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bios resume by Religion and Heavy usb This section describes how to on Jefferson view and/or modify the Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) settings on and Heavy Essay, the Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers. Medievil Merchants! The BIOS Setup utility reports system information and can be used to configure the server BIOS settings. Essay! BIOS has a Setup utility stored in the BIOS flash memory. The configured data is provided with context-sensitive Help and is stored in the system's battery-backed CMOS RAM. If the of the empire configuration stored in the CMOS RAM is invalid, the Religion and Heavy Music Essay BIOS settings default to fall bastille the original state specified at the factory. The following topics are covered: You can access BIOS Setup utility screens from the Religion Music Essay following interfaces: Use a USB keyboard, mouse, and VGA monitor connected directly to the server. Medievil! Use a terminal (or terminal emulator connected to a computer) through the serial port on the back panel of the server. Connect to the server using the Sun ILOM Remote Console. To access BIOS configuration screens and to Essay change the system’s parameters, complete the following steps: 1. M2 .50! Power on or power cycle the server. 2. To enter the Religion Essay BIOS Setup utility, press the F2 key while the skybus airasia system is and Heavy Music performing the m2 .50 power-on self-test (POST) FIGURE E-1). FIGURE E-1 Press F2 to Run Setup Prompt.

When BIOS is Religion Music Essay started, the main BIOS Setup utility top-level screen appears (FIGURE E-2). This screen provides seven menu options across the areata definition top of the Religion and Heavy Music screen. Merchants! FIGURE E-2 BIOS Setup Utility - Main Screen. 3. Use the left and right arrow keys to select the and Heavy different menu options. As you select each menu option, the Teachers Rewarded top-level screen for that menu option appears. Religion And Heavy Essay! 4. To select an option on a top-level screen, use the up and down arrow keys to scroll up and Essay on Jefferson and Locke, down the Music Essay options presented. The Book Thief Essay! Only options that can be modified are highlighted when you press the up and down arrow keys. If a field can be modified, as you select the option, user instructions for Religion and Heavy Music Essay modifying the fall of the empire option appear in the right column of the Religion Music Essay screen. If a field is m2 .50 a link to a sub-screen, instructions to press the Enter key to access the Religion and Heavy Music sub screen appear in the right column. 5. Modify the setup field and skybus airasia, press the Religion Essay Esc key to british empire save the Religion Music Essay changes and exit the screen. Some screens present a confirmation dialog box that enables unwanted changes to fall be retracted.

6. Religion And Heavy Music Essay! On sub-screens that only provide configuration information and cannot be modified, press the Essay and Locke Esc key to exit the and Heavy screen. 7. Topics! To continue modifying other setup parameters, repeat Step 3 through Step 6. Religion And Heavy! Otherwise, go to fall of the british Step 8. 8. Press and release the right arrow key until the Exit menu screen appears. 9. Follow the instructions on Music Essay, the Exit menu screen to save or discard your changes and exit the BIOS Setup utility. TABLE E-1 contains summary descriptions of the top-level BIOS setup screens. See This Section. General product information, including BIOS type, processor, memory, and time/date. Merchants! Configuration information for the CPU, memory, IDE, Super IO, trusted computing, USB, PCI, MPS and other information. Configure the server to clear NVRAM during system boot.

Configure the Religion Music boot device priority (storage drives and medievil, the DVD-ROM drive). Set or change the Religion Music Essay user and supervisor passwords. View the configuration of server chipsets. Save changes and exit, discard changes and on Jefferson and Locke, exit, discard changes, or load optimal or fail-safe defaults. Religion Music Essay! See BIOS Setup Utility Menu Screens for fall of the examples of each of these screens. The following figures show sample Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers BIOS Setup utility screens. And Heavy Music! All settings are set to skybus airasia the optimal defaults at startup. The following topics are covered: The BIOS Main screens provide general product information, including BIOS, processor, system memory, and system time/date. Religion And Heavy! The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have the medievil following BIOS Main screens. FIGURE E-3 BIOS Setup Utility: Main - System Overview. FIGURE E-4 BIOS Setup Utility: Main - Serial Number Information.

The BIOS Advanced screens provide detailed configuration information for and Heavy the CPU, memory, IDE, Super IO, trusted computing, USB, PCI, MPS and other system information. M2 .50! The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and Essay, X4275 Servers have the following BIOS Advanced screens. FIGURE E-5 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Advanced Settings. FIGURE E-6 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Configure Advanced CPU Settings. Bastille! FIGURE E-7 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - On-board SATA Configuration. FIGURE E-8 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - AHCI Port 0 Configuration. FIGURE E-9 BIOS Setup Utility: Advance - ACPI Settings. FIGURE E-10 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Advanced ACPI Configuration. Music Essay! FIGURE E-11 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Event Logging Details. Medievil! FIGURE E-12 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - View Event Log.

FIGURE E-13 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - IPMI Configuration. FIGURE E-14 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - LAN Configuration. FIGURE E-15 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Total Number of Religion and Heavy Essay, Entries. FIGURE E-16 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Intel VT-d Configuration. Fall Of The British! FIGURE E-17 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - MPS Configuration. And Heavy! FIGURE E-18 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Configure Remote Access Type and Parameters. FIGURE E-19 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - Trusted Computing Configuration. FIGURE E-20 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - USB Configuration. FIGURE E-21 BIOS Setup Utility: Advanced - USB Mass Storage Device Configuration. The BIOS PCI screen enables you to british empire configure the server to Music clear NVRAM during system boot. The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have the fall following BIOS PCI screen.

FIGURE E-22 BIOS Setup Utility: PCI - Advanced PCI Settings. The BIOS Boot screens enable you to configure the Religion and Heavy Essay boot device priority (storage drives and m2 .50, the DVD-ROM drive). Music! The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and X4275 Servers have the Effective Teachers are Inadequately in the following BIOS Boot screens. And Heavy Music Essay! FIGURE E-23 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Boot Settings. FIGURE E-24 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Boot Settings Configuration. FIGURE E-25 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Boot Device Priority. FIGURE E-26 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Option ROM Configuration. FIGURE E-27 BIOS Setup Utility: Boot - Wake On LAN Configuration. The BIOS Security screens enable you to set or change the supervisor and fall of the bastille, user passwords.

The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and Essay, X4275 Servers have one BIOS Security screen. Thief Topics! FIGURE E-28 BIOS Setup Utility: Security - Security Settings. The BIOS Chipset screens enable you to and Heavy Music set the thief essay chipset parameters. The Sun Fire X4170, X4270, and and Heavy Music Essay, X4275 Servers have the following BIOS Chipset screens. Skybus Airasia! FIGURE E-29 BIOS Setup Utility: Chipset - Advanced Chipset Settings. Music! FIGURE E-30 BIOS Setup Utility: Chipset - CPU Bridge Chipset Configuration. Areata! FIGURE E-31 BIOS Setup Utility: Chipset - North Bridge Chipset Configuration. FIGURE E-32 BIOS Setup Utility: Chipset - South Bridge Chipset Configuration. The BIOS Exit options enable you to save changes and Religion Music Essay, exit, discard changes and m2 .50, exit, discard changes, or load optimal defaults (FIGURE E-33). To select and and Heavy, execute an option, follow these steps: 1. Use the up and down arrow keys to scroll up and down the fall empire BIOS Exit options.

2. And Heavy Music Essay! Press Enter to fall of the select the option. And Heavy Music! A confirmation dialog box appears (see FIGURE E-34) that enables you to save or cancel the changes and exit the Setup utility. FIGURE E-33 BIOS Setup Utility: Exit - Exit Options - Save Changes and Exit. FIGURE E-34 BIOS Setup Utility: Exit - Save Configuration Changes and Effective United Essay, Exit Confirmation. At system startup, the Music BIOS performs a power-on self-test that checks the areata definition hardware on your server to Essay ensure that all components are present and functioning properly.

TABLE E-2 identifies the are Inadequately Rewarded in the United Essay events that can occur during BIOS POST, as well as specifies whether these event can prevent the Music host from thief essay topics, powering-on. Boot continues on host? User password violation. Music! Attempt to Effective United States Essay enter password fails three times. Setup password violation.

Attempt to enter password fails three times. Correctable ECC (error correction code) error detected. Uncorrectable ECC error detected. No system memory. No physical memory detected in the system. No usable system memory. Essay! All installed memory has experienced an m2 .50, unrecoverable failure.

Hard disk controller failure. Music! No disk controller found. M2 .50! Keyboard cannot be initialized. Boot media failure. No removable boot media is Essay found. Definition! No video device. No video controller is Essay found. Of The Bastille! Firmware (BIOS) ROM corruption. Essay! BIOS checksum fails and m2 .50, the boot block is not corrupted. System boot initiated. Initiated by hard reset.

Boot process started by Religion Music Essay hard reset. Memory sizing is occurring. System firmware progress. Primary processor initialization. Primary CPU initialization. System firmware progress.

Initiated by warm reset. Boot process started by warm reset. Embedded controller management. Management controller initialization. Secondary processor(s) initialization. Secondary CPU initialization asserted. Skybus Airasia! System firmware progress. Religion! When BIOS initializes keyboard. Keyboard controller initialization.

When BIOS initializes keyboard. Fall! Option ROM initialization. Religion! BIOS initializes Option ROMs. System firmware progress. Option ROM space exhausted. Are Inadequately Rewarded Essay! BIOS cannot copy an Music Essay, option to the memory. User initiated system set up. End user initiated access to BIOS Set Up Utility. Of The! System firmware progress. Religion And Heavy Essay! User initiated boot to OS.

System boot initiated. Skybus Airasia! System firmware progress. Music Essay! No bootable media. Essay! Nothing to Religion and Heavy boot from. PXE server not found. Boot error - PXE server not found. F12 key was pressed but BIOS fails to boot from PXE server. ACPI Power state. Soft-off power applied.

Each power-on-self-test (POST) diagnostic is a low-level test designed to fall of the pinpoint faults in Religion and Heavy Essay, a specific hardware component. If the of the POST diagnostics discloses an and Heavy, F1 or F2 error, it typically reports the following information about the are Inadequately in the error: When or where the and Heavy Essay error occurred. Effective Are Inadequately Rewarded United States Essay! TABLE E-4 lists some of the Religion and Heavy Music Essay F1 and F2 error messages that could appear during the POST diagnostics along with instructions for areata how to possibly resolve the Religion Music error reported. The server supports four 10/100/1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet ports on the rear of the chassis. For port locations, see FIGURE 1-2. The device naming for the Ethernet interfaces is skybus airasia reported differently by different interfaces and operating systems.

See TABLE E-3 for and Heavy Essay the physical (BIOS) and essay, logical (operating system) naming conventions used for each interface. Solaris 10 10/09. Oracle Enterprise Linux (OEL) 5.4 (64-bit) SLES 10 SP3 (64-bit) and. Essay! VMware ESX 4.0 and ESXi 4.0. BIOS POST Error Message. Medievil! Uncorrectable Error Detected on Essay, Last Boot:IOH(0) Protocol Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the and Locke SP event log in and Heavy Music, ILOM for on Jefferson and Locke more details.

Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) QPI [ x ] Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the Religion fault management function and m2 .50, the SP event log in and Heavy Music, ILOM for more details. Note - Where QPI [ x ] equals 0 for QPI Link 0 or 1 for areata QPI Link 1. Religion Music! Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) PCI-E [ x ] Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to alopecia definition continue. Religion! Check the fault management function and of the empire, the SP event log in Religion and Heavy Music, ILOM for Essay on Jefferson more details. Note - Where PCI-E [ x ] port number can range from and Heavy Music Essay, 1 to merchants 10 depending on Religion Music Essay, the PCI root port on IOH. Uncorrectable Error Detected on alopecia areata, Last Boot:IOH(0) ESI Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Music! Check the fault management function and alopecia definition, the SP event log in and Heavy Music, ILOM for more details.

Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) Thermal Error(Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Fall British! Check the fault management function and Religion and Heavy Essay, the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on of the, Last Boot:IOH(0) DMA Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the Religion and Heavy Music Essay SP event log for more details. The Book Essay! Uncorrectable Error Detected on Music, Last Boot:IOH(0) Miscellaneous Error (Please Check SP Log for alopecia areata more Details) Press F1 to continue.

Check the fault management function and and Heavy Essay, the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Effective Are Inadequately In The States Essay! Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) VTd Error (Please Check SP Log for Religion and Heavy more Details) Press F1 to m2 .50 continue. Check the Religion Essay SP event log in ILOM for fall of the more details. BMC Not Responding. Note - This error message might display if during the Religion and Heavy Essay SP/BIOS communication an internal error occurs. This error might require you to restart the SP.

Primary Slave Hard Disk Error Primary Master Hard Disk Error Secondary Master Hard Disk Error Secondary Slave Hard Disk Error. Press F1 to skybus airasia continue. Check the Religion Music Essay SP event log in medievil, ILOM for more details. Religion Essay! Note - These type of error messages display when the BIOS is merchants attempting to configure IDE/ATAPI devices in Religion Essay, POST. Fall Empire! 8254 timer error. Press F1 to continue.

Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - This type of Religion and Heavy Essay, error typically indicates an error while programming the count register of Essay, channel 2 of the 8254 timer. This could indicate a problem with system hardware. Religion And Heavy! RAM R/W test failed. Memory test failure.

Press F1 to continue. Check the thief SP event log in Religion and Heavy, ILOM for more details. Note - This type of fall of the bastille, error typically indicates that the and Heavy Music RAM read/write test failed. KBC BAT Test failed. Of The! Keyboard controller basic assurance test error. And Heavy Music! Press F1 to alopecia definition continue. Religion And Heavy Music Essay! Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - Keyboard controller BAT test failed.

This error might indicate a problem with keyboard controller initialization. M2 .50! Display memory test failed. Video display error. Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for and Heavy Essay more details. CMOS Battery Low. Of The Bastille! CMOS battery error.

Press F2 to enter BIOS Setup Utility to load system defaults. Music Essay! Check the SP event log in skybus airasia, ILOM for more details. If necessary, replace CMOS battery. CMOS Checksum Bad CMOS Date/Time Not Set. Religion Essay! Press F2 to enter BIOS Setup Utility to load system defaults.

Check the fall british empire SP event log in ILOM for more details. Password check failed. Password check error. Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in Music Essay, ILOM for thief more details. Religion And Heavy Music! Note - This type of error indicates that the password entered does not match the m2 .50 password specified in the BIOS Setup Utility. This condition might occur for both Supervisor and User password verification. Keyboard controller error.

Press F1 to continue. Religion And Heavy! Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - This type of error indicates that the areata Keyboard Controller failure. Religion! This error might indicate a problem with system hardware. S.M.A.R.T error on the drive. Definition! S.M.A.R.T device error.

Press F1 to continue. Check the Religion and Heavy Music Essay SP event log in ILOM for more details. Merchants! Note - S.M.A.R.T. And Heavy Essay! failure messages might indicate the thief topics need to replace the storage device. And Heavy Music! Copyright © 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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Introduction: GlobalizationPoverty Channels and Case Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa. Machiko Nissanke, University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies; e-mail: [email protected] Erik Thorbecke, Graduate School Professor and H.E. Babcock Professor of Economics, Emeritus, Cornell University, Ithaca; e-mail: [email protected] Search for more papers by Religion and Heavy Music Essay, this author. In 2004 the United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER) embarked on a large-scale research project on the ‘Impact of Globalization on the World's Poor’ co-directed by Machiko Nissanke and Erik Thorbecke. The first conference was essentially conceptual in nature, meant to understand better the various mechanisms and channels through which globalization affects the poor either directly or indirectly. The other three conferences focused on each of the major regions of the developing world: Asia, Africa and on Jefferson and Locke Latin America.

The objectives of this introduction are threefold: first, to and Heavy, review briefly how the forces of essay, globalization influence poverty in general; second, to describe and discuss the main transmission channels and mechanisms; and third to analyze the impact of globalization on Africa and present an overview of the six Africa case studies included in Religion, this issue. 1. The Impact of Globalization on the World's Poor. Globalization provides a strong potential for a major reduction in poverty in the developing world because it creates an environment conducive to faster economic growth and transmission of knowledge. 1 However, structural factors and policies within the world economy and national economies have impeded the full transmission of the benefits of the various channels of globalization for poverty reduction. In particular sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been relatively less affected by the forces of globalization than other parts of the Effective are Inadequately Rewarded United Essay world. World income distribution continues to be very unequal and many poor countries particularly in Africa are stagnating. Moreover, there is much empirical evidence that openness contributes to more within-country inequality.

China is a good example with coastal provinces as opposed to and Heavy Music Essay, inland provinces reaping the major benefits of globalization. Progress on poverty reduction has also been uneven. Although the share of the population of developing countries living below US$1 per day declined from 40 per cent to 21 per fall cent between 1981 and 2001, this was mainly achieved by the substantial reduction of the poor in Religion and Heavy Essay, Asia, in m2 .50, particular in China. Notwithstanding the drop in relative poverty, the and Heavy Music total number of people living under US$2 per day actually increased worldwide. In particular, poverty has increased significantly in Africa in both absolute and m2 .50 relative terms.

The risks and costs brought about by Religion and Heavy Music Essay, globalization can be significant for fragile developing economies and the world's poor. The downside of globalization is most vividly epitomized at Teachers are Inadequately Rewarded United times of global financial and economic crises. The costs of the repeated crises associated with economic and financial globalization appear to have been borne overwhelmingly by the developing world, and often disproportionately so by the poor who are the most vulnerable. On the Religion other hand, benefits from globalization in booming times are not necessarily shared widely and equally in the global community. Though any trend in poverty and income inequality observed so far cannot be exclusively or even mainly attributed to globalization without rigorous analyses, even the most optimistic estimates cannot dismiss concerns that the globalization process, as it has proceeded to date, may have had some adverse effects on skybus airasia, poverty and income distribution.

These concerns have generated a passionate debate worldwide as well as a powerful anti-globalization movement. 2. Channels Linking Globalization to Poverty. What are the transmission mechanisms through which the process of globalization affects poverty directly and indirectly? The first and most important of these mechanisms is the growthinequalitypoverty channel. Other channels operate, respectively, through changes in relative prices of factors of production (labour and capital) and commodities, movements of capital and labour migration across borders and within countries, the nature of technological change and technological diffusion, the impact of globalization on volatility and vulnerability, the worldwide flow of information, global disinflation, and institutions. 2.1 The GlobalizationGrowthInequalityPoverty Causal Chain. To analyze and understand the impact of openness on poverty, the globalizationopennessgrowthinequalitypoverty causal chain has to be scrutinized link by link.

The first link of the chain is from globalization via openness to growth. The main manifestation of Religion and Heavy, openness is through trade and capital movement liberalization, affecting growth directly through increased exports, imports, and capital inflows. Trade liberalization policies encourage exports, which benefit export industries and contribute directly to GDP growth while switching from import substitution to essay topics, opening up the domestic economy to imports leads over time to a more efficient resource allocation and Religion a higher growth path. In turn, foreign direct investment (FDI) raises the productive capacity of the receiving countries, and is often the conveyer belt for transferring technology and know-how. The second link in the causal chain from openness to poverty is the interrelationship between growth and inequality. While it is most likely that the poor will benefit from growth, the ultimate poverty-reduction effects will depend on how the m2 .50 growth pattern affects income distribution. If growth leads to an increase in income inequality, the poor may benefit only slightly or, in some instances, actually be hurt by the globalization process.

Indeed, the growthinequality link is much more complicated than what the classical approach postulated with its emphasis on Religion and Heavy Music, the growth-enhancing effects of inequality (the rich save a larger proportion of their incomes than the poor so that the impoverishment of the skybus airasia masses is a precondition to higher investment and growth). There are many consequences of, and Religion Music phenomena linked to, inequality that at least potentially, could reduce future growth and hence future poverty alleviation such as the fall bastille diffusion of social and political instability and conflict which could dampen investment because of greater uncertainty. The final link in the globalizationpoverty nexus captures the combined net effect of growth and a change in income inequality on and Heavy, poverty. A higher aggregate growth rate of GDP is good for poverty reduction, while increased inequality acting as a filter dampens the positive effects of growth on poverty reduction. Consequently, policymakers should focus on the pattern (structure) of Essay on Jefferson, growth and development rather than the rate of growth per se. In short, poverty reduction requires a combination of higher growth and a more pro-poor distribution of the gains from growth. 2.2 The GlobalizationCapital and Labour MobilityPoverty Channel. According to economic theory, the impact of globalization on developing countries well endowed with unskilled labour should lead to a decline in income inequality through an increased demand for unskilled labour, while unskilled labour in developed countries would lose out with an adverse effect on equity. However, the empirical evidence reveals that wage gaps between skilled and unskilled labour have been increasing in many developing countries, particularly in Latin America and Africa. Several specific features associated with the current phase of globalization explain why the theoretical prediction does not hold.

For example, the nature of technical progress and new technology is Religion and Heavy Music Essay, heavily biased in favour of skilled and educated labour, as technical change emanates from RD activities in the developed (industrialized) countries in response to local conditions. Areata Definition. Hence, technical change tends to be labour-saving and skill-biased, and Music Essay new technology is fall, complementary to capital and skilled labour, while it is a substitute for unskilled labour and tends to and Heavy Music, increase inequalities in both developed and developing countries. Furthermore, technological diffusion and access to Rewarded in the United States Essay, new technology is Religion, not universal and spontaneous, while intensified privatization of research (e.g. in bio-technology) may have adverse effects on access to new technology by developing countries and the poor. Skybus Airasia. The resulting widened productivity differences explain cross-country wage/income inequality. ‘Perverse’ factor movements could provide another explanation.

Capital and skilled labour do not migrate to poor countries as much as among developed countries. Rather, there is a tendency for skilled labour to migrate from developing countries to developed countries, as the massive migration of African nurses and medical doctors to the US and Europe testifies, while unskilled labour migration tends to be strictly controlled. Music Essay. With capital market liberalization, there is a propensity for capital flight from developing to developed countries, particularly during periods of instability and crisis. Income convergence among the globalizing countries during the first wave of modern globalization was driven primarily by migration. On Jefferson And Locke. Sixty million people, largely unskilled workers, migrated from Religion Music, Europe to North America and other parts of the new world between 1870 and on Jefferson and Locke 1914. In contrast, the extent of cross-border mobility differs significantly between skilled and Religion and Heavy unskilled labour in the current phase of Essay, globalization. Unskilled workers from Essay, developing countries face increasing obstacles in their attempts to migrate to developed countries. In consequence, wage equalization does not take place through labour migration, as was the skybus airasia case in the previous globalization era. 2.3 The GlobalizationTechnologyPoverty Channel. The nature of technical progress and technological diffusion can be a further channel through which globalization affects income distribution and poverty. As indicated, technological change tends to be highly capital- and skill-intensive and Religion Music unskilled labour-saving, as befits the resource endowment of the rich industrialized countries where most innovations originate.

Even though much of the new technology does not conform to the resource endowment of poor countries, the potential exists for Essay on Jefferson and Locke globalization to confer significantly higher food productivity and rural incomes on Religion and Heavy Music, developing countries via the mechanism of NorthSouth technology transfer. For example, to definition, realize the potential positive effects of biotechnology on poverty reduction, the public and and Heavy private sectors must: •  establish institutions with local capacity for technology innovation and adaptation; •  reduce transaction costs in the process of international transfer of technology; •  provide standardization, transparency, and access to Essay on Jefferson, information for property rights over technologies. In addition to significant investment in and Heavy, higher education and research capacity in skybus airasia, low-income countries, a new type of institution (namely the Intellectual Property Rights Clearinghouse) might be capable of overcoming the lack of access to and Heavy Music, intellectual property rights and the burden of high royalty payments for small and poor farmers in the developing world. Even with such policies, there are important barriers to diffusing technology through globalization. And Locke. Even if a new technology can potentially increase the income level of small farmers, its diffusion may be slow due to sunk costs of adoption and uncertainties about Music net payoffs of the technology in question. The lack of capital, credit, and risk-sharing possibilities as well as limited access to information about new technologies hinders technology adoption and diffusion.

Adoption of new technologies can be slowed by uncertainties about their efficiency. For example, without independent external information sources, farmers in developing countries have to rely heavily on their neighbours (‘leaders’ who have already adopted the technologies) to obtain vital information about new methods. 2.4 Other Channels: Vulnerability, Information Diffusion, and Institutions. Beyond increasing aggregate income, globalization increases uncertainty via greater variation in income and expenditure caused by global shocks, such as the skybus airasia various financial crises that have hit Latin America and Asia in the last two decades. It was found that the extremely high volatility of consumption observed in Central and East Europe since the early 1990s is strongly related to trade shocks encouraged by trade liberalization. Consequently trade liberalization, as implemented in the 1990s, may have actually worsened growth and welfare performance in Eastern Europe. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that the per capita income of the poorest population quintile is most vulnerable to these trade shocks. These results point to the need for emerging and transition economies to adopt forward-looking national policies to Religion and Heavy Music Essay, support trade liberalization, that is, policies to mitigate the impact of trade shocks, and enhance coping mechanisms.

A new ‘culture of the book topics, prevention’ with mechanisms for limiting the size and frequency of shocks at the international level might also be called for. It can be argued that while globalization is a major engine for Religion Music Essay growth in aggregate, globalization either introduces or exacerbates other trends that affect people's well-being as much if not more than income, for example, through the increasing flow of information about the living standards of others, both within and beyond country borders. This flow of information can result in changing reference norms and increased frustration with relative income differences, even among respondents whose own income is rising. For example, individuals in a given location or socio-economic group in a developing country compare their incomes increasingly with those of relatively similar individuals in other locations in more developed regions or countries and might become frustrated by skybus airasia, the rising differences in their standard of living vis-à-vis that of other groups. Many social and collective measures should be in place for globalization to have positive effects on poverty. These include measures such as: public investments in health; institutions that can ensure adherence to basic norms of equity and fairness; and collective investments in social insurance to protect workers from the volatility that often accompany integration into global markets. In the absence of these measures, the process of globalization may only create opportunities for those that are best positioned to take advantage of them, leaving behind large sections of poor and vulnerable individuals. Institutions mediate the various channels and mechanisms through which the globalization process affects poverty. Institutions act as a filter intensifying or hindering the positive and negative pass-through between globalization and Religion and Heavy poverty and can help explain the diversity, heterogeneity, and non-linearity of outcomes.

Thus, on the one hand, the impact of globalization on the poor is mediated by domestic political economy structures and institutions such as social polarization, oligarchic structures, and predatory regimes, which may bias, confiscate or nullify the gains from globalization for particular groups of poor. On the other hand, the positive effects of Teachers in the States, globalization on growth and poverty can be found when institutional conditions are characterized by and Heavy Essay, such features as political participation, social cohesion and management of social conflict arising directly from globalization effects. Consequently, safety nets and appropriate social protection schemes that shelter the assets of poor households (and particularly the erosion of their human capital) during crises triggered by globalization should be given high priority. Simple institutions such as rural banks (or branches) can play an important financial intermediation role of, among others, transferring the rising flow of skybus airasia, migrants' remittances to their rural families and Religion Music channelling savings and current account deposits to urban areas. Such institutions could reduce significantly the large rent (in the form of transfer fees) presently captured by firms such as Western Union in the developed world.

3. Globalization and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. 3.1 Main Characteristics in skybus airasia, the GlobalizationPoverty nexus in Sub-Saharan Africa. Following largely an Religion and Heavy Music Essay, inward-oriented development strategy in the early decades of the post-independence period, the majority of m2 .50, SSA countries failed to take advantage of the opportunities provided by Religion Essay, dynamic growth impetus associated with globalization in the book thief, the 1970s and 1980s. Instead of becoming more integrated into Religion and Heavy Music Essay, the world economy, they were largely marginalized and Effective are Inadequately Rewarded in the States experienced slow growth and stagnation. With growing recognition of their disadvantageous positions, most of the SSA countries have increasingly searched for ways to accelerate their participation in the global economy over the past two decades. Indeed, most economies in SSA significantly liberalized their trade and investment policy regimes as part of Structural Adjustment Programme since the Religion and Heavy mid 1980s. In examining the aggregate economic ‘openness’ indicators and their trends over time, it is worth making a few general points at the onset.

First, as documented in detail by Round (2007) and reproduced here in Table 1, SSA is not behind other developing regions in areata, terms of trade openness, as conventionally measured in terms of a trade intensity index (imports and exports relative to GDP in current US$). Further, as expected, average trade intensity has increased in SSA in Religion Music, line with the on Jefferson overall global increase, but not as rapidly as almost all other low and Religion and Heavy middle income regions (this trend is observed irrespective of whether the intensity index is calculated with or without country GDP weights). In spite of the increase in fall bastille, trade intensity, however, Africa's share of total world trade has fallen over these two decades. According to UNCTAD (2003), Africa's share of world exports fell from about 6 per cent to 1.5 per cent, and imports from 5 per cent to 1.5 per cent (merchandise trade) over and Heavy Music Essay, the period from Effective Teachers are Inadequately in the United Essay, 1980 to 2002. a World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (calculated from current US$ estimates).

b World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (calculations by and Heavy Music Essay, Round, 2007). c World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (average annual per cent). Many countries in of the, SSA have also intensified their efforts to attract FDI along other developing regions with various fiscal and Essay other incentive measures. Table 2, reproduced here from Round (2007), shows estimates of the book topics, FDI flows (inflows and outflows combined) expressed relative to GDP and (net inflows) as shares of the total net FDI received by developing countries, in both cases shown at the regional level. SSA shows a marked increase in FDI relative to GDP from 0.30 in the first period to 2.74 per Religion and Heavy cent in the final five-year period.

However, FDI flows to the region so far have been largely in extraction of oil and of the other natural resources. Further, again, in terms of the regional shares of Religion Essay, FDI, the estimates are far less favourable to SSA, attracting only around 6 per cent of total net FDI inflows to developing countries throughout this period. It is worth noting that in the 1990s, when there was a marked increase in the share of fall of the bastille, developing countries as a whole in world total FDI, Africa's share fell to 4 per cent. a World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (average annual ratios). b I (inflows) and O (outflows). c World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (calculation by Religion and Heavy Music Essay, Round, 2007). d Net inflows only: net inflows dominate net outflows in these regions. e Regional shares of total net inflows across the six regions. Skybus Airasia. (These may include flows between regions.) These aggregate measures such as the trade intensity index are the outcome of many factors and conditions that could affect these ratios, including low levels of per capita income, geographical location and the trade composition, and as such cannot be used as an indicator of the outcome of liberalization policies (Round, 2007).

As Pritchett (1996) argues, for the latter, a ‘structure-adjusted’ trade intensity index should be used, which takes into account a host of structural characteristics such as size of Religion and Heavy, GDP per capita, resource endowments, location factors. Hence, it is necessary to apply due caution in assessing the results of the policy regime shift by using these aggregate measures alone. Nevertheless, SSA presents a clear case to support the arguments that the shift to the open policy regime alone cannot bring about economic growth and anticipated positive impacts from globalization on poverty reduction. As shown in the lower part of Essay and Locke, Table 1, the growth performance in and Heavy Music Essay, SSA has been poor throughout the 1980s and 1990s. After the the book two decades' reforms dominated by Religion Music, liberalization, privatization and deregulation, the economies in SSA have not yet come out from the ‘growth tragedy’ syndrome the term popularly used in characterizing the region's economic performance in the comparative growth literature. A large number of studies have emerged that have sought to explain the differences in economic performances across developing countries through theoretical modelling and cross-country regression analyses in a framework of endogenous growth theory. These have further extended the list of factors giving rise to weaker growth performances of the African economies to m2 .50, an array of variables such as natural and institutional endowments, the quality of institutions and governance and geography (Acemoglu et al ., 2001a, 2001b; Rodrik et al ., 2002; Sacks and Warner, 1995, 1997, 2001 among others). Referring to these studies and based on their analyses carried out within the AERC Growth project, O'Connell and Ndulu (2000) and Ndulu (2006) provide further explanations for the slow growth of the and Heavy SSA economies in terms of sovereign fragmentation, ethno-linguistic fractionalization and more generally geographical disadvantages. These conditions are seen to result in uncharacteristically high costs of development in the region and could explain in a large part the lower rates of economic growth, investment and skybus airasia very low productivity of investment in SSA compared with other developing countries.

They observe that both the growth rates and Essay investment efficiency in SSA are about half of the average obtained in other developing regions. It should be worth noting that the Rewarded in the Essay recent upturn in economic growth recorded in many natural resource-rich economies in SSA is closely associated with the price hike of and Heavy, oil and mineral commodities in the world markets. The growth rate of real GDP for oil-producing countries and resource-intensive countries in fall of the bastille, SSA during the period of Music, 20025 was 6.2 per cent and 7.0 per cent respectively, twice higher than those achieved by non-oil producing and resource-poor economies in the region (Round, 2007). 2 The sustainability of such a high growth rate is very much dependent on exogenous factors unless windfalls of commodity booms are used purposely for diversification and Essay transformation of economic and trade structures. Religion And Heavy Music Essay. Highly competent macroeconomic management over the commodity price cycle is required to avoid the ‘Dutch disease’ associated with the commodity boom (Nissanke, 1993). Otherwise, the foundation for long-term economic development of these natural resource-rich economies would remain fragile. Indeed, today, several decades after gaining political independence, the fall high primary commodity-dependence remains one of the most conspicuous characteristics of the trade linkage of countries in SSA with the rest of the Religion and Heavy Music Essay world. The failure of definition, these economies to diversify and undergo structural transformation, and hence, to benefit from the technology-driven, highly dynamic aspects of Music, on-going globalization has entailed a high cost to the region not only in low economic growth but also in fall of the, persistent poverty. Religion And Heavy. The incidence and depth of Effective are Inadequately Rewarded in the United, poverty has deepened in and Heavy, the region.

According to skybus airasia, the estimates provided by Religion and Heavy Music Essay, Chen and Ravallion (2004), reported in Round (2007), the number of poor, measured in income poverty based on the US$1 a day international poverty line, increased in SSA, almost doubling from about 164 million in 1981 to 313 million in 2001 (Table 3). As the total number of poor in alopecia, the world fell on account of the sharp reduction in China and other countries in Asia for this period, the proportion of the world's poor in Africa rose from about 11 per cent to approximately 29 per Religion Music Essay cent during this period. Areata. In terms of the Religion Essay headcount ratio, the poverty incidence in SSA is 46 per cent in 2001 the highest in the world. Areata. Ali and Thorbecke (2000) argue that poverty in SSA is both most prevalent and severe in rural areas. a Chen and Ravallion (2004, Table 3) based on international poverty line (US$1.08 1993 PPP). b Chen and Ravallion (2004, Table 4) based on international poverty line (US$1.08 1993 PPP). Poverty is an essentially multi-dimensional concept that can only imperfectly be assessed by money-metric measures such as income or consumption. Sahn and Younger (2007) explore how globalization affected non-income measures of well-being health and education in Africa over the past 1520 years. They expected to find, as they had previously in Latin America, that progress in Essay, the provision of public services and the focus of public spending in the social sector would contribute to m2 .50, declining poverty and Essay inequality in health and education, even in an environment of stagnant or worsening income poverty. Unfortunately, their results indicate that in m2 .50, the area of health, little progress is being made in and Heavy, terms of reducing pre-school age-stunting, a clear and robust manifestation of poor overall health.

Likewise, their health inequality measure revealed that there was, on balance, little evidence of success in improving equality of outcomes. Similar results were obtained in their examination of underweight women as an indicator of general current health of adults. While the story is fall bastille, somewhat more positive with regard to education, the overall picture gives little cause for optimism that Africa has, or will soon reap the benefits of the process of globalization, unless it scales up efforts in a number of the fronts including the provision of public services in the social sector. Furthermore, as Milanovic (2003) notes, countries in Religion Essay, SSA have a relatively high intra-country inequality among the highest in the world. This can be seen as a puzzle: Africa should be a low-inequality continent according to the Kuznets hypothesis because ‘African countries are poor and agriculture-based, and also because the main productive asset agricultural land is relatively evenly distributed in most of SSA (except the fall region of Southern Africa) in part thanks to the tradition of communal-land holding’ (Milanovic, 2003, p. 2). Religion Music Essay. Round (2007) also notes that the degree of income inequality in Africa has increased sharply between the 1980s and the 1990s. There is no doubt that sustained poverty reduction requires economic growth. However, as we note elsewhere (Nissanke and Thorbecke, 2006), the pattern of growth does significantly affect the rate of poverty reduction. In this context, it can be argued that Africa's growth has been distinctly against the poor not only in terms of m2 .50, its ability to deliver the required growth rate to ensure that the poor could benefit from economic growth, but also in terms of its pattern.

Economic growth in SSA, where it has occurred, has not been translated much into poverty reduction. Critically, the nature and pattern of integration into and Heavy Essay, the global economy in SSA as well as domestic conditions have not been conducive to generating virtuous cycles of globalization-induced growth as generally observed in Asia (Nissanke, 2007). In most of East Asia, the structural transformation of m2 .50, their economies has been considerably facilitated by the integration/globalization process. As we suggest in Nissanke and Thorbecke (2008), the growth accompanied by and Heavy Essay, a substantial reduction of abject poverty in East Asia can be explained in terms of the region-wide comparative advantage recycling in production and export of labour-intensive goods. The process involves a strong demand for unskilled and semi-skilled labour, driven by definition, exporting labour intensive goods and pro-trade FDI through effective technology and and Heavy Music knowledge skill transfer. 3 Most of the East and South-East Asian economies have successfully gone through the structural transformation of areata definition, their production and trade structures with continuous upgrading of their human skill endowments and technology/knowledge base. By relying on their dynamic comparative advantages these countries were able to maximize the benefits from dynamic externalities. Specialization in Religion Music Essay, sectors with large spillovers and dynamic externalities is more apt to engender a pattern of equalizing growth. Moreover, in most of East Asia, the fall of the pro-poor pattern of public expenditure in favour of rural poor at early stages of development produced and sustained the Religion and Heavy Music ‘shared’ growth for some time. There were concerted efforts on the part of governments to Essay, facilitate building primary assets of the poor through such measures as an equitable distribution of land (through appropriate land reforms); extensive public provision of free and Religion and Heavy Music universal primary education; promotion of small-scale enterprises and development of rural infrastructure roads, irrigation, schools, agricultural support outposts, health stations, and the book thief irrigation systems.

In contrast, the Religion Essay high susceptibility and vulnerability to exogenous shocks through its fragile trade linkage may have left SSA behind and suffering from vicious cycles of globalization-induced decline (Nissanke, 2007; Nissanke and Thorbecke, 2006). Many parts of SSA remain isolated from global markets and the global community as the Essay on Jefferson region's access to information and Religion and Heavy technology is limited. There is some evidence to suggest that in SSA ‘globalization may be associated with increasing inequality and (hence) with an increase in the book essay, poverty’ (Round, 2007). 3.2 Case Studies of the Essay Impact of Globalization on Poverty within Sub-Saharan Africa. The six case studies in and Locke, this issue cover the macromicro spectrum from completely aggregate focusing on Religion and Heavy, the whole SSA continent to detailed village studies. They also rely on a variety of Essay and Locke, techniques such as computable general equilibrium modelling, reduced form regression equations, benefit incidence analysis, and qualitative and quantitative surveys of rural households.

Likewise, these studies employ a wide range of data sets ranging from Religion Music Essay, cross-sectional data covering all SSA countries to very detailed micro surveys of villages to explore how different manifestations of globalization such as trade liberalization, FDI, migration within and between rural and urban areas, rural commercialization and institutional changes in land tenure systems affected the United structure of growth and poverty. 4. Fosu and Mold analyze the gains from trade liberalization for SSA estimated by previous studies on multilateral liberalization, focusing on findings from a number of Religion Music, computable general equilibrium models. They conclude that studies on the global implications for poverty reduction from trade liberalization are constrained by data limitations but that, in m2 .50, any case, the impact is likely to be very modest with one recent estimate of only 20 million fewer poor for the whole SSA region. On the Religion and Heavy Essay basis of simulation exercises run on the standard GTAP model the authors calculate that the on Jefferson and Locke welfare gains from further trade liberalization would be minuscule of the order of one-fourth of Religion Music Essay, one per cent of SSA's GDP (excluding South Africa, the welfare result is a loss for skybus airasia SSA). Religion And Heavy Essay. Fosu and Mold suggest that African countries reconsider the emphasis of their policies towards trade, for example by pushing more aggressively the agenda on regional trade liberalization and the much higher potential pay-off of policies facilitating international migration.

Finally, the authors warn that without sufficient reforms that render labour demand more elastic, the marginal expected gains from trade for SSA are most unlikely to create significantly more employment and could possibly even result in adverse effects on poverty reduction. Asiedu and Gyimah-Brempong explore the effect of capital liberalization (as a manifestation of globalization) on employment and the flow of FDI in Africa. Two empirical equations are estimated on the basis of data for 33 African countries over the period 19842003. The first equation regresses FDI in country i at time t on FDI policy in the same country and time-span; while the second equation regresses employment on FDI policy. Assuming that capital and labour are complementary inputs, one would expect an Teachers, increase in capital inputs to lead to an increase in labour inputs hence employment. And Heavy Essay. However, two qualifications need to be made: first, multinational firms investing in Africa are likely to adopt relatively modern technologies that are capital- and skill-intensive using relatively little unskilled workers and possibly shedding some; and second, when the motivation for FDI is tariff-jumping to serve protected markets the outcome is unclear; liberalization policies could lead to increased or decreased employment.

Given the relatively small sizes of African countries the thief essay tariff jumping motive may not be relevant and only of marginal importance. Based on their econometric work, the authors found strong evidence that the liberalization of investment policies is positively associated with FDI flows to Africa. In turn, capital liberalization by encouraging investment, indirectly stimulates employment by multinational firms. Noting that FDI tends to employ skilled labour, Asiedu and Gyimah-Brempong recommend that to ensure that some of the benefits of FDI go to the poor, countries might consider implementing policies that encourage multinational companies to utilize more unskilled labour through such incentives as tax breaks. Daniels examines how trade liberalization through price transmission affects the welfare of Religion Essay, female-headed households as opposed to male-headed households.

By focusing on three years, i.e. 1995, 2000, and 2004, Daniels is able to skybus airasia, evaluate the impact of tariff reductions on gender in two periods, 19952000 and 20002004. The study reveals that the consumption pattern of female-headed households is different from that of male-headed households ceteris paribus : women tend to allocate a larger proportion of the budget to food, child and Religion and Heavy Essay health care than men and vice versa for alcohol and tobacco products. Hence female-headed households benefited relatively more from on Jefferson, tariff reductions on imported food, while men benefited relatively more from tariff reductions on alcoholic beverages and tobacco products. Another interesting finding is and Heavy Essay, that the impact of the first period round of tariff reductions was strongly in favour of the wealthy and the very poor in contrast with the m2 .50 tariff reductions in the second period which favoured the Religion Music lower part of the income distribution. Most economies in SSA significantly liberalized their trade and investment regimes as part of Structural Adjustment Programmes since the mid 1980s. Yet, most rural communities in the region were left relatively untouched by the globalization process, as they have remained isolated due to the poor physical infrastructure and high transaction costs as well as the rudimentary stage of other market supporting institutions hindering access to markets and information. The last three papers included in this issue examine a few mechanisms through which globalization affected rural poverty in Ghana, Nigeria, and Cameroon, respectively, using household survey data. Oduro and Osei-Akoto investigate the factors that influence market participation and poverty profiles by conducting a comparative analysis of four villages in Ghana. The starting point of the book topics, their empirical investigation is that globalization is Religion Essay, predicated not only on the liberalization of the external trade regime, but also on the existence of the supportive infrastructure and institutions needed to areata, facilitate the flow of goods, services and information.

The authors chose four different rural communities for their case studies: the first is and Heavy Music Essay, located on the coast, close to Accra, the on Jefferson and Locke capital city, engaging in producing and Religion Music exporting a non-traditional commodity (pineapples); the second is alopecia areata, located in the forest zone, consisting predominantly of cocoa farmers; the third, located on the border of the forest and savannah zone produces domestic food crops such as cereals and root crops for the domestic market; and the fourth is Religion Music Essay, situated in the savannah zone to the north of the country, with few links to the domestic and international markets. They calculate the pattern of output commercialization ratios by crop and location and try to explain the variation of these ratios in terms of resource endowments of m2 .50, individual farmers and Religion and Heavy their households as well as institutional variables such as credit, membership of cooperatives, land tenure system, access to market information and marketing arrangements. Essay On Jefferson And Locke. On the basis of their empirical results, they suggest that the and Heavy rural economy in Essay on Jefferson and Locke, Ghana is not adequately endowed with social and economic infrastructure and market supporting institutions to participate effectively in the globalization process. Their findings also confirm that access to information and institutions that are conducive to participation in domestic and Religion Essay global markets is very unevenly distributed within rural economies and the very poor are particularly disadvantaged in this regard. Onyeiwu, Polimeni, and Polimeni examine the Effective United distributional and poverty impact of globalization-induced migration on a rural community in Nigeria. Using micro-level survey data from over 300 poor households in a small village of south-east Nigeria (about 30 miles from the regional capital), the paper investigates whether individuals who migrate from the village to take advantage of the urban-biased globalization process do better than non-migrant villagers. According to the authors, this village is Essay, representative of a rural Nigerian village, isolated and very poorly endowed with physical infrastructure such as transport and power/water supply. Food crop-based agriculture is mainly for subsistence and fragile due to the low soil quality. The villagers are extremely poor with 87 per cent of all the respondents living below US$1 per day and 94 per cent below US$2 per day.

When Port Harcourt, a big oil city, started experiencing a huge increase of FDI flow under globalization in the book essay, the 1980s, about 20 per cent of villagers began to move to Essay, a regional capital not far from Port Harcourt to take advantage of the job opportunities opened up by fall, the FDI-induced globalization process and Essay diversify risks facing them as farmers. However, the change in relative prices against bastille urban poor and migrant workers, resulting from the implementation of the Structural Adjustment Programmes, reduced the real incomes of migrant workers. The paper concludes that, while the migrant villagers tend to earn slightly higher incomes than the non-migrant villagers, the poverty profiles of both categories of households remain essentially the same. Hence, they argue that globalization has not succeeded in alleviating poverty amongst the poor villagers who migrated. In addition, there has been an increasing feminization of Essay, poverty because of the rising number of female-headed households left behind by migrating males. Baye illustrates how the evolving land-tenure arrangements under globalization are prone to generate conflict situations over land rights in on Jefferson and Locke, Cameroon, and then examines the implications of such conflicts on security in accessing primary assets for the poor in two villages located in different ecological zones one in the north-west highland and Religion the other in the south-west lowland provinces in Anglophone Cameroon.

The author argues that the land laws in Cameroon are an Effective are Inadequately Rewarded, outcome of its colonial heritage and exist alongside the communal tenure system, creating formal and informal institutions governing access to the prime productive asset of the poor. The ambiguity and Music inconsistency surrounding these arrangements generates and exacerbates conflict situations, which create insecurity and restrict productivity-enhancing investments on land. The first village, situated in a savannah grassland region with poor infrastructure, is a more homogenous community in the book essay, terms of ethnicity and tradition. It experiences net out-migration, but is more dynamic in synchronizing group effort. In comparison, the Religion second village, situated in a fertile agricultural ecological zone, has historically attracted migrants with fairly developed farm-to-market roads and also established large plantations of banana, rubber, and oil palms. Commercialization of the book thief topics, agricultural produce is much more advanced and land markets are more buoyant in the second village. As the issue of land awareness comes to the fore, engendered by population pressure, relative price changes and Religion Music Essay the commoditization of and Locke, land, conflicts have developed farmergrazer conflicts in the first village, and farmerfarmer, and indigenous peoplestate conflicts in and Heavy Music, the second village.

The rent-seeking attitude of administrative and judicial authorities, who exploit inconsistencies in the dual tenure system, tends to reduce the possibility of negotiating lasting solutions to land-related conflicts in fall, the surveyed villages. The author also observes that land transfer in the first village characterized by a more homogenous society with strong traditional conventions, remains biased in favour of males, while the Essay second village enjoys gender neutrality in are Inadequately Rewarded in the United States Essay, access to land. However, the changes in relative prices between traditional cash crops and food cash crops under globalization tend to modify the division of labour by gender in both villages. In summary, while globalization has made some contribution to economic growth in and Heavy Music Essay, SSA, it has not yet facilitated the process of structural transformation required for are Inadequately Rewarded in the United States countries in SSA to Music Essay, reach the take-off stage and accelerate economic development and poverty reduction. Instead, it has increased intra-country inequality and done very little to reduce poverty. The case studies have illustrated clearly that the topics impact of globalization on poverty are extremely context-specific. In general, however, the limited scope of globalization in SSA appears to be the result of a combination of poor initial conditions, such as fundamental disadvantages of location (disease-prone tropical countries with a harsh environment); inadequate political institutions; extremely under-developed physical infrastructure, and a related high risk investment climate.

5 Progress on Religion and Heavy Essay, all these fronts will be necessary if Africa is to enjoy the potential benefits of globalization. The first two sections of this introduction are based on States Essay, the first two publications of this UNU-WIDER project, i.e. Nissanke and Thorbecke (2006 and 2007). The data are from the IMF Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa, September 2005. The growth rate of real GDP per capita is Religion Music, of course much more modest, as the m2 .50 population growth rates are high in most countries in SSA.

The six case studies in this issue were presented at the UNU-WIDER conference on ‘The Impact of Globalization on the Poor in Africa’, held in Johannesburg in December 2005. See Dercon (2007) for a more thorough discussion of these issues. The Authors. Journal compilation African Development Bank 2008. Issue online: 12 March 2008 Version of record online: 12 March 2008. Acemoglu, D. Religion And Heavy Music. , S. Johnson and J. A. Robinson ( 2001a ), ‘ Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in alopecia, the Making of Modern World Income Distribution ’, NBER Working Paper 8460, Cambridge , MA . Acemoglu, D. , S. Johnson and Religion and Heavy Essay J. A. Definition. Robinson ( 2001b ), ‘ The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation ’, NBER Working Paper 7771, Cambridge , MA . Ali, A. and E. Thorbecke ( 2000 ), ‘ The State and Path of Poverty in and Heavy Essay, Sub-Saharan Africa: Some Preliminary Results ’, Journal of African Economies , Vol. 9 , No. 1 , Supplement, pp.

9 40 . CrossRef | Web of and Locke, Science® Times Cited: 14 Chen, S. and Religion and Heavy M. Ravallion ( 2004 ), ‘ How Have the World's Poorest Fared since the Early 1980s ?’, World Bank Research Observer , Vol. 19 , No. 2 , pp. On Jefferson And Locke. 141 70 . Religion And Heavy Music. CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 46 Dercon, S. ( 2007 ), ‘ Globalization and fall of the bastille Marginalization in Africa: Poverty, Risk and Vulnerability in Rural Ethiopia ’, UNU-WIDER Research Paper, 2007/73. And Heavy Music. Milanovic, B. ( 2003 ), ‘ Is Inequality in Africa Really Different ?’, Policy Research Working Paper 3169, World Bank, Washington , DC . Ndulu, B. ( 2006 ), ‘ Infrastructure, Regional Integration and Growth in the book thief, Sub-Saharan Africa: Dealing with the Disadvantages of Geography and Sovereign Fragmentation ’, Journal of African Economies , Vol. 15 , No. 2 , Supplement, pp. 212 44 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 Nissanke, M. ( 1993 ), ‘ Stabilization-cum-Adjustment over the Commodity Price Cycle ’ in M.Nissanke and Religion A.Hewitt (eds.), Economic Crisis in Developing Countries : New Perspectives on Commodities, Trade and Finance , Pinter, London . Nissanke, M. Skybus Airasia. ( 2007 ), ‘ Pro-Poor Globalisation: an Elusive Concept or a Realistic Perspective ?’, SOAS Inaugural Lecture Series, University of London. Nissanke, M. and E. Thorbecke ( 2006 ), ‘ Channels and Policy Debate in Religion Essay, the GlobalisationInequalityPoverty Nexus ’, World Development , Vol. On Jefferson And Locke. 34 , No.

8 , pp. 1338 60 , in the Special Issue: The Impact of Globalization on the World's Poor. CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 7 Nissanke, M. and E. Thorbecke ( 2007 ), The Impact of Globalization on the World's Poor: Transmission Mechanisms , Palgrave Macmillan for UNU-WIDER, Basingstoke . Music. CrossRef Nissanke, M. and E. Thorbecke ( 2008 ), Globalization and the Poor in Asia: Can Shared Growth be Sustained ? Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke . CrossRef Pritchett, L. ( 1996 ), ‘ Measuring Outward Orientation in LDCs: Can it Be Done ?’, Journal of Development Economics , Vol. 49 , No. 307 35 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 56 O'Connell, S. and B. Ndulu ( 2000 ), Africa's Growth Performance: A Focus on Sources of Growth , African Economic Research Consortium, Nairobi . Ozawa, T. M2 .50. ( 2006 ), ‘ Asia's Labour-Driven Economic Development, Flying-Geese Style: An Unprecedented Opportunity for the Poor to Rise ?’, UNU-WIDER Research Paper 2006/59, UNU-WIDER, Helsinki . Rodrik, D. , A. Subramanian and F. Trebbi ( 2002 ), ‘ Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions over Integration and Geography in Religion and Heavy Essay, Economic Development ’, International Monetary Fund Working Paper 02/189, Washington , DC . Round, J. ( 2007 ), ‘ Globalization, Growth, Inequality and Poverty in Africa: A Macroeconomic Perspective ’, UNU-WIDER Research Paper 2007/55. Sachs, J. D. and A. M. Warner ( 1995 ), ‘ Natural Resource Abundance and Economic Growth ’, NBER Working Paper 5398, Cambridge , MA . Sachs, J. Alopecia Definition. D. and A. M. Warner ( 1997 ), ‘ Sources of Slow Growth in African Economies ’, Journal of African Economies , Vol. 6 , No.

3 , pp. 335 76 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 141 Sachs, J. D. and A. M. Essay. Warner ( 2001 ), ‘ The Curse of Natural Resources ’, European Economic Review , Vol. 45 , pp. 827 38 . M2 .50. CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 159 Sahn, D. and S. Younger ( 2007 ), ‘ Inequality and Poverty in Africa in Religion, an Era of Globalization: Looking beyond Income to Health and Education ’, UNU-WIDER Research Paper 2007/74. Articles related to the one you are viewing. 1 Eric Akobeng , Growth and Institutions: A Potential Medicine for the Poor in Sub-Saharan Africa, African Development Review , 2016 , 28 , 1, 1 Wiley Online Library 2 Mawdudur Rahman , Mostaq Hussain , Social business, accountability, and performance reporting, Humanomics , 2012 , 28 , 2, 118 CrossRef 3 Maktoba Omar , Collins Osei , Ayantunji Gbadamosi , Re-branding Africa, Marketing Intelligence Planning , 2011 , 29 , 3, 284 CrossRef.

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Picturing the Personal Essay: A Visual Guide. A design professor from Denmark once drew for and Heavy Music, me a picture of the creative process, which had been the subject of his doctoral dissertation. “Here,” he said. “This is what it looks like”: Aha, I thought, as we discussed parallels in the writing process. Although I may start an essay with a notion of where I am headed, inevitably I veer away as I get new ideas or encounter dead ends. Sometimes I even seem to Essay on Jefferson and Locke, go backward, losing all direction. Nothing is wasted though, said the design professor, because every bend in and Heavy, the process is helping you to arrive at your necessary structure.

By trying a different angle or creating a composite of past approaches, you get closer and skybus airasia, closer to what you intend. You begin to delineate the organic form that will match your content. The remarkable thing about personal essays, which openly mimic this exploratory process, is Music that they can be so quirky in their “shape.” No diagram matches the exact form that evolves, and that is because the best essayists resist predictable approaches. They refuse to limit themselves to generic forms, which, like mannequins, can be tricked out in Essay on Jefferson and Locke, personal clothing. Religion And Heavy Music. Nevertheless, recognizing a few basic underlying structures may help an essay writer invent a more personal, more unique form. Here, then, are several main options. Narrative is the natural starting place since narrative is a natural structure for telling others about personal events. We instinctively turn to m2 .50, chronology as a way to recreate the past, putting our lives into a neat moment-by-moment order. Beware, though.

The march of time can be methodical—first this, then this, then this. If unrelieved, it becomes the ticking clock in the jail or, worse, the flat line of death. Religion And Heavy. Savvy essayists, as a result, twist their chronology, beginning at bastille the end or breaking to a moment in the past, even weaving together several timelines. More crucial, though, is their use of tension, which changes the Essay, flat line of skybus airasia chronology into a rising line—a plot. Such tension forces the reader into a climb, muscles contracting. It raises anticipation.

Will we reach the top? And what will we see from there? Take, for example, Jo Ann Beard’s essay “The Fourth State of Matter.” The narrator, abandoned by her husband, is caring for a dying dog and going to work at a university office to which an angry graduate student has brought a gun. Essay. The sequence of scenes matches roughly the unfolding of real events, but there is suspense to pull us along, represented by questions we want answered. In fact, within Beard’s narrative, two sets of skybus airasia questions, correlating to Religion, parallel subplots, create a kind of double tension. When the setting is Beard’s house, we wonder, “Will she find a way to let go of the skybus airasia, dying dog, not to mention her failing marriage?” And when she’s at and Heavy work, we find ourselves asking, “What about the guy with the gun? How will he impact her one ‘safe place’?” Narrative essays keep us engaged because we want answers to such questions. The tension begs for resolution. We keep on reading unless the skybus airasia, writer stops stair-stepping upward toward the and Heavy Music, critical moment when change becomes necessary. If she flatlines on an emotional plateau, not raising the tension, then we are likely to lose interest and areata definition, walk away. “Readers do not want to put their foot on the same step twice” is the way veteran essayist Bill Kittredge put it while swapping ideas at a writing conference.

He had learned this principle from screenwriters in Hollywood and insisted, “Think what you want, those guys know how plots work.” One interesting side note: trauma, which is a common source for personal essays, can easily cause an author to get stuck on Religion and Heavy, the sort of m2 .50 plateau Kittredge described. Jo Ann Beard, while clearly wrestling with the immobilizing impact of her own trauma, found a way to keep the reader moving both forward and Religion and Heavy Music, upward, until the m2 .50, rising tension reached its inevitable climax: the graduate student firing his gun. I have seen less-experienced writers who, by contrast, seem almost to jog in place emotionally, clutching at a kind of post-traumatic scar tissue. Let’s set aside narrative, though, since it is not the only mode for a personal essay. In fact, most essays are more topical or reflective, which means they don’t move through time in a linear fashion as short stories do. Phillip Lopate describes how reflective essayists tend to circle a subject, “wheeling and diving like a hawk.” Unlike academic scholars, they don’t begin with a thesis and and Heavy Music Essay, aim, arrow-like, at a pre-determined bull’s-eye. Instead, they meander around their subject until arriving, often to alopecia areata, the side of what was expected. One of the benefits of such a circling approach is that it seems more organic, just like the mind’s creative process.

It also allows for a wider variety of perspectives—illuminating the subject from and Heavy Essay multiple angles. A classic example would be “Under the Influence,” Scott Russell Sanders’s essay about skybus airasia his alcoholic father. Instead of luring us up the Religion Music Essay, chronological slope of plot, Sanders spirals around his father’s drinking, leading us to a wide range of realizations about alcoholism: how it gets portrayed in skybus airasia, films, how it compares to demon-possession in the Bible, how it results in violence in other families, how it raises the author’s need for control, and even how it influences the next generation through his workaholic over-compensation. We don’t read an essay like this out of plot-driven suspense so much as for and Heavy Music Essay, the pleasure of being surprised, again and again, by new perspective and new insight. The formal limits of focus.

My own theory is that most personal essayists, because of m2 .50 a natural ability to extrapolate, do not struggle to find subjects to write about. Writer’s block is not their problem since their minds overflow with remembered experiences and related ideas. While a fiction writer may need to invent from scratch, adding and adding, the essayist usually needs to do the opposite, deleting and deleting. As a result, nonfiction creativity is best demonstrated by what has been left out. The essay is a figure locked in a too-large-lump of personal experience, and the good essayist chisels away all unnecessary material. One helpful way to understand this principle of deletion is to think of the essayist looking through a viewfinder to limit the reader’s focus. The act of framing a selected portion of raw experience from the chronological mess we call “life” fundamentally limits the reader’s attention to a manageable time and place, excluding all events that are not integrally related. And Heavy Music. What appears in the written “picture,” like any good painting, has wholeness because the skybus airasia, essayist was disciplined enough to remove everything else.

Virginia Woolf’s “Street Haunting” is an Religion and Heavy Music Essay odd but useful model. She limits that essay to a single evening walk in of the bastille, London, ostensibly taken to buy a pencil. I suspect Woolf gave herself permission to combine incidents from several walks in London, but no matter. The essay feels “brought together” by the imposed limits of time and place. As it happens, “Street Haunting” is also an interesting prototype for a kind of essay quite popular today: the segmented essay.

Although the work is Religion Music Essay unified by the frame of the book topics a single evening stroll, it can also be seen as a combination of many individual framed moments. Religion Music Essay. If we remove the purpose of the journey—to find a pencil—the essay falls neatly into a set of discrete scenes with related reveries: a daydreaming lady witnessed through a window, a dwarfish woman trying on on Jefferson, shoes, an Religion and Heavy Essay imagined gathering of royalty on the other side of a palace wall, and eventually the skybus airasia, arguing of a married couple in the shop where Woolf finally gets her pencil. Today, many essayists are comfortable simply letting go of the overarching story line (such as Woolf’s journey to buy a pencil) so they can organize disparate scenes in a more segmented fashion, separated by Religion, bits of and Locke white space. All that remains to unify the parts is an almost imperceptible thread of theme, not narrative. Will Baker, for instance, relies on nothing but a title—“My Children Explain the Big Issues”—and four section headings: “Feminism,” “Fate,” “Existentialism,” and “East and West.” Each of Religion and Heavy Essay his framed vignettes is m2 .50 about a remembered moment with one of his kids. These moments have a broad similarity as a result; however, without their attached labels, we would not be able to connect the parts in a fully satisfying manner. The titles allow us to string together a kind of thematic necklace.

Our attention to thematic unity brings up one more important dynamic in most personal essays. Essay. Not only do we have a horizontal movement through time, but there is also a vertical descent into meaning. Skybus Airasia. As a result, essayists will often pause the Essay, forward motion to dip into a thematic well. Sometimes these vertical descents seem quite expository, which is not necessarily bad. Contrary to skybus airasia, the high school teacher’s oft-repeated maxim—“Show, don’t tell!”—the essayist is free both to show and tell. In fact, I once heard the nonfiction writer Adam Hochschild scold a group of MFA students for being so subtle in their writing that they left out critical signposts that readers needed. Religion Music Essay. “Don’t be so afraid to say what you mean,” he counseled. Wendell Berry’s essay “An Entrance to the Woods” demonstrates the potential for such expository descents. In the skybus airasia, middle of a quiet description of an overnight camping trip, Berry notices the distant roar of cars on a highway, and the “out-of-place” sound leads him on and Heavy Essay, a long tangent. He describes how the “great ocean of silence” has been replaced by an ocean of of the engine noise, in which silence occurs only sporadically and at wide intervals.

He imagines the “machine of human history—a huge flywheel building speed until finally the force of its whirling will break it in pieces, and the world with it.” And the reader realizes that what appeared to be an and Heavy Essay odd tangent is skybus airasia actually an essential descent into the well of meaning. The essay is not about camping at Religion and Heavy Essay all, but about the fragile nature of areata nature. In fact, Berry uses several of these loops of reflective commentary, and though they seem to Religion and Heavy Music Essay, be digressions, temporarily pulling the reader away from the forward flow of the plot, they develop an essential second layer to the essay. Braided and layered structures. So far we have looked at narrative, reflective, and segmented essays, but we have not exhausted our structural possibilities. Far from of the bastille it.

Many essays, for instance, are braided, weaving together two or more strands of story line in an interactive fashion. Judith Ortiz Cofer, in her personal meditation “Silent Dancing,” creates a particularly revelatory braid from two strands: a home movie juxtaposed against Religion and Heavy, her own memories of childhood as a Puerto Rican in New Jersey. To help the skybus airasia, reader with transitions, she brackets the home movie with white space, putting the text into italics. We look at the italicized home movie for a while, then her memories, then the movie, and so on, letting one strand surface while the Religion and Heavy Essay, other is momentarily submerged. Today, an even more fashionable form is the “lyric essay,” which is not easily categorized since it may depend on braiding or segmenting to accomplish its overall effect. However, like the lyric poem, the lyric essay is fall bastille devoted more to image than idea, more to mood than concept. It is there to be experienced, not simply thought about. And like many poems, it accomplishes this effect by layering images without regard to narrative order. A lyric essay is a series of waves on the shore, cresting one after the other. It is Religion Music one impression after another, unified by skybus airasia, tone. And it seems to move in its own peculiar direction, neither vertical nor horizontal.

More slant. Want an and Heavy Essay example? Look at Judith Kitchen’s three-page essay “Culloden,” which manages to leap back and forth quite rapidly, from a rain-pelted moor in on Jefferson, 18th-century Scotland to 19th-century farms in America to the blasted ruins of Hiroshima on Music Essay, August 6, 1945, the skybus airasia, author’s birthday. The sentences themselves suggest the impressionistic effect that Kitchen is after, being compressed to Religion and Heavy, fragments, rid of the excess verbiage we expect in formal discourse: “Late afternoon. The sky hunkers down, presses, like a lover, against the land. Small sounds.

A far sheep, faint barking. . . .” And as the images accumulate, layer upon layer, we begin to feel the fall of the, author’s fundamental mood, a painful awareness of her own inescapable mortality. We begin to and Heavy Music Essay, encounter the the book thief essay, piece on and Heavy Music, a visceral level that is more intuitive than rational. Like a poem, in prose. Regardless of form, all essays must end, which raises a final worthwhile question: how to bring closure? First of all, endings are related to beginnings. That’s why many essays seem to circle back to definition, where they began. Annie Dillard, in her widely anthologized piece “Living Like Weasels,” opens with a dried-out weasel skull that is attached, like a pendant, to Religion and Heavy Music Essay, the throat of a living eagle—macabre proof that the weasel was carried aloft to the book essay, die and be torn apart. Then, at the end of the essay, Dillard alludes to the skull again, stating, “I think it would be well, and proper, and obedient, and pure, to Religion, grasp your one necessity and definition, not let it go, to dangle from it limp wherever it takes you.” Of course, the effect of returning to her initial image, transforming it into a symbol, is a sense of and Heavy Music Essay completion. For Dillard’s weasel-skull conclusion to feel truly satisfying, however, it must mimic life, which is never completely complete.

In real life, there is always an skybus airasia “and then,” even if it comes after we have died. So the best conclusions open up a bit at the end, suggesting the presence of the Religion, future. See how deftly Dillard accomplishes this effect simply by positing one last imagined or theoretical possibility—a way of life she hopes to master, that we ourselves might master: “Seize it and let it seize you up aloft even, till your eyes burn out and drop; let your musky flesh fall off in shreds, and let your very bones unhinge and scatter, loosened over fields, over skybus airasia fields and woods, lightly, thoughtless, from any height at all, from as high as eagles.” Yes, the essay has come full circle, echoing the opening image of the weasel’s skull, but it also points away, beyond itself, to Music, something yet to be realized. The ending both closes and opens at the same time. All diagrams rendered by Claire Bascom. An earlier version of areata this essay appeared in Volume I, issue 1 of The Essay Review.

Don't miss a word of the best true stories, well told. Tim Bascom’s memoir Running to the Fire (University of Iowa Press, 2015) is about his missionary family leaving the town of Troy. read more. Our neuro tangles were in great synchrony. Religion Music. While struggling to fall, rewrite two complicated essays, I just had to STOP and scribble. The scribbles became a map of my attempts to organize my pieces, and as a visual artist as well, I embellished with some stamps and tears and and Heavy, posted it on Facebook looking for sympathy. One thing led to another and Dinty Moore got a hold of it and asked me to guest blog on Brevity. I think you will like this! Mapping the Lyrical Essay 12/23/13 on Thank you Tim for such an insightful article.

I found myself thinking about my approach to essay, the m2 .50, many forms of Religion and Heavy Essay structure it can take and how I can use the knowledge you've provided in a memoir I'm working on. This essay did exactly what great writing should do, entertain and educate, making the Rewarded in the United Essay, reader more aware and thoughtful in Religion and Heavy Music Essay, her own writing. I am working on a series of stories/essays/artwork that moves forward in leaps and backwards in absentmindedness. It twists and areata, entangles itself and then suddenly moves upwards on a different plane. And Heavy Music Essay. I absolutely love this article for enlightening me on the process.

I would like to read this with the essays linked to it! Being a woman is surely an amazing blessing for almost all ladies everywhere in the world. You may file through each section and m2 .50, discover concerning which segment allows the very best discounts. So designers must keep a close eye on the latest trends and fashions based. This essay is and Heavy Music Essay fabulously useful! I'll be showing it to Essay on Jefferson, my creative writing students semester after semester, I'm sure.

I appreciate the piece's clarity and use of and Heavy Essay perfect examples. The New Past, According to Social Media. Like most people these days, I willingly deposit bits of myself online every day, through shopping, commenting on Effective Teachers are Inadequately Rewarded in the United States Essay, friends’ photos. read more. Todayas is pretty much the case on any given day, week, monthI am waiting. An editor working on a manuscript I submitted in. read more. I have been online, in one way or another, since the early 1990s.

In the early days, I was on a desktop computer, a Macintosh LC II, with a. read more. If you think about it, almost all good stories in any genre are survival stories of one sort or another. Or, to put it another way, there. read more.

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A Guide To Becoming A LEED Green Associate. By Jessalyn Dingwell on February 8, 2010 17 Comments. Looking for a way to Religion and Heavy, transition your career into the new green economy? Need to boost your resume in a tough job market? Achieving the LEED Green Associate (LEED GA) credential allows you to m2 .50, market your knowledge of green building to Religion and Heavy Music, potential employers.

This first level of LEED professional credentialing is designed for m2 .50 professionals who want to demonstrate green building expertise in non-technical fields of practice, and to demonstrate basic knowledge of green design, construction, and operations. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, or LEED , is the and Heavy Essay most widely-accepted environmental design and green building certification in the United States. The LEED GA credential demonstrates to potential employers your understanding of the LEED system, your dedication to environmental issues, and your desire to go the extra mile and Essay on Jefferson and Locke, continue your education. This guide will walk you through the necessary steps to Religion and Heavy Music Essay, achieve your LEED GA credential. What are the the book topics tiers of LEED Professional Credentials? LEED GA : This is the first tier of LEED Professional Credentialing. This credential attests to basic knowledge and skill in understanding and supporting green design, construction, and operations.

Under the Religion Music new USGBC guidelines ( sometimes referred to as v3 ) you are required to pass the LEED GA exam before achieving the LEED AP + Specialty designation. However, if you are eligible, you can take the LEED GA exam at the same time as the LEED specialty exam. LEED AP + Specialty : This second-tier credential, LEED Accredited Professional or LEED AP, signifies an advanced depth of knowledge in green building practices and specialization in a particular LEED Rating System : Building Design Construction, Operations Maintenance, Interior Design Construction, Homes, and essay, Neighborhood Development. (Professionals certified prior to 2009 were not required to specialize in a particular rating system. More information about transitioning to Music Essay, the new requirements is skybus airasia, available on the GBCI’s website .) LEED Fellow : This highest level credential is still under development, but will require a high level of knowledge and expertise in green building. The Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI) will likely award the Religion LEED Fellow credential to professionals with many years of experience and outstanding contributions to the practice of green building. Essay And Locke? Am I eligible to Music, take the LEED GA exam? You must meet one of the following three requirements to be eligible to take the LEED GA exam and achieve the LEED GA credential: Work on a LEED Project . The Book Thief Essay? This path requires documented involvement on a LEED-registered project. The Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI) states that the level of Religion Music Essay, involvement need not be technical.

Specifically, the necessary level of involvement may be achieved by aiding or assisting on a project by providing administrative or research tasks, managing templates, coordinating meetings, tracking consultants and/or contractors, or compiling documentation for review. This involvement must be documented in the book, a letter from Religion and Heavy Essay your employer, the areata project leader, or through LEED Online . Employment: This path requires employment (or previous employment) in a sustainable field of Religion Music, work. GBCI broadly defines this as, “employment in thief essay, a profession or at a company that relates to Religion and Heavy Essay, environmentalism or the Essay on Jefferson and Locke green building industry.” Education : This path requires completing an Religion and Heavy, education program that addresses green building principles. If you are relatively new to areata definition, the green building industry, and and Heavy Music, don’t meet the above two requirements, your best bet is to take one of the USGBC’s classes which satisfy the requirement and require less paperwork than other options. I took the LEED Core Concepts Strategies course, which offers an overview of the LEED system and basic requirements for of the building certification. Religion And Heavy? Almost everyone in the class was taking it specifically to become eligible to take the LEED GA exam and the instructors spent some time discussing exactly what would be covered on the exam. Also, you will be required to agree to the Disciplinary and Exam Appeals Process, the thief essay topics Credential Maintenance Program and a possible audit. More detailed eligibility information is available on the GBCI website . What are the steps to take the LEED GA exam? First, it is important to understand the relationship between the GBCI , USGBC , and Prometric. The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) provides the research and education supporting both the professional credentialing and the LEED building certification program.

The Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI) recently split off from the USGBC in order to provide an Religion and Heavy, unbiased organization to review the Teachers in the applications for credentials and maintain rigor in the testing process. Much of the Religion information you need to study for the exam is the book thief essay topics, housed on the USGBC website, but you will need to access GBCI in order to register for the exam. Prometric is a third party that administers the test directly to test takers through testing centers located throughout the country. Music Essay? Step One: Apply for the exam on . Log in to are Inadequately Essay, your account and under “My Credentials” click on “Apply For Exam.” You must upload your documentation proving eligibility and pay a $50 application fee. Within seven days, you will receive an Religion Essay, email indicating if your documentation is thief, accepted. At that time, you may proceed to the next step and register for and Heavy Essay the exam. Step Two: Register for the exam at . You will pay the registration fee of $150 for USGBC members/full time students or $200 for everyone else.

You will be able to m2 .50, choose the time and location of Religion and Heavy Music Essay, your test from a wide range of Essay on Jefferson, choices in Religion Music Essay, your area. Step Three: Take the Exam at the Prometric testing center you selected. You have two hours to complete the test, and Effective in the United States Essay, plan an extra 20 minutes for the tutorial and survey. Arrive early at the testing site. The other people at the testing center may be taking many different tests, some issued by the GBCI and Music Essay, some from other, unrelated professional organizations. You will be assigned a seat with a computer and the computer will prompt you through the set up and exam process. Staff are available to help should you encounter any problems.

The testing software is easy to thief essay topics, use, but spend a few minutes at the start of the and Heavy Music exam using the tutorial to increase your confidence and allow your mind to focus on the content of the questions. Essay On Jefferson? I found, and most people that I spoke with agree, that if you are prepared, two hours is and Heavy, more than enough time so you do not need to rush. At the completion of the test, the computer will provide your results and let you know if you received a passing score. Article continues below. Skybus Airasia? The LEED Green Associate Intensive course is one of the fastest ways to prepare you for the Green Associate exam. In just one day CleanEdison#8217;s instructors will review the credit rating system, what the general guidelines are for that system, and and Heavy Music Essay, various tips and tricks for passing the exam.The LEED Green Associate (GA) credential is designed for professionals who want to of the, demonstrate a basic knowledge of green design, construction, and operations, but who do not necessarily participate in design and Essay, construction work. Click here, for more information about the Clean Edison 1-Day Intensive LEED Green Associate Course. . How should I prepare for the exam? The LEED GA exam consists of 100 multiple-choice questions which you must complete in skybus airasia, two hours. Plan to spend at least several weeks studying for the exam if you are unfamiliar with the concepts.

The exam tests your knowledge of basic concepts, but you will be required to know some of the technical requirements, such as basic ASHRAE standards that appear in multiple rating systems (e.g., 62.1, 90.1). LEED Green Associate Candidate Handbook : This is the number one most important document for you to review when preparing for the exam. It provides the and Heavy Music Essay nitty-gritty details of registration, an outline of the topics on areata the exam, sample questions, and links to free resources covering each topic area in detail. I recommend reading all of the Primary References listed on page 12 carefully. Don’t ignore, The Treatment by LEED of the Environmental Impact of HVAC Refrigerants , to learn the different types of refrigerants and the pros and cons of each type. The Ancillary References I found most useful were: Guide to Religion and Heavy Essay, Purchasing Green Power and Foundations of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Environmental Rating System: A Tool for Market Transformation . The other Ancillary References warrant a look, but some are they are quite lengthy, and it’s not necessary to read each of them in m2 .50, detail to Music Essay, pass the exam. Areata? Study Guides : USGBG sells the LEED Green Associate Study Guide. This is the only study guide approved by the USGBC so you can expect its information to be accurate and and Heavy Essay, relevant to the test. Currently, it is only available in hard copy.

There are many commercial preparation programs and guides available in a wide variety of formats, including, webinars, in-person classes, flashcards, and fall bastille, iPhone games. Your level of understanding of the material and Religion and Heavy Music, the amount of time you have to allocate to studying will determine whether you need to invest in additional study guides or classes. Clean Edison , PPI , GreenStep , and Everblue are a few of the big players in Green Associate exam preparation. Do you absolutely have to buy a study guide to pass? Probably not. Strictly speaking, all of the Teachers Rewarded in the United States information you need is contained within the USGBC’s many free guides and studies.

The problem is that it might take a long time to Religion and Heavy Essay, collect the skybus airasia information and determine which information is relevant to the exam. I purchased PPI’s hard-copy study guide since the USGBC’s study guide was not yet available when I took the Religion and Heavy Music Essay exam. I found that studying the Green Associate Candidate Handbook’s listed resources, the information contained in the Core Concepts and Strategies course, and PPI’s study guide was sufficient to pass the exam on my first try. Thief Essay Topics? Scoring : The exam is scored using a scaled process with scores ranging from 125 (minimum score) to 200 (maximum score). You must achieve a minimum score of Religion and Heavy Music Essay, 170 to pass the exam.

Unfortunately, this means you won’t know exactly how many questions you need to get right to pass the set of questions you will be asked. Some suggest that aiming for 70% correct on practice tests is alopecia, a close approximation. Retaking : You may make three attempts to pass the exam during your application period, which lasts for one year after the Religion Essay date you were approved to take the test. After an application expires, candidates are required to wait 90 days before submitting a new application to fall, GBCI. What should I do after I pass the exam?

Celebrate! Also, update your resume, LinkedIn profile , and business cards to reflect your new credential. Your educational requirements do not end after passing the exam as you must meet certain ongoing maintenance requirements. Credential Maintenance Requirement: Green Associates must attend 15 hours of continuing education every 2 years. You also must pay a $50 biennial maintenance fee and agree to abide by the GBCI disciplinary policy. Religion And Heavy? 2010, Jessalyn Dingwell. Essay On Jefferson? All rights reserved. Do not republish.

Author: Jessalyn Dingwell (13 Articles) Jessalyn Dingwell is an attorney and Religion Music, Green Building aficionado living in Washington, DC. M2 .50? A daring high school science fair project involving solar energy, an incredible amount of copper tubing, and a precarious rooftop fueled her lifelong curiosity and passion for renewable energy sources and building energy-efficiency. Music? Jessalyn serves on several committees at the Women's Council on Energy and the Environment and on Jefferson, frequently contributes to the Council's Water Committee programming. Prior to Religion, law school, she spent several years at the Corporate Executive Board providing marketing best practices to Fortune 500 companies in the US, then managing the European team based in Essay, London. Feel free to contact her at: [email protected] Would a SBA class (Sustainable Business adviser) count as a #8220;move forward ticket#8221; as a education directive for LEED Green? Thanks for your question about the educational requirements for Religion and Heavy LEED GA. Please let me know if I misunderstand your question, which I take to be: Will completion of a Sustainable Business Advisor class satisfy the eligibility requirement to allow you to take the Effective States Essay LEED GA exam? This answer is: This class will satisfy the edibility requirement only if it specifically addressed green building principles and LEED. If the class did address green building concepts specifically, outline this fact in a Letter of Attestation. The details on what to include in Music Essay, the letter can be found on the GBCI site here: Alternatively, you can simply provide a certification of completion for the course or an official transcript.

However, in your case, since it is not clear that green building principles were addressed from the title of the course, I might go to skybus airasia, the trouble of writing the letter outlining how the course addressed green building principles. I hope this was helpful. Good luck! Thanks so much for the great article on becoming a LEED Green Associate. I had so many. questions that you answered. Thanks Again. You are welcome! Thanks for the feedback, Carl. Thank you for the great article on Leed Green Associate. I am actually taking the Religion Music class at Henry Ford Community College, Dearborn Michigan.

I also have a basic renewable energy certificate, but where do I go from there? I have contacted a few businesses but they have no openings. I really want a to work in an office environment so I can learn more.Any suggestions would be appreciated. Congrats on taking the first step to becoming a LEED Green Associate! It sounds like you have gotten off to a good start by proactively contacting a few businesses. Keep in touch with the people you spoke with to see if their needs change. Perhaps you could update them when you pass the exam. My best job seeking tip for anyone looking to areata, find transition into a green job is to make meaningful connections with people currently working in green industries. Many people cringe at the thought of networking, but I have found that volunteering is a great way to meet people. Religion Essay? Find out if there is an upcoming green conference in your area and contact them to see if there is any way you can help. Even if you are doing a simple task, like handing out brochures, it is skybus airasia, much easier to meet people and Religion and Heavy, start conversations when you are engaged in a common task.

Also, volunteering is a way to attend conferences or events for free, as many organizations allow volunteers free entry in exchange for a few hours of work. Take a long term approach to m2 .50, your networking and job hunting as well. Find organizations that you believe are doing important work and get involved at a deeper level then simply attending an event. Volunteer to be on a committee, offer up the professional skills you have (I#8217;m a whiz at Religion Music Essay, Excel, can I help by organizing the address list?), or suggest a new idea and offer to follow through on it. Teachers In The Essay? People have a chance to view you as a competent, passionate leader who can get things done. And Heavy? Talk to people about what they do, why they like it, and how they got there. Be sincere, but if you think someone has a really interesting job tell them so! They will want to tell you more. Also, let people know your skills and your job aspirations. Start by talking to the people in Teachers Rewarded United States, your class.

Find out what groups they are involved in and how they hope to use their LEED credential. Find out where your local USGBC chapter is located these chapters usually have a number of Essay, projects and events underway with green professionals from a number of Essay on Jefferson, different backgrounds: There are some great job resources on the Green Economy Post you might want to and Heavy, check out as well. Here#8217;s a great series on a woman who is also in search of a green job: Looking for a Job in Sustainability? Look Beyond the Job Boards: Six Things Green Company Hiring Managers Want To See On Your Resume: Essay On Jefferson And Locke? Thanks for the information. I am actually volunteering at the college for the green conference that will be coming up next month. I also volunteer for a NP that hasn#8217;t launch yet.

But I will check on the local USGBC chapter here in Michigan. Essay? Thanks for taking the time to answer me back! I Work for a steel company that provide bulding materials (iron bars) My department is Essay and Locke, social responsibility and i deal with the Religion Essay greenbuilding inittiative. My job here, count for i take the leed exams? Thanks for your question. To be eligible to take the LEED GA exam based on employment you must submit a letter of attestation. The letter must explain #8220;how the applicant’s profession or company relates to environmentalism or the green building industry.#8221; More details are available here: On Jefferson And Locke? It seems to me that if you wrote a letter that discussed how your work related to the green building initiative you mentioned, that might be sufficient. I really don#8217;t know how difficult it is to apply for LEED GA based on employment.

Has any one successfully applied to take the LEED GA exam using employment for eligibility? Hi Jessie, thanks for posting such helpful information about the LEED Green Associate exam. It might be helpful to mention, for people on a very tight budget, that there are a lot of free options available to prepare for Religion and Heavy Essay the LEED Green Associate exam. There are free practice tests and other suggestions listed here. Thanks again, Rob. Thanks for the great information about the LEED GA exam! Question: Have you ever heard of this outfit: San Francisco Institute of Architecture: They have a distance learning Green MBA program, offered at $4,800, with a $3,000 discount to USGBC members. Alopecia Areata Definition? Make sense? Sound reputable?

Thoughts? Thanks! Did you ever get any feedback on SFIA? I#8217;ve been contemplating the Religion and Heavy Essay MS Green Building program from them. Just wondering if you had gained any more experience or information on them in the last year. Great article written by Effective are Inadequately Rewarded in the States, Jessalyn about and Heavy Music Essay, LEED GA and skybus airasia, the LEED GA exam process. Religion Music Essay? Sometimes the are Inadequately Rewarded in the States requirements, processes and rules from the USGBC and the GBCI can be tricky to and Heavy Music, navigate. There is also information about the LEED process available here: Great Article! Have you ever heard of GBRI for LEED EXAM PREP Training.

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Milk Process Automation In Dairy System Using Plc-Scada. As we have selected 'MILK PROCESS AUTOMATION IN DAIRY SYSTEM USING PLC and SCADA' after observing a lot of projects, because we have observed that automation is widely used in most of the companies for various processes. In today's generation it is needed in each field. And Heavy Music Essay. Thus all the process needs a few operators to control automation. Many processes are done in a dairy so to operate and control the processes need many operators. Our aim is to definition, reduce operators and to save time and money.

This will be achieved by automation and we have use PLC and SCADA in this project for Religion Music Essay, automation. SCADA is the software for thief essay, this process. In dairy process, first of all raw milk will be collected in and Heavy the tank. Then after filtration and clarification of milk will be done and collect into in the Essay, a balanced tank. After that pasteurization of milk will be done.

Further, the process of separation of milk takes place and next standardization of milk will be done. In standardization, milk will standardize in Religion Music different quality. Now after packing process will take place. In packing process, this different quality of milk will be packed in bottle. This all processes are done with automation using PLC and m2 .50 SCADA. At last we will get different quality of milk in bottle like Silver, gold, platinum etc.

Here, we shall conclude that we have different quality milk in bottle from raw milk in real time with automation process. The first ideas about fully automating the milking process were generated in the mid seventies. Cost of labour in several countries was growing and this was one of the main reasons to Religion Music Essay, start the development of automation around milking. The first applications were automatic concentrate feeders. A further step in the automation of milking parlors was the development of automatic cluster removers. In the early eighties, automation in milking parlors was expanded with the m2 .50 development of milk yield recording equipment and sensors to detect udder health problems. All these developments and Religion and Heavy Essay new milking technology reduces the labour input during milking, resulting in skybus airasia a higher output per man-hour. The final step in the automation development seemed to be the development of automatic teat cup attachment systems. The idea of course was to develop a fully automated automatic milking system. An Automatic milking system is in use for 24 hours per day, needs adjusted cleaning and cooling procedures, complicates visual control and the milking frequency varies from Religion and Heavy Essay cow to cow and thief essay from day to Religion and Heavy, day.

One of the aspects affected by skybus airasia automatic milking is milk quality. The quality of milk is a very important aspect of milk production. Milk payment systems and consumer acceptance are, to a great extent, based on it. Religion Essay. Automatic milking is a fully automated process. Visual control of the m2 .50 milk is not possible as during conventional milking. Therefore, the milk quality needs to be managed in a different manner. Several devices such as sensors for conductivity, color and temperature of the Music milk, yield measurement and fall machine on time figures are integrated and inform the farmer on the status of the milk. We only know that in India there are huge numbers of people depends on milk giving animals.

They supply milk to Dairies and it reaches to us in the form of Religion Essay various milk products like cheese, milk, butter, milk powder and so on. Actually what happens to the milk, how it is processed? What makes the milk conducive to health? What treatment it receives? And how various milk products are prepared? Even though with modern automation in place, the need to configure design process itself, specifically looking at of the bastille, methodologies for generating optimal dairy processing. Flow sheets over Essay, a range of scales, from raw milk to final product and packaging, are most sought after. Automation is delegation of human control functions to technical equipment for increasing productivity, better quality, increase safety in working conditions reducing manpower reduced cost. Manufacturing of products under the control of computers and programmable controllers, manufacturing assembly lines as well as stand-alone machine tools (CNC machines) and robotic devices can be used for dairy automation.

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) in combination attract the skybus airasia need of the project for its capability to provide over all fast and reliable control for Religion and Heavy Essay, large process automation needs. Automation in various process industries using PLC and SCADA has gained high importance due to efficient reliable control. Dairy industry is one area in which automation plays an important role to definition, control, automate and stream line the process. Modern day dairy plants are capable of processing large volume of products, from raw milk to final packaging of various milk based products. The dairy industry is divided into two main production areas: ' Primary production of milk in Music farms.

' Processing of milk The aim of this project is to essay topics, study the dairy process automation, to Religion, suggest any scope of improvement in the milk processing and packaging and to implement them using PLC SCADA. Brief History Of Work. 2.1 History Of PLC. The first PLC can be traced back to 1968 when Bedford Associates, a company in Bedford, MA, developed a device called a Modular Digital Controller for General Motors (GM). The MODICON, as it was known, was developed to help GM eliminate traditional relay-based machine control systems. Essay. Because relays are mechanical devices, they have limited lifetimes. They are also cumbersome, especially in large applications where thousands of them may exist. With so many relays to work with, wiring and troubleshooting could be quite complicated. Since the and Heavy MODICON was an electronic device, not a mechanical one, it was perfect for skybus airasia, GM's requirements, as well as for Religion and Heavy, many other manufacturers and users of control equipment.

With less wiring, simpler troubleshooting, and the book easy programming, PLC technology caught on quickly. PLCs are often defined as miniature industrial computers that contain hardware and software that is and Heavy Music Essay, used to perform control functions. A PLC consists of two basic sections: the central processing unit (CPU) and the input/output interface system. The CPU, which controls all PLC activity, can further be broken down into the book thief, the processor and memory system. The input/output system is physically connected to field devices (e.g., switches, sensors, etc.) and provides the interface between the CPU and the information providers (inputs) and controllable devices (outputs).

PLCs can be divided into at and Heavy, least three categories: ' Full-size, for top level applications requiring fast program execution with very short instruction cycle times. Fall Of The Bastille. They are capable of supporting several CPUs for multiprocessing to provide more processing power. They offer the TCP/IP communication capability over general purpose networks to the supervisory workstations, and and Heavy support field bus data transmission with equipment controllers. ' Middle-size, intended for industrial automated systems of medium power. They offer a large choice of analog and digital input/output modules. M2 .50. They are usually connected to a field bus on one side and to the equipment on the other side; their speed is not an important parameter, the amount of data transferred is small and the average price per function is low. ' Small or micro-size, for direct interface with sensors and actuators. They are very simple electrically and mechanically and are sometimes integrated with the Religion Essay intelligent sensor itself, they are characterized by short reaction times and they transfer a small amount of data.

To operate, the Essay CPU reads input data from connected field devices through the use of its input interfaces, and then executes, or performs the control program that has been stored in its memory system. Programs are typically created in ladder logic, a language that closely resembles a relay-based wiring schematic, and are entered into the CPU's memory prior to Essay, operation. Finally, based on the program, the PLC writes, or updates output devices via the output interfaces. Thief Topics. This process, also known as scanning, continues in the same sequence without interruption, and changes only when a change is Religion Essay, made to the control program. As PLC technology has advanced, so have programming languages and communications capabilities, along with many other important features. Today's PLCs offer faster scan times, space efficient high-density input/output systems, and special interfaces to allow non-traditional devices to skybus airasia, be attached directly to the PLC. Not only can they communicate with other control systems, they can also perform reporting functions and diagnose their own failures, as well as the failure of a machine or process. When you consider all of the Essay advances PLCs have made and all the benefits they offer, it's easy to see how they've become a standard in the industry, and why they will most likely continue their success in the future. 2.1. (A) Interacting With PLCs. Occasionally, users will need to interact with the alopecia definition PLC to and Heavy Music, program or configure it. And Locke. They also need a means through which the PLC can communicate errors or alarms.

Users interface with PLCs in a number of ways. All PLCs include ports or network capabilities through which they can receive the user programming. For other interactions, some PLCs employ a series of switches or LEDs, while others use a text-based display. Still others employ a web-based interface that connects with users through a PC. PLCs are finding their application in accelerators, technical services, experiments and in the laboratory for equipment test-beds. The technical requirements of the Music accelerators, the technical services and the experiments are mostly the same. Bastille. Thus, a range of Religion Music PLC products is needed for general purpose applications in a large diversity of fields such as electricity, water, gas, cryogenics, cooling, ventilation, process control, magnet control, machinery, personnel access and safety systems. It is planned to use PLCs for accelerator specific systems like: interlocks for main magnet power supplies, beam targets, dumps, stoppers, collimators, aperture limiters and beam extraction electronics. 2.2 Diagram Of Process Flow Chart.

Figure.2.0 Process Flow. 2.3 Process Flow. Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of skybus airasia mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for Religion Music, young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrums, which carries the mother's antibodies to the baby and can reduce the risk of many diseases in the baby. It also contains many other nutrients. As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from mammals during or soon after pregnancy and used as food for humans. Worldwide, dairy farms produced about 730 million ton of milk in bastille 2011.

India is the world's largest producer and consumer of Religion and Heavy Essay milk, yet neither exports nor imports milk. New Zealand, the European Union's 28 member states, Australia, and the United States are the world's largest exporters of fall bastille milk and milk products. China and Russia are the world's largest importers of milk and milk products. Throughout the and Heavy Essay world, there are more than 6 billion consumers of milk and m2 .50 milk products. Religion Essay. Over 750 million people live within dairy farming households.

Milk is a key contributor to improving nutrition and food security particularly in developing countries. Improvements in livestock and of the bastille dairy technology offer significant promise in reducing poverty and malnutrition in the world. Despite all the and Heavy Essay preventive hygiene measures, the raw milk delivered to dairies by agricultural businesses still contains unwanted foreign substances ' such as somatic cells and blood from the udders, contaminants from the fall bastille air and dirt from contact with the milking machines, the milk lines and the transport vehicles. The flow chart involves the various following processes: 1. Milk receipt tank. 2. Filter and clarification. The each and every above process is briefly explained as follows: 1. Milk Receipt Tank: This tank consists of the milk that is brought to the industry from Religion and Heavy source like farms. Here the milk is skybus airasia, just stored and care is taken that the stored milk is safe and will then further it is Music Essay, taken for the further process.

Separation and clarification can be done at the same time in one centrifuge. Particles, which are more dense than the continuous milk phase, are thrown back to the perimeter. The solids that collect in the centrifuge consist of dirt, epithelial cells, leucocytes, corpuscles, bacteria sediment and sludge. The amount of solids that collect will vary, however, it must be removed from the centrifuge. More modern centrifuges are self-cleaning allowing a continuous separation/clarification process. This type of centrifuge consists of a specially constructed bowl with peripheral discharge slots. These slots are kept closed under pressure. Skybus Airasia. With a momentary release of pressure, for and Heavy Essay, about 0.15 s, the contents of sediment space are evacuated. This can mean anywhere from Teachers Rewarded in the 8 to 25 L are ejected at Intervals Of 60 Min. For One Dairy, Self-Cleaning Translated To A Loss Of 50 L/Hr Of Milk. Filtered milk (UF milk) is Religion Essay, a sub classification of milk protein concentrate that is produced by fall of the bastille passing milk under pressure through a thin, porous membrane to separate the components of milk according to Religion and Heavy Music, their size, permitting greater efficiency in cheese making.

Specifically, filtration allows the smaller lactose, water, mineral, and vitamin molecules to pass through the membrane, while the larger protein and fat molecule are retained and concentrated. The removal of water and lactose reduces the volume of milk, and thereby lowers its transportation and storage costs. Filtration makes cheese manufacturing more efficient and are Inadequately States Essay can benefit consumers if cost savings are passed on. Pasteurization or pasteurization is a process of heating a food, which is usually a liquid, to a specific temperature for a predefined length of time and then immediately cooling it after it is Music Essay, removed from the heat. This process slows spoilage caused by microbial growth in the food. Unlike sterilization, pasteurization is not intended to kill all micro-organisms in the food. Instead, it aims to reduce the number of skybus airasia viable pathogens so they are unlikely to cause disease (assuming the pasteurized product is stored as indicated and is consumed before its expiry date).

Commercial-scale sterilization of food is not common because it adversely affects the taste and Religion quality of the product. Bastille. Certain foods, such as dairy products, may be superheated to ensure pathogenic microbes are destroyed. Milk should be clarified by separators to improve milk quality ' for good reason: As a basic food, milk is subject to national and international laws. The aim of these laws is to ensure that milk and dairy products are brought into circulation only in perfect condition which will not harm health. Centrifuges can be used to separate the cream from the skim milk.

Under the influence of centrifugal force the fat globules (cream), which are less dense than the skim milk, move inwards through the separation channels toward the axis of rotation. The skim milk will move outwards and leaves through a separate outlet. The streams of skim and cream after separation must be recombined to a specified fat content. This can be done by adjusting the throttling valve of the cream outlet; if the valve is Religion and Heavy Music Essay, completely closed, all milk will be discharged through the skim milk outlet. As the Essay on Jefferson valve is progressively opened, larger amounts of cream with diminishing fat contents are discharged from the cream outlet. With direct standardization the cream and skim are automatically remixed at the separator to provide the desired fat content. 3.1 What Is Automation? Automation is the and Heavy use of various control system for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching in telephone networks, steering and stabilization of on Jefferson and Locke ships or aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention. Some processes have been completely automated. The biggest benefit of automation is that it saves labor; however, it is also used to Religion Essay, save energy and materials and to of the, improve quality, accuracy and precision.

The term automation, inspired by the earlier word automatic was not widely used before 1947, when General Motors established the Religion and Heavy automation department. It was during this time that industry was rapidly adopting feedback controllers, which were introduced in Effective Teachers are Inadequately Essay the 1930s. Automation has been achieved by various means including mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, and Essay electronic and computers, usually in alopecia definition combination. Complicated systems, such as modern factories, airplanes and ships typically use all these combined techniques. 3.2 Types Of Automations. a. Feedback control. b. Sequential control and logical sequence control.

c. Computer control. a. Religion. Feedback Control. Feedback control is skybus airasia, accomplished with a controller. To function properly a controller must provide correction in a manner that maintains stability. Maintaining stability is Religion and Heavy, a principle objective of control theory. As an example of feedback control, consider a steam coil air heater in which a temperature sensor measures the temperature of the heated air, which is the measured variable. This signal is the book thief essay topics, constantly fed back to the controller, which compares it to the desired setting (set point).

The controller calculates the difference (error) then calculates a correction and sends the correction signal to Music Essay, adjust the the book thief air pressure to a diaphragm that moves a positioned on Religion, the steam valve, opening or closing it by the calculated amount. All the elements constituting the measurement and control of a single variable are called a control loop. The complexities of fall of the bastille this are that the quantities involved are all of and Heavy Essay different physical types; the temperature sensor signal may be electrical or pressure from an enclosed fluid, the controller may employ pneumatic, hydraulic, mechanical or electronic techniques to sense the error and send a signal to adjust the air pressure. The first controllers used analog methods to alopecia areata definition, perform their calculations. Analog methods were also used in solving differential equations of and Heavy Essay control theory. The electronic analog computer was developed to bastille, solve control type problems and Religion electronic analog controllers were also developed. Analog computers were displaced by digital computers when they became widely available.

Common applications of feedback control are control of temperature, pressure, flow, speed. B. Sequential Control And Logical Sequence Control. Sequential control may be either to a fixed sequence or to m2 .50, a logical one that will perform different actions depending on Religion Music, various system states. M2 .50. An example of a adjustable but otherwise fixed sequence is a timer on Religion and Heavy Music, a lawn sprinkler. An elevator is an example that uses logic based on bastille, the system states. A basic form of sequential control is relay logic by which electrical relays engage electrical contacts which either start or interrupt power to a device. Relay logic was developed when starting and Essay stopping industrial sized electric motors, opening and closing solenoid valves and starting and stopping other devices was done with relays, timers and Essay other electrical hardware. More complicated examples involve start up and shut down sequences for equipment, in which a number of safety precautions can be taken by good design of Religion and Heavy Music control logic. The number of relays, cam timers and drum sequencers can number into the hundreds or even thousands in are Inadequately Rewarded some factories. Special computers called programmable logic controllers were designed to replace many of these hardware items and to Religion and Heavy Essay, add a higher level of functionality.

In a typical hard wired motor start and areata definition stop circuit (called a control circuit) a motor is started by pushing a Start or Run button that activates a pair of electrical relays. Religion And Heavy. The lock-in relay locks in contacts that keep the alopecia areata definition control circuit energized when the push button is released. (The start button is a normally open contact and the stop button is normally closed contact.). Another relay energizes a switch that powers the and Heavy Music Essay device that throws the motor starter switch (three sets of contacts for three phase industrial power) in skybus airasia the main power circuit. (Note: Large motors use high voltage and Religion and Heavy Essay experience high in-rush current, making speed important in making and breaking contact. This can be dangerous for personnel and property with manual switches.). All contacts are held engaged by their respective electromagnets until a stop or off button is pressed that de-energizes the lock in relay. See diagram: Motor Starters Hand-Off-auto With Start-Stop. c. Teachers Are Inadequately Rewarded In The States Essay. Computer Control. Computers can perform both sequential control and feedback control, and typically a single computer will do both in and Heavy Music Essay an industrial application. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are a type of areata special purpose microprocessor that replaced many hardware components such as timers and drum sequencers used in relay logic. General purpose process control computers have increasingly replaced stand alone controllers, with a single computer able to perform the operations of hundreds of Religion and Heavy Essay controllers.

Process control computers can process data from essay a network of Essay PLCs, instruments and the book controllers in order to and Heavy Music Essay, implement typical (such as PID) control of Effective Teachers are Inadequately States Essay many individual variables or, in some cases, to and Heavy Essay, implement complex control algorithms using multiple inputs and mathematical manipulations. They can also analyze data and fall create real time graphical displays for operators and run reports for Music, engineers and management. Control of an fall of the automated teller machine (ATM) is a example of an interactive process in Religion and Heavy Music which a computer will perform a logic derived response to a user selection based on m2 .50, information retrieved from Essay a networked database. The ATM process has a lot of similarities to other online transaction processes. The different logical responses are called scenarios. Essay. Such processes are typically designed with the aid of and Heavy use cases and thief flowcharts, which guide the writing of the software code. 3.3 Different Control Systems Used In Automation. a. HMI Controller based control system. b. DCS based Control system.

c. PC based control system. d. And Heavy Essay. PLC Based automation system. a. Human Machine Interface (HMI) In complex systems, the m2 .50 human-machine interface is typically computerized. The term Human-computer interface refers to this kind of systems. The engineering of the human-machine interfaces is by considering ergonomics (Human Factors). The corresponding disciplines are Human Factors Engineering (HFE) and Usability Engineering (UE), which is part of Religion Systems Engineering. Tools used for incorporating the human factors in Teachers are Inadequately Rewarded the interface design are developed based on knowledge of computer science, such as computer graphics, operating systems, programming languages. Nowadays, we use the expression Graphical User Interface for Human-Machine Interface on computers, as nearly all of Music Essay them are now using graphics.

Primary methods used in the interface design include prototyping and simulation. b. Distributed Control System (DCS) A distributed control system refers to a control system usually of essay topics a manufacturing system, process or any kind of dynamic system, in which the Religion and Heavy Music Essay controller elements are not central in location (like the brain) but are distributed throughout the system with each component sub-system controlled by one or more controllers. c. Thief Essay Topics. PC Based Control System. Compact, low-cost and yet advanced process-control engineering can be achieved based on Programmable Controllers. d. PLC Based Automation System. PLC Automation panels are used in Process Control application in industries such as . Steel / Aluminum / Wire and Cable / Tyre Tube / Packaging / Plastic / Polyfilms / Pharmaceuticals / Defense / Automobile / Power Plant / Marine / LPG Gas Oil / Cement / In fracture / Crane Automation etc. Programmable Logic Controller. A Programmable Logic Controller, PLC or Programmable Controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or light fixtures. The abbreviation PLC and the term Programmable Logic Controller are registered trademarks of the Allen-Bradley Company (Rockwell Automation).

PLCs are used in many industries and machines. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is and Heavy, designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. In essence, a programmable logic controller reads its input signals and responds to Teachers in the United Essay, them by Religion Music Essay turning the thief topics output modules on or off. It functions under the classic if/then scenario, only on a much more complicated scale since it controls multiple input and output devices, all of which must be responded to immediately and constantly as designated by the user program. The unit's output modules usually consist of devices like lights, switches, starters, valves, solenoids, and displays. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed-up or non-volatile memory.

A PLC is an example of a hard real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a limited time, otherwise unintended operation will result. PLCs are incredibly valuable pieces of technology, since a single unit can often replace hundreds or thousands of relays. Though they were originally designed for the automotive industry, PLCs have since been implemented in a number of different fields. In large part, the automation processes in most modern factories are facilitated by and Heavy Music Essay PLCs. These devices are designed to follow their programming instructions precisely, which is especially vital in a factory assembly line setting where a small mistake or miscalculation can result in costly errors. Some PLCs function on fall of the, a very basic level; others are capable of Religion Essay controlling higher-level, more complicated processes. They can be used for a wide variety of of the input/output functions and timing applications.

They also offer motion control and complex networking capabilities. Figure-4.1 Multiple Inputs And Multiple Outputs PLC. 4.1. Religion And Heavy. (A) PLCs Are Preferred Because: 1) Consistency in manufacturing can be easily achieved. 2) Complete control of the alopecia areata definition manufacturing process can be achieved.

3) Accuracy and quality can be improved. 4) Productivity can be improved. 5) Makes it easy to work in difficult or hazardous environment. 4.2 Why PLC Is Used In Automation? PLC play a vital role in automaton, programmable logic controller device can manage and control entire industry to produce better and quick Response. A PLC is Essay, a digital computer used for m2 .50, automation of industrial processes, like controlling machinery or factory assembly lines. Unlike desktop computers, PLCs are have multiple inputs and outputs, operate under extended temperature ranges, have immunity to and Heavy Essay, electrical noise, and have resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to skybus airasia, control machine operation are usually stored in battery-backed or non-volatile memory. The main difference between PLC and other computer is that plc has multiple inputs and Religion outputs then can do multiple works at moments, you can produce more output quickly. 1. Less cost to implement: For the cost of relays and timers to automate about m2 .50, 3 lines for Religion and Heavy, conveying product from finishing machine to packaging machine, you could pay for a PLC to of the bastille, do the same job.

In general, a PLC system would make production more flexible and Religion and Heavy responsive. 2. Essay On Jefferson And Locke. Reliability: Relays and Electro-mechanical timers (magnetic control), are susceptible to electrical / mechanical failure. With PLCs the control logic is non-mechanical, (solid state). Music. And with the PLC, you can program extra logic to monitor and test itself for alopecia definition, possible failure at Religion Music Essay, no extra cost. This would make safety circuits more safe, and reduce process variability. With PLC control you could increase compatibility with existing equipment, scalability, improving ease of use, and m2 .50 providing a common look and feel. 3. Speed: The PLC can speed up operation of machines that you could not obtain with that old out dated relay logic. Control logic makes decisions more accurate and Religion Music Essay faster than a human operator could hope to achieve.

Timers can be set to hundredths of a second to compensate for of the, external variables, and enhance safety. 4. And Heavy. Greater functionality: PLCs have the ability to are Inadequately Rewarded in the United States Essay, compare real-time values and make decisions based on that comparison. They can do complex mathematical functions, and adjust the machine accordingly. The greater functionality allows you to design logic that can automatically adjust for different machine products, there by reducing downtime for setups and machine change over. 5. Safety: In the past with relay control logic, safety circuit implementation was weighed out on a cost verses likely hood method. Religion And Heavy. In other words, the basic emergency stop button, relying on skybus airasia, operators to stop the machine before an accident occurred. Usually do to distractions and slow reaction time of humans, the button wasn't pressed until after the damage was done. With PLCs, you can cover 99% of all the Music Essay possible safety risk, and the only cost is the m2 .50 time it takes to add a few rungs of logic to your program. Religion Essay. Safety curtains are about the most expensive item, but well under the cost of an accident. Using the PLC to monitor safety risks is equivalent to having a full time employee watching, but with quicker reaction time than any human. 6. Less downtime: Downtime can be broken down in to two separate areas.

Scheduled and the book thief non scheduled. DuPont has been quoted as saying: Maintenance is the single largest controllable cost opportunity, representing $100-$300 million per year corporate-wide. Scheduled down time will be less if that time is for machine modifications, which require less work with PLCs. Some of the Religion preventive maintenance can be automated through the PLC to even further reduce down time. Unscheduled downtime can be broken down (no pun intended), further into two groups: Troubleshooting and repair. Alopecia Areata. The more complex our systems become, the more beneficial it is to write logic that will not only Religion and Heavy Music, isolate failures but also indicate potential failures that may occur in the near future.The trouble shooting down time can be reduced by Essay 90%.

This is accomplished by and Heavy Essay utilizing the sensors already in place, to do testing through PLC logic to isolate where trouble is originating. Repair is usually only a fraction of the fall of the bastille time it takes to find the problem. Religion And Heavy Essay. It's not uncommon to spend hours tracking down a limit switch that is bent, or a dirty proximity sensor. Alopecia Areata. The cost to Religion Music, find the problem is more expensive than the cost to repair it. Essay. With PLCs the Religion and Heavy Music cost to Effective Teachers Rewarded in the Essay, find the problem is greatly reduced. A PLC has following sections and each section has unique job to perform. 1) The sensing section.

This section consists of limit switches, photoelectric sensors, push buttons etc. These incoming hardware devices provides input signal to the PLC. These devices are also called as field input devices. The term 'field input is Music, used because this device provides incoming signals that are tangible items that you physically connect to PLC. Figure-4.2 Sensing Section Of PLC Source. 2) Input section. This section is majorly divided into 2 parts:

First, the physical screw terminals, where incoming signal (i.e. Fall. input), from the field input devices (e.g. limit switch) are connected to and Heavy Essay, the PLC. The second portion of the input section is the PLC's internal conversion electronics. This section converts and Effective are Inadequately Rewarded in the United States Essay isolates the Religion Essay high-voltage input level from field input devices. High-voltage signals from field input devices are converted to +5 volts direct current (VDC) for fall bastille, a valid ON input signal, and a 0 VDC for a valid OFF input signal. Incoming signal conversion and isolation is necessary because microprocessor components operate on Religion, +5 VDC, whereas an Teachers Rewarded in the United States input signal may be of 24 VDC, 120 volts alternating current (VAC), or 220 VDC.

If 120 VAC signal is inputted, for example, into and Heavy, 5 VDC, circuit will quickly destroy your PLC. The controller is also known as central processing unit (CPU), or simply as the processor. Central processing unit controls or supervises the entire process. The central processing unit solves the user program and apparently updates the status of the the book essay topics outputs. The programmer is a device used by the programmer or operator to enter or edit program instructions or data. The programmer can be handheld unit, a personal computer, or an industrial computer programming terminal. 5) Output section. The ON or OFF status of the inputs are read and the information is used to Religion Music Essay, solve the user ladder program and the updated signals is sent to the output section. The output section is simply a series of switches, one for each output point, that are controlled by CPU and are used to turn output field devices ON or OFF. Figure-4.3 Input and skybus airasia output section. 6) Field hardware devices.

The devices that are controlled by the PLC's output section screw terminals are the field hardware devices. 4.2.(b) How does a PLC work? Microprocessor is the heart of any computer; it is Music, also called as processor, or CPU. Alopecia Areata Definition. The central processing unit supervises system control through the user program. After reading the input signal, the CPU follows the instructions, that a programmer or operator has stored in the PLC's memory. Religion Music Essay. Depending upon the result of the alopecia definition solved program, the field control devices or outputs are turned ON or OFF. When the and Heavy PLC is running and following the programmer's instructions, it is called as solving the program. 4.2. (c) How can we register instructions into the PLC's memory?

The instructions which we want our PLC to carry out can be transferred to the controller memory using either handheld programmer or a personal computer. The first step is to develop the user ladder program. Once the user ladder program is verified for correctness, the next step is to download the program into of the, the processor's memory. The process of transferring the Religion and Heavy Essay user defined PLC program from personal computer's memory into PLC memory is called as downloading the program. But before downloading the user program, the processor must be in program mode. Now, if all the inputs and outputs signals are wired to the correct screw terminals, the processor can be put in run mode. In run mode, the program will continuously run and solve the Essay on Jefferson programmed instructions. And Heavy Essay. The process of solving the programmed instruction is m2 .50, sometime called as solving the logic.

This constant running of the program in a PLC is called as scanning. 4.2.(d) The PLC's purpose. The PLC is primarily used to and Heavy, control machinery. A program is written for the PLC which turns on and off outputs based on input conditions and Essay the internal program. In this aspect, a PLC is similar to a computer. Music Essay. However, a PLC is designed to be programmed once, and run repeatedly as needed. In fact, a crafty programmer could use a PLC to control not only the book essay topics, simple devices such as a garage door opener, but their whole house, including switching lights on and off at certain times, monitoring a custom built security system, etc. Most commonly, a PLC is found inside of a machine in an industrial environment. And Heavy Music Essay. A PLC can run an the book thief topics automatic machine for years with little human intervention. Religion And Heavy. They are designed to withstand most harsh environments. PLCs have built in communications ports, usually 9-pin RS-232, but optionally EIA-485 or Ethernet.

Modbus, BACnet or DF1 is usually included as one of the communications protocols. Other options include various field buses such as DeviceNet or Profibus. Other communications protocols that may be used are listed in on Jefferson and Locke the List of automation protocols. Most modern PLCs can communicate over a network to some other system, such as a computer running a SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system. PLCs used in larger I/O systems may have peer-to-peer (P2P) communication between processors. Religion And Heavy Music Essay. This allows separate parts of a complex process to the book essay topics, have individual control while allowing the subsystems to Religion and Heavy, co-ordinate over the communication link.

These communication links are also often used for HMI devices such as keypads or PC-type workstations. Technicians or other users write unique programs that direct the function of the PLC. The programs are written on a PC in one of the standard programming languages and the book thief topics then downloaded to and Heavy, the PLC directly through a cable or over a local network. The information is m2 .50, then stored in the PLC's memory. The program is stored in the PLC either in battery-backed-up RAM or some other non-volatile flash memory. Often, a single PLC can be programmed to replace thousands of relays. PLCs can be programmed using standards-based programming languages. Essay. A graphical programming notation called Sequential Function Charts is available on certain programmable controllers. Initially most PLCs utilized Ladder Logic Diagram Programming, a model which emulated electromechanical control panel devices (such as the contact and fall coils of relays) which PLCs replaced. This model remains common today.

The most frequently used programming language for PLCs is ladder logic; however, other languages are also common. Essay. The table below explains each of the bastille five languages most often used for PLC programming. Programming Language Description. Ladder Logic Ladder logic is a graphical language that includes math operations, timers, counters, and similar functions. Function Block Diagram Function block diagram is a programming language that illustrates data flow and signal paths. It aptly expresses the relationships between control system algorithms. Structured Text Structured text is a text language that is Religion, highly structured and supports a broad spectrum of functions. It is similar to the programming language PASCAL. Instruction List Instruction list is a simple assembly language, and bastille it is widely used in PLCs. Sequential Function Chart Sequential function chart is Music, a highly structured language and of the bastille is best for complicated control systems.

It manages complex tasks by and Heavy Essay dividing them into smaller tasks. 4.5 Basic PLC Operation. PLCs consist of Essay input modules or points, a Central Processing Unit (CPU), and output modules or points. Religion Music. An input accepts a variety of digital or analog signals from alopecia various field devices (sensors) and Essay converts them into a logic signal that can be used by the CPU. The CPU makes decisions and executes control instructions based on program instructions in memory.

Output modules convert control instructions from the CPU into a digital or analog signal that can be used to control various field devices (actuators). A programming device is used to input the desired instructions. These instructions determine what the PLC will do for a specific input. An operator interface device allows process information to be displayed and new control parameters to be entered. Figure-4.4 Scan cycle of PLC. (Source: If input power fails and power supply can no longer deliver voltage to fall, the system; power backup preserves any program that has been inserted into the CPU RAM. Power Supply - This module can be built into the PLC processor module or be an external unit.

Common voltage levels required by the PLC are 5Vdc, 24Vdc, 220Vac. The voltage lends are stabilized and often the Religion PS monitors its own health. The power supply gives the voltage required for electronics module (I/O Logic signals, CPU, memory unit and skybus airasia peripheral devices) of the PLC from the line supply. The power supply provides isolation necessary to protect the solid state devices from most high voltage line spikes. As I/O is expanded, some PLC may require additional power supplies in order to maintain proper power levels. Figure- 4.5 Block Diagram of PLC. (Source: www. plc-scada.html) Pushbuttons (sensors), in this simple example, connected to PLC inputs, can be used to start and Religion and Heavy Essay stop a motor connected to a PLC through a motor starter (actuator). Figure-4.6 Motor Start/Stop Using PLC.

Figure- 4.7 Types of PLC. 4.6 Advantages Of PLC. The same, as well as more complex tasks can be done with a PLC. Wiring between devices and relay contacts is done in the PLC program. Hard-wiring, though still required to connect field devices, is less intensive. Modifying the application and correcting errors are easier to thief, handle. It is easier to create and change a program in and Heavy a PLC than it is to definition, wire and rewire a circuit. Following are just a few of the advantages of PLCs: ' Smaller physical size than hard-wire solutions. ' Easier and faster to and Heavy, make changes. ' PLCs have integrated diagnostics and override functions. ' Diagnostics are centrally available.

' Applications can be immediately documented. ' Applications can be duplicated faster and less expensively. ' Reliability in operation. ' They are attractive on Cost-Per-Point Basis. ' Flexibility in control techniques. ' Flexibility in programming and reprogramming in the plant. ' Cost effective for Essay, controlling complex systems. 4.7 Disadvantages Of Programmable Logic Controller. 1. And Heavy Essay. There's too much work required in thief topics connecting wires.

2. There's difficulty with changes or replacements. 3. It's always difficult to find errors and require skillful work force. 4. And Heavy Essay. When a problem occurs, hold-up time is indefinite, usually long. 4.8 PLC Vs Microcontroller. Microcontrollers (MCU) are complete computer systems on Effective Teachers are Inadequately in the States, a chip. They combine an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), memory, timer/counters, serial port, input/output (I/O) ports and a clock oscillator. Programmable logic controllers (PLC) are the control hubs for automated systems and Religion and Heavy Music processes. They contain multiple inputs and outputs that use transistors and other circuitry to simulate switches and relays to control equipment.They're also programmable via standard computer interfaces and proprietary languages and network options. Programmable logic controllers have been used for industrial control systems for many years. Their proven reliability in harsh environments and design to handle many inputs and outputs has made them the foundation of many factory automated systems.

PLCs can be combined with most other technologies to provide a sophisticated control and monitoring system. 4.9 Difference Between PLC And Microcontroller. PLC is a special microcontroller designed for industrial application. It is for controlling machinery or processes. A microcontroller is a microprocessor that can be used for any type of application. The basic difference between PLC and microcontrollers is fall bastille, only the way of programming. Religion And Heavy. Most common way of PLC programming is with graphical language Ladder logic programming which looks a little more similar to electrical schematics than a computer programming language. There is some ways like functional block diagrams, as well mnemonic (like assembler), stages etc. Second significant characteristic is the infinite loop (cycling) through the ladder start-to-end and again from start. M2 .50. This was for the regular plcs; some newer plcs have event driven capabilities.

Also plcs are more restricted in calculations. A PLC is a modular device which one can program using Ladder diagrams (relay logic) or Statement List. It is optimized to handle several digital inputs and Religion Essay outputs, and skybus airasia is more rugged for use in industrial applications. Music Essay. Basically it scans the inputs, and Effective Teachers Rewarded in the States Essay determines the outputs based on the logical conditions programmed into it by Religion and Heavy Music the user. Effective Teachers Rewarded United States. It internally uses a microcontroller to handle all input, output and logic scans. Application area is Religion and Heavy Essay, mostly industrial automation. Then, Microcontrollers are cores that will do anything you program them to do. The Book Thief Topics. They probably can be used in each of the above applications, but with varying effectiveness.

As always, your work is in discerning which option will work best in a given situation. 5.1 Introduction Of Ladder Diagram. Ladder diagrams are specialized schematics commonly used to document industrial control logic systems. They are called ladder diagrams because they resemble a ladder, with two vertical rails (supply power) and as many rungs (horizontal lines) as there are control circuits to represent. If we wanted to draw a simple ladder diagram showing a lamp that is controlled by Religion and Heavy Music a hand switch, it would look like this: We can construct simply logic functions for our hypothetical lamp circuit, using multiple contacts, and document these circuits quite easily and understandably with additional rungs to m2 .50, our original ladder. Essay. If we use standard binary notation for the status of the switches and on Jefferson lamp (0 for Religion Essay, un-actuated or de-energized; 1 for actuated or energized), a truth table can be made to show how the logic works: Now, the lamp will come on if either contact A or contact B is actuated, because all it takes for the lamp to be energized is to have at least one path for current from wire L1 to wire 1. What we have is a simple OR logic function, implemented with nothing more than contacts and a lamp. We can mimic the m2 .50 AND logic function by wiring the two contacts in series instead of. Parallel: Now, the Religion Music Essay lamp energizes only if contact A and contact B are simultaneously actuated.

A path exists for current from fall of the bastille wire L1 to the lamp (wire 2) if and Essay only if both. switch contacts are closed. The logical inversion, or NOT, function can be performed on a contact input simply by using a normally-closed contact instead of a normally-open contact: Figure-5.4 NOT logic function. Parallel contacts are logically equivalent to an OR gate. ' Series contacts are logically equivalent to an AND gate. ' Normally closed (N.C.) contacts are logically equivalent to a NOT gate. ' A relay must be used to invert the in the United States output of a logic gate function, while simple normally-closed switch contacts are sufficient to represent inverted gate inputs. ' A rung of Religion Essay ladder diagram code can contain both input and output instructions. ' Input instructions perform a comparison or test and set the rung state based on the outcome.

' Normally left justified on the rung. ' Output instructions examine the rung state and execute some operation or function. ' In some cases output instructions can set the rung state. ' Normally right justified on the rung. ' This is a programming language, which expresses a program as a series of 'coils' and 'contacts', simulating the operation of electromechanical relays. ' The resultant program is the equivalent of an equation, which is executed continuously in a combinatorial manner. ' The advantage of areata definition this language is the familiarity many electricians have with the simple operation of relays. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) 6.1 What Is SCADA?

This acts as an operator station. Religion And Heavy Music Essay. The operator can monitor as well as control the skybus airasia process parameters from these stations. Apart from and Heavy Music online process data the operator will have access to historical and the book essay real-time trends, alarms and and Heavy Music reports. The operator can give commands to control hardware for opening the Rewarded in the States valve, change the set point, start the pump etc. 6.2 Features Of SCADA Software. The common features of and Heavy Music SCADA include Dynamic process mimic, Trends, alarm, Connectivity with hardware, Recipe management etc.

6.3 Applications Of SCADA. SCADA systems have many applications right industrial automation, power distribution to water management. Basic dairy processes have changed little in the past decade. Alopecia Areata. Specialized processes such as ultra filtration (UF), and modern drying processes, have increased the Religion and Heavy opportunity for the book thief essay topics, the recovery of milk solids that were formerly discharged. In addition, all processes have become much more energy efficient and the use of electronic control systems has allowed improved processing effectiveness and cost savings. Implementation of the Project / Simulation. Working / Implementation of the Project work/ simulation.

7.2 Aim Of The Task. The aim of the task is that a can or says an object which is placed at left corner should move to the heating chamber automatically. It should be heated as per requirement and have to return on its place. The aim of the task is that a can which is at the left end position on a conveyer belt, has to be moved automatically. We need the and Heavy following components to complete the task: At an Effective States Essay instance the Music Essay can is at alopecia areata definition, zero position. When it is at zero position at Religion Essay, that time the sensor 1 will be on. It will remain in the on state until the can doesn't move along. A switch is provided to on Jefferson, control the or say to on the whole system.

User input value is Religion and Heavy Essay, provided so that user finds flexibility in giving the desired temperature to the heating chamber. At the very starting of the system we have to provide the user value. For example if we have given the user value as '30' then the heating chamber will heat the object for skybus airasia, 30 seconds. After providing the user value, the can will move along on the conveyer belt. Religion And Heavy. As long as the skybus airasia can is moved the sensor1 will be turned off. Religion Essay. The conveyer is provided with the value of 1000 in its properties.

That means the length of the belt is 1000. Effective Are Inadequately Rewarded In The United Essay. As the object be moved along, the valve will be open and the valve will let the door be automatically open. An object when reaching near the and Heavy open door at that time the Essay and Locke sensor 4 is on. The object will pass through the open door and the door is closed again. Sensor 2 will be on sensing the object inside the heating chamber. The heater will heat the Religion and Heavy object as per scheduled by the user value. Authorised person can even change the m2 .50 user value and can increase or decrease the Religion and Heavy number of seconds. A counter is placed so that we can visualize the seconds of the heating chamber.

When the timer is m2 .50, done with the Religion Music Essay counting at that time sensor 3 is on. And after the object is moved away, that sensor will again turned off. Motors and wheels will move forward and reverse with respect to the book thief essay topics, the object. As soon as the and Heavy object is heated the Essay and Locke door is opened again and Essay the heated object moved out of the alopecia areata chamber and reverses in the direction to its original position. Whole the above process is Religion and Heavy Music, implemented in m2 .50 the programming ahead. IF sw==1 AND x==1 THEN v=1;ELSE v=0;ENDIF;

IF sw==1 AND door==0 THEN s4=1;ELSE s4=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob==0 AND h==0 THEN x=1; ENDIF; IF v==1 AND door120 THEN door=door+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob==0 THEN s1=1; ELSE s1=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND door==120 THEN s2=1;ELSE s2=0; ENDIF;

IF sw==1 AND ob620 AND h==0 AND door==120 THEN k=1;ELSE k=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k==1 AND ob0 THEN w1=w1+5;ELSE w1=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob620 AND k==1 THEN ob=ob+10;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob==620 AND h==0 THEN x=0;ENDIF; IF v==0 AND door0 THEN door=door - 5 ;ENDIF;

IF sw==1 AND ob==620 THEN s3=1;ELSE s3=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND door == 0 AND s3==1 AND hui THEN h=h+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob==620 AND h==ui THEN x=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob==0 AND h==ui THEN x=0; ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND door==120 AND h==ui AND ob=620 THEN d=1;k=0;ELSE d=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND d==1 AND k==0 THEN w2=w2+5; ELSE w2=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND ob0 AND d==1 THEN ob=ob - 10;ENDIF;

IF sw==1 AND ob==0 THEN d=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND door==0 AND ob==0 THEN h=0;ENDIF; 7.4 Outcome Of Task. Figure 7.4.(b) outcome of and Heavy Music Essay heating an alopecia areata definition element(when switch is on) Figure 7.4.(C) Outcome Of Heating An Element(Process While Heating An Element) 7.5 Milk Process Automation in Dairy system. Figure 7.5 Milk Process Automation In Dairy System. 7.6 Programming For The Milk Process Automation. IF sw==1 AND t100 THEN p1=1;t=t+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND p1==1 AND k1100 THEN k1=k1 + 5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k1==100 AND t11000 THEN t1=t1+20;ENDIF;

IF sw==1 AND t1900 THEN l=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t1==1000 THEN k1=0;p1=0;v2=1;l=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v2==1 AND k2100 THEN k2 = k2+5;l=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k2==100 AND t21000 THEN t2=t2+20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k2==100 AND k1==0 AND p1==0 AND t10 THEN t1 = t1 - 20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t2==1000 THEN k2=0;v2=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t2==1000 AND v2==0 AND k2==0 THEN h2=1;ENDIF;

IF sw==1 AND h2==1 AND tm80 THEN tm=tm+1;h2=1;v1=1;p2=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v1==1 AND p2==1 AND k3100 THEN k3=k3+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k3==100 AND k4100 THEN k4=k4+5;h1=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k4==100 AND h1==1 AND k5100 THEN k5=k5+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k5==100 AND k6100 THEN k6=k6+5;h1=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k6==100 THEN p2=0;v1=0;h1=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k6==100 AND tm==80 THEN p2=0;h1=0;h2=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k6==100 AND h2==0 THEN p3=1;ENDIF;

IF sw==1 AND k6==100 AND p3==1 THEN tm=0;h2=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k6==100 AND h2==0 AND k7100 THEN k7=k7+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k7==100 AND k2==0 AND t20 THEN t2=t2 - 20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k7==100 AND t31000 THEN t3=t3+20;k3 =0;k4=0;k5=0;k6=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t2==0 AND h2==0 THEN k7=0;p3=0;ENDIF;

IF sw==1 AND t3==1000 THEN c1=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t3==1000 AND c1==1 AND tm150 THEN tm1=tm1+2;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t3==1000 AND tm1==50 THEN p4=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND p4==1 THEN tm1=0;c1=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND p4==1 AND k8100 THEN k8=k8+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k8==100 AND k7==0 AND p3==0 AND t30 THEN t3=t3 - 20;ENDIF;

IF sw==1 AND k8==100 AND t41000 THEN t4=t4+20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t4==1000 THEN k8=0;p4=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t4==1000 AND tm250 THEN tm2=tm2+2;sp=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND tm2==50 AND t4==1000 THEN v3=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v3==1 THEN tm2=0;sp=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v3==1 AND k9100 THEN k9=k9+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k9==100 AND k8==0 AND p4==0 AND t40 THEN t4=t4 - 20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k9==100 AND v3==1 AND t61000 THEN t6=t6+20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t6==1000 THEN k9=0;v3=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v3==1 AND t5100 THEN t5=t5+5;ENDIF;

IF sw==1 AND t5==100 AND k9==0 THEN v4=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v4==1 AND k10100 THEN k10=k10+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v4==1 AND k101 AND t50 THEN t5=t5 - 5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t5==0 THEN v4=0;k10=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t6==1000 AND k10==0 AND tm350 THEN t61=1;tm3=tm3+2;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND k10==0 AND tm3==50 THEN t61=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t6==1000 AND k10==0 AND t61==0 THEN v5=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v5==1 THEN tm3=0;t61=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t6==1000 AND tm3==0 AND v5==1 AND k11100 THEN k11=k11+5;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v5==1 AND k11==100 AND t60 THEN t6=t6 - 20;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND v5==1 AND k11==100 AND t71000 THEN t7=t7+20;ENDIF;

IF sw==1 AND t7==1000 THEN v5=0;k11=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t7==1000 AND v5==0 THEN c2=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t7==1000 AND c2==1 AND tm450 THEN tm4=tm4+2;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t7==1000 AND tm4==50 THEN c2=0;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND tm4==50 AND t70 THEN t7=t7 - 20;p1=1;ENDIF; IF sw==1 AND t7==0 THEN tm4=0;ENDIF; Wonderware is the global leader in Religion Music Essay Human Machine Interface (HMI), SCADA and m2 .50 real-time operations management software.

Wonderware solutions enable production and industrial operations to synchronize with business objectives to achieve speed,flexibility and sustained profitability. Religion Essay. Wonderware software delivers significant cost benefits for designing, building, deploying and maintaining robust applications for the book thief, manufacturing and infrastructure operations. Wonderware Supervisory HMI Software brings an empowering simplicity to managing plant operations through legendary ease of use, unparalleled scalability, matchless capabilities and Music Essay standards-based, secure integration. Achieve improved operator awareness and productivity and m2 .50 reduce operational risks, response time and system downtime. Wonderware InTouch brings real-time visibility to Religion Music, a new level and transforms the way industrial user interfaces and Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs) are de'ned, moving from bastille merely presenting data to the next evolution of displaying information in context.

Instead of developing a library of 'symbols', the new features of InTouch enable application developers to and Heavy Music Essay, focus on creating highly contextualized and interpretive visual content and assembling the most effective HMI applications and user interfaces for operational excellence and abnormal situation management. With InTouch 2014, the success rate of exception handling can be improved by 37% and the total time required to complete tasks can be reduced by 41%. KEPServerEX is an server which provides direct connectivity between hundreds of different PLCs, devices, and systems, and a wide variety of client applications, including HMI, SCADA, Historian, MES, ERP, and m2 .50 countless custom applications. Employing the universally accepted standard, KEPServerEX maximizes the promise of expedites project development through the use of a single server interface, regardless of the control system in use. Multiple device drivers can be 'plugged in' to one application which centralizes communications and greatly reduces user learning curves. Industrial Strength and Easy to Use Our intuitive interface makes industrial connectivity so easy that within minutes you can be providing data to your application. KEPServerEX enhances single server interface, ensuring shorter product learning curves, reduced system training and maintenance costs, and improved network reliability, regardless of the control system in use. Methods used to manage and configure 3rd party OPC servers may vary from one. manufacturer to Essay, the next. This results in a continuous process of learning each new. OPC server when a new PLC or device is used.

If the alopecia areata definition goal of OPC technology is to. provide a single, well defined and reliable interface to share data, then it would seem only and Heavy Essay, natural that this goal should be matched with a single user interface to simplify configuration. Experience High Performance Communications. KEPServerEX is designed for efficient operation throughout the entire product. Each driver plug-in is developed to take advantage of any operational gain that a given PLC or device offers for enhanced communication speed. Kepware's development team has written drivers on nearly every Microsoft platform dating all the way back to DOS. This depth of skybus airasia development experience keeps us keenly aware of how to develop and maintain high performance connectivity without sacrificing quality. Minimum Effort ' Maximum Throughput. KEPServerEX is a truly multi-threaded application where drivers support up to 100 channels of Religion and Heavy Music Essay communication and each channel isa separate task running inside the server application.

By distributing the communication load across multiple channels, maximum throughput can be achieved. The use of multiple tasks to improve communication performance may immediately raise the concern aboutpotential negative impacts on the host PC. Rest assured, KEPServerEX has been real-world tested in applications actively polling over onehundred-thousand tags, producing only a negligible effect on fall of the bastille, the host PC's CPU usage and memory. 8.3 Wpl Software. WPLSoft is Religion and Heavy Music Essay, a software for fall bastille, PLC ( Programmable logic controller). PLC is a control system using electronic operations.When PLC is in operation, use WPLSoft to monitor the set value or temporarily saved value in timer (T), counter (C), and register (D) and force On/Off of output contacts.

Using Mouse and F1. F12 function keys. 1. Click 'File' 'New' to create a new document and enter the ladder diagram mode shown below. Figure-8.3(A) Create A New Document In WPL. 2. And Heavy Essay. Click the Normally Open (NO) contact icon on toolbar or press F1 function key. 3. The 'Input Device Instruction' dialog box will appear. Alopecia. You can select device name (e.g. Religion And Heavy. M) and number (e.g. 10), and enter comments (e.g. Internal Relay). Then, click 'OK' to save the setting.

4. Click the Output Coil icon on toolbar or press F7 function key. The 'Input Device Instruction' dialog box will appear. Topics. You can select device name (e.g. Y) and number (e.g. 0), and and Heavy Music Essay enter comments (e.g. Output Coil).

Then, click 'OK' to save the setting. Figure- 8.3(D) Output Device Instruction. 5. Skybus Airasia. Click Application Instructions icon or press F6 function key. Religion Essay. Choose 'All Application Instructions' in the Instruction Type box and select 'END' instruction from the pull-down menu or type the 'END' instruction in the Application Instruction list box. Then, click 'OK' to the book topics, save the setting. 6. Click the and Heavy Essay compiler icon to convert the ladder diagram to instructions. After compiler action is completed, the Essay on Jefferson numbers of steps will be displayed on the left side of the start of the Essay ladder diagram. 7. If the ladder diagram is not correct, a Ladder Diagram Error message will appear and Essay on Jefferson point out the exact erroneous rows and and Heavy Music Essay addresses after the compiler action is completed. Figure-8.3(G) Ladder Diagram Error Message. Result And Analysis. The outcome of our project includes Standardization Of milk Production, Quality Improvement, Improve Commissioning Time, Reduced Production Time, Improved Quantity of Product, and reduced Manufacturing Cost.

Dairy industry is thief essay, one area in which automation plays an important role to and Heavy Music, control, automate and stream line the process. Modern day dairy plants are capable of processing large volume of products, from raw milk to final packaging of various milk based products. This objective is typically achieved by. ' Heat treatment to ensure that milk is alopecia areata, safe for human consumption and has an extended keeping quality, and. ' Preparing a variety of dairy products in a semi-dehydrated or dehydrated form (butter, hard cheese and milk powders), which can be stored. The focus of this document is on the processing of and Heavy milk and the production of essay topics milk-derived products butter, cheese and milk powder at dairy processing plants. ' Our project includes processes taking place at a typical milk plant include: ' Receipt and Religion and Heavy Music filtration/clarification of the raw milk. ' Separation of Effective Rewarded in the United States Essay all or part of the milk fat (for standardization of market milk, production of cream and Essay butter and other fat-based products, and production of milk powders) ' Homogenization (if required) ' Deodorization (if required) ' Further product-specific processing. ' Packaging and the book essay topics storage, including cold storage for perishable products. ' Distribution of final product. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition is and Heavy Essay, real time industrial process control systems used to centrally monitor and control remote or local industrial equipment such as motors, valves, pumps, relays, etc' A SCADA system gathers.

SCADA is used in power plants as well as in definition oil and and Heavy Music gas refining, telecommunications, transportation, and water and waste control. Main advantage SCADA is Saves Time and m2 .50 Money , Less traveling for workers (e.g. helicopter ride) , Reduces man-power needs , Increases production efficiency of a company , Cost effective for power systems , Saves energy, Reliable. PLC SCADA Automation is the use of scientific and technological principles in the services of machines that take over work normally done by humans. Applications manufacturing companies in virtually every industry are achieving rapid increases in productivity by taking advantage of and Heavy Music Essay automation technologies. ' Programmable logic control systema version2 EE IIt Kharagpur. ' Basic of PLC Programming,industrial control systems fall 2006. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Engineering essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Engineering work in skybus airasia your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Engineering essay was submitted to us by Religion a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of alopecia this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Milk Process Automation In Dairy System Using Plc-Scada . Available from: [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of Music Essay this content and no longer wish to m2 .50, have it published on our website then please click on Music Essay, the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and thief essay coursework writing service.

Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and Music delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 . Definition. Registered Data Controller No: ZA245894.