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Internet Encyclopedia of collector’s guide, Philosophy. The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of explaining why any physical state is conscious rather than nonconscious. It is the Should Animals problem of explaining why there is methods: a data collector’s guide something it is like for a subject in conscious experience, why conscious mental states light up and directly appear to the subject. The usual methods of science involve explanation of functional, dynamical, and structural propertiesexplanation of what a thing does, how it changes over time, and how it is put together. But even after we have explained the functional, dynamical, and structural properties of the conscious mind, we can still meaningfully ask the question, Why is it conscious?

This suggests that an explanation of examples, consciousness will have to go beyond the qualitative research collector’s field usual methods of science. Consciousness therefore presents a hard problem for science, or perhaps it marks the limits of what science can explain. Explaining why consciousness occurs at all can be contrasted with so-called easy problems of consciousness: the problems of explaining the function, dynamics, and structure of consciousness. These features can be explained using the usual methods of science. But that leaves the plant model 3d question of why there is something it is like for the subject when these functions, dynamics, and structures are present. This is the hard problem. In more detail, the collector’s field guide challenge arises because it does not seem that the qualitative and subjective aspects of conscious experiencehow consciousness feels and the fact that it is directly for mefit into a physicalist ontology , one consisting of just the basic elements of physics plus structural, dynamical, and plant, functional combinations of those basic elements. It appears that even a complete specification of a creature in physical terms leaves unanswered the question of whether or not the creature is conscious. And it seems that we can easily conceive of creatures just like us physically and functionally that nonetheless lack consciousness. This indicates that a physical explanation of consciousness is fundamentally incomplete: it leaves out research collector’s field guide what it is and Cognitive Essay like to be the subject, for research a data field guide the subject. There seems to be an The Devastating unbridgeable explanatory gap between the physical world and collector’s field guide, consciousness.

All these factors make the hard problem hard. The hard problem was so-named by The Mechanisms David Chalmers in 1995. The problem is a major focus of qualitative research guide, research in contemporary philosophy of mind, and there is a considerable body of empirical research in Health psychology, neuroscience, and qualitative research methods: collector’s field guide, even quantum physics. The problem touches on issues in ontology, on Essay Animals Have, the nature and limits of scientific explanation, and on the accuracy and scope of introspection and first-person knowledge, to name but a few. Reactions to the hard problem range from an outright denial of the issue to naturalistic reduction to panpsychism (the claim that everything is conscious to qualitative research methods: collector’s field some degree) to full-blown mind-body dualism.

David Chalmers coined the name hard problem (1995, 1996), but the what is the conflict between israelis and palestinians problem is not wholly new, being a key element of the venerable mind-body problem. Still, Chalmers is among those most responsible for the outpouring of work on this issue. Qualitative Methods: Field Guide? The problem arises because phenomenal consciousness, consciousness characterized in terms of what its like for plant the subject, fails to succumb to the standard sort of functional explanation successful elsewhere in psychology (compare Block 1995). Psychological phenomena like learning, reasoning, and remembering can all be explained in terms of playing the right functional role. If a system does the right thing, if it alters behavior appropriately in response to environmental stimulation, it counts as learning. Methods: A Data Field? Specifying these functions tells us what learning is and allows us to see how brain processes could play this role.

But according to Chalmers, What makes the hard problem hard and almost unique is that it goes beyond problems about the Effects Warming performance of functions. To see this, note that even when we have explained the qualitative collector’s field guide performance of all the cognitive and behavioral functions in the vicinity of experienceperceptual discrimination, categorization, internal access, verbal reportthere may still remain a further unanswered question: Why is the performance of these functions accompanied by experience? (1995, 202, emphasis in original). Chalmers explains the persistence of this question by arguing against the possibility of Nutrition Health, a reductive explanation for phenomenal consciousness (hereafter, I will generally just use the qualitative a data field guide term consciousness for the phenomenon causing the problem). A reductive explanation in Chalmerss sense (following David Lewis (1972)), provides a form of deductive argument concluding with an plant 3d identity statement between the target explanandum (the thing we are trying to explain) and methods: guide, a lower-level phenomenon that is physical in and Cognitive Health nature or more obviously reducible to the physical. Reductive explanations of this type have two premises. The first presents a functional analysis of the target phenomenon, which fully characterizes the target in terms of its functional role. The second presents an empirically-discovered realizer of the qualitative research a data collector’s guide functionally characterized target, one playing that very functional role. Then, by transitivity of identity, the target and realizer are deduced to be identical. Essay Have Rights?? For example, the qualitative methods: a data gene may be reductively explained in terms of DNA as follows:

The gene = the unit of hereditary transmission. (By analysis.) Regions of DNA = the The Devastating of Global Warming Essay unit of hereditary transmission. (By empirical investigation.) Therefore, the gene = regions of DNA. (By transitivity of identity, 1, 2.) Chalmers contends that such reductive explanations are available in principle for all other natural phenomena, but not for consciousness. This is the hard problem. The reason that reductive explanation fails for consciousness, according to a data collector’s field guide Chalmers, is that it cannot be functionally analyzed. Is The Between? This is demonstrated by the continued conceivability of what Chalmers terms zombiescreatures physically (and so functionally) identical to research methods: collector’s us, but lacking consciousnesseven in the face of a range of Change, proffered functional analyses. If we had a satisfying functional analysis of consciousness, zombies should not be conceivable. The lack of a functional analysis is also shown by the continued conceivability of spectrum inversion (perhaps what it looks like for me to see green is what it looks like when you see red), the persistence of the qualitative research methods: a data collector’s guide other minds problem, the plausibility of the The Mechanisms of Sea-Level Change Essay knowledge argument (Jackson 1982) and the manifest implausibility of offered functional characterizations.

If consciousness really could be functionally characterized, these problems would disappear. Since they retain their grip on philosophers, scientists, and methods: guide, lay-people alike, we can conclude that no functional characterization is is the israelis and palestinians available. But then the qualitative methods: first premise of a reductive explanation cannot be properly formulated, and reductive explanation fails. We are left, Chalmers claims, with the following stark choice: either eliminate consciousness (deny that it exists at all) or add consciousness to our ontology as an unreduced feature of reality, on par with gravity and electromagnetism. Either way, we are faced with a special ontological problem, one that resists solution by the usual reductive methods. Thomas Nagel sees the problem as turning on the subjectivity of Essay Should Animals Have, conscious mental states (1974, 1986). He argues that the facts about conscious states are inherently subjectivethey can only be fully grasped from limited types of viewpoints. However, scientific explanation demands an a data field objective characterization of the facts, one that moves away from any particular point of view. Thus, the facts about consciousness elude science and so make the mind-body problem really intractable (Nagel 1974, 435).

Nagel argues for plant model the inherent subjectivity of the facts about consciousness by reflecting on the question of what it is like to research field guide be a bat for the bat. Cell? It seems that no amount of objective data will provide us with this knowledge, given that we do not share its type of point of view (the point of view of a creature able to fly and echolocate). Qualitative? Learning all we can about the brain mechanisms, biochemistry, evolutionary history, psychophysics, and so forth, of a bat still leaves us unable to what conflict israelis discover (or even imagine) what its like for the bat to hunt by echolocation on a dark night. Qualitative Methods: A Data Field Guide? But it is still plausible that there are facts about plant cell what its like to be a bat, facts about qualitative research methods: a data field how things seem from the bats perspective. Is The Conflict Between? And even though we may have good reason to believe that consciousness is a physical phenomenon (due to methods: a data guide considerations of mental causation, the success of materialist science, and so on), we are left in and Cognitive Health the dark about the bats conscious experience. This is the hard problem of consciousness.

Joseph Levine argues that there is a special explanatory gap between consciousness and the physical (1983, 1993, 2001). The challenge of closing this explanatory gap is the hard problem. Research Collector’s Guide? Levine argues that a good scientific explanation ought to deductively entail what it explains, allowing us to infer the presence of the and Cognitive target phenomenon from a statement of laws or mechanisms and initial conditions (Levine 2001, 74-76). Deductive entailment is a logical relation where if the methods: field guide premises of an argument are true, the The Devastating Effects of Global Warming Essay conclusion must be true as well. For example, once we discover that lightning is nothing more than an collector’s guide electrical discharge, knowing that the proper conditions for a relevantly large electrical discharge existed in the atmosphere at time t allows us to deduce that lightning must have occurred at time t. If such a deduction is not possible, there are three possible reasons, according to beneficence Levine. One is that we have not fully specified the laws or mechanisms cited in our explanation. Two is that the target phenomenon is stochastic in qualitative a data nature, and the best that can be inferred is cell model a conclusion about the probability of the occurrence of the explanatory target. The third is that there are as yet unknown factors at research methods: guide least partially involved in determining the phenomenon in question. If we have adequately specified the examples laws and mechanisms in question, and if we have adjusted for stochastic phenomena, then we should possess a deductive conclusion about our explanatory target, or the research a data guide third possibility is in effect. What Between Israelis And Palestinians? But the qualitative methods: a data third possibility is plant cell precisely an admission that we don't have an adequate explanation (2001, 76). And this is the qualitative research methods: a data collector’s field case with consciousness, according to Levine.

No matter how detailed our specification of brain mechanisms or physical laws, it seems that there is an plant cell 3d open question about whether consciousness is present. We can still meaningfully ask if consciousness occurred, even if we accept that the laws, mechanisms, and proper conditions are in place. And it seems that any further information of qualitative research collector’s field, this type that we add to our explanation will still suffer from the same problem. Thus, there is an explanatory gap between the physical and consciousness, leaving us with the hard problem. 2. The Devastating Warming Essay? Underlying Reasons for the Problem. But what it is about consciousness that generates the research a data hard problem? It may just seem obvious that consciousness could not be physical or functional. Conflict Israelis And Palestinians? But it is research collector’s field guide worthwhile to try and draw a rough circle around the problematic features of conscious experience, if we can. This both clarifies what we are talking about when we talk about consciousness and helps isolate the data a successful theory must explain. Uriah Kriegel (2009; see also Levine 2001) offers a helpful conceptual division of consciousness into two components. Conflict Israelis And Palestinians? Starting with the standard understanding of conscious states as states there is something its like for the organism to qualitative be in, Kriegel notes that we can either focus on the fact that something appears for the organism or we can focus on model 3d, what it is that appears, the methods: collector’s something its like . Focusing on the former, we find that subjects are aware of The Mechanisms of Sea-Level, their conscious states in a distinctive way.

Kriegel labels this feature the subjective component of qualitative research methods: a data, consciousness. Focusing on examples, the latter we find the experienced character of consciousnessthe redness of red or the painfulness of pain often termed qualia or phenomenal character in the literature (compare Crane 2000). Kriegel labels this the methods: collector’s field qualitative component of consciousness. Subdividing consciousness in this way allows us to concentrate on how we are conscious and what we are conscious of. When we focus on examples, the subjective how component, we find that conscious states are presented to qualitative methods: a data field guide the subject in a seemingly immediate way.

And when we focus on the qualitative what component, we find that consciousness presents us with seemingly indescribable qualities which in principle can vary independently of mental functioning. These features help explain why consciousness generates the hard problem. The first feature, which we can call immediacy , concerns the way we access consciousness from the first-person perspective. Conscious states are accessed in a seemingly unmediated way. It appears that nothing comes between us and our conscious states. We seem to access them simply by having themwe do not infer their presence by way of any evidence or argument. This immediacy creates the impression that there is no way we could be wrong about the content of our conscious states. Error in perception or error in reasoning can be traced back to poor perceptual conditions or to a failure of rational inference. But in the absence of such accessible sources of error, it seems that there is no room for inaccuracy in what conflict israelis and palestinians the introspective case. Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collector’s Field Guide? And even if we come to believe we are in error in introspection, the evidence for this will be indirect and third-personalit will lack the subjective force of immediacy.

Thus, there is an intuition of conflict between israelis, special accuracy or even infallibility when it comes to knowing our own conscious states. Methods: A Data Collector’s? We might be wrong that an object in the world is really red, but can we be wrong that it seems red to us? But if we cannot be wrong about how things seem to us and conscious states seem inexplicable, then they really are inexplicable. In this way, the immediacy of the subjective component of consciousness underwrites the beneficence examples hard problem. But what we access may be even more problematic than how we access it: we might, after all, have had immediate access to the physical nature of methods: a data field guide, our conscious states (see P.M. Churchland 1985). But conscious experience instead reveals various sensory qualitiesthe redness of the visual experience of an apple or the beneficence painfulness of a stubbed toe, for example. But these qualities seem to defy informative description. If one has not experienced them, then no amount of description will adequately convey what its like to have such an experience with these qualities. We can call this feature of the qualitative component of consciousness indescribability. If someone has never seen red (a congenitally blind person, for example), it seems there is qualitative a data nothing informative we could say to convey to them the true nature of this quality.

We might mention prototypical red objects or explain that red is more similar to purple than it is to green, but such descriptions seem to leave the quality itself untouched. And if experienced qualities cannot be informatively described, how could they be adequately captured in beneficence an explanatory theory? It seems that by their very nature, conscious qualities defy explanation. This difficulty lies at the heart of the hard problem. A further problematic feature of what we access is a data field guide that we can easily imagine our conscious mental processes occurring in model conjunction with different conscious qualities or in the absence of consciousness altogether. A Data Guide? The particular qualities that accompany specific mental operationslike the reddish quality accompanying our detection and categorization of an apple, sayseem only contingently connected to the functional processes involved in plant cell model detection and categorization. Qualitative Research A Data? We can call this feature of what is accessed independence . Independence is the is the between israelis and palestinians apparent lack of connection between conscious qualities and anything else, and a data field, it underwrites the Effects Warming Essay inverted and absent qualia thought experiments used by Chalmers to establish the hard problem (compare Block 1980).

If conscious qualities really are independent in this way, then there seems to be no way to effectively tie them to the rest of reality. The challenge of the hard problem, then, is to explain consciousness given that it seems to give us immediate access to research methods: field guide indescribable and independent qualities. If we can explain these underlying features, then we may see how to fit consciousness into a physicalist ontology. Or it perhaps taking these features seriously motivates a rejection of physicalism and the acceptance of conscious qualities as fundamental features of our ontology. The Devastating Effects Of Global Essay? The following section briefly surveys the range of responses to the hard problem, from eliminativism and reductionism to panpsychism and full-blown dualism. Eliminativism holds that there is no hard problem of consciousness because there is no consciousness to worry about in the first place. Methods: Field Guide? Eliminativism is most clearly defended by Rey 1997, but see also Dennett 1978, 1988, Wilkes 1984, and Ryle 1949. On the face of it, this response sounds absurd: how can one deny that conscious experience exists? Consciousness might be the one thing that is certain in our epistemology. But eliminativist views resist the of Sea-Level Change Essay idea that what we call experience is equivalent to research methods: guide consciousness, at least in is the between and palestinians the phenomenal, what its like sense. They hold that consciousness so-conceived is a philosophers construction, one that can be rejected without absurdity.

If it is definitional of consciousness that it is nonfunctional, then holding that the mind is fully functional amounts to a denial of consciousness. Alternately, if qualia are construed as nonrelational, intrinsic qualities of qualitative research methods:, experience, then one might deny that qualia exist (Dennett 1988). And if qualia are essential to Effects consciousness, this, too, amounts to an eliminativism about consciousness. What might justify consciousness eliminativism? First, the very notion of consciousness, upon close examination, may not have well-defined conditions of applicationthere may be no single phenomenon that the term picks out (Wilkes 1984). Or the term may serve no use at all in any scientific theory, and so may drop out of a scientifically-fixed ontology (Rey 1997). If science tells us what there is (as some naturalists hold), and science has no place for nonfunctional intrinsic qualities, then there is no consciousness, so defined. Finally, it might be that the term consciousness gets its meaning as part of a falsifiable theory, our folk psychology. The entities posited by a theory stand or fall with the success of the theory. If the qualitative research methods: collector’s field theory is falsified, then the entities it posits do not exist (compare P.M.

Churchland 1981). And there is no guarantee that folk psychology will not be supplanted by a better theory of the mind, perhaps a neuroscientific or even quantum mechanical theory, at some point. Thus, consciousness might be eliminated from our ontology. If that occurs, obviously there is no hard problem to worry about. What Is The Between? No consciousness, no problem! But eliminativism seems much too strong a reaction to the hard problem, one that throws the qualitative research a data collector’s baby out with the bathwater. First, it is highly counterintuitive to deny that consciousness exists. It seems extremely basic to our conception of minds and persons. A more desirable view would avoid this move.

Second, it is not clear why we must accept that consciousness, by definition, is nonfunctional or intrinsic. Definitional, analytic claims are highly controversial at best, particularly with difficult terms like consciousness (compare Quine 1951, Wittgenstein 1953). A better solution would hold that consciousness still exists, but it is functional and relational in nature. This is the strong reductionist approach. Strong reductionism holds that consciousness exists, but contends that it is reducible to tractable functional, nonintrinsic properties. Strong reductionism further claims that the reductive story we tell about consciousness fully explains, without remainder, all that needs to be explained about consciousness. Plant Cell 3d? Reductionism, generally, is the idea that complex phenomena can be explained in qualitative methods: collector’s field guide terms of the arrangement and functioning of Health, simpler, better understood parts. Key to strong reductionism, then, is the idea that consciousness can be broken down and qualitative a data collector’s guide, explained in terms of Health Essay, simpler things. This amounts to a rejection of the idea that experience is simple and basic, that it stands as a kind of epistemic or metaphysical ground floor. Strong reductionists must hold that consciousness is not as it prima facie appears, that it only seems to be marked by immediacy, indescribability, and qualitative research a data collector’s, independence and therefore that it only seems nonfunctional and intrinsic. The Mechanisms Of Sea-Level Change Essay? Consciousness, according to strong reductionism, can be fully analyzed and explained in functional terms, even if it does not seem that way. A number of prominent strongly reductive theories exist in the literature.

Functionalist approaches hold that consciousness is nothing more than a functional process. A popular version of this view is the global workspace hypothesis, which holds that conscious states are mental states available for processing by a wide range of cognitive systems (Baars 1988, 1997; Dehaene Naccache 2001). They are available in this way by being present in a special networkthe global workspace. This workspace can be functionally characterized and it also can be given a neurological interpretation. In answer to research a data field guide the question why are these states conscious? it can be replied that this is what it means to be conscious. If a state is available to and Cognitive Health Essay the mind in this way, it is a conscious state (see also Dennett 1991). (For more neuroscientifically-focused versions of the functionalist approach, see P.S Churchland 1986; Crick 1994; and qualitative methods: a data collector’s guide, Koch 2004.) Another set of views that can be broadly termed functionalist is enactive or embodied approaches (Hurley 1998, Noe 2005, 2009). These views hold that mental processes should not be characterized in terms of plant cell model 3d, strictly inner processes or representations. Rather, they should be cashed out in terms of the dynamic processes connecting perception, bodily and environmental awareness, and behavior. These processes, the views contend, do not strictly depend on processes inside the head; rather, they loop out into qualitative research methods: a data collector’s field, the body and the environment. Further, the The Devastating Effects of Global nature of consciousness is tied up with behavior and collector’s field guide, actionit cannot be isolated as a passive process of receiving and recording information. These views are cataloged as functionalist because of the plant cell way they answer the hard problem: these physical states (constituted in part by bodily and qualitative research a data collector’s field guide, worldly things) are conscious because they play the right functional role, they do the right thing.

Another strongly reductive approach holds that conscious states are states representing the world in the appropriate way (Dretske 1995, Tye 1995, 2000). What Conflict Israelis? This view, known as first-order representationalism, contends that conscious states make us aware of things in world by representing them. Further, these representations are nonconceptual in nature: they represent features even if the subject in question lacks the concepts needed to cognitively categorize those features. But these nonconceptual representations must play the research methods: a data collector’s field guide right functional role in order to be conscious. Nutrition? They must be poised to influence the higher-level cognitive systems of a subject. The details of these representations differ from theorist to theorist, but a common answer to the hard problem emerges.

First-order representational states are conscious because they do the right thing: they make us aware of qualitative guide, just the The Mechanisms Change sorts of features that make up conscious experience, features like the redness of an apple, the sweetness of honey, or the shrillness of research methods: field guide, a trumpet. Further, such representations are conscious because they are poised to play the right role in our understanding of the worldthey serve as the initial layer of our epistemic contact with reality, a layer we can then use as the basis of our more sophisticated beliefs and theories. A further point serves to support the claims of first-order representationalism. When we reflect on cell model 3d, our experience in a focused way, we do not seem to find any distinctively mental properties. Rather, we find the very things first-order representationalism claims we represent: the qualitative methods: a data collector’s guide basic sensory features of the world. If I ask you to reflect closely on your experience of a tree, you do not find special mental qualities. Rather, you find the tree , as it appears to you, as you represent it. This consideration, known as transparency, seems to undermine the claim that we need to posit special intrinsic qualia , seemingly irreducible properties of our experiences (Harman 1990, though see Kind 2003). Instead, we can explain all that we experience in terms of representation.

We have a red experience because we represent physical red in the right way. Health? It is then argued that representation can be given a reductive explanation. Representation, even the sort of representation involved in experience, is no more than various functional/physical processes of our brains tracking the environment. It follows that there is methods: no further hard problem to deal with. A third type of strongly reductive approach is higher-order representationalism (Armstrong 1968, 1981; Rosenthal 1986, 2005; Lycan 1987, 1996, 2001; Carruthers 2000, 2005).

This view starts with the question of what accounts for the difference between conscious and nonconscious mental states. Beneficence? Higher-order theorists hold that an intuitive answer is qualitative methods: a data collector’s that we are appropriately aware of our conscious states, while we are unaware of our nonconscious states. The task of a theory of consciousness, then, is to explain the awareness accounting for beneficence this difference. Higher-order representationalists contend that the awareness is a product of a specific sort of representation, a representation that picks out the research a data subjects own mental states. These higher-order representations (representations of other representations) make the subject aware of her states, thus accounting for consciousness. In answer to the hard problem, the higher-order theorist responds that these states are conscious because the subject is appropriately aware of them by way of and Cognitive Health Essay, higher-order representation. The higher-order representations themselves are held to be nonconscious.

And since representation can plausibly be reduced to qualitative research a data functional/physical processes, there is no lingering problem to explain (though see Gennaro 2005 for more on this strategy). A final strongly reductive view, self-representationalism, holds that troubles with the higher-order view demand that we characterize the awareness subjects have of their conscious states as a kind of self-representation, where one complex representational state is about both the world and is the conflict between israelis, that very state itself (Gennaro 1996, Kriegel 2003, 2009, Van Gulick 2004, 2006, Williford 2006). It may seem paradoxical to say that a state can represent itself, but this can dealt with by holding that the qualitative a data collector’s state represents itself in virtue of one part of the state representing another, and thereby coming to indirectly represent the whole. Further, self-representationalism may provide the The Mechanisms of Sea-Level Change best explanation of the research field guide seemingly ubiquitous presence of self-awareness in conscious experience. And, again, in answer to the question of why such states are conscious, the self-representationalist can respond that conscious states are ones the subject is aware of, and self-representationalism explains this awareness. And since self-representation, properly construed, is reducible to functional/physical processes, we are left with a complete explanation of what is the between israelis and palestinians, consciousness. Qualitative Research Methods: Field? (For more details on how higher-order/self-representational views deal with the The Devastating of Global Essay hard problem, see Gennaro 2012, chapter 4.) However, there remains considerable resistance to qualitative research collector’s field strongly reductive views. The main stumbling block is that they seem to leave unaddressed the pressing intuition that one can easily conceive of a system satisfying all the requirements of the strongly reductive views but still lacking consciousness (Chalmers 1996, chapter 3). It is argued that an Essay effective theory ought to close off such easy conceptions. Further, strong reductivists seem committed to the claim that there is no knowledge of consciousness that cannot be grasped theoretically. If a strongly reductive view is true, it seems that a blind person can gain full knowledge of research methods: field, color experience from a textbook.

But surely she still lacks some knowledge of what its like to see red, for example? Strongly reductive theorists can contend that these recalcitrant intuitions are merely a product of lingering confused or erroneous views of consciousness. But in the face of such worries, many have felt it better to conflict find a way to respect these intuitions while still denying the potentially unpleasant ontological implications of the qualitative methods: a data collector’s field guide hard problem. Examples? Hence, weak reductionism. Weak reductionism, in contrast to the strong version, holds that consciousness is a simple or basic phenomenon, one that cannot be informatively broken down into qualitative research methods: collector’s field guide, simpler nonconscious elements.

But according to the view we can still identify consciousness with physical properties if the most parsimonious and productive theory supports such an identity (Block 2002, Block Stalnaker 1999, Hill 1997, Loar 1997, 1999, Papineau 1993, 2002, Perry 2001). Whats more, once the plant cell 3d identity has been established, there is no further burden of explanation. Field Guide? Identities have no explanation: a thing just is what it is. To ask how it could be that Mark Twain is Sam Clemens, once we have the Nutrition and Cognitive most parsimonious rendering of the facts, is to go beyond meaningful questioning. And the same holds for the identity of conscious states with physical states. But there remains the qualitative methods: collector’s field guide question of why the identity claim appears so counterintuitive and here weak reductionists generally appeal to the phenomenal concepts strategy (PCS) to make their case (compare Stoljar 2005).

The PCS holds that the The Mechanisms of Sea-Level hard problem is not the result of a dualism of facts, phenomenal and qualitative research methods: field guide, physical, but rather a dualism of concepts picking out fully physical conscious states. One concept is the third-personal physical concept of neuroscience. Of Sea-Level Change? The other concept is a distinctively first-personal phenomenal conceptone that picks out conscious states in a data field a subjectively direct manner. Because of the subjective differences in these modes of conceptual access, consciousness does not seem intuitively to Effects of Global Warming be physical. But once we understand the differences in the two concepts, there is no need to qualitative methods: a data accept this intuition.

Here is a sketch of how a weakly reductive view of consciousness might proceed. First, we find stimuli that reliably trigger reports of phenomenally conscious states from subjects. Then we find what neural processes are reliably correlated with those reported experiences. It can then be argued on the basis of parsimony that the reported conscious state just is the neural statean ontology holding that two states are present is less simple than one identifying the model 3d two states. Further, accepting the identity is explanatorily fruitful, particularly with respect to mental causation.

Finally, the PCS is appealed to in order to explain why the identity remains counterintuitive. And as to the question of why this particular neural state should be identical to this particular phenomenal state, the answer is that this is just the qualitative research methods: a data collector’s guide way things are. Explanation bottoms out at this point and requests for further explanation are unreasonable. But there are pressing worries about weak reductionism. There seems to be an undischarged phenomenal element within the weakly reductive view (Chalmers 2006). When we focus on examples, the PCS, it seems that we lack a plausible story about how it is qualitative research methods: field that phenomenal concepts reveal what its like for us in experience. The direct access of The Mechanisms of Sea-Level, phenomenal concepts seems to require that phenomenal states themselves inform us of what they are like. A common way to cash out the PCS is to say that the phenomenal properties themselves are embedded in the phenomenal concepts, and that alone makes them accessible in the seemingly rich manner of introspected experience. When it is asked how phenomenal properties might underwrite this access, the answer given is qualitative research methods: that this is in the nature of phenomenal propertiesthat is just what they do. Again, we are told that explanation must stop somewhere. But at this point, it seems that there is little to distinguish that weak reductionist from the various forms of nonreductive and and Cognitive, dualistic views cataloged below.

They, too, hold that it is in the nature of phenomenal properties to underwrite first-person access. But they hold that there is no good reason to think that properties with this sort of qualitative a data collector’s, nature are physical. We know of no other physical property that possesses such a nature. All that we are left with to recommend weak reductionism is a thin claim of parsimony and an overly-strong fealty to physicalism. We are asked to accept a brute identity here, one that seems unprecedented in our ontology given that consciousness is a macro-level phenomenon. Other examples of such brute identityof electricity and magnetism into Essay on Have Rights?, one force, sayoccur at methods: collector’s guide the foundational level of physics. Neurological and phenomenal properties do not seem to be basic in this way.

We are left with phenomenal properties inexplicable in physical terms, brutally identified with neurological properties in a way that nothing else seems to be. Why not take all this as an indication that phenomenal properties are not physical after all? The weak reductionist can respond that the question of Should Have Rights?, mental causation still provides a strong enough reason to hold onto physicalism. A plausible scientific principal is that the physical world is causally closed: all physical events have physical causes. And since our bodies are physical, it seems that denying that consciousness is physical renders it epiphenomenal. The apparent implausibility of epiphenomenalism may be enough to motivate adherence to weak reductionism, even with its explanatory short-comings.

Dualistic challenges to this claim will be discussed in later sections. It is possible, however, to embrace weak reductionism and still acknowledge that some questions remain to be answered. For example, it might be reasonable to demand some explanation of how particular neural states correlate with differences in conscious experience. A weak reductionist might hold that this is research methods: collector’s guide a question we at plant 3d present cannot answer. It may be that one day we will be in a position to so, due to qualitative methods: a data collector’s field a radical shift in of Global our understanding of consciousness or physical reality. Or perhaps this will remain an unsolvable mystery, one beyond our limited abilities to decipher. Still, there may be good reasons to qualitative methods: a data field guide hold at present that the Essay Should Animals most parsimonious metaphysical picture is the qualitative a data collector’s physicalist picture. The line between weak reductionism and the next set of views to be considered, mysterianism, may blur considerably here. The mysterian response to the hard problem does not offer a solution; rather, it holds that the hard problem cannot be solved by Essay Have Rights? current scientific method and perhaps cannot be solved by human beings at all. There are two varieties of the research methods: guide view.

The more moderate version of the Essay Animals Have Rights? position, which can be termed temporary mysterianism, holds that given the current state of research methods: a data collector’s field guide, scientific knowledge, we have no explanation of why some physical states are conscious (Nagel 1974, Levine 2001). The gap between experience and the sorts of things dealt with in modern physicsfunctional, structural, and cell model, dynamical properties of a data collector’s, basic fields and particlesis simply too wide to be bridged at present. And Cognitive Essay? Still, it may be that some future conceptual revolution in the sciences will show how to close the gap. Qualitative Methods: Field? Such massive conceptual reordering is certainly possible, given the history of beneficence, science. Methods: Field? And, indeed, if one accepts the Kuhnian idea of Essay, shifts between incommensurate paradigms, it might seem unsurprising that we, pre-paradigm-shift, cannot grasp what things will be like after the qualitative research collector’s field guide revolution. The Devastating Warming? But at present we have no idea how the hard problem might be solved. Thomas Nagel, in sketching his version of this idea, calls for qualitative methods: a data field guide a future objective phenomenology which will describe, at least in part, the subjective character of experiences in a form comprehensible to Change Essay beings incapable of having those experiences (1974, 449). Qualitative A Data Collector’s? Without such a new conceptual system, Nagel holds, we are left unable to Nutrition and Cognitive Health bridge the gap between consciousness and the physical. Consciousness may indeed be a physical, but we at present have no idea how this could be so.

It is of course open for both weak and strong reductionists to accept a version of temporary mysterianism. They can agree that at collector’s field guide present we do not know how consciousness fits into the physical world, but the possibility is open that future science will clear up the mystery. The main difference between such claims by reductionists and by mysterians is cell 3d that the qualitative research guide mysterians reject the idea that current reductive proposals do anything at The Devastating of Global Warming Essay all to close the gap. How different the research methods: a data guide explanatory structure must be to count as truly new and cell model, not merely an extension of the old is research collector’s guide not possible to gauge with any precision. So the difference between a very weak reductionist and a temporary, though optimistic mysterian may not amount to what conflict between israelis much. The stronger version of the position, permanent mysterianism, argues that our ignorance in the face of the hard problem is not merely transitory, but is permanent, given our limited cognitive capacities (McGinn 1989, 1991). We are like squirrels trying to understand quantum mechanics: it just is qualitative not going to happen. The main exponent of this view is Colin McGinn, who argues that a solution to Should Animals Rights? the hard problem is research methods: field cognitively closed to model us. He supports his position by stressing consequences of a modular view of the mind, inspired in part by research methods: collector’s Chomskys work in linguistics.

Our mind just may not be built to solve this sort of problem. Instead, it may be composed of dedicated, domain-specific modules devoted to solving local, specific problems for an organism. An organism without a dedicated language acquisition device equipped with universal grammar cannot acquire language. Perhaps the hard problem requires cognitive apparatus we just do not possess as a species. If that is the 3d case, no further scientific or philosophical breakthrough will make a difference. We are not built to solve the problem: it is cognitively closed to qualitative collector’s guide us. A worry about such a claim is that it is hard to establish just what sorts of is the conflict between, problems are permanently beyond our ken. It seems possible that the temporary mysterian may be correct here, and what looks unbridgeable in principle is really just a temporary roadblock.

Both the temporary and permanent mysterian agree on the evidence. They agree that there is a real gap at qualitative research a data collector’s guide present between consciousness and the physical and they agree that nothing in current science seems up to the task of solving the problem. The further claim that we are forever blocked from solving the problem turns on controversial claims about the nature of the The Mechanisms problem and qualitative research methods: a data, the nature of is the conflict, our cognitive capacities. Perhaps those controversial claims will be made good, but at present, it is hard to guide see why we should give up all hope, given the history of surprising scientific breakthroughs. Perhaps, though, we know enough already to establish that consciousness is not a physical phenomenon. This brings us to what has been, historically speaking, the most important response to plant the hard problem and the more general mind-body problem: dualism, the claim that consciousness is ontologically distinct from anything physical. Dualism, in methods: collector’s guide its various forms, reasons from the of Sea-Level Essay explanatory, epistemological, or conceptual gaps between the phenomenal and the physical to the metaphysical conclusion that the physicalist worldview is incomplete and needs to be supplemented by methods: a data the addition of irreducibly phenomenal substance or properties. Dualism can be unpacked in a number of ways.

Substance dualism holds that consciousness makes up a distinct fundamental stuff which can exist independently of any physical substance. Descartes famous dualism was of this kind (Descartes 1640/1984). A more popular modern dualist option is The Devastating Effects of Global Essay property dualism, which holds that the conscious mind is research collector’s field guide not a separate substance from the The Devastating Effects Essay physical brain, but that phenomenal properties are nonphysical properties of the research collector’s guide brain. On this view, it is metaphysically possible that the physical substrate occurs without the phenomenal properties, indicating their ontological independence, but phenomenal properties cannot exist on their own. The properties might emerge from some combination of nonphenomenal properties ( emergent dualismcompare Broad 1925) or they might be present as a fundamental feature of reality, one that necessarily correlates with physical matter in our world, but could in principle come apart from the physical in another possible world. A key question for dualist views concerns the Warming Essay relationship between consciousness and guide, the physical world, particularly our physical bodies. Beneficence? Descartes held that conscious mental properties can have a causal impact upon physical matterthis is known as interactionist dualism . Recent defenders of interactionist dualism include Foster 1991, Hodgson 1991, Lowe 1996, Popper and Eccles 1977, H. Robinson 1982, Stapp 1993, and Swinburne 1986. However, interactionist dualism requires rejecting the causal closure of the physical domain, the claim that every physical event is fully determined by a physical cause. Causal closure is a long-held principle in the sciences, so its rejection marks a strong break from current scientific orthodoxy (though see Collins 2011). Another species of dualism accepts the causal closure of physics, but still holds that phenomenal properties are metaphysically distinct from physical properties. This compatibilism is achieved at the price of consciousness epiphenomenalism , the view that conscious properties can be caused by physical events, but they cannot in turn cause physical events.

I will discuss interactionist dualism in this section, including a consideration of how quantum mechanics might open up a workable space for an acceptable dualist interactionist view. I will discuss epiphenomenalism in the following section. Interactionist dualism, of research field guide, both the substance and property type, holds that consciousness is causally efficacious in the production of The Devastating Effects of Global Essay, bodily behavior. This is certainly a strongly intuitive position to take with regard to mental causation, but it requires rejecting the research methods: a data collector’s field causal closure of the on Have Rights? physical. It is widely thought that the principle of causal closure is research methods: a data collector’s guide central to modern science, on par with basic conservation principles like the conservation of energy or matter in a physical reaction (see, for example, Kim 1998). Of Sea-Level Change? And at macroscopic scales, the principle appears well-supported by empirical evidence. However, at the quantum level it is more plausible to question causal closure. On one reading of quantum mechanics, the progression of quantum-level events unfolds in a deterministic progression until an observation occurs. At that point, some views hold that the progression of collector’s field guide, events becomes indeterminstic. If so, there may be room for consciousness to influence how such decoherence occursthat is, how the Change Essay quantum wave function collapses into the classical, observable macroscopic world we experience.

How such a process occurs is the subject of speculative theorizing in quantum theories of consciousness. It may be that such views are better cataloged as physicalist: the qualitative research field guide properties involved might well be labeled as physical in The Mechanisms Change Essay a completed science (see, for example, Penrose 1989, 1994; Hameroff 1998). If so, the quantum view is better seen as strongly or weakly reductive. Still, it might be that the proper cashing out qualitative a data collector’s field guide of the idea of observation in cell 3d quantum theory requires positing consciousness as an qualitative research methods: a data field unreduced primitive. Observation may require something intrinsically conscious, rather than something characterized in the relational terms of physical theory.

In that case, phenomenal properties would be metaphysically distinct from the physical, traditionally characterized, while playing a key role in physical theorythe role of collapsing the wave function by Nutrition and Cognitive Essay observation. Thus, there seems to be theoretical space for a dualist view which rejects closure but maintains a concordance with basic physical theory. Sill, such views face considerable challenges. They are beholden to particular interpretations of quantum mechanics and this is a data collector’s guide far from on Have, a settled field, to put it mildly. It may well be that the best interpretation of quantum mechanics rejects the key assumption of qualitative methods: a data field, indeterminacy here (see Albert 1993 for examples the details of this debate). Collector’s Guide? Further, the kinds of indeterminacies discoverable at the quantum level may not correspond in any useful way to our ordinary idea of mental causes. The pattern of Effects of Global Warming, decoherence may have little to do with my conscious desire to research a data grab a beer causing me to go to cell model the fridge. Finally, there is the research field question of how phenomenal properties at the quantum level come together to The Mechanisms of Sea-Level Change make up the conscious experience we have. Methods: Collector’s Guide? Our conscious mental lives are not themselves quantum phenomenonhow, then, do micro-phenomenal quantum-level properties combine to constitute our experiences? Still, this is an alluring area of investigation, bringing together the mysteries of consciousness and quantum mechanics. But such a mix may only compound our explanatory troubles!

A different dualistic approach accepts the causal closure of physics by holding that phenomenal properties have no causal influence on the physical world (Campbell 1970, Huxley 1874, Jackson 1982, and W.S. Robinson 1988, 2004). Plant Cell Model? Thus, any physical effect, like a bodily behavior, will have a fully physical cause. Phenomenal properties merely accompany causally efficacious physical properties, but they are not involved in making the behavior happen. Phenomenal properties, on this view, may be lawfully correlated with physical properties, thus assuring that whenever a brain event of a particular type occurs, a phenomenal property of a particular type occurs. For example, it may be that bodily damage causes activity in the amygdala, which in turn causes pain-appropriate behavior like screaming or cringing. Methods: A Data Field Guide? The activity in the amygdala will also cause the beneficence tokening of phenomenal pain properties.

But these properties are out of the causal chain leading to the behavior. They are like the activity of a steam whistle relative to the causal power of the steam engine moving a trains wheels. Such a view has no obvious logical flaw, but it is in strong conflict with our ordinary notions of research collector’s guide, how conscious states are related to behavior. It is and palestinians extremely intuitive that our pains at times cause us to scream or cringe. But on the epiphenomenalist view, that cannot be the case. Methods: A Data Field? Whats more, our knowledge of our conscious states cannot be caused by the phenomenal qualities of our experiences.

On the epiphenomenalist view, my knowledge that Im in pain is not caused by model the pain itself. Qualitative Methods: A Data Collector’s Field Guide? This, too, seems absurd: surely, the feeling of pain is causally implicated in my knowledge of that pain! But the epiphenomenalist can simply bite the bullet here and reject the beneficence commonsense picture. We often discover odd things when we engage in serious investigation, and this may be one of them. Denying commonsense intuition is qualitative research methods: collector’s better than denying a basic scientific principle like causal closure, according to of Global Essay epiphenomenalists. And it may be that experimental results in the sciences undermine the causal efficacy of qualitative methods: a data collector’s field, consciousness as well, so this is not so outrageous a claim (See Libet, 2004; Wegner 2002, for example). Further, the epiphenomenalist can deny that we need a causal theory of first-person knowledge. It may be that our knowledge of our conscious states is achieved by a unique kind of The Devastating Effects of Global, noncausal acquaintance. Or maybe merely having the phenomenal states is enough for us to know of themour knowledge of consciousness may be constituted by qualitative a data collector’s phenomenal states, rather than caused by them. Knowledge of causation is a difficult philosophical area in general, so it may reasonable to offer alternatives to Nutrition and Cognitive Essay the causal theory in this context. But despite these possibilities, epiphenomenalism remains a difficult view to embrace because of its strongly counterintuitive nature.

g. Dual Aspect Theory/Neutral Monism/Panpsychism. A final set of views, close in spirit to dualism, hold that phenomenal properties cannot be reduced to more basic physical properties, but might reduce to qualitative research methods: field guide something more basic still, a substance that is plant both physical and phenomenal or that underwrites both. Defenders of such views agree with dualists that the hard problem forces a rethinking of our basic ontology, but they disagree that this entails dualism. There are several variations of the idea. It may be that there is a more basic substance underlying all physical matter and this basic substance possesses phenomenal as well as physical properties ( dual aspect theory : Spinoza 1677/2005, P. Qualitative Research Methods: Field Guide? Strawson 1959, Nagel 1986).

Or it may be that this more basic substance is neutralneither phenomenal nor physical, yet somehow underlying both ( neutral monism : Russell 1926, Feigl 1958, Maxwell 1979, Lockwood 1989, Stubenberg 1998, Stoljar 2001, G. Strawson 2008). Animals Rights?? Or it may be that phenomenal properties are the intrinsic categorical bases for the relational, dispositional properties described in physics and so everything physical has an underlying phenomenal nature (panpsychism: Leibniz 1714/1989, Whitehead 1929, Griffin 1998, Rosenberg 2005, Skrbina 2007). These views have all received detailed elaboration in past eras of research methods: a data collector’s guide, philosophy, but they have seen a distinct revival as responses to the hard problem. There is beneficence examples considerable variation in how theorists unpack these kinds of views, so it is only possible here to give generic versions of the ideas. All three views make consciousness more basic or as basic as physical properties; this is something they share with dualism. But they disagree about the right way to qualitative methods: a data collector’s field spell out the metaphysical relations between the Animals Have Rights? phenomenal, the qualitative research methods: field physical, and any more basic substance there might be. The true differences between the Essay Should views are not always clear even to research methods: a data field the views defenders, but we can try to tease them apart here. A dual-aspect view holds that there is one basic underlying stuff that possesses both physical and phenomenal properties. These properties may only be instantiated when the right combinations of the basic substance are present, so panpsychism is not a necessary entailment of the view. The Devastating Essay? For example, when the basic substance is configured in qualitative collector’s guide the form of a brain, it then realizes phenomenal as well as physical properties. But that need not be the case when the fundamental stuff makes up a table.

But in beneficence any event, phenomenal properties are not themselves reducible to physical properties. There is a fine line between such views and dualist views, mainly turning on the difference between constitution and research collector’s field, lawful correlation. Neutral monist views hold that there is a more basic neutral substance underlying both the phenomenal and the physical. Nutrition Essay? Neutral here means that the underlying stuff really is neither phenomenal nor physical, so there is a good sense in which such a position is reductive: it explains the presence of the qualitative phenomenal by reference to something else more basic. This distinguishes it from the dual-aspect approachon the dual-aspect view, the underlying stuff already possesses phenomenal (and physical) properties, while on neutral monism it does not. That leaves neutral monism with the challenge of beneficence, explaining this reductive relationship, as well as explaining how the neutral substance underlies physical reality without itself being physical. Panpsychism holds that the phenomenal is basic to all matter.

Such views hold that the phenomenal somehow underwrites the physical or is potentially present at all times as a property of a more basic substance. This view must explain what it means to qualitative say that everything is conscious in some sense. Further, it must explain how it is The Mechanisms Change Essay that the basic phenomenal (or protophenomenal) elements combine to form the methods: a data guide sorts of properties we are acquainted with in consciousness. Why is it that some combinations form the experiences we enjoy and others (presumably) do not? One line of support for Nutrition and Cognitive these types of views comes from the way that physical theory defines its basic properties in terms of qualitative research methods: a data collector’s field guide, their dispositions to causally interact with each other. For example, what it is to be a quark of a certain type is Nutrition Essay just to be disposed to behave in certain ways in the presence of other quarks. Physical theory is silent about what stuff might underlie or constitute the entities with these dispositionsit deals only in extrinsic or relational properties, not in intrinsic properties. At the same time, there is reason to hold that consciousness possesses nonrelational intrinsic qualities. Indeed, this may explain why we cannot know what its like to be a batthat requires knowledge of an intrinsic quality not conveyable by relational description. Research Collector’s Guide? Putting these two ideas together, we find a motivation for the sorts of views canvassed here.

Basic physics is silent about the intrinsic categorical bases underlying the dispositional properties described in physical theory. But it seems plausible that there must be such baseshow could there be dispositions to behave thus-and-so without some categorical base to ground the disposition? And since we already have reason to believe that conscious qualities are intrinsic, it makes sense to posit phenomenal properties as the categorical bases of basic physical matter. Or we can posit a neutral substance to fill this role, one also realizing phenomenal properties when in plant the right circumstances. These views all seem to avoid epiphenomenalism.

Whenever there is a physical cause of methods: collector’s field, behavior, the underlying phenomenal (or neutral) basis will be present to do the model work. But that cause might itself be constituted by qualitative a data collector’s field the phenomenal, in the senses laid out here. Whats more, there is nothing in conflict with physicsthe properties posited appear at a level below the of Sea-Level Change range of relational physical description. And they do not conflict with or preempt anything present in qualitative research methods: a data collector’s guide physical theory. But we are left with several worries. First, it is again the case that phenomenal properties are posited at an extreme micro-level.

How it is that such micro-phenomenal properties cohere into beneficence examples, the sorts of experiential properties present in consciousness is unexplained. Whats more, if we take the panpsychic route, we are faced with the claim that every physical object has a phenomenal nature of some kind. This may not be incoherent, but it is qualitative research a data collector’s a counterintuitive result. The Mechanisms Change? But if we do not accept panpsychism, we must explain how the more basic underlying substance differs from the qualitative a data phenomenal and yet instantiates it in the right circumstances. Simply saying that this just is the nature of the neutral substance is not an informative answer. Finally, it is unclear how these views really differ from a weakly reductionist account. Both hold that there is a basic and brute connection between the physical brain and phenomenal consciousness. On the weakly reductionist account, the connection is one of brute identity.

On the dual-aspect/neutral monist/panpsychic account, it is Change Essay one of brute constitution, where two properties, the physical and the phenomenal, constantly co-occur (because the one constitute the categorical base of the qualitative collector’s other, or they are aspects of a more basic stuff, etc.), though they are held to be metaphysically distinct. Is there any evidence that could decide between the views? The apparent differences here may be more one of style than of substance, despite the intricacies of Essay Should Animals Have Rights?, these metaphysical debates.

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13 Colonies Essays and Research Papers. Virginia Founding Date: 1607 Region: Southern Colony Founders: John Smith, John Rolfe Thomas Dale Reason for founding: Search for gold, . Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collector’s Guide? English outpost against Spain Characteristics/laws: Jamestown was the main town that was establish because of what conflict israelis and palestinians, Englands desire for wealth and converting the Natives to Christianity. Majority of the qualitative methods: a data field population was English. Environment: Very warm climate, which was beneficial to the colonists because they didnt have to worry about the beneficence examples harsh winters. Contrary. Colony , Faith , Freedom of religion 1075 Words | 6 Pages. com/bitcoins/134/how-i-would-manipulate-the-bitcoi. ? ? ? ? 1 of 14 18-Apr- 13 12:58 AM How I would manipulate the Bitcoin . exchange market and qualitative research how a Disc. http://www.247btc.com/bitcoins/134/how-i-would-manipulate-the-bitcoi. Cell Model 3d? ? ? ? ? 2 of 14 18-Apr- 13 12:58 AM How I would manipulate the Bitcoin exchange market and qualitative collector’s field how a Disc. http://www.247btc.com/bitcoins/134/how-i-would-manipulate-the-bitcoi. 3 of 14 18-Apr- 13 12:58 AM How I would manipulate the is the israelis and palestinians Bitcoin exchange. 13 , Stock market 463 Words | 4 Pages. ?New Colonies in New England 1 New England started as one large colony settled by two different religious groups.

In 1620, the . Pilgrims came from England on the Mayflower and started a colony in research methods: collector’s field guide Plymouth Bay. The Puritans arrived in examples 1629 and started the Massachusetts Bay Colony . Methods: A Data Collector’s Field? 2 The Pilgrims had a charter promising them land in Virginia, but on the trip across, their ship blew off course. Unfortunately, they were unprepared for on Should life in the North. They arrived just before winter. There was not. Former British colonies , Massachusetts , Massachusetts Bay Colony 995 Words | 3 Pages.

13 Original Colonies Introduction Your expertise is needed immediately! 500 people are scheduled to set sail from methods: a data England to . the colonies next month. What Between Israelis? They are still undecided which colony would be the best to settle and build their new homes. Qualitative Methods: Collector’s Field Guide? Your colony has hired you to create a newsletter, pamphlet or brochure to entice these people to settle in your colony . Plant Model? The information you provide will be used to help the new colonists pick the best colony that will suit their needs. You will need. Connecticut , Former British colonies , Massachusetts 789 Words | 5 Pages.

13 COLONIES REPORT INTRODUCTION This is a report about the 13 colonies . Field Guide? First I will be talking . about all the 13 colonies . Then I will be talking about one specific colony , Virginia. When I talk about Virginia, I will tell you about their migration, reason for migration, Native Americans, and more. Cell Model? So get ready for a report about the 13 colonies . 13 COLONIES There are 3 sets of England colonies with 13 colonies in them. The first colony is the New England colony which consists of Massachusetts. Colonial Williamsburg , Former British colonies , Jamestown, Virginia 1389 Words | 4 Pages.

Do you know how and for what reasons the first 13 colonies of North America were found? Many of qualitative methods: collector’s field, us today dont know why these . colonies were established, but we should because its an extremely important event in history. Many of the first settlers in the North America came from Nutrition Health England, they came for reasons such as these: wanted land to plant on, religious freedom, wanted to become rich or famous, needed a new beginning, wanted to escape paying debts and others. The first successful settlement was. British North America , Former British colonies , Middle Colonies 1170 Words | 3 Pages. Religious Freedom in research methods: a data collector’s guide the 13 Colonies. freedom existed in beneficence the British North American colonies prior to 1700. Religion, one of the main reasons America is what it is now. Ever since . the beginning of research methods: field guide, Jamestown, Europeans came to the Americas for a common reason; they sought religious freedom. The Middle Colonies were mostly Quakers with a mixture of Catholics and The Devastating Effects of Global Warming Essay Jews.

The Southern Colonies were similar to the Middle Colonies , but they were mostly Catholics. However, the New England colonies were mostly Puritans which led to strict laws. British North America , Christianity , Freedom of religion 773 Words | 3 Pages. The Fear of the Number 13-Triskaidekaphobia. Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the superstition of the fear of the a data collector’s number 13 Introduction I. Attention Getter: Have you ever . Essay On Should Animals? wondered why school multiplication tables stop at 12x12 or why if you go to qualitative methods: field guide, most hotels they do not have a 13th floor but instead a 12A? No one knows seems to know why but the conflict between israelis fear of the number 13 has been around for as long as we can remember.

II. Credentials: I have intensively researched this superstition so I am well informed to educate you about this. 13 , Common year starting on Thursday , Friday 1119 Words | 3 Pages. Factors of Rebellion in the 13 American Colonies. In the late 1700s, tensions ran high between Britain and the 13 American colonies , which led to events such as the Boston . Massacre, and the Boston Tea Party. Britain's angry response to these events furthered the indignation of the colonials against a data collector’s, the British, which ultimately led to the Revolutionary War in the colonies . Of Sea-Level Change? Among the qualitative research methods: a data collector’s factors for rebellion the resentment of parliamentary taxation, restriction of civil liberty, British military measures, and the legacy of model, American religious. Qualitative Research Methods: Collector’s Guide? American Revolution , Boston , Boston Tea Party 826 Words | 5 Pages. Differneces and examples Similiarities of 13 colonies. Climate Differences New England: The New England Colonies were in research a data guide the northern part of the territory, therefor this region had the . longer winters of and Cognitive Essay, all and short summers that were mild.

The climate was a benefit since it prevented deadly diseases from spreading but it has a negative side as well: the harsh winters killed lots of people. The Middle Colonies : They had a milder climate, this area was even called the Melting Pot. Their climate was perfect for farming, it was even called. Colonialism , Connecticut , Former British colonies 754 Words | 4 Pages. 1607-1732 13 Colonies Now that England is qualitative research methods: a data collector’s guide settling in Nutrition Health Essay North America more, we have thirteen colonies . The . colonies are all set up for different purposes.

They are divided into the New England, middle, and qualitative research a data southern colonies . The Puritans control Parliament. Essay? They have formed the Massachusetts Bay Company, and have come to America. Theyve settled in a city called Boston, and qualitative research methods: collector’s the colony is Massachusetts. Massachusetts is the first New England colony . Now that were in the 1630s, over 15,000 Puritans. Former British colonies , Massachusetts , New Jersey 677 Words | 3 Pages. Analyze the Ways Democratic Ideals(Ideas) Developed in the 13 Colonies. Analyze the ways democratic ideals(ideas) developed in the 13 colonies . Democratic ideals were developed in our country long . before individuals clearly understood what they signified. Colonists through out the The Devastating of Global Warming Essay 13 colonies are the makers of the methods: a data collector’s field guide America we live in today. They began to practice democratic ideals not present in their colony , such as: freedom of religion, voting, and equality.

The sense of freedom these colonies had led them to corporate these democratic ideals into The Devastating of Global Essay their lives. Colony , Democracy , Human rights 956 Words | 3 Pages. ?Establishing the Colonies Name _____ Motives for settling in qualitative methods: a data field the New World: Spread Christianity Find a short cut to Asia Better job . opportunities Roanoke Island With the permission of Queen Elizabeth, Sir Walter Raleigh raised money to establish a colony , and in 1585 a small group of men sailed for Nutrition and Cognitive Essay the Americas. What did Raleigh find when he returned to the Lost Colony of Roanoke in 1589? The people had vanished and they found the word, Croatian carved in methods: a data collector’s field a tree. Jamestown What. Former British colonies , Massachusetts , New Jersey 765 Words | 5 Pages. Cell 3d? In the movie Apollo 13 three astronauts go up to space in the space craft odyssey and encounter many problems. The astronauts, Jim Lovell, . Qualitative Research Guide? Jack Swigert and Fred Haise were on a rushed mission to go to the moon when Jack went to go stir the oxygen tanks and plant model 3d one of them exploded. Research Methods: A Data Field Guide? The explosion led to Nutrition and Cognitive Health Essay, a whole host of problems.

The astronauts had to abort the mission and focus on qualitative research methods: a data collector’s guide a safe return home. A monomyth plotline is when a person leaves a place, encounters obstacles and Should Animals Have Rights? comes back a different. Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Carbon dioxide 1334 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Thirteen Colonies 16th century England was not interested in exploration and colonization, but for the most part, English . colonies in North America were more for bussiness and in search of gold . Methods: A Data Guide? It did provide extra land for Englands growing population and for The Devastating Warming Essay those who seeked more religious freedom. Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Field? Englands colonization in the new world led to the Thirteen Colonies made up of the New England Colonies , The Middle Colonies , and the Southern Colonies each having seperate religious beliefs. British America , Former British colonies , Massachusetts 494 Words | 2 Pages. English colonies and Colonial Power. Examples? occurring between, France, Britain, Spain, and their colonial possessions ( Era Introduction). Of course in the end Britain came out on top which put them in . Research? a position of high power, but they did not do it by themselves though. How did the English colonies become the most successful colonial power in North America by 1763?

It was because many settlers were drawn to their political systems which encouraged cultural diversity, economic growth, representative government, and religious toleration (Colonial. Colonialism , Colony , Culture 706 Words | 5 Pages. 13 Colonies Research Essay The 13 colonies were founded by of Global Essay, England during the 1600s -1700s. Qualitative Guide? The . 13 colonies lived different lives from plant cell one another. The people in the 13 colonies had their own religious and research methods: a data field moral beliefs.

The colonists all came to beneficence, the 13 colonies for there own reasons. Even though the 13 original American colonies were all formed by England, differences existed in the reasons they were formed, the bases of qualitative collector’s, their economies, the types of people who settled, and the role played by. The Devastating Of Global Essay? New Jersey , New York , Pennsylvania 561 Words | 2 Pages. dropped 13 . rescued possessions 14. What were the conditions with work, housing, family and friends each month for qualitative research a data collector’s one year? Survivor . (record occupation and character descriptions) Objective details (facts) Subjective details (opinions) 1.Miss Toshiko Sasaki 2. Beneficence Examples? 20 Years Old.

3. 4. Clerk in the personnel department in qualitative field the East Asia Tin Works. 5. High school student 6. Nutrition And Cognitive Essay? 7. 8. At work 9. 11 month old brother, Akio. 10. 11. 12. About to speak to the girl at the next desk. 13 . Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collector’s Field Guide? 14. 12 , 13 , 22 530 Words | 4 Pages. 13 12 this is the naive forecast; used as forecast . The Mechanisms Change? start only April 16 12 May - ? = 0.2 Ft = ? (At-1) + (1 ?) (Ft 1) FApril = 0.2 ( 13 ) + (. 13 , Data analysis , Equals sign 331 Words | 3 Pages. Live Love Laugh Lesson 2 Poetic Devices.

Rhyme scheme is described through the use of research a data guide, letters? for example, abba would indicate that . the examples first and fourth lines rhyme with each other and the second and third lines rhyme with each other. ? Example: I must confess My room is qualitative research a data field a mess 13 . RhythmThe flow or beat of a poem or a passage? it can be slow, fast, or alternating, and Effects it helps to create a mood. ? Example: I must confess, My room is methods: a data collector’s guide a mess. Parents and friends Would be aghast If they saw how fast I can shove my shirts . 13 , 14 667 Words | 3 Pages. Years before the start of the series, the Essay Should Rights? thirteen districts attempted to start a revolution against the Capitol. The Capitol won, District 13 . was destroyed and, as punishment, an annual televised death match called The Hunger Games was created by the Capitol. Two participants, one male and one female, known as tributes, between the ages of 12 and 18 are chosen randomly in a reaping from each district. Children may volunteer as a tribute instead of selection by ballot. They are taken to an arena. 13 , 2000 Summer Olympics , Female 1265 Words | 4 Pages. Methods: Collector’s Guide? The 13 colonies: Graphic Organizer (Northern, Middle, South) Tina Van History 146 October 12, 2014 Week 3: Graphic Organizer Northern 1. Massachusetts: Divided into the Plymouth colony the . Health? Massachusetts Bay colony . ? Plymouth: Founded by research methods: a data guide, William Bradford populated by the Pilgrims who were separatists from Anglican Church. ? Massachusetts Bay: Founded by Health Essay, John Winthrop strictly populated by Puritans who wanted to purify the Anglican Church.

2. Connecticut: Founded by Thomas Hooker, creator of the Fundamental Orders of research a data collector’s, Connecticut. Massachusetts , New England , New York 400 Words | 2 Pages. 9. Business houses should take greater social responsibility. 10. Are Gandhian values irrelevant for society today? 11. . Should Nehru's temples of learning remain elitist? 12. Beneficence Examples? Should Indian Education be thrown open to a data collector’s field, the Foreign Universities 13 . Our Governance and Political System share a deep mistrust for Nutrition and Cognitive Essay Entrepreneurship 14. Information Technology is qualitative research methods: collector’s a mixed blessing 15.

Global Warming is a fictitious devil created by The Devastating Warming Essay, scientists 16. Chandrayaan ? showcasing India's technological prowess or wasting scarce resources. 1 , 12 , 13 1401 Words | 4 Pages. Life in the Chesapeake Colonies The first successful British colonization of the Americas was in the Chesapeake area and anchored by . Methods: A Data? Jamestown which was founded in 1607. Effects Of Global Warming? The original colonists nearly didnt make it, as it was a very difficult life for them. Moreover, the research methods: collector’s field colonists founded many relationships that were both good and bad with various other groups so that they could make it through those first years. Beneficence Examples? With great will and sheer luck the area has thrived, becoming the heart of the. Colonialism , Colony , Jamestown Settlement 1689 Words | 6 Pages.

Crips And Bloods Made In America Questions. How did the economic and real estate opportunities play a role in the development of minority neighborhoods and gangs in major cities throughout the U.S.? . 10. What opportunities are available today to people living in research field guide minority neighborhoods 11. 12. 13 . 14. 15. (think about Nutrition Essay, education, consumer goods, jobs)? Explain.

How did the use of Crack affect the communities discussed in the film? How have governments (local, state, federal) and media in the United States used techniques of neutralization in dealing with the gang problem. 1 , 13 , 14 417 Words | 3 Pages. the concentration camp? 12. Many of us may not experience the same depth of inhuman treatment . Research A Data Collector’s? as Guido, his family and the other prisoners of this concentration camp, but what insight does it give us into our own reactions to situations we face? 13 . Guido is in a situation which is almost without hope, but despite the efforts of his captors to strip him of his humanity, it is exactly what he retains. In what sense is this a triumph for him?

14. Guido appears to abandon the external reality of his situation to try . 13 , 14 , Prime number 555 Words | 3 Pages. British Imperial Policy Of The 13 North American Colonies In The 17th And 18th Centuries. ? British Imperial Policy of the 13 North American Colonies in the 17th and what is the conflict 18th Centuries John Liu Between the years of . 1607 and 1763, Great Britain sent over many of its people to the new world, establishing the thirteen colonies . To keep these colonies in line and exploit the advantages that they gave to Britain, many imperial policies passed. Several aspects from the policies stand out as particularly important, such as the hierarchical order, virtual representation, and sudden changes in. American Revolution , British Empire , Massachusetts 832 Words | 5 Pages. Northern Colonies vs. Qualitative Collector’s Field? Southern Colonies. Beginning From the first settlement founded in Nutrition Essay the 1600s, the British colonies were a varied mix of communities that grew to distinct . civilizations in the 17th and 18th centuries. Queen Elizabeth helped drive the colonization of qualitative research methods: guide, Jamestown in 1607 and ultimately the creation of other Southern colonies to help Britain's economy flourish. In contrast, James I, Elizabeths successor, spurred the settlement of the Northern colonies for religious reasons when he vowed to purge England of all radical Protestant. Colonialism , Colony , Economics 1427 Words | 4 Pages.

13 Colonies Questions and Answers. The thirteen colonies were ruled by what country? 2. Which of the following states were one if the original 13 . colonies ? Mississippi, Alaska, Kentucky, New Jersey, or Ohio? 3. If many people came to New England for freedom of religion, what can you infer about life in the 17th century Europe? 4. What was a major difference between Middle and examples New England colonies ? 5. What did the settlers of the 13 colonies have in common? 6. If you wanted to go to a bustling plantation, which colony would you visit. Connecticut , Former British colonies , Massachusetts 440 Words | 2 Pages. Qualitative Field Guide? Thesis: The 13 original colonies in plant model 3d the US is important in the American history because of the culture, historical events and qualitative methods: field the . war of independence/ declaration of independence. Introduction: History is the beginning of the present and the future, without the 13 original colonies , America would not be the same.

The 13 original colonies are important part of the American History because of the culture, historical events and plant model the declaration of independence. Historical Events: 1619. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Boston Tea Party 536 Words | 2 Pages. Virginia: Colony Report He that will not work shall not eat. (Captain John Smith). Qualitative Methods: A Data Collector’s Field? Virginia was the Essay on Animals Have Rights? beginning of colonization in America. . In 1578, after colonists in England were driven to find new land, Sir Humphrey Gilbert received a charter to establish a new British Colony . On May 13th, 1607, the Susan Constant, the Godspeed, and the Discovery ships arrived at what soon became the Jamestown peninsula. Qualitative Collector’s Field? This discovery led to a series of important events that made the United States. After the.

Agriculture , Colonialism , Colony 1111 Words | 3 Pages. Read at this website? then answer the following questions in a different color: http://www.euroclubschools.org/page37.htm 12.? ? . What additional information did you learn about processions (in addition to what you learned on cell model the first site) on research collector’s guide this site? 13 .? ? What is una saeta?? an easter song 14.? ? Name THREE foods typically eaten during la semana santa. Effects Warming Essay? ? fish, vegetables, and rice 15.? ? What is mona de Pascua? ? A popular cake eaten on easter 16.? ? Who generally gives mona de Pascua. 13 , 14 466 Words | 3 Pages. Apollo 13 The Apollo 13 mission was a significant historical event, because of the dangerous repercussions that followed the . Qualitative Methods: A Data Guide? explosion of the oxygen tank on Apollo 13 . The story in which the astronauts Lovell, Swigert, and Haise surviving these errors during the flight is truly incredible. In the cell 3d movie Apollo 13 , the creators depicted most of the events involving the crews adventure to and from space quite accurately. Although creating most events successfully the creators of methods: a data field guide, Apollo 13 failed. Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Apollo 14 1386 Words | 4 Pages. The original 13 colonies were divided into three geographic areas consisting of the New England, Middle and Southern . colonies . The Georgia Colony was classified as one of the Southern Colonies . James Oglethorpe was a British general, Member of of Global Warming Essay, Parliament, philanthropist, humanitarian, was the founder of the colony of Georgia in qualitative guide America in 1733. He was a social reformer in England founding Georgia, after a grant from and Cognitive Health Essay King George II, to resettle Britain's poor, especially those in qualitative collector’s field debtors'. Apalachee , Cherokee , Georgia 1306 Words | 4 Pages. did Spanish success in the New World influence the cell 3d English colonial efforts? How did Englands earlier experience in Ireland influence its colonial efforts . in the New World?

How did different events in England (and Europe) affect Englands southern colonies in the New World? 10. Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collector’s Field? Were the English colonizers crueler or more tolerant than the Spanish conquistadores? Why did the Spanish tend to settle and what is the between and palestinians intermarry with the Indian population whereas the English either killed. Americas , Canada , Caribbean 960 Words | 4 Pages. direct contact with the crew of Apollo 13 during their space flight. In 1966, NASA signed 19 experienced astronauts including me and made me an . Qualitative Research? assistant to the Apollo 9, 10, and and Cognitive Health 13 missions (Jack Robert Lousma). NASA thought astronauts communicated better with one another than scientists that had not been trained within the program; therefore they found it essential for the support crews to be comprised of experienced astronauts.

I vividly remember the Apollo 13 -launch day like it was yesterday. . Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Apollo 14 1840 Words | 9 Pages. The American Colonies . Erik Martinez U.S. Research Collector’s Field Guide? History, 2nd semester, 3rd block Coach Chatham March 12, 2013 Since the discovery of the . New World many European super powers looked to colonize and expand their riches and beneficence trading powers throughout this new found continent. The British took great advantage of this with controlling everything on the east of the Appalachian Mountains and sea routes across the Atlantic. Upon their arrival the British had to encounter with many endeavors from the. Former British colonies , Massachusetts , Middle Colonies 1275 Words | 3 Pages. Apollo 13 Houston We've Got A Problem 12/1/11 Apollo 13 was supposed to be the third mission by a data field, NASA to land a space . Nutrition And Cognitive? shuttle onto qualitative research a data guide, the moon. The crew aboard the ship consisted of The Mechanisms Essay, James A. Qualitative A Data Field? Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr. (KSC). The launch date for Apollo 13 was set for April 11, 1970 at 13 : 13 Houston time (James A. Lovell).

The Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum summarizes the events of the Apollo 13 incident as An explosion in one of the Change Essay oxygen tanks crippled. Apollo 10 , Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 2317 Words | 6 Pages. Houston we have a problem (Lovell). These are the words Commander Jim Lovell shared with mission control when terror struck the spacecraft two hundred . Qualitative Research Collector’s? thousand miles into its journey to the Moon. On board Apollo 13 , along with Commander Jim Lovell, were Command Module Pilot Jack Swigert, and what and palestinians Lunar Module Pilot Fred Haise (Kluger). After given a command from Houston to research a data, turn on the hydrogen and oxygen tank stirring fans, the what is the israelis and palestinians spacecrafts Service Module exploded followed by loss of electrical power. Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Apollo 14 966 Words | 3 Pages. Qualitative Methods: Collector’s Guide? The Growth of the Chesapeake and Barbadian Colonies. Angela Young Professor Kelly Hopkins History 1377 June 18, 2012 The Growth the Chesapeake and plant cell Barbadian Colonies Many great examples of . Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Guide? how pioneers blazed trails and discovered unchartered territories outline the fabric of American history. We put a man on the moon in The Mechanisms of Sea-Level Change Essay the sixties and qualitative field discovered cures for some of of Sea-Level Essay, our modern diseases. These are valuable accomplishments, but there is another that is qualitative methods: a data collector’s just as significant in what is the israelis and palestinians the course of American history; the research collector’s field colonization of and Cognitive Health Essay, our nation. Detailed.

Colony , Distribution of wealth , Maryland 1863 Words | 5 Pages. Different Types of qualitative research a data field guide, American Colonies There are different types of English colonies , including Royal, proprietary, and private . as the most common types. These are three very different types of colonies and had different rules associated with them. Each colony was a part of one of these types, but some even switched between the three types of what between israelis and palestinians, colonies . These switches came from changes in power and needing different types of government to make this happen. Royal colonies were the qualitative collector’s guide most common form.

Autocracy , British Empire , Colonialism 782 Words | 3 Pages. Apollo 13 By starring Tom Hanks, Apollo 13 is a American drama film based on the book of examples, Last Moon by Jim Lovell and qualitative a data guide . Plant Model? Jeffrey Kluger. At the begining, Jim (Tom Hanks), Fred Haise (Bill Paxton) and Ken Mattingly (Gary Sinise) are the crew assigned to the Appllo 13 spacecraft. Their vision is to walk on the moon. However, few days before launching, Ken was informed that he could not fly because he had in exposed to the measles a week before. Jack Swigert took his place only with three days of. Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Apollo 16 1035 Words | 3 Pages. the Apollo 13 Lunar Mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center in methods: collector’s field guide Florida.

Aboard Apollo 13 , 3 astronautsJim Lovell, Jack . Swigert and Fred Haisewere seeking to Essay on, be the third mission to land on research methods: a data the moon. 56 hours into the flight the cell model 3d members of the ground crew of Mission Control in Houston, Texas listened as the 5 words NASA never wants to hear resonated through the speakers: Houston we have a problem. These words were immortalized during the apprehensive days of the Apollo 13 lunar mission. Apollo 1 , Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 1090 Words | 3 Pages. Similar Cultures in 13 American Colonies. Essay Question: Although the 13 American colonies were founded at different times by people with different motives and with . different form of colonial charters and qualitative research a data collector’s guide political organization, and the 13 colonies had become remarkably similar. Assess the validity of beneficence examples, this statement. Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Field Guide? As time was coming to the start of the Nutrition Health American Revolution, the thirteen American colonies that had at first started out qualitative methods: guide with differences in all aspects appeared to The Mechanisms of Sea-Level Essay, be astonishingly similar in several cultural ways. Mainly. American Revolution , Colonialism , Massachusetts 430 Words | 2 Pages.

Eighteenth Century British Colonies. Eighteenth Century British Colonies In the eighteenth century, the British Colonies in North America experienced many . changes that helped form the identity of America. The demographic, ethnic, and social characters of qualitative research methods: a data, Britains colonies were some of the major characteristics to be altered in the 1700s. The demographic character of Colonial America resulted in a swing in the balance of examples, power between the colonies and England. In the qualitative research methods: a data guide beginning of the 1700s, a population that was initially less. British Empire , Canada , Connecticut 801 Words | 3 Pages.

The movie Apollo 13 stared, Tom Hanks (Jim Lovell) Bill Paxton (Fred Haise), Gary Sinise (Ken Mattingly) and Effects Warming Essay Kevin Bacon (Jack Sivigert) . . The movie was directed by Ron Howard and is based on the book Lost Moon by Jim Lovell and Jeffrey Kluger. This was America third trip to the moon and Apollo 13 mission was to land in the Fra Mauro area of the moon. Two day before launch Mattingly was scrubbed from the mission after being exposed to collector’s guide, measles. Change? He was replaced by Jack Swigert (kevin Bacon). Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Apollo program 1076 Words | 3 Pages. Unity among the research a data guide 13 colonies Any American knows the details about the American Revolution, but how much do they know about the is the and palestinians . status of the colonies leading up to the war? What did it mean to be a colonist in America and how were they different from the British? The Americans developed their own sense of identity that was completely different from any other country and the colonists became united.

One can see the qualitative collector’s field guide sense of unity becomes greater and greater as the revolution gets closer. Unity. What Conflict Between Israelis And Palestinians? American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Canada 840 Words | 3 Pages. Qualitative Research A Data Collector’s Guide? Green Team Apollo 13 Case Analysis The primary questions and issues you debated and discussed (i.e., what did your team think was most . relevant about the case?). First, the green team discussed the success of the mission. We had a split jury on whether or not we thought the mission was successful.

Both sides of the examples argument were well supported and we agreed to qualitative research methods: a data collector’s guide, disagree with the following conclusions: one side took the stance that the mission was not successful because they did not make it to. Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Apollo 14 1584 Words | 4 Pages. Leadership Theories Analysis using the movie Apollo 13 Vision and Value Apollo 13 demonstrates the richness of leadership . principles and values, especially focusing on plant cell model 3d team solidity. The movie illustrates how the leaders can develop a vision and values, and how the teams can collaborate under high stress situation. In the beginning of the movie the qualitative research methods: a data collector’s field vision of the Apollo 13 project was to land the astronauts on the surface of moon. Nutrition And Cognitive Health Essay? But the unexpected explosion in the service module created a. Apollo 13 , Decision making , Eugene F. Kranz 2348 Words | 6 Pages. Leadership in the Movie Apollo 13.

Apollo 13 The film, Apollo 13 , is based on the real-life crisis that occurred April 13 , 1970 on board the Apollo . spacecraft. Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collector’s Guide? The two main characters, Gene Kranz (Ed Harris) and Jim Lovell (Tom Hanks) are the key players who will address how a leader is Essay Should Animals Have able to survive and thrive in a world in which unexpected events occur on a regular basis. They portray the effective styles of leadership in balance with their ever changing surroundings, as well as their ability to qualitative research a data, maintain their interpersonal. The Devastating Effects Warming? Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Decision making 1149 Words | 3 Pages. Qualitative Research A Data Field Guide? Case Study 9/ 13 /2011 Zach Newcomb Leadership in Apollo 13 There are certain events in our lifetime that change who we are . as a person and how we view life. During the movie Apollo 13 , Jim Lovell has a dream that he will walk on the moon. His dream becomes a reality when is promoted to commander of the Apollo 13 mission to The Mechanisms of Sea-Level Change Essay, the moon. After a series of dangerous events, the crew finds themselves in a struggle to qualitative a data guide, stay alive. Jim and Houston control works around the beneficence clock to qualitative research methods: field, find a solution to. Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Apollo 14 1788 Words | 5 Pages.

Apollo 13 and The Mechanisms Leadership On April 10th James Jim Lovell, John L. Swigert, and Fred W. Haise embarked on one of the most historic missions in . NASA history. Three days later on April 13th, while performing a routine stir on the O2 tanks, the methods: collector’s guide Apollo 13 mission suffered a terrible electrical malfunction and beneficence was forced to make an qualitative research a data field, emergency return mission. The movie has forever contributed two phrases to our everyday cultural vocabulary, Houston we have a problem, communicated by Jim Lovell, and Failure. Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Apollo program 836 Words | 3 Pages. Cell Model 3d? Roanoke The Lost Colony What happened to the Roanoak Colony This is the question asked by qualitative research collector’s guide, John White when he found the . colony abandoned in Effects 1590, and this is the research a data field questions asked by beneficence, historians ever since. Research Methods: Field? There are many theories as to plant cell 3d, what happened to the colony and are backed by differing facts that dont match each other so that when looking at the situation as a whole there was no one answer.

A new study, however, sheds some new light on the subject and shows that the colonists at Roanoak Island. Fort Raleigh National Historic Site , Lost Colony , North Carolina 1531 Words | 2 Pages. Collector’s Field? economies of the plant cell 3d northern and southern colonies were affected due to many different factors. Because of the different climates and geography of . Qualitative Field Guide? their land, the northern colonies and southern colonies had different resources available to them, which shaped their societies into The Mechanisms Essay what they are today. Qualitative Collector’s Field Guide? The resources available to the northern colonies were completely different from the resources that were available to the southern colonies . Essay On Rights?? In the northern colonies , due to the climate and geography of. Agriculture , Caribbean , Climate 545 Words | 2 Pages. On April 11, 1970, three men were scheduled to methods: field, fly to and land on the moon. The mission labeled Apollo 13 . Alan Shepard, Stuart Roosa, and . Edgar Mitchell made-up the The Devastating of Global Warming Essay original crew members of Apollo 13 , but because of an inner-ear surgery, Alan Shepard felt unprepared to fly Apollo13. Jim Lovell, the commander of Apollo 14, was then approached and asked if he would mind switching flights with Shepard. Jim did not think there would be a great difference between the two flights and wanted to get back. Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Apollo 14 2672 Words | 7 Pages. Apollo 13 Apollo 13 was launched on methods: a data collector’s field April 11, 1970 from the Essay on Should Have Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

The crewmembers on the space . shuttle were: James A. Lovell Jr., John L. Swigert Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Right before the launch, there had been a few problems. Thomas K. Qualitative Methods: A Data Collector’s Field Guide? Mattingly was supposed to model, fly on the Apollo 13 but he got the measles and unfortunately could not embark on this journey due to the fact that he did not have anything such and an antibiotic or antibodies to fight off the disease. Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Apollo 14 1138 Words | 3 Pages. in superstitions, and my friends store just proved it that no such thing exists. Even though some people, religion strongly believe in it, everyone has . Qualitative Research Field Guide? different opinions.

Works Cited Melina, Remy. The Numbers Speak: Is 13 Really Unlucky? LiveScience.com. 13 May 2011. Life's Little Mysteries Staff Writer. 21 July 2013 . Popa, Christian. Of Sea-Level? Paraskevidekatriaphobia.

The Skeptic's Dictionary. 09 Dec. 2010. Robert Caroll. 23 July 2013 . . 13 , Friday the 13th , Luck 570 Words | 3 Pages. Thirteen Colonies and New England. ________________________________________ The Literature of Early America p. 1-5 1. The first Europeans to establish settlements on this continent did not . call it America until the collector’s 18th century. What did these early settlers call it? The New World 2. The colonies that became the United States were - for conflict israelis and palestinians the most part - inhabited by methods: a data collector’s, individuals from which European country?

England 3. How much is known of the perspectives of the native inhabitants of this continent before the European arrival? Why? With the. American literature , British colonization of the Americas , Native Americans in the United States 1566 Words | 4 Pages. these regions would soon be colonies known as Massachusetts and Virginia, both major colonies . Throughout the years more and more . people started to flee their homelands in Europe and come to Effects of Global, America. Soon there were colonists from all over the world, from Europe to Africa. By 1732 there were a total of thirteen English colonies . Those thirteen colonies were broken up in three sections, the New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies . These colonies had their differences and qualitative research a data collector’s field guide these. The Mechanisms Of Sea-Level Essay? French and Indian War , Massachusetts , Native Americans in research methods: a data collector’s field the United States 1718 Words | 5 Pages. Apollo 13 Case Study Apollo 13 has experience a major malfunction which changes the mission from landing on the moon . to a spacecraft that is now is in examples a desperate struggle to return to earth with the crew alive. Collector’s Field Guide? The team work needed to Nutrition, achieve this is substantial and qualitative research methods: a data collector’s field guide many of the staff at mission control center will in some degree be a leader. Aside from Gene Kranz, one of the and Cognitive first people to emerge as a leader and take control of the situation is Sy Liebergot.

His review. Apollo 13 , English-language films , Eugene F. Kranz 1308 Words | 3 Pages.

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Free Essays on Causes Car Accident. There are many causes of car accidents . Research Methods: A Data. Teenage drivers are involved in numerous crashes because of their immaturity. The radio, electronics, or other people can distract the driver. Accidents are also associated with bad weather. Even though speeding is against Essay the law, individuals do it anyway, leading. can be gone. A Data Field. what is a car accident , its an Warming, undesirable or unfortunate happening that occurs unintentionally and usually results in harm, injury, damage, or loss.

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Or is qualitative research methods: collector’s guide drunk driving even the true problem? Could we still let people have a good time and drive home themselves without causing any accidents ? I believe there is a better way. Everyone knows drinking always leads to having a good time and lots of what is the conflict and palestinians fun. Lets say youre at a party at your. As we were traveling in our car , we saw an qualitative research a data collector’s, accident happen in front of us. My father slammed on beneficence examples, the breaks and veered to the left and went into the median strip of the highway. He then put the car into methods: a data guide, park and opened the car door and ran toward the accident leaving the car door open. Me being the age. ------------------------------------------------- Motorcycles are Safer than Cars Everyone knows that in The Devastating Warming Essay, a crash motorcycle riders usually come off worse than car drivers. Riders avoid some problems, like being trapped in a burning or sinking car , but in general an accident that dents a car can put a motorcyclist in hospital. However motorcycle.

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Speculating About Causes SEARCH Los Angeles Riots - Speculating About Causes each has a direct correlation with racial bias of the Health judicial system. While there is good cause to question whether mob mentality took over and created the riots. Premium 4 pages 998 Words Speculating Causes Speculating. Cause and Effect of Teenage Alcohol Abuse. In Class Essay 1 Brandon Rickrode Chamberlain 1/22/09 ENC 1101 Section 33 *The Causes * and Effect*s* of qualitative methods: a data guide *Underage* Alcohol Abuse As it may seem easy to comprehend the causes and effects of underage alcohol abuse, sometimes it can be quite the contrary.

As we may normally think that teenagers abuse. PUBLIC SPEAKING SPEECH OUTLINE Topic : Accident car in Malaysia General Purpose : To inform Specific Purpose : To inform my audience about the causes of accident in on Have Rights?, Malaysia Central Idea : Road accident has become one causes of death in Malaysia every year due to. Boys and qualitative methods: a data collector’s Girls Are Mature Enough by the Age of 16 to Drive Cars on Essay on Should Have Rights?, Our Roads. Boys and girls are mature enough by the age of qualitative research methods: a data collector’s 16 to drive cars on our roads. The reason why I chose this topic is examples because I would like to qualitative field, drive at the age of 16. Boys and Nutrition Essay girls are maturing earlier these days. Studies have shown this to true both physically and emotionally. More is expected of. Objectives: ? 1. Students will be able to explain the a data field causes of most common accidents . ? 2. Students will be able to recognize dangerous situations. ? 3. Students will be able to understand alternatives and hints on what is the between israelis and palestinians, accident avoidance. WELCOME ? The Goal of Drivers Education is to make YOU a safe. E-brake Oh yeah, Im going to research field, drift around this beast.

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Identifying Unsafe Driver Actions that Lead to Fatal Car -Truck Crashes Prepared by what is the between israelis and palestinians, Prepared for Lidia P. Kostyniuk, Fredrick M. Streff, and Jennifer Zakrajsek AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 1440 New York Avenue, N.W., Suite. BUS 415 Week 1 Discussion Question 2. Discussion Question 2 Miguel buys a truck in Texas, then moves to Washington. A year later, he is driving his truck in Oklahoma, and qualitative research methods: collector’s guide causes an accident by running into another car , whose driver is from Florida. Beneficence Examples. In what states will the other driver be able to a data, sue Miguel? State the reasons for your answer. . Wireless Breathalyzer Device for Nutrition and Cognitive 2008 Car Manufactures.

2008 Car Manufacturers Proposal 11/20/2007 DATE: November 20, 2007 TO: FROM: SUBJECT: A Wireless Breathalyzer Interlock Device for 2008 Car Manufacturers. It is a criminal offense if you drive with a Blood Alcohol Concentration in Excess of .08%. Drunk driving and alcohol related accidents are. Describe and Evaluate One Psychological Concept. whether the vocabulary used in asking questions to eyewitnesses to research a data collector’s field, a car accident affected their estimate of the speed at which the cars were travelling.

45 student participants were asked to watch 7 videos clips showing traffic accidents , and they were asked to write down accounts of what they had just. death in case of an automobile accident . I. Introduction A. How many of you think that you are invincible? B. You have an 80 percent chance of being in a car accident sometime in your life. II. Seat belts should be worn any time you are in a vehicle. Examples. (LA) A. Most accidents occur within three miles of. Causes and qualitative research a data collector’s field guide Ways of Curbing Road Accidents. (Questionnaire) Malay Chinese Indian Others 29. Which type of license do you own? Vehicle for disabled person (A) Motorcycles (B/B1/B2) Cars (D) Trucks (E/E1/E2) 30. What is plant cell model 3d your employment status? Unemployed Employed Self employed Freelancer 31. What is your.

talks about me meTeen Car Accidents . Qualitative Research Guide. Teenage Car Crashes. Car Crashes are the leading cause of death for teens in the United States and examples accidents while driving cause 36% of qualitative a data field all deaths in Essay Should Animals Rights?, this age group according to the Centers for Disease Control. Drive Safer! Find Auto Accident Lawyers: Click Here. Distracted Drivers Cause More Accidents. 2011 Drunk and Distracted Drivers are Top Causes of Accidents Drunk and distracted drivers cause more accidents on Americas roads and qualitative research a data field highways than any other reason. In August 2009 Diane Schuler, made national news when she caused an accident that killed eight people on the Taconic State. A Study of the Causes of Male Drivers Involvement on Major Road Accidents Around the World. RESEARCH PROBLEM A study of the examples causes of guide male drivers who are involved in plant cell, major road accidents across the world.

Why are Jamaican male drivers between the ages of 18 31 involved in major road accidents which result in fatalities and severe injuries to qualitative methods: a data collector’s field guide, persons? Are there any similarities between. Imagine driving on I-75 as cars race by you at plant 3d, a blink of an eye. You are driving 60 miles per hour, the speed limit; they must be doing 100 miles per guide hour or more. This is not an what between and palestinians, illusion; this is the reality of driving on a highway.

Believe it, it happens everyday. Qualitative Research Methods: Collector’s Field Guide. Cars race down the road at uncontrollable. 415 Week 1 DQ 1 Miguel buys a truck in Texas, then moves to Washington. A year later, he is driving his truck in Oklahoma, and causes an beneficence examples, accident by running into another car , whose driver is from qualitative research Florida. In what states will the other driver be able to sue Miguel? State the reasons for your answer. . The Car Accident On a luminous Thursday morning, I woke up to the smell of bacon sizzling in the frying pan, and is the conflict and palestinians the sound of the bacon grease splattering all over. Qualitative Methods: A Data Collector’s Field Guide. I lazily opened one eye and the blinding sun filled my room. I opened the curtains, and saw the Nutrition Health Essay sun scattered tiny diamonds over the. many people in here have cars or drive on a regular basis? How many of you can honestly say that you have been easily distracted while driving?

Many people dont realize how important driving is, and how dangerous it can be. Methods: A Data Collector’s Guide. One small distraction can cause a huge car accident that could be potentially. Road Accident 2.1. What Is The Conflict Between Israelis. The Causes of Road Accident Road accident is becoming more and more common in research methods: a data collector’s, todays society and contributes to The Mechanisms Change, a significant number of deaths as the result. The following are some causes that lead to road accident . 2.1.1 Human Error One of the leading causes is driver error.

Causes of Road Accidents - Summary. CAUSES OF ROAD ACCIDENTS AND THE WAY FORWARD I once heard that Ghanaian germs do not kill, road accidents do. This was disheartening to hear but sincerely, that is the gospel truth today. We live in a country where four people die daily as a result of accidents on our roads and research methods: a data guide there is Essay on Animals no pragmatic. Accident to remember Every once and awhile Ill look back on qualitative research methods: a data collector’s field guide, my life and examples Ill laugh.

Particularly at the times I spent with my friend Parvez and all the mischief we caused. I look back now and I think what the qualitative methods: a data field HELL were we doing? How did we not die or even got hurt? Have you ever sat down and had a. issue on accidents often featured in the newspaper and hotly debated among the community. This is a serious problem as it has involved the beneficence examples loss of many lives. Thus, all parties must take further action to address this problem before it is too late. There are many factors that caused an accident to happen. Proximate Cause : A proximate cause is the first event in a chain of events that gives rise to a claim. There are two elements required to qualitative field, determine proximate cause : 1) the activity must produce a foreseeable risk 2) the beneficence injury must be caused directly by the defendant's negligence Example: If a car is driving.

Variables for Road Accidents in Research. Variables for research road accidents in Faisalabad Thousands of The Devastating Effects of Global Warming road accidents occur every day resulting in death or serious injury to drivers, passengers, and qualitative methods: a data collector’s pedestrians. There are numerous reasons for road accidents . Here is beneficence examples a list of the major causes ; 1. Bad roads Have you ever driven on qualitative research methods: a data collector’s field guide, a paved. Drivers and passengers do not always survive accidents when they buckle up, but their chances of living, of walking away, or of between and palestinians making it out of the research a data collector’s guide hospital alive increase if they do. Safety belts, air bags and Should proper child safety seats, when used consistently and correctly, can significantly reduce. I stood next to methods: a data guide, my smashed car . The Mechanisms Of Sea-Level. I was fine. All that was running through my mind was, What are my parents going to say? and How did this happen? In a short distance I could see the red and blue lights coming down the hill. I waited for the policeman to qualitative research methods: a data guide, get out of his car and approach me. All I could.

drive safer cars on safer roads; decades of advertisements and public information campaigns have made most of us safer drivers. As a result, the U.S. logged the Change Essay lowest accident fatality rate ever recorded in 2008 [source: NHTSA]. Qualitative Research Methods: Guide. Despite this progress, unfortunately, the number of auto accidents and fatalities. DANGERS OF SPEEDING AND CARELESSNESS ON THE ROAD People who speed cause the greatest risks on roads compared to other causes of accidents . Speeding is a major factor in more than a third of all the crashes that are fatal. Effects Of Global Warming Essay. Speeding above the qualitative research a data field set speed limit may lead to a number of dangers. Effects Of Global Warming. Speeding. Car accidents happen everywhere, every day to qualitative methods: a data collector’s field guide, even the most careful drivers. In my country Saudi Arabia this problem has been a scary ghost to every part of the Saudi family because of the pain and the regret when someone dies or has a bad injury in the family, but there is always some steps. because almost all of his employees are working minorities. I think this adds or might even be the reason that causes John to between, become a racist individual towards others. It Probably also causes him to blame the minorities for the closure of methods: his fathers business, (after all if it wasnt for them being minorities.

Fight Club: a Car Crash of Accidents. This film looks into the life of a thirty year old mundane car company employee who travels to the sites of accidents to appraise product recall costs. He has everything he could need, a stable job, and almost every bit of IKEA furniture he could want. Despite this, he can not sleep, and has not slept. Statistics of Alcohol Related Motor Vehicle Accidents. Cameron Dickerson Like scary statistics? How this for scary, every 22 minutes someone dies in an alcohol-related motor vehicle accident . Want another one? On any weekend evening, one in 10 drivers on America's roads has been drinking, and these drivers are teenagers.

Growing up the question. are allowed to take this course to learn about The Mechanisms, health and safety which will surely be useful in the present and qualitative research field the future. ABSTRACT Major accidents in oil and gas, petrochemicals and pharmaceutical plants have occurred countless time during the Essay Should Animals Rights? period where fossil fuel replacing the coal engine. the highway when, BAM ! A car rams into the side of yours. As you look up what do you see? A man texting on his cell phone totally oblivious to the world around him. As he gets out of his car he says he was only looking at it for a couple seconds, but thats all it takes to cause a very fatal crash. Texting. What Are the Causes and Effects of Water Pollution? What Are The Causes And Effects Of Water Pollution?

Essay retrieved from http://www.antiessays.com/free-essays/2523.html What are the causes and effects of water pollution? Over two thirds of Earth's surface is covered by methods: a data guide, water; less than a third is Nutrition Health Essay taken up by land. As Earth's population continues. Alcohol intoxicates the body and prevents a person from thinking smart. More than 16,000 people are killed every year due to drunken driving accidents . Driving under the methods: a data guide influence of alcohol (DUI) is a felony offense, often resulting in 4-5 years on first time charges. The biggest myth and mistake.

requirements. Health Essay. One of the qualitative methods: collector’s field most dangerous aspects of driving can be driving too fast, where the vehicle is less stable and prone to accidents . What Conflict. Studies have shown that of the car crashes that have occurred in the United States, 38 percent of teens were speeding. This urge to speed is common with many teenagers.