and starch Internet grew from being a curious academic tool to Power Essays, having about a billion users. This staggering growth of the Internet is driving demand for higher-speed Internet-access services, leading to Science Versus Religion in H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds, a parallel growth in broadband adoption. In less than a decade, broadband subscription worldwide has grown from virtually zero to The Religious Power, over 200 million. Will combining the convenience of wireless with the rich performance of broadband be the next frontier for growth in national, the industry? Can such a combination be technically and commercially viable? Can wireless deliver broadband applications and Essays, services that are of interest to the end users? Many industry observers believe so. Before we delve into sundiata characters, broadband wireless, let us review the state of broadband access today. Digital subscriber line (DSL) technology, which delivers broadband over Essays twisted-pair telephone wires, and cable modem technology, which delivers over coaxial cable TV plant, are the predominant mass-market broadband access technologies today.

Both of Science Versus Religion in H.G. the Worlds, these technologies typically provide up to a few megabits per second of Power Essays, data to each user, and continuing advances are making several tens of megabits per second possible. Since their initial deployment in the late 1990s, these services have enjoyed considerable growth. Worldwide, this number is more than 200 million today and is projected to grow to more than 400 million by 2020. Science Versus War Of Essay. The availability of a wireless solution for broadband could potentially accelerate this growth. What are the applications that drive this growth?

Broadband users worldwide are finding that it dramatically changes how we share information, conduct business, and seek entertainment. Broadband access not only provides faster Web surfing and quicker file downloads but also enables several multimedia applications, such as real-time audio and video streaming, multimedia conferencing, and interactive gaming. Broadband connections are also being used for Essays voice telephony using voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology. More advanced broadband access systems, such as fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) and The Interesting Equiano, very high data rate digital subscriber loop (VDSL), enable such applications as entertainment-quality video, including high-definition TV (HDTV) and video on demand (VoD). As the broadband market continues to Essays, grow, several new applications are likely to emerge, and it is difficult to predict which ones will succeed in the future. So what is and starch broadband wireless? Broadband wireless is about bringing the broadband experience to a wireless context, which offers users certain unique benefits and convenience. There are two fundamentally different types of broadband wireless services. The first type attempts to The Religious Essays, provide a set of services similar to that of the traditional fixed-line broadband but using wireless as the medium of transmission. Common Theme. This type, called fixed wireless broadband, can be thought of as a competitive alternative to DSL or cable modem. The Religious Power Essays. The second type of broadband wireless, called mobile broadband, offers the additional functionality of portability, nomadicity, and mobility.

Mobile broadband attempts to bring broadband applications to new user experience scenarios and hence can offer the end user a very different value proposition. WiMAX (worldwide interoperability for microwave access) technology is designed to accommodate both fixed and mobile broadband applications. In this chapter, we provide a brief overview of broadband wireless. The objective is to present the background and sundiata characters, context necessary for Power understanding WiMAX. 1.2 Evolution of Broadband Wireless. The history of broadband wireless as it relates to WiMAX can be traced back to the desire to find a competitive alternative to traditional wire line-access technologies.

Spurred by the deregulation of the telecom industry and the rapid growth of the Internet, several competitive carriers were motivated to characters, find a wireless solution to bypass incumbent service providers. During the past decade or so, a number of wireless access systems have been developed, mostly by start-up companies motivated by the disruptive potential of wireless. These systems varied widely in their performance capabilities, protocols, frequency spectrum used, applications supported, and a host of other parameters. Some systems were commercially deployed only to be decommissioned later. Successful deployments have so far been limited to a few niche applications and markets.

Clearly, broadband wireless has until now had a checkered record, in part because of the fragmentation of the industry due to the lack of The Religious Power Essays, a common standard. The emergence of WiMAX as an industry standard is expected to change this situation. Given the of kenya wide variety of The Religious, solutions developed and deployed for broadband wireless in the past, a full historical survey of these is The Interesting of the Life Essay beyond the scope of this section. Instead, we provide a brief review of some of the broader patterns in this development. WiMAX technology has evolved through four stages, albeit not fully distinct or clearly sequential: 1. Narrowband wireless local-loop systems, 2. First-generation line-of-sight (LOS) broadband systems, 3. The Religious. Second-generation non-line-of-sight (NLOS) broadband systems, and.

4. Standards-based broadband wireless systems. 1.2.1 Narrowband Wireless Local-Loop Systems. Naturally, the first application for which a wireless alternative was developed and deployed was voice telephony. These systems, called wireless local-loop (WLL), were quite successful in developing countries such as China, India, Indonesia, Brazil, and Russia, whose high demand for common theme basic telephone services could not be served using existing infrastructure. In fact, WLL systems based on the digital-enhanced cordless telephony (DECT) and code division multiple access (CDMA) standards continue to Power Essays, be deployed in these markets. In markets in which a robust local-loop infrastructure already existed for voice telephony, WLL systems had to offer additional value to characters, be competitive.

Following the commercialization of the Internet in The Religious Power, 1993, the demand for amylase and starch Internet-access services began to surge, and many saw providing high-speed Internet-access as a way for Essays wireless systems to differentiate them. For example, in February 1997, ATT announced that it had developed a wireless access system for the 1,900MHz PCS (personal communications services) band that could deliver two voice lines and a 128kbps data connection to common theme, subscribers. This system, developed under the Power Essays code name ‘Project Angel,’ also had the distinction of being one of the Narrative of Olaudah first commercial wireless systems to use adaptive antenna technology. After field trials for The Religious a few years and Versus War of Essay, a brief commercial offering, ATT discontinued the service in December 2001, citing cost run-ups and Essays, poor take-rate as reasons. During the amylase same time, several small start-up companies focused solely on providing Internet-access services using wireless. Power Essays. These wireless Internet service provider (WISP) companies typically deployed systems in the license-exempt 900MHz and 2.4GHz bands. Most of these systems required antennas to be installed at Versus Religion War of, the customer premises, either on rooftops or under the eaves of their buildings. Deployments were limited mostly to select neighborhoods and small towns. These early systems typically offered speeds up to a few hundred kilobits per The Religious second. Sundiata. Later evolutions of license-exempt systems were able to provide higher speeds. 1.2.2 First-Generation Broadband Systems.

As DSL and cable modems began to be deployed, wireless systems had to The Religious Power, evolve to support much higher speeds to be competitive. Systems began to be developed for Science Versus Religion the Worlds higher frequencies, such as the 2.5GHz and The Religious Power, 3.5GHz bands. Very high speed systems, called local multipoint distribution systems (LMDS), supporting up to several hundreds of megabits per second, were also developed in amylase and starch, millimeter wave frequency bands, such as the 24GHz and 39GHz bands. LMDS based services were targeted at business users and in the late 1990s enjoyed rapid but short-lived success. Problems obtaining access to The Religious, rooftops for installing antennas, coupled with its shorter range capabilities, squashed its growth. In the late 1990s, one of the more important deployments of wireless broadband happened in the so-called multichannel multipoint distribution services (MMDS) band at Science in H.G., 2.5GHz. The MMDS band was historically used to provide wireless cable broadcast video services, especially in rural areas where cable TV services were not available. The Religious Power. The advent of satellite TV ruined the wireless cable business, and amylase and starch, operators were looking for alternative ways to Essays, use this spectrum. A few operators began to offer one-way wireless Internet-access service, using telephone line as the return path.

In September 1998, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) relaxed the rules of the MMDS band in the United States to allow two-way communication services, sparking greater industry interest in the MMDS band. MCI WorldCom and Sprint each paid approximately $1 billion to purchase licenses to use the MMDS spectrum, and several companies started developing high-speed fixed wireless solutions for this band. The first generation of vanessa george, these fixed broadband wireless solutions was deployed using the same towers that served wireless cable subscribers. These towers were typically several hundred feet tall and The Religious Power, enabled LOS coverage to amylase, distances up to 35 miles, using high-power transmitters. First-generation MMDS systems required that subscribers install at Essays, their premises outdoor antennas high enough and pointed toward the sundiata characters tower for a clear LOS transmission path. Sprint and MCI launched two-way wireless broadband services using first-generation MMDS systems in a few markets in early 2000. The outdoor antenna and LOS requirements proved to be significant impediments. Besides, since a fairly large area was being served by The Religious Power Essays, a single tower, the capacity of these systems was fairly limited.

Similar first-generation LOS systems were deployed internationally in the 3.5GHz band. 1.2.3 Second-Generation Broadband Systems. Second-generation broadband wireless systems were able to overcome the LOS issue and to Science Wells', provide more capacity. The Religious Power. This was done through the Science Religion in H.G. War of the Worlds Essay use of a cellular architecture and implementation of advanced-signal processing techniques to improve the link and system performance under multipath conditions. Several start-up companies developed advanced proprietary solutions that provided significant performance gains over first-generation systems. The Religious. Most of these new systems could perform well under non-line-of-sight conditions, with customer-premise antennas typically mounted under the eaves or lower. Many solved the The Interesting Life Equiano NLOS problem by using such techniques as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), code division multiple access (CDMA), and The Religious, multiantenna processing. Some systems, such as those developed by SOMA Networks and Navini Networks, demonstrated satisfactory link performance over a few miles to desktop subscriber terminals without the need for an antenna mounted outside. A few megabits per second throughput over cell ranges of a few miles had become possible with second generation fixed wireless broadband systems. 1.2.4 Emergence of Standards-Based Technology. In 1998, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) formed a group called 802.16 to develop a standard for what was called a wireless metropolitan area network, or wireless MAN.

Originally, this group focused on developing solutions in the 10GHz to 66GHz band, with the primary application being delivering high-speed connections to businesses that could not obtain fiber. These systems, like LMDS, were conceived as being able to tap into fiber rings and to distribute that bandwidth through a point-to-multipoint configuration to LOS businesses. The IEEE 802.16 group produced a standard that was approved in December 2001. This standard, Wireless MAN-SC, specified a physical layer that used single-carrier modulation techniques and a media access control (MAC) layer with a burst time division multiplexing (TDM) structure that supported both frequency division duplexing (FDD) and time division duplexing (TDD). After completing this standard, the group started work on amylase, extending and modifying it to work in both licensed and license-exempt frequencies in the 2GHz to 11GHz range, which would enable NLOS deployments. This amendment, IEEE 802.16a, was completed in 2003, with OFDM schemes added as part of the physical layer for supporting deployment in The Religious Power, multipath environments. By this time, OFDM had established itself as a method of choice for dealing with multipath for broadband and was already part of the revised IEEE 802.11 standards. Vanessa. Besides the OFDM physical layers, 802.16a also specified additional MAC-layer options, including support for orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA).

Further revisions to 802.16a were made and Power, completed in 2004. This revised standard, IEEE 802.16-2004, replaces 802.16, 802.16a, and 802.16c with a single standard, which has also been adopted as the basis for HIPERMAN (high-performance metropolitan area network) by ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute). In 2003, the 802.16 group began work on enhancements to the specifications to allow vehicular mobility applications. That revision, 802.16e, was completed in December 2005 and was published formally as IEEE 802.16e-2005. It specifies scalable OFDM for the physical layer and makes further modifications to common theme, the MAC layer to accommodate high-speed mobility. As it turns out, the IEEE 802.16 specifications are a collection of standards with a very broad scope. In order to accommodate the diverse needs of the industry, the standard incorporated a wide variety of options.

In order to develop interoperable solutions using the 802.16 family of standards, the scope of the standard had to be reduced by establishing consensus on what options of the standard to implement and test for interoperability. The Religious Power. The IEEE developed the amylase specifications but left to the industry the task of converting them into an interoperable standard that can be certified. The WiMAX Forum was formed to solve this problem and to promote solutions based on the IEEE 802.16 standards. The WiMAX Forum was modeled along the lines of the Wi-Fi Alliance, which has had remarkable success in The Religious Essays, promoting and in H.G. Wells' the Worlds Essay, providing interoperability testing for products based on the IEEE 802.11 family of standards. The WiMAX Forum enjoys broad participation from the entire cross-section of the industry, including semiconductor companies, equipment manufacturers, system integrators, and The Religious, service providers. The forum has begun interoperability testing and announced its first certified product based on IEEE 802.16-2004 for fixed applications in January 2006. Characters. Products based on IEEE 802.18e-2005 are expected to be certified in early 2007. Many of the vendors that previously developed proprietary solutions have announced plans to migrate to Essays, fixed and/or mobile WiMAX. The arrival of WiMAX-certified products is a significant milestone in the history of broadband wireless. 1.3 WiMAX versus 3G and Wi-Fi.

How does WiMAX compare with the existing and emerging capabilities of 3G and Wi-Fi? The throughput capabilities of sundiata, WiMAX depend on the channel bandwidth used. Unlike 3G systems, which have a fixed channel bandwidth, WiMAX defines a selectable channel bandwidth from 1.25MHz to 20MHz, which allows for a very flexible deployment. When deployed using the more likely 10MHz TDD (time division duplexing) channel, assuming a 3:1 downlink-to-uplink split and 2 ” 2 MIMO, WiMAX offers 46Mbps peak downlink throughput and 7Mbps uplink. The reliance of Wi-Fi and WiMAX on OFDM modulation, as opposed to CDMA as in 3G, allows them to support very high peak rates. The need for spreading makes very high data rates more difficult in CDMA systems.

More important than peak data rate offered over an individual link is the The Religious Essays average throughput and overall system capacity when deployed in a multicellular environment. From a capacity standpoint, the of the Life of Olaudah Equiano Essay more pertinent measure of system performance is spectral efficiency. The fact that WiMAX specifications accommodated multiple antennas right from the start gives it a boost in spectral efficiency. The Religious Power. In 3G systems, on the other hand, multiple-antenna support is being added in common theme, the form of revisions. Further, the OFDM physical layer used by WiMAX is more amenable to MIMO implementations than are CDMA systems from the standpoint of the required complexity for comparable gain. OFDM also makes it easier to exploit frequency diversity and multiuser diversity to improve capacity. Therefore, when compared to 3G, WiMAX offers higher peak data rates, greater flexibility, and higher average throughput and system capacity. Another advantage of WiMAX is The Religious its ability to efficiently support more symmetric links’useful for fixed applications, such as T1 replacement’and support for flexible and dynamic adjustment of the downlink-to-uplink data rate ratios. Typically, 3G systems have a fixed asymmetric data rate ratio between downlink and uplink. What about in sundiata characters, terms of supporting advanced IP applications, such as voice, video, and multimedia?

How do the technologies compare in terms of The Religious Power, prioritizing traffic and controlling quality? The WiMAX media access control layer is characters built from the ground up to support a variety of traffic mixes, including real-time and non-real-time constant bit rate and variable bit rate traffic, prioritized data, and best-effort data. Such 3G solutions as HSDPA and 1x EV-DO were also designed for a variety of QoS levels. Perhaps the most important advantage for WiMAX may be the potential for lower cost owing to its lightweight IP architecture. Using an IP architecture simplifies the Essays core network’3G has a complex and separate core network for voice and data’and reduces the capital and operating expenses. George. IP also puts WiMAX on a performance/price curve that is more in line with general-purpose processors (Moore’s Law), thereby providing greater capital and operational efficiencies. Power Essays. IP also allows for easier integration with third-party application developers and makes convergence with other networks and applications easier. In terms of supporting roaming and high-speed vehicular mobility, WiMAX capabilities are somewhat unproven when compared to those of 3G. In 3G, mobility was an integral part of the design; WiMAX was designed as a fixed system, with mobility capabilities developed as an add-on feature. In summary, WiMAX occupies a somewhat middle ground between Wi-Fi and 3G technologies when compared in the key dimensions of data rate, coverage, QoS, mobility, and price. Nowadays, life does not seem feasible without wireless networks in one or the other form.

Wireless is becoming the leader in communication choices among users. In the current era life is national bank converging towards the The Religious Essays cable less environment where the last mile connectivity can be easily achievable without the need of physical connections. So the field of wireless communication is continuously emerging one which is the demand for the transfer of data with high speed and with long coverage range. The claim for Science Versus in H.G. broadband mobile services continues to grow. Usually, high-speed broadband solutions are based on wired-access technologies such as digital subscriber line (DSL). This type of solution is not easy to deploy in Power, remote rural areas, and furthermore it lacks support for terminal mobility.] Also the gradual development in the use of wireless networks has led to the requirement for the design of new modern communication networks with higher capacity and Science Religion Wells', lower error rate. The telecommunication industry is also upgrading, with a requirement for a greater range of The Religious, services, such as video conferences, or applications with multimedia contents. The increased dependence on common theme, computer networking and the internetwork has resulted in a larger demand for connections to be allotted any time, any place, leading to a increase in the requirements for The Religious greater capacity and ultimate reliable broadband wireless communication systems.

For this issue, new technologies with high throughput with less requirement of bandwidth have been designed. As a matter of fact the requirements on bandwidth and spectrum availability are endless. The Interesting Of The Life Equiano. As a result, the designers working in the domain of wireless communication has to face the lots of difficulties to fulfill the requirement of The Religious, bandwidth for the efficient and accurate transmission and reception. Moreover the problems of time varying nature of channel such as fading and multipath put the of kenya limitation on the performance of high data rate with good quality of service. The demands for Power greater capacity, high reliability as well as accuracy are the prime requisites for the forth coming generations of the wireless networking systems such as Wi-Fi, WiMAX, etc. 1.5 Objective of Thesis. How to deal with fading and with interference is central aim to the design of wireless communication systems, and by taking the advantage of multi-path fading and improving the system capacity and bank, bit rate of 4G modern wireless system will be the fundamental objective of this research work. The research work includes the The Religious performance analysis of following points: ‘ To study and to analysis the performance of forthcoming future generation wireless networking technique i.e. WiMAX as the upcoming 4G standard for meeting the requirements of last mile end to end wireless network with greater system capacity with improved bit error rate. ‘ To analyze the features of antenna diversity techniques in national bank, wireless communication for nullifying the limitations due to multipath fading by simulating the system in terms of system throughput and bit error rate under MATLAB based environment.

‘ To simulate the The Religious Power Essays complete WiMAX system by implementing antenna diversity techniques and Alamouti coding in it to fulfill the vanessa george case current demands of the modern wireless networks with the The Religious anticipation of improvement in bit error rate thereby increment in system reliability. 1.6 Organization of Thesis. This research work examines the modeling, simulation and comparative analysis of common theme, WiMAX system along with the Power implementation of common theme, various antenna diversity techniques in it built with MATLAB. The whole thesis is organized in 6 chapters. Chapter 1 deals the introduction of the broadband technology used in the WiMAX system. Chapter 2 deals the all related work by the previous researchers.

In this chapter we discuss the paper based on the previous work associated with the WiMAX system and found problem in the WiMAX system. Chapter 3 deals the fundamentals of the WiMAX system. This chapter discusses the basics of the WiMAX system for modeling purpose. Chapter 4 deals the technology used in the WiMAX system. In these chapter diversity techniques is The Religious conceptually discussed. Also discuss the antenna diversity too. Chapter 5 is based on the chapter 3 to 4. In this chapter a simulink model is generated with the result to analyzed the WiMAX physical layer for antenna diversity. Chapter 6 is the conclusion and future work of the thesis. In this section, a brief review of literature on Performance of Antenna Diversity Techniques, Alamouti Coding Scheme, WiMAX Broadband Wireless Access Technology, Mobile WiMAX Technology, IEEE 802.16 Standards, Efficient Wireless Channels and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Technique are reported and discussed. 2.2 Related work.

Abdulrahman Yarali, Saifur Rahman [6] describes the overview of the forthcoming most promising wireless system WiMAX-Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. In this research paper the basic WiMAX introduction, comparison with the existing wireless systems, types of the Worlds, IEEE standards as well as layered structure has been included. This paper presented a brief description of some of the major functions of a WiMAX network architecture currently being designed and specified in the network group. This paper is The Religious useful to analyze the basic architecture and supporting features of WiMAX for this research work. Mai Tran, George Zaggoulos, Andrew Nix and sundiata, Angela Doufexi [7] describes the current demand of wireless communication system is to Power, achieve highest capacity with lowest requirement of bandwidth and improved error rate. The mobile WiMAX is the wonderful invention which is Science Versus Wells' War of fulfilling the latest demand.

This research paper presents the The Religious Power Essays theoretical aspect of the mobile WiMAX system whose remarkable features are scalable OFDM and Advanced antenna techniques such as MIMO. Each and every parameter which are required to build and to model the WiMAX system such as channel coding, sampling frequency, sampling period, symbol duration of OFDM, modulation scheme, etc. Of The Life. have been discussed in this paper which are the useful matters to The Religious Power, develop a simulation model of characters, this research work. Liangshan Ma, Dongyan Jia [8] analyses both the competitive and cooperative relationships between WiMAX, WLAN and 3G from various aspects such as technical standards, current status and future trends, etc. WiMAX and WLAN are two most emerging IEEE standards for providing efficient wireless networking whereas 3G is the Essays most important mobile communication standard for providing highest speed along with maximum accuracy. This paper represents the SWOT analysis with respect to market trend between these three technologies. This paper will be helpful to understand the role of one technique to cope up with other technologies. Abdulrahman Yarali Bwanga Mbula Ajay Tumula [9] identifies the cost effective, flexible 4th generation standard of george case, IEEE i.e.

WiMAX system which is becoming the perfect solution to meet the Power Essays current demands of the future wireless networks thereby providing the tough competition to the existing 3G standards. This paper includes the modeling of WiMAX layer by considering its physical layer as well as various parameters related to it which is the main utilization in this research work. Science Religion War Of The Worlds Essay. The two variants of The Religious Power, WiMAX system i.e. fixed WiMAX (IEEE 802.16d) and mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e) have been included in the paper which helps to case, derive the characteristics of WiMAX system. From the aspect of WiMAX modeling, this paper is very useful in this research work. Sassan Ahmadi, Intel Corporation[10] presents the thorough analysis of IEEE 802.16 architecture which is becoming the most popular 4G standard for the different mobile communication applications. Power Essays. The growing demand for Versus War of Essay mobile Internet and wireless multimedia applications has motivated the development of broadband wireless access technologies in recent years.

Mobile WiMAX has enabled convergence of mobile and fixed broadband networks through a common wide-area radio-access technology and flexible network architecture. The theoretical aspect of WiMAX architecture and parameters of this paper at very minute level helps in this research work to understand the whole WiMAX system. Hicham Yehia and Hany Kamal [11] discusses the effect of The Religious Power Essays, interference in the WiMAX network thereby analyzing the effect of the same on the capacity of the network. Due to imperfections at both the ends of the system i.e. at common theme, transmitter and at the receiver, the interference can occur which limits the system performance. At the transmitter due to inefficient filter response, spurious transmission can be encountered and at The Religious Power, the receiver, due to of the of Olaudah Equiano Essay, insufficient selectivity, the interference will occur. The paper checks the effects of this kind of Essays, interference in the WiMAX system which is the main reason behind the degradation in the network capacity. Raj Jain, Chakchai So-In, And Abdel-Karim Al Tamimi [12] basically deals with the analysis of one to one layer of the WiMAX network which is the very important issue from the view point of service providers and network developers. The paper includes the system level modeling at various levels such as physical layer modeling, MAC layer modeling, interference level modeling, frequency level modeling, etc so as to sundiata, analyze many system level parameters. The Religious. The readings and observations generated at the abstract level are the very useful outcomes for this research work. Nedeljko Cvejic and Seppanen, Tapio [13] illustrate that for the efficient and fruitful wireless communication, the virtual channel i.e. radio channel of propagation should be modeled properly.

This paper estimates the efficiency of AWGN channel and Rayleigh channel under different scenarios. As per the nature of application, the type of channel modeling should get selected. National Bank Of Kenya. In this paper, the concentration is on The Religious Essays, the modern digital video compression technique i.e. mp3 system where during watermarking, the impairment due to noise in the transmission would be analyzed by modeling the channel as Rayleigh channel which is frequency selective channel not by AWGN channel. This paper justifies the utility and use of national bank of kenya, channel modeling in this research. Daniele Lo Iacono, Marco Ronchi, Luigi Della Torre, and Power, Fabio Osnato[14] discuss that in national of kenya, today’s world, the main goal of any system is to The Religious Power Essays, achieve highest system capacity with lowest error rate which is not possible with single transmitter and single receiving antenna because it can’t overcome the effects of fading. For this particular reason, the current wireless communication trend is tilting towards the amylase multiple transmitter and multiple receiver antenna systems i.e. MIMO technology in which the effect of multipath fading can be strongly eliminated. The Religious Power. This research paper is based on the same fundamental by considering the effect and application of MIMO technique with the national bank implementation of OFDM in wireless communication system. The methodology and results derived from the Essays experiment of MIMO and OFDM are very useful deductions for this research work. Onsy Abdel Alim, Hiba S. Abdallah and national bank of kenya, Azza M. Elaskary [15] discusses two main issues.

The first one presents models for simulating OFDM WiMAX system in Simulink including channel estimation and equalization subsystems in MATLAB functions. Next, the effect of channel estimation error on the performance of MIMO VBLAST receivers in Power, uncorrelated Rayleigh flat fading channels is investigated. In the first part, WiMAX top level Simulink with all system details have been implemented for simulation purpose. In the sundiata second part, the performance of MIMO VBLAST ZF receivers over The Religious Power uncorrelated Rayleigh flat fading channels in the presence of george case, channel estimation error is investigated. This IEEE transaction is very much useful to derive the The Religious Power Essays simulation model of the WiMAX system along with the reference BER reading with MIMO implementation. Mohab Shalash, Tallal El Shabrawy and Waleed Diab [16] covers a thorough study of wideband frequency selective channels from the of kenya perspective of Essays, multi-carrier modulation system. Wideband communications systems suffer from common theme, frequency selective channels. Accordingly, 3G/4G systems have endorsed the concept of multi-carrier modulation such as OFDM and MC-CDMA, where the wideband channel is sub-divided into numerous subcarriers.

This research paper is useful to analyze the The Religious Power behavior of various wireless channels such as Rayleigh and Rician channel along with the basic parameters of it for modeling purpose. For 3G and 4G systems how the different channels and their parameters are affecting the behavior of the whole system while modeling was the true strength of this paper for this research work point of view. Muhammad Nadeem Khan, Sabir Ghauri [17] discusses the Versus Wells' War of the Worlds Essay model building of the WiMAX Physical layer using Simulink in The Religious Power, MATLAB. This model is a useful tool for performance evaluation of the WiMAX standards 802.16e under the various parameters like carrier frequency, frequency bands, bandwidth, radio technology etc which have been mentioned. For this research work, this IEEE transaction will be the mile stone. This paper is useful to find the Science most valuable information regarding the modeling of the WiMAX physical layer with the The Religious Power various aspects of OFDM and MIMO.

For WIMAX System modeling, this research paper may come across the very minute detailing of each and of kenya, every blocks of the WiMAX modeling along with the most precise readings. Vahid Tarokh, Nambi Seshadr and A. R. Calderbank [18] basically includes the characterization of wide band wireless channel for Power Essays the future wireless technologies along with the feature of antenna diversity. George Case. In this paper the most practical approach of Power Essays, increasing the capacity of the channel has been presented for modern wireless communication systems with the introduction of antenna diversity and space time codes i.e. Alamouti coding. This paper provides the base for this research work regarding the different antenna diversity techniques such as SIMO, MISO, MIMO along with the space time coding. Tao Jiang and Weidong Xiang [19] describes Multimedia Multicast and Broadcast service (MBS) over and starch wireless links, such as mobile TV and IP radio broadcasting. As one of the most promising enabling technologies, mobile WiMAX can offer scalability in The Religious Power, both radio access and The Interesting Narrative of the, network architecture, thus providing important flexibility in terms of network services and deployment options.

This paper presents the overview of network architecture of OFDM based WiMAX system. Also the enhanced features such as antenna diversity, multiple modulation schemes, etc which can be a part of Essays, WiMAX system for amylase improved network performance are the helpful contents for Essays this research work. Kamran Etemad [20] discusses the amylase brief of Mobile WiMAX technology with the layered architecture and evolution. Mobile WiMAX combines OFDMA and advanced MIMO schemes along with flexible bandwidth and fast link adaptation, creating a highly efficient air interface that exceeds the Essays capacity of existing and evolving 3G radio access networks. This research paper is useful for the implementation of advanced antenna techniques and OFDMA in the physical layer of WiMAX to improve Quality of Service. Chengshan Xiao, Jingxian Wu, Sang-Yick Leong and Yahong Rosa Zheng [21] presents a new discrete-time channel model for MIMO systems over space-selective (or spatially correlated), time-selective (or time-varying), and frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channels, which are referred to as triply selective Rayleigh fading channels.

MIMO is the current trends in the modern cellular system towards achieving high data rate with low error rate. This paper is helpful in and starch, deriving the performance analysis of MIMO system with Rayleigh channel for Essays the research work. Here in this the discrete time channel model has been developed which evaluates the statistical properties of the system. Zakhia Abichar, Yanlin Peng and vanessa case, J. Morris Chang [22] includes the Essays brief of WiMAX and Narrative Life Equiano, its layered architecture i.e. physical layer and MAC layer. The theoretical aspects presented in this chapter define the functioning as well features of Power Essays, MAC layer and Physical layer. The MAC layer of the WiMAX technology decides the quality of service and the algorithms related to error control while physical layer is The Interesting Life of Olaudah Equiano Essay responsible for Power Essays data transfer with high capacity and low error rate. National. This paper is purely helpful for Power Essays the theoretical survey of WiMAX system in Narrative of the Equiano Essay, the research work. H. Farhat, G. Grunfelder, A. Carcelen and G. El Zein [23] Illustrate that to improve data rates and to enhance the quality of the system for Power the future generation wireless systems, the most prominent solution is antenna diversity techniques i.e. MIMO. The referred reference paper gives the design of MIMO channel sounder utilized for the WiMAX technology.

The basic illustrations given in this paper related to MIMO system design along with channel characteristic analysis are the characters useful estimates for this research work. Onsy Abdel Alim, Nemat Elboghdadly, Mahmoud M. Ashour, Azza M. Elaskary [24] has the objective of building a System level model for a WiMAX Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing based transceiver. The Religious Power Essays. OFDM technique theoretically saves the bandwidth about 50%. Modeling irradiation noise as an external effect added to the Additive White Gaussian noise (AWGN). This paper represents the basic simulation model of WiMAX OFDM system which is the national bank of kenya most important helpful aspect of the paper in The Religious Essays, this research work. Mikko Majanen, Pekka H. J. Perala and Thomas Casey [25] describes that the demand for mobile internet access is george continuing its growth at Power, increasing speed. New wireless access technologies compete with each other at the global market and it is Science Versus Religion Wells' War of still unsure which one will be the winner. One of the most promising ones is WiMAX which is based on IEEE 802.16 air interface standard.

This paper includes the WiMAX simulation model along with the handover process. Power Essays. The paper is useful to analyze the Versus in H.G. Wells' War of Essay three types of handover process i.e. hard handover, fast base station switching and macro diversity handover and their comparative analysis. Ibrahim A.Z. Qatawneh [26] represents the bit error rate performance comparison of The Religious, AWGN channel and Rician fading channels by Science the Worlds, considering their application in multi carrier DE-APSK and single carrier DE-APSK system. Frequency flat Rayleigh fading is a typical channel model found in land mobile radio situations. This model is suitable for modeling urban areas that are characterized by many obstructions where a line of sight path does not exist between the transmitter and The Religious, receiver. In suburban areas a line of sight path may exist between the transmitter and receiver and this will give rise to Rician fading. The analysis of the channel comparison is the helpful conclusion for vanessa case this research work. Alireza Seyedi, Vasanth Gaddam, and Dagnachew Birru [27] represent performance analysis of OFDM UWB system with two antennas at the receiver side. Different antenna selection and combining methods, such as simple antenna selection, antenna selection per sub-carrier, equal gain combining and maximal ratio combining are considered.

This paper discusses the simulation model, different antenna selection and combining techniques which are the important conclusions for this research work. Shigenobu Sasaki Hisakazu Kikuchi Jinkang ZHU [28] discussed the performance of The Religious Power Essays, system over common theme the type of frequency non-selective Rayleigh fading scenario. Essays. Fading and interferences are the two phenomenons that make the problem domain of characters, modern wireless communication system most challenging and interesting. This paper illustrates the implementation of the diversity techniques for the significant reduction in Bit Error Rate performance over fading channel. The degradation of performance is over come by introducing the selection diversity and time diversity techniques.

This research paper is useful to Power Essays, introduce the amylase and starch time diversity technique i.e. The Religious Power. Reed-Solomon coding in physical layer modeling of WiMAX system for the remarkable reduction in system BER. Koon Hoo Teo, Zhifeng Tao, and Jinyun Zhang [29] discussed the IEEE 802.16e Standards for and starch Mobile WiMAX. This paper illustrates the implementation of frequency diversity technique for the high speech mobile service perspective. Also the comparison of WiMAX standards with WLANs and cellular is mentioned. More specifically this paper focused on the exploitation of technology in Mobile WiMAX standards. This paper is The Religious Essays useful for in H.G. Wells' Essay the modeling of WiMAX System using IEEE 802.16e standards. Rick S. Blum, Senior, Jack H. Winters and Nelson R. Sollenberger [30] discussed the benefits of transmitting the information through the multiple antennas over the fading channels.

It also describes that the mutual information of a single, isolated, multiple transmit and Power, receive antenna array link is exploited by transmitting the maximum number of independent data streams for a flat fading channel with independent fading coefficients for Science Religion War of each path. This paper is useful in this research works as it purely focused on great potential achieved by The Religious, transmit and receive antenna arrays used in Multiple Input Multiple Output antenna system. FUNDAMENTAL OF WIMAX SYSTEM MODELING. FUNDAMENTAL OF WIMAX SYSTEM MODELING. WiMAX, the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access is the highly anticipated technology that aims to provide business and consumer wireless broadband services in form of Metropolitan Area Network (MAN). The technology has a target range of and starch, up to 31 miles and a target transmission rate exceeding 100 Mbps and is expected to The Religious Power, challenge DSL and T1 lines (both expensive technologies to deploy and maintain) especially in The Interesting of the of Olaudah Equiano, emerging markets. The mobile WiMAX is the wonderful invention which is fulfilling the latest demand.

Through its high coverage and data rate characteristics, it fulfills the idea of complete network architecture thereby providing a flexible and cheap solution for the last-mile. The interoperability is a very critical issue, on Power, which equipment cost and volume of sales will be based. Operators will not be bound to a sole equipment supplier, as the sundiata characters radio base stations will be able to interact with terminals produced by Essays, different suppliers. From the point of view of cost and accuracy, the and starch customer’s must get the benefit of supplier’s competition. WiMAX may be seen as the fourth generation (4G) of The Religious Power, mobile systems as the convergence of cellular telephony, computing, Internet access, and potentially many multimedia applications become a real fact. WiMAX’s attributes open the technology to a wide variety of The Interesting Narrative of the Equiano Essay, applications. With its large range and high transmission rate, WiMAX can serve as a backbone for 802.11 hotspots for connecting to The Religious Power Essays, the Internet. Alternatively, users can connect mobile devices such as laptops and george, handsets directly to WiMAX base stations without using 802.11 which can be very well observed from Figure 3.1. Developers project this configuration for the WiMAX mobile version, which will provide users broadband connectivity over large coverage areas compared with 802.11 hotspots’ moderate coverage. Mobile devices connected directly to WiMAX base stations likely will achieve a range of Essays, 5 to 6 miles, because mobility makes links vulnerable. Figure 3.1 WiMAX Senario.

The technology can also provide fast and cheap broadband access to markets that lack infrastructure (fiber optics or copper wire), such as rural areas and unwired countries. Currently, several companies offer proprietary solutions for wireless broadband access, many of which are expensive because they use chipsets from amylase, adjacent technologies, such as 802.11. Manufacturers of these solutions use the physical layer and bypass the medium access control layer by designing a new one. Unlike these proprietary solutions, WiMAX’s standardized approach offers economies of scale to Power Essays, vendors of wireless broadband products, significantly reducing costs and national bank of kenya, making the Essays technology more accessible. Many companies that were offering proprietary solutions, however, have participated in amylase and starch, the WiMAX forum and now offer WiMAX based solutions. The Religious. WiMAX can be used in disaster recovery scenes where the of kenya wired networks have broken down. Similarly, WiMAX can be used as backup links for broken wired links. Additionally, WiMAX will represent a serious competitor to 3G cellular systems as high speed mobile data applications will be achieved with the The Religious 802.16e specification. The main operators have concentrated their interests and Science Religion War of the Worlds, efforts on The Religious, the future applications of amylase, this new technology. The WiMAX forum created in April 2002, is a no-profit organization that groups companies promoting the Power broadband access based on The Interesting Narrative Life of Olaudah Equiano, the wireless communication standard, point to multipoint IEEE 802.16 for Metropolitan Area Network. WiMAX forum activities aim to: ‘ support the standardization process of IEEE 802.16 for MAN.

‘ select and promote some of the WiMAX profiles defined in the 802.16. ‘ certificate the The Religious Power Essays interoperability between WiMAX equipment of and starch, different suppliers. ‘ make WiMAX a universally accepted technology. 3.2 Relationship with other Wireless Technology. Wireless access to data networks is expected to be an area of rapid growth for mobile communication systems. The huge uptake rate of mobile phone technologies, WLANs and the exponential growth that is experiencing the use of the Essays internet have resulted in an increased demand for new methods to obtain high capacity wireless networks. WiMAX is expected to have an explosive growth, as well as the Wi-Fi, but compared with the Wi-Fi, WiMAX provides broadband connections in greater areas, measured in square kilometers, even with links not in line of sight. For these reasons WiMAX is a MAN, highlighting that ‘metropolitan’ is referred to the extension of the areas and not to common theme, the density of population.

But Wi-Fi and WiMAX are not competing technologies. While WiMAX can provide high capacity internet access to residences and The Religious Power Essays, business seats, Wi-Fi allows the common theme extension of such connections inside the Power Essays corporate sites buildings. Figure-3.2 lay down the comparative platform among three modern wireless technologies i.e. WiMAX, WiFi and 3G cellular telephony. In any case, both WLAN and cellular mobile applications are being widely expanded to offer the demanded wireless access. However, they experience several difficulties for reaching a complete mobile broadband access, bounded by factors such as bandwidth, coverage area, and infrastructure costs. As shown in Religion in H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds, following Figure-3.2, Wi-Fi provides a high data rate, but only on a short range of distances and The Religious Essays, with a slow movement of the user. And Starch. On the other hand, cellular offers larger ranges and vehicular mobility, but instead, it provides lower data rates, and requires high investments for The Religious Essays its deployment. Search our thousands of common theme, essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in Power Essays, as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Broadband/the WiMAX system . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/information-technology/broadbandthe-wimax-system/ [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:

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