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archers resume The information below is vs Board Case Essay, not intended for employment. Employers, agencies and other manpower recruiting resources must not treat this web site as for employment purposes. Thank you for viewing. To be part with in Evaluation of The Issue an Item Essay a dynamic progressive company where I can use and Brown of Education apply my professional work experience. Seeking a position in line w/ engineering works such as; Planning Scheduling, Estimating, Consultancy/Design and Project Execution, also can do as Quantity Surveyor, Material expediting and Project package preparation. In Blood Out Meaning? To obtain a position in engineering, construction and Brown vs Board Essay maintenance wherein my knowledge and experience will be used to the full extent. Summary of about Implementing in Schools Experience. With dedicated work experience in of Education Essay various technical and engineering disciplines.

Works involved in LNG Construction Process Area, Mining Plant Site, Mechanical Design, Piping, Chilled Water Piping (CHWP), Fabrication and Optometry School Application Installation, Project Planning preparation with the use of Brown Essay Primavera V3.1, P5/P6 Microsoft Project in application of SAP System JD Edwards. Of Any Interest? Can be able to of Education Essay, developed Designs and Drawings thru AutoCAD R.14 up to 2006 application also prepare invoices with coordination to client after project completion. Previously engaged with multi-national, int#8217;l. Essay Flu Vaccinations In Schools? organizations or companies in; Oil / Gas, LNG, Power Plant, MM, General Shutdown and Maintenance; utilizing the international construction standard references as follows ASTM, ASME 31.1 31.3, ASME IX, AWS, ASHRAE, API ISO 9001:2002 certification. Vs Board Essay? July 2011 Present MONADELPHOUS ENGINEERING. Address: Level 6 Lang Parade, Milton Queensland 4064 Australia. - Prepare tender schedules. Essay About Implementing In Schools? Develop baseline schedule, monitor and Brown coordinate with PM's and A Critical Evaluation of The Issue from Work Essay construction personel for Brown vs Board of Education Essay, the project's success. - Eurombah Creek APLNG Upstream Phase 1 Gas Fields Facilities JUL 2014 MAY 2015. School Application? - Lead Planner : Wandoan Interconnect Facilities APLNG FEB 2014 JUL 2014. - Wheatstone LNG Project 2013 - 2014.

Sept. Brown Of Education Case Essay? 22, #8217;08 Feb 2011 SNC LAVALIN INTERNATIONAL INC. The Two Main Roles Are To? ( Toronto , CA ) Client: OPG #8220;Owner Project Group#8221;( Sherritt Intn#8217;l., Sumitomo and Korea Resources ) Fokontany d#8217; Amboakarivo, Commune d#8217; Amboditandroho, TOAMASINA II - Madagascar. Of Education? Report to Project Controls Manager, to ensure planning works for the E ngineering, P rocurement, C onstruction and about in Schools M anagement of the of Education, Ambatovy Nickel/Cobalt Project. Fact about the project; The Ambatovy Project is and how, a laterite Nickel/Cobalt open pit mining operation located in Brown vs Board of Education the east central highlands of Madagascar near the roles of any are to, city of of Education Essay Moramanga. 220KM slurry pipeline will be constructed, which will carry processed ore from the mine site to Home, the processing plant as well as the of Education Case Essay, a port, an Player´s Performance, eight km railway, 130 km of Brown vs Board Case access roads and A Critical Evaluation from an industrial complex.

The processing plant will be constructed near the port city of Brown vs Board of Education Essay Tamatave (Toamasina) located on the east coast of blood in blood out meaning Madagascar . Brown Of Education Case? The US $3.38 Billion facility will produce 60,000 tonnes per year of about in Schools Nickel, 5,600 tonnes per Brown of Education Case year of Home Cobalt and 185,000 tonnes per year of of Education Ammonium Sulphate. In Blood Out Meaning? Duties and responsibilities: - Develop, maintain, and implement the Project Code of Brown of Education Case Essay Accounts. Develop, maintain, and implement the A Critical an Item, Cost Control Procedures. Vs Board Of Education Case? Prepare definitive capital cost estimate and a memorable Project budgets. - Evaluate and cost code capital cost commitments, expenditures, material quantities, contractor#8217;s man-hours, progress and performance, and project services. - Prepare Project trends and forecasts to update the Brown vs Board of Education Case Essay, Project final cost projections to be included in blood in blood the Monthly Progress Report. Brown Vs Board Case? Prepare Bid check estimates of Bid Packages; assist Contracts and Procurement in Essay Bid evaluation and Brown of Education Essay recommendations. Monitor the recording of what is alchemy and how has it been attempted commitments and Brown of Education Case Essay expenditures in what is alchemy been conjunction with the Essay, Project Accounting Section. Monitor the Project scope and what is alchemy has it been attempted obtain approvals for Brown of Education, Project Scope Changes. - Review Purchase Orders and Contracts for on Basketball Player´s Performance and Income:, compatibility with the budget. Also provide cost codes and budget breakdown values to Contracts and Procurement for Bid analysis and Brown award recommendations. - Monitor supplier#8217;s/contractors periodic reports to Evaluation of Taking an Item Work Essay, the Project Controls Department. Essay? - Update the following documents in a memorable a Monthly basis: o Master Summary Schedule (Rainbow). o Engineering and Brown of Education Construction Progress Charts. o The Detailed Project (CPM) Schedule. Out Meaning? o Early Activities Schedule. o Overall contract progress and performance curves. o Contractors#8217; proposed and vs Board of Education actual schedules, progress charts. Coming Home? o Schedule requirements to reflect any contractual or legal documentation and Brown vs Board of Education Case Essay requirements. Implementing Flu Vaccinations In Schools? - Produce the Case, following documents: o Commitment Package Status Report.

Submit a Monthly Progress Report. Essay? List of Key Dates. o Establish Intermediate Milestones dates for Brown Case, Contract Documents. o Overall Home Office Progress Curve. The Two Main Interest? Engineering Progress Curve. Manpower Status Report. o Critical Items List Analyze #8220;Actual#8220;against the Schedule and report critical delays and vs Board of Education needs to enable Management to Home Essay, take corrective actions. Maintain #8220;activity sorting#8221; capabilities of the Brown vs Board of Education, schedules. Essay? o Produce Gantt charts for various special project reporting. Dec. 20, #8217;06 Jul.12,'08 CTJV- Chiyoda/Technip Joint Venture RGX6. Brown Vs Board? Client: Partnership of RasGas and ExxonMobil Ras Laffan (III) Limited.

P.O.Box : 22740, Ras Laffan Industrial City (RLIC), State of Qatar. Snr. Construction Planner/Analysts Process. Report to A Critical of The of Taking from Work, Construction Manager, to Brown Case Essay, ensure planning works of Construction Group for CTJV, Japan 's Chiyoda and France 's Technip Joint Venture, for is alchemy and how, the engineering, procurement and construction of the Brown of Education Case, RasGas onshore projects trains 6 and 7. Two additional LNG trains, no. 6 and no. 7. About Implementing Flu Vaccinations? This is a new offshore wells, the largest producing wells in the industry. Vs Board Of Education? Each train is designed to produce 7.8 million tonnes per A Critical Evaluation of The of Taking an Item from Work year of Brown of Education liquefied natural gas, making them two of the the two main of any special are to, world's largest LNG trains. ($4 Billion USD Project). - Works involve in Brown of Education Case Construction Project Planning, extract detailed work activities, with Primavera V.3.1 and blood out meaning MS (Microsoft) Project 2003. Vs Board Of Education? risk management plan. Roles Of Any Group? - Prepare/Conduct Monthly Top Management Joint Review Meeting for Project Status thru Microsoft Power Point Presentation. Of Education? - Verify/extract work man-hours, work volume, quantities, critical activities, s-curves and histograms through P3. - Coordinate with various disciplines like; Civil Group, Piping Group, EI and Equipment Group. As well as coordinate to Player´s Performance A Research, subcontractors relating to construction works for proper work execution at site and Brown of Education Essay ensure proper planning.

Coordinate with logistics for the Material and Equipments ETA (Estimated Time Arrival) and ATA (Actual Time Arrived) prior to allocating it to Essay Performance and Income:, Laydown yard and/or installation. - Update/submit Weekly Progress Report for all discipline thru S-Curves and Histogram as well as various plans, for Brown Essay, Process Access Roads, Equipment Positioning and alignment at Laydown area with AutoCAD 2006 and of The Issue from (Bentley) Microstation. Review and analyze Subcontractors Scheduling and planning documents (procedures, reports e.t.c.), monitor progress and control Project activities, verification of Milestones, identify potential delays, analyze and Brown vs Board of Education Case issue proposed corrective actions as required. - Utilize i-DMS (Integrated Document Management System) for various company document search and what is alchemy and how has it been attempted needs. Also utilize and operate SPR (Smart Plant Review) for vs Board Case, equipment and has it construction viewing to check for vs Board Essay, its virtual location, position and the two special interest group are to some information. Brown Essay? Dec 30,#8217;05 Nov 05,'06 CAT International Co. Ltd. (CAT GROUP) 14 th floor ABN AMRO Building , P.O.

Box 250 Abu Dhabi , U.A.E. Home? Planning Scheduling Engineer/Project Controls. Of Education? CONSTRUCTION OF UNDERGROUND CHILLED WATERPIPE NETWORKS AT DUBAI MOTOR CITY (DMC) AREA. - Client: Emirates District Cooling #8220;EMICOOL#8221;; Dubai , UAE. - Project Contract Duration: 10 October 2006 to 17 August 2007. Optometry Application Essay? DISTRICT COOLING SCHEME AD01: PIPE NETWORKS FROM AL JAZEERAH TO MUBADALLA/MAMOURA AREA. - Client: TABREED; Abu Dhabi , UAE. - Project Contract Duration: 01 August 2006 to 31 December 2006. Of Education Case Essay? PHASE 5 TANK FARM EXPANSION DESIGN and Essay about Flu Vaccinations in Schools CONSTRUCTION OF MECHANICAL, PIPING CIVIL WORKS. - Client: VOPAK HORIZON FUJAIRAH LIMITED, (VHFL); Fujairah , U.A.E. - Project Contract Duration: 20 June 2006 to 19 December 2007. Brown Vs Board Case Essay? A D02- AL BATEEN AIR BASE NEW BUILDING CONNECTIONS. - Client: TABREED; Abu Dhabi , U.A.E. Evaluation Of Taking An Item From? - Project Contract Duration: 05 March 2006 to Brown vs Board Case, 30 June 2006. - Client: TABREED; Abu Dhabi , U.A.E. The Two Main Special Interest Group Are To? - Project Contract Duration: 10 April 2005 to Brown vs Board Case, 26 July 2006. Blood? TABREED DISTRICT COOLING SCHEMES AD04 GHQ - CHW ZONE DISTRIBUTION, ETS, RENOVATION OF THE EXISTING AC SYSTEM, AND CONNECTION OF THE BUILDING CHW SYSTEM TO TABREED DISTRICT COOLING NETWORK. - Client: TABREED; Abu Dhabi , U.A.E. Brown Case Essay? - Project Contract Duration: 08 October 2005 to 07 October 2006. Trip? Various Tendering Involved such as; - Emirates District Cooling LLC (EMICOOL) MOTOR CITY - DISTRICT COOLING PROJECT UNDERGROUND CHW PIPE NETWORKS at Dubai Investment Park , Jebel Ali, Dubai , UAE. Tender Planning Package. - ETS #8220;Energy Transfer Station#8221; Green West Project at vs Board of Education Essay Dubai , tender planning package. Main Roles Special Group Are To? - International Media Production Zone (IMPZ) EMPOWER Project, tender up to Brown vs Board Case Essay, level 2 package. - Engineering, Procurement Construction of A Critical of The Issue of Taking PIG LAUNCHERS AND RECEIVERS FOR 13 Nos. Brown Vs Board Essay? Critical Main Oil Lines, tender planning package.

For (ADCO Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations). - AD02- AL BATEEN AIR BASE NEW BUILDING CONNECTIONS. Of The Issue From Essay? - TABREED NATIONAL CENTRAL COOLING: DISTRICT COOLING FOR UAE UNIVERSITY AT AL MAQAM CAMPUS AL AIN, EXTERNAL DISTRIBUTION PIPING. - Report directly to of Education Essay, Project Manager. Execute document tendering. Blood In Blood Out Meaning? Preparation of Brown vs Board Engineering, Procurement and Player´s A Research Construction Project Schedule such as PERT/CPM, quantification, bar chart, progresses S curve, resources loading histogram, material take off, cost estimate and Brown Case Monthly Cash Flow. What Is Alchemy And How Has It Been? - Monitor Weekly and Monthly Progress status at vs Board level 3 4 and Player´s Performance procurement status. Gather and compile relevant data as per project requirement. Insure that all target dates as per of Education Case Essay schedule are properly executed. Conduct site ocular inspection Coordinate project heads. Trip Essay? - Prepare recovery schedule to of Education Case Essay, a certain project for client#8217;s approval if additional quantity and extended schedule or which ever cases may apply. - Prepare monthly invoice/billing to be submitted to the client for Home Essay, approval with respect to the monthly progress. Vs Board Of Education Case Essay? - Utilize Project Planning Software proficiently e.g. Primavera V3.1 and blood Microsoft Project 2000. Brown Of Education Case? Dec 03,#8217;02 Oct 12, '05 Al Suwaidi Industrial Services Co.

Ltd. Supplied to Essay Flu Vaccinations in Schools, Client: Saudi ARAMCO Testing and vs Board of Education Inspection (TI) and Projects Unit, Maintenance Div. Rabigh Refinery, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia . Attempted? Planning /TI and Projects Engineer. Brown Of Education Case? Prepare Work Schedule for Tanks and of Taking an Item Work Essay various projects in Brown of Education accordance to Optometry School Application Essay, SAES ( S audi A ramco E ngineering S tandards) and Brown Case SAMS. Prepares scope of work and letters for Coming, review by Brown Essay concern unit such as; Inspection Unit, Operation Maintenance Engineering with Loss Prevention. As well as, review and give comments on is alchemy and how has it been attempted, various project design packages in vs Board Essay accordance to Application, standards and specifications. Follow-up the correct implementation of the maintenance plans and advises the Maintenance Team Leader of developments. Vs Board Of Education Essay? Gather work requests for each of the main of any are to, trades and inform the Essay, appropriate sections of work to be carried out on Basketball Player´s Performance during planned shutdowns. Analyze resource requirements (Manpower Material, equipment Tools) for shutdown work and ensure their availability well in advanced. Of Education Case? Prepare a shutdown work package in trip essay consultation with Site Engineers and Supervisors. Prepare calculation sheet, cost estimate, service/purchase order draft and bill of materials.

Receive and analyze the Brown vs Board of Education Case Essay, monthly/quarterly cost control reports, review cost classification, compare actual costs against budget, and Essay about Implementing Flu Vaccinations in Schools make appropriate comments to the concerned departments/services. Prepare Long Form and Short Form Contracts. Hypothetical Quantities and Company #8220;Saudi Aramco#8221; Estimate Cost for Tankage Repair Western Region Shared Contract. Prepare TI Planning and vs Board of Education Projects Unit presentation. Verify check contractors#8217; invoice against actual quantity of works completed. TEST Package, Mid-Year accountability and Operating Plan preparation. Blood In Blood Out Meaning? Coordinate the requirement for Brown, contracted manpower follow-up Service Orders/Purchase Orders monitor expenditure in trip accordance with approved budget. Of Education Case? Mar 03,#8217;04 Apr 08, 2004 Saudi ARAMCO. Testing and Inspection (TI) Planning and Essay Player´s Performance and Income: Projects Unit, Maintenance Div.

Rabigh Refinery, Kingdom of of Education Case Saudi Arabia . GRTA Shutdown Planner/Cost Engineer. Duties and responsibilities: Perform the elements of blood in blood out meaning shutdown planning through communication, time, cost and Brown Case quality. Estimating and controlling shutdown and turnaround cost. About Implementing In Schools? Cost performance measures of the Brown vs Board Essay, following; 4. Material and supplies. About Flu Vaccinations? 5. Brown Case? Rental and leasing costs. 6. General and what is alchemy has it been attempted Administrative. Produce the following documents: 1. Progress daily report.

2. Contractors Back charges. Dec 26, #8216;01 Dec 02#8217;02 Al Suwaidi Industrial Services Co. Ltd. P.O. Box 269 Rabigh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia . Vs Board Case? Planner Engineer/Quantity Surveyor. Blood Out Meaning? Oct 2001 Dec 25, #8217;01 Al Suwaidi Industrial Services Co.

Ltd. Brown Vs Board Case Essay? P.O. Box 269 Rabigh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia . Prepare work schedule various mechanical projects in in Schools Primavera V.3.1. Monitor the 1.2M Saudi Riyal Contract value Closed Drain System at Rabigh ARAMCO Refinery, Process Area. Vs Board? Interpret, review construction progress if in accordance to a memorable trip essay, plan and report to Project Manager. Responsible in maintaining communication with the vs Board Case Essay, Client SAUDI ARAMCO. Essay? Mar 2000 Apr 2001 SALCON POWER CO. Vs Board Essay? Poblacion Naga Cebu , Philippines. Prepare work schedule for Essay about Implementing, tanks and Brown vs Board of Education various projects in Primavera V.3.0 and the two main of any interest group Microsoft Project 2000. Up date and vs Board of Education report work progress daily for Essay about Flu Vaccinations in Schools, #8220;all Project#8221; using Microsoft Excel. Maintain coordination with the project in-charge.

Prepare reports, in Brown Case daily, weekly and monthly report for what is alchemy has it attempted, mechanical work shop daily report. Brown Of Education Case? Prepare Plant Integrity Assessment (PIA) report. Cebu Institute of Technology. Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering. SIENA School of Naga. Graduated March 1996. Naga Central Elementary School. Graduated March, 1992.

Professional Regulation Commission December 14, 2001. Main Roles Are To? Registered Mechanical Engineer. Vs Board Of Education Case? Board of Mechanical Engineer, R.P. DATE PLACE OF BIRTH : September 07, 1979 ; Poblacion Naga. Issue An Item Work? MARITAL STATUS : Married. ELECTRO PNEUMATICS with PLC Apr 17, 2000-May 22, 2000. Brown Vs Board Of Education Case Essay? Cebu Institute of main roles interest Technology.

LUBRICATION January 19, 1999. Cebu Institute of Technology. Vs Board Of Education Case? Automatic Computer Aided Design (AutoCAD) Mar 22, 1998-Nov 1998. Cebu Institute of Player´s Performance Technology. MATERIAL DEGRADATION and PROTECTION November 19, 1998.

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Age of the two of any interest group, Enlightenment , French people , French Revolution 2474 Words | 4 Pages. Option 3: Revising and Editing Steps in the Writing Process As the Brown vs Board Case Essay, writer I have to make sure that my essay . conveys the main point. I also need to make sure that my essay is A Critical Evaluation an Item from Work Essay well developed, unified and Brown vs Board of Education Case Essay organized. And I need to also make sure that all my sentences cohere together. I should also make sure that my topic sentence is Coming Home conveying my paragraphs controlling idea. Most importantly as the write I need to make sure that my paragraphs include specific ideas and enough of them to support my. Baking , Need , Paragraph 498 Words | 2 Pages. Different between Revising and vs Board of Education Case Essay Editing. between Revising and Editing Revising can simply be said to be a process of rereading, reflecting upon and . improving drafts or drafting materials. This process often leads to rewriting, more revision and more rewriting it also involve asking questions like Is the Paper Focused?, Is the on Basketball Player´s Performance, Paper Well Structured and Well Organized?, Is the Paper Complete?, Is the of Education Case, Paper Coherent? Etc.

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A crawfish boil: sucking heads, pinching tails. Crawfish boils are Louisiana specialties. Essay. / Photo by Giovanni Handal via Wikimedia Commons. When my oldest son celebrated his eighth birthday, we let him choose the restaurant for a special dinner. Main Are To. After days of consideration, he asked that we take him somewhere that served a classic crawfish boil. My heart swelled with pride that he was forgoing the pizza and burgers typically craved by 8-year-olds. His choice was rooted in a tradition I initiated before he started kindergarten.

The Sunday before the first day of each school year, I put together an Case end-of-summer feast of grilled corn, potatoes and lobsters. He loved the what is alchemy been, act of eating lobster. Cracking shells, picking for meat and making a huge mess. I explained that lobster is for vs Board of Education Case Essay special occasions and you cant eat them all the time, but that crawfish were like mini-lobsters and involved sucking the heads. Since then, he eats them whenever he can. Fortunately, his birthday comes at Coming the right time of vs Board of Education Case year. Although crawfish were eaten for centuries by Native Americans and in parts of Europe, the U.S. commercial crawfish industry really started in the late 1800s. The first commercial U.S. Essay On Basketball A Research. crawfish harvest on record was in vs Board Essay 1880 in Louisiana. It brought in 23,400 pounds valued at $2,140, according to the U.S. A Critical Of The Issue Of Taking. Department of Agriculture.

In 2010, nearly 110.9 million pounds of crawfish were raised in Louisiana valued at more than $168.5 million, according to the Agricultural Marketing Resource Center. And this is after major hurricane damage in the last few years. Brown Vs Board Case. Until the 1950s, most crawfish came from the wild. What Is Alchemy And How Been Attempted. Today the Brown vs Board of Education Case Essay, little crustaceans are mostly farm raised. While there is a memorable trip, some small-scale farming in Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama and the Carolinas, Louisiana produces nearly 95 percent of the nations crawfish, according to USDA. They thrive in the states bayous, creeks and of Education Essay rivers. Their taste is muddier than shrimp and what and how attempted lobster, in Brown vs Board Essay the best way possible. Farmed crawfish are readily available for is alchemy and how been attempted order and shipment.

Some people refuse to eat crawfish from anywhere but Louisiana. I had one cook narrow it down to a particular region of Louisiana because the crawfish there ate rice and tended to Brown Case, be much fatter than anywhere else in the state. About half of Louisiana#8217;s crawfish are raised in conjunction with rice farming. I have eaten crawfish many times, but I didnt grow up with it. In South Carolina, we had plenty of shrimp, oysters and clams, but not a lot of Application crawfish. It was in Alabama, where I went to college, that I first encountered a proper crawfish boil. A friend of mine had grown up in Louisiana. He would throw giant crawfish parties in the shadow of the football stadium on game day. The ingredients of a good crawfish boil vary by family and location, but usual suspects include corn on Brown Essay, the cob, red potatoes, a form of sausage (usually andouille), a spicy blend of seasonings and, of course, live crawfish. I quickly fell in love with this dish because it reminded me of Frogmore stew, something I ate a lot when I was a kid. Main Special Group. Its the Brown vs Board of Education Case Essay, same principle, but instead of crawfish, we used shrimp that my father caught in the Charleston Harbor.

I also fell for main special interest crawfish because it is Brown, perfect party food. A crawfish boil is typically served outdoors. When the contents of the boil are ready, it is of The Issue of Taking an Item Work Essay, strained and dumped onto a folding table covered in Case newspapers. Diners hover over the heap of Home shellfish and pick it apart between sips of beer. On my sons birthday, we found a restaurant in vs Board Case Essay the Washington, D.C., area called Chasin Tails where they serve crawfish with corn, potatoes, andouille sausage and Coming other Cajun specialties. You can order them in Brown Case a blend of Cajun spices or garlic butter. We ordered a pound of each, donned our plastic bibs and settled in, and I gave the main of any are to, boy a lesson in crawfish eating. The first part is Brown vs Board of Education, twisting off the tail and sucking the head.

The head cavity is filled with delicious innards that have been seasoned with the Essay, spicy seasoning that was in the boil. Do not be squeamish. Its fantastic. After that, simply bite the meat of the tail, squeeze from the bottom and youve successfully eaten crawfish. Its a messy meal. Wear the of Education, bib, even if you look silly. Keep a roll of paper towels handy because you will need them. Dont wear your good clothes. Crawfish, crayfish, crawdads or mudbugs by any name they taste as sweet.

8 Responses to A Critical Issue of Taking an Item Work Essay, A crawfish boil: sucking heads, pinching tails. Another home run, man. Your stories are always both incredibly entertaining and Brown vs Board of Education informative. I#8217;m not a big shrimp or lobster eater myself because, unless done right, they can be a bit short on the flavor side. My brother in law swears by crawfish for exactly the reasons you give, that distinctive earthy flavor elevates it over other shellfish. And dude, are you raising your boys right or what? A crawfish boil is probably, no definitely, more fun and a hell of a lot tastier than chuck e cheese. You want to organize my next birthday?

OMG! Great article, and what memories this brought back, although mine is one from New York City. Twenty two years ago, on trip essay, the first date with my husband, he took me to vs Board of Education Case Essay, a small restaruant called #8220;Gulf Coast#8221; on the West Side Downtown NYC for drinks and what and how attempted crawfish where I learned to #8220;suck the heads#8221; off these delicious creatures! Well the restaurant is long gone, but the memory of my first time ever trying crawfish is still alive. Vs Board Of Education Case Essay. I have tried them since, but nothing ever holds up to the first taste. Who knows, maybe eating crawfish together was the secret to our long lasting love! Eddie, I never thought of crawfish as #8220;date food#8221;, but if you find someone who will get messy like that over Optometry dinner, it must be love! Sweet, Eddie! #8220;Their eyes met over a mountain of decapitated crustaceans#8230;#8221; Steve Webb, you romantic, you!! I prefer the messiness of vs Board Essay a good crab fest. I never noticed the #8220;muddy#8221; #8220;earthiness#8221; of cray(craw?) fish, but if it is there, it is due to #8220;geosim#8221; (see NYT and google Asian Catfish a and love Swai).

Sucking out the heads#8230;#8230;.that will encourage people to try, but not much different than eating whole belly clams, eh? What I thought was a delightful rule in my family was: if you were asked to try something and declined, you got two servings. Friend mentioned this to their daughter, and she refused to talk to me for a year, holding it against and how been attempted me. But years later, while teaching at a exclusive private school and at Brown of Education Case their Mardi Gras dinner, there, at buffet, were sausages, dirty rice, gumbo, etc. I was getting my second helping when I noticed a student taking great pause at the frogs legs and crawfish amongst the offerings and School Essay she said out loud, to herself: #8220;well, I should try this.#8221; I leaned over vs Board Essay and said if she took my class, she probably would get an #8220;A.#8221; Suck the heads and pinch the tails, my, my, my.

Gracious goodness it almost crayfish or crawdad time. Please keep speaking southern food and my fond remembrance of Baton Rouge, Louisiana will come alive. Thank you so much Peter you are truly some southern guy. Thanks, Wayne#8230; I#8217;ll keep eating if you keep reading! Major props to your kid! How I wish that place existed when I was living in the DC metro area a few years ago. I went to college in New Orleans, so when I was in DC afterwards, I craved crawfish all season long. Great post. It makes me want to have a boil tomorrow.

Just trying to figure out Evaluation of The of Taking, gumbo explains a lot about Louisiana food. The name comes from an African word for Brown Case Essay . American Food Roots addresses the question: Why do we eat what we eat? The answer depends, of trip course, on where you live, where you used to live, where your grandparents lived. Then there are the ebbs and flows of our status as an agricultural nation. Dont forget politics, religion and vs Board Case Essay fashion. Its all there on the American plate.

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(ii) A minimum population of 5,000. (iii) At least 75 per cent of the Male working population engaged in non-agricultural and what, allied activity, (iv) A density of population of at least 400 persons per square kilometres. Thus, the term Rural essentially means an area, which is characterised as non-urban style of of Education life, occupational structure and settlement pattern. Development in general refers to the process of a general improvement in levels of living together, decreasing inequality in incomes and Essay, the capacity to sustain continuous improvements overtime. Brown Vs Board Case Essay! Thus the term Rural Development is Optometry Application, viewed as an activity of a series of activities or a process, which either improves the immediate living conditions-economic, social, political, cultural and environmental or increases the potential for Brown vs Board Essay, future living or both of the rural people. The Royal commission on Agriculture defined Rural Development as: We cannot too strongly state our conviction that the directorship of agriculture is Optometry School, one of the vs Board key posts in Rural Development and that agricultural advance must in a very great degree depend upon the stability of the officer. The taskforce appointed by the Planning Commission on Integrated Rural Development in 1972 defined Rural Development as: After a careful consideration we have belatedly decided to take what might be considered a rather restricted view of the expression. Rural Development we have chose to equate it with agricultural development in the widest sense so as to embrace besides crop husbandry, all the allied activities. According to the view of World Bank Rural Development as a strategy design to improve the economic and social life of a specific group of Essay people The rural (people) poor. It involves extending the benefits of development to the poorer among those who seek a livelihood in rural areas. The group includes small-scale farmers, tenants and the landless. Rural Development means a strategy to improve the Brown vs Board of Education Essay economic and social life of the rural poor and the rural weak in the overall spectrum of development and growth.

It is not only Home important to raise the agricultural productivity and the rate of overall economic growth in Brown of Education the rural areas, but also it is to ensure that the poor and weaker sections share the benefit. Rural Development as a process in complex and involves the interaction of economic, social, political, technological and of The Issue an Item from Work Essay, other situational factors. These have to be integrated with Government policies and plans with the objective of improving the vs Board of Education Essay quality of Essay Performance A Research life of the people in the villages. Rural Development encompasses: (i) Improvement in levels of living, including employment, education, health and nutrition housing and a variety of social services. (ii) Decreasing inequality in distribution of rural incomes and in rural-urban balances in Brown vs Board of Education Case Essay incomes and economic opportunities and. (iii) The capacity of the rural sector to sustain and accelerate the pace of these improvements. The critical element in the Rural Development is improvement living standards of the poor through opportunities for better utilisation of their physical and human resources in the absence of this utilisation of rural resources has no functional significance.

Making the process of rural development self-sustaining of capital and use of technology for the benefit of the poor but their active involvement in the building up of institutions as well as functioning of these. There are a number of definitions of rural development. But that varies according to time, priority and nature of rural activities. Despite of differences, the academicians, planners and policy makers have always laid emphasis for the all-round development of the rural activities. However, Rural Development as a concept and as series of experiments in alternative methods of organising production, welfare and Home Essay, exchange in rural activities has a long history and is not the monopoly of any single system or country. Of Education Case Essay! Its recent popularity however is mainly symptomatic of the failure of technocratic and growth strategies pursued by most developing countries in the 1950s and 1960s. Academics, nationals and international policy makers are carrying out the search for what and how attempted, solution to the twin problems of rural poverty and of Education, unemployment. Player´s Performance And Income: A Research! The noted Western economists like, Kuznets, Gerschenkron, Floud and Mccloskey provide useful insights into the history of economic development of the present day developed countries. The growth of output and productivity in these countries during last 10 to Case Essay, 15 decades has been qualitatively different from been, that observed in earlier periods.

Modern Economic growth since the late 18th century is different from periods of growth in vs Board of Education Case earlier times in three specific respects. Firstly, the Home Essay ownership and use of economic surplus were 34 Rural Development in India separated for the first time. Those who used this surplus as capital in vs Board of Education Essay the production process did not necessarily own it as they did in the land-based feudal pre-industrial system. Secondly, extensive use of an main special group are to acceptable unit of exchange called money helped in expansion of market, which made specialization and mobility possible. Lastly, mobility of both capital and labour in pursuit of higher gains to Brown of Education Essay, urban areas and distant lands occurred on what been attempted, an unprecedented scale. The consequent increase in Brown of Education Essay output and productivity were substantial and sustained over a long period of time. These impressive increases were also accompanied by growth of population and large-scale migration from A Critical Evaluation Work, not only rural to urban areas but from nation to nation and Brown of Education Case, from continent to continent. Historically experience suggests that, when seen in long-term perspective, economic growth has been accompanied by specialisation centralization, maximization, urbanization and industrialization. History shows that, poverty has been diminished by the growth of labour increased productivity in the agricultural sector and and how been, migration of labour to urban non-agricultural activities. The population movement occurred mainly because industry could offer the incentive of higher wages and better employment opportunities. The role of the State has been changing significantly since the Eighteenth Century.

Traditionally the Governments activities could be divided into three departments namely, defense, Public works and internal administration. A healthy balance among the three ensured stable regimes with the advent of modern economic development; the Public works component has been an expanding area of State activity. Modern development policy makers while, recognising the Brown vs Board of Education Case importance of infrastructure have been rather ambiguous about the contents of infrastructure is one of the very few illuminating contributions on the subject. Infrastructure includes all things provided by the State, which promote directly or indirectly productive activities. Transport, irrigation, power, water supply, health, education and urban services are considered important elements of Essay on Basketball Player´s Performance and Income: A Research infrastructure.

In a mixed economy, with a relatively important public sector, provision of infrastructure has to be carefully planned and provided by the State. The State playing an important role in development. Policy makers and planners have started devoting more to rural development in their declarations and Brown vs Board Case Essay, documents on national planning policies. In various ways and for various motives they have attempted to relate to what and how has it been attempted, the problems of their own rural poor. Despite, substantial and impressive increase in growth of agricultural and food outputs in some regions of a number of developing countries the Brown vs Board Case plight of small and marginal farmers, agricultural and landless labourers, artisans and small retailers has not been improved significantly.

In India the term Rural Development is what is alchemy has it been, not a very old phenomenon. Brown Vs Board Case! Early in a memorable the century their exist the British rule. Of Education Essay! In that time, rural development was a minor symphony in the governmental orchestra. The functions of the Government were limited and even the spread of each function was narrowly restricted. Thus, Development cannot but be of minor meaning and significance in the structure of the priorities of colonialism, which was also reflected in the rural areas. The decade 1920-30 was very significant from the is alchemy has it been attempted view of early pioneering efforts at rural development in India. The noted social Thinkers, Educationists, Politicians started such efforts in our country; in early 20s. 2. Vs Board Case! Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development: Programmes and Projects in Pre-Independence Periods: The important activities and experiments undertaken for Player´s Performance and Income: A Research, rural development in Pre-Independence periods are: (i) Sriniketan Experiments: This programme was pioneered by noted scholar of the country Rabindranath Tagore.

The important objective of the experiment was Economic and Moral rehabilitation of the rural community. (ii) Martandum Project: One Rural Reconstruction Programme was initiated by Spancer Hatch at Martandum (South Travancore) in 1921. Martandum rural reconstruction Centre was opened with a five- sided programme popularly called as The Five Sided Triangle Comprising Spirit, Mind, Body, Economic and Social side. The philosophy of rural reconstruction embraced principles known as Pillars of Policy. The principle of Brown Self Help was maintained. The project became the centre of comprehensive programmes of rural development. (iii) The Gurugaon Experiment: The important village uplift movement was initiated by I.L.Brayne the Deputy Commissioner of Gurugaon district in 1920.

This village development programme called as the Gurugaon Scheme. The Gurugaon Scheme claimed to a memorable, deal with the whole life and the activity of the peasant and his family and to present a complete remedy from the terrible conditions in with they lived. (iv) Rural Reconstruction Movement in Baroda: The important rural reconstruction centre was set up in 1932 and the work commenced in a group of villages round Kosamba (Navasri district). The movement aimed at improvement in all aspect of rural life, changing the outlook of the agriculturists, the attainment of higher standard of living.

(v) Sarvodaya Scheme of Bombay: This scheme was based on the Gandhijis idea of Case Sarvodaya. What And How Been Attempted! The important aim of the project is to stop migration of youths to nearest towns and cities. The supply of food for all, adequate medical facilities, free education, local self-Government, self-employment through cottage industries were highlighted in of Education Case the programme. (vi) Firka Development Scheme: The Firka Development Scheme aimed at the attainment of the Gandhian ideal of Village Swaraj by brining about not only the education, economic, sanitary and other improvements of on Basketball A Research village along with the revitalisation of the spirit if people and to make them self-confident and self-reliant. The schemes involved close coordination with the various Government services like, agriculture, veterinary, irrigation, industries, medical and communication departments. The scheme was later merged with the National Extension Services in 1953-54. Programmes and Projects in Post-Independence Period:

Programmes and projects were also launched in post-independence and vs Board Essay, pre-planning periods. The important among them are: (1) The Pilot Development Project of Etawah: The Project began under the sponsorships of the provincial Governments of Uttar Pradesh in late 1948. The important objectives of the project were to increase the been degree of Brown of Education Case Essay productivity, social improvements, promotion of self-confidence and cooperation. The pilot project at Issue Work Etawah treated as one of the most successful rural development project of the World. The project also exhibited the exemplary Cooperation and Coordination of Government, volunteers and others. (2) The Nilokheri Experiment : India divided in Brown vs Board Case 1947.

The Rehabilitation of displaced persons coming from Pakistan gathered importance. In order to provide them gainful employment a new township was developed at Nilokheri in 1948 with the efforts of Sri S.K.Dey. Sri Dey evolved a faith were to activate and the two roles are to, support a triple charter of rights such as: (i) Right to live, (ii) Right to Brown of Education, work for living and. (iii) Right to receive what is earned. To give a practical shape to essay, this charter or rights a new scheme known as the Mazdoor Manzil was drawn up. The basic concept of the Mazdoor Manzil was to stop the Brown vs Board of Education one-way traffic of labour, material, skill and culture from villages to town. The township was intended to include institutions for medical relief and sanitation, Higher Education, Technical and Vocational Training, Veterinary aid and agricultural extension embracing agriculture, horticulture, poultry, piggery, fishery, sheep breeding and other forms of animal husbandry. The project was highly appreciated by been attempted, the then Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.

The Planning for Rural Development have been received utmost attention by the planners and policy makers along with the Brown vs Board Case Essay National Plan for Economic Development. The rural development strategies were also adopted by planners as per the methods and a memorable trip, strategies adopted for the economic development of the country. India adopted both the centralised and of Education Essay, decentralised planning models in the process of its planned economic development. The First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) adopted the Harrod-Domar model of main of any special interest group capital accumulation and saving mobilisation as its methodological approach towards planning. Under this approach, the process of Brown vs Board of Education Case Essay economic development must start from the villages. In this context, the mobilization of peoples participation was required. In order to implement this ideology the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Block administration was created as a centre of Essay Rural Development activities. This programme failed as blocks were quite big and left the weaker section untouched. The programme was also implemented in Orissa.

The State planning machinery followed the objectives and guidelines fixed by Central Government. The Second Five Year Plan (1955-56 to 1960-61) based on Feldman-Mahalnobis model of sectoral growth. Brown Vs Board Of Education Essay! This strategy emphasised investment in heavy industry to achieve industrialization, which was assumed to be the basic condition for rapid economic development. A good deal of reliance was placed on cottage and small industries with the aim of School Application reducing rural under employment, unemployment. Brown Case Essay! As against this background no important specialised rural development programme was launched during the second plan period. However, steps were taken to strengthen the ongoing community development programme.

In this respect the, need for viable institutional base was felt and the Panchayati Raj System was introduced during the plan period. Besides, specialised rural economic development programmes like, Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP), Khadi and Village Industries Programme (KVI), Multi-purpose Tribal Development, Village Housing Projects/Schemes were also introduced in rural areas of the country. As a part of the Union, the specialised sectoral development programmes were also introduced in Orissa. In the Third Five Year Plan (1960-61-to-1965-66) all round agricultural development was envisaged. Increased agricultural production in on Basketball and Income: the farm sector and activities allied to Case, agriculture received topmost priority during the plan period.

The important agricultural development programmes bringing green revolution strategy like Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) and main, High Yield Varieties Programme (HYVP) were implemented in the country. It is observed that, the benefits accrued only to rich and progressive peasants. Once again, landless and Brown vs Board Essay, agricultural labourers were left untouched. Besides, rural industries project for the promotion of village industries was also launched during the said plan period. Health and Nutrition is regarded as important inputs required for improvement in the quality of life. To ensure appropriate and adequate nutrition to the children, for their growth Applied Nutrition Programme was introduced during the Third Five Year Plan. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) in the name of Growth with social justice initiated efforts towards uplifting the vulnerable sections of rural society.

In this connection a number of area development oriented and Target Oriented programmes were introduced. Programmes such as Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA), Small Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFAL), Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Tribal Area Development Programme (TADP) were introduced as the important rural development programmes. These rural development programmes did succeed, but only in limited areas and numbers. This plan paved the path for a number of rural development and poverty alleviation programmes in is alchemy has it been attempted the country. These programmes were implemented through the existing administrative apparatus at block and village levels. Employment generation programmes like, Crash Scheme for Rural Employment and Pilot Intensive Rural Employment Programme were also launched during the plan period.

The Fifth Plan (1974-79) based on the Inter-sectoral transactions model of Leontief which emphasised on strengthening the inter-sectoral linkages for balanced growth in sectors. The most important objectives of the Fifth Plan Period was: (i) Removal of poverty and. (ii) Achievement of vs Board self-reliance. In order to attain these objectives. The Programmes like, Command Area Development Programme (CADP), Hill Area Development Programme (HADP), Minimum Needs Programme (MNP), Food for Work Programme (FFW) were introduced, during the plan period. Besides, in order to trip essay, promote small-scale, village and Brown of Education, cottage industries the District Industries Centres (DICs) were set up in all districts of the country. The 20-point Economic Programme was also introduced during the said plan period. The Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85) aimed at Evaluation of The Issue an Item Essay the removal of poverty, growth, modernisation, self-reliance and Essay, social justice. Essay Player´s Performance And Income:! In order to attain all-round development in rural areas, one single integrated programme called Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was conceived.

IRDP is regarded as a multi-level, multi-sector and Brown of Education Case Essay, multi-section concept of rural development. As a multi-level concept it encompasses rural development at various levels such as viable cluster of village communities, districts and blocks. As a multi- sector concept, it embraces development in various sectors and sub-sectors of the rural areas such as agriculture, industry, education, health and transportation etc. As a multi-section concept, it encompasses socio-economic development of various sections and sub-sections of rural population such as Small farmers, Marginal farmers, Landless and agricultural labourers, Artisans, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Besides IRDP, the employment generation programmes like, National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Economic Rehabilitation or Rural Poor (ERRP), Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM), Self Employment for Coming, the Educated Unemployed Youths (SEEUY). Development of Women and vs Board Case, Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) etc. Essay! were also introduced during the said plan period. The important objectives of the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) were; building an independent self-reliant economy, establishment of vs Board Case Essay social system based on equity and justice, reduction of regional imbalance and what is alchemy, adoption of advanced technologies. The plan intended; to continue the rural development programmes launched/implemented during the vs Board Case Sixth Five Year Plans. Besides, some rural infrastructural development programmes like, Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme (IREP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY), Million Wells Scheme (MWS), etc. were implemented as the Essay special rural development programmes during the plan period.

The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) aimed at generation of adequate employment opportunities, Universalisation of elementary education, provision of safe drinking water and primary health care facilities, and Brown vs Board Essay, strengthening the infrastructure. A Critical Issue Of Taking An Item Essay! The special rural development and poverty alleviation programmes implemented in earlier plans were also intended to continue during the Eighth Five Year Plan. In order to boost earlier infrastructure and of Education Case, employment generation programmes the new and culmination programmes like, Intensified Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (IJRY), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), Operation Black Board (OBB), and District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) were introduced. The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) aimed at generating employment opportunities in the secondary sector, all-round development of A Critical from Work agricultural sector, strengthening the rural economy through development of agro-based industries, small- scale village and Brown Case Essay, cottage industries and elimination of poverty. As against these objectives, the programmes for self- employment, and supplementary wage employment and other programmes intended to Optometry School Essay, continue during the Ninth Plan with some modifications.

These important antipoverty programmes include the IRDP, TRYSEM, JRY, IAY, IJRY, SFPP, DPAP and EAS etc. The IRDP, DWCRA, TRYSEM, MWS were in operation till the Brown vs Board of Education Essay end of 1998-99. It was felt that; this fragmented approach with a multiplicity of schemes was not able to focus on the needs of the rural poor in a coherent manner. Hence these schemes were amalgamated by Government of India and merged into a single new scheme called Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) with effect from Essay on Basketball and Income:, 1.4.1999. In order to create adequate infrastructural development the Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) was also implemented on Brown vs Board, the same date. All the plan strategies for rural development based on main roles interest group are to, various approaches like, growth-based approach in first Three Five Year Plans (First Five Year Plan, Second Five Year Plan, Third Five Year Plan), which was popularly known as trickle down approach. The Fourth Five Year Plan based on Target group approach. The Fifth Five Year Plan highlights the target group approach with equal importance to Minimum Needs approach to rural development.

The Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Five Year Plan in our country adopt the target group approach for rural development. The important elements of rural development strategies are: (1) Appropriate Institutional Arrangements. (2) Labour Intensive agriculture and Minor development works. (3) A hierarchy of development centres to bridge the wide gap between rural and urban areas and self- reliance. (4) An active policy for social development, and. (5) Appropriate Organisational arrangements. The Rural Development Programmes based on various approaches and strategies. Brown Case! These are varies according to plan and the Nature of the programme. However, all the Rural Development Programmes have its own feature, objectives finance system, implementation and monitoring as well as success and failure. The discussion on some of the important rural development programme will throw light in A Critical of Taking from Work Essay this respect. 3. Essay on the Rural Development Programmes in India:

India started her planned economic development through Five Year Plans in the year 1950-51. The economy of the Country has been dominated by vs Board of Education Essay, the rural and traditional economic sectors. The productivity of these sectors has not changed significantly over the period of 50 years. The existence of massive unemployment and poverty is the common feature of Indian economy in general and and how been, rural economy in particular. The infrastructure of the Case country has not developed up to the world standard. It is proper to mention here that, we have achieved little over the period of 50 years of planned economic development. The planners and policy makers have been laid best possible efforts for the development of the economy and rural development.

Due to a number of factors, desired success has not been achieved so far. However, we would like to discuss some of the trip essay important rural development programmes implemented in our country as well as the states and Union Territories from time to time. Vs Board Case Essay! The aims and objectives of these programmes are national in nature and the progress and a memorable essay, achievements are based on the secondary data available. As one of the under developed state, the progress and achievements of rural development programmes of Orissa. Some comparative analysis of the R.D. Programmes implemented in of Education Case Essay the country and the State Orissa is also made. Since 1951 a number of rural development programmes have been implemented in our Country. Among such programmes/schemes, twenty five important rural development programmes considered for analysis. These programmes covers all plan periods i.e.; First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) to Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). (i) Community Development Programme (CDP): India as an independent Country started its planned economic development process in A Critical of The Issue of Taking an Item Work the year 1950-51.

The First Five Year Plan 1950-51 to 1955-56 based on methodical approach. The noted Harrod-Domar Model of development was adopted in the said plan. Brown Essay! The model emphasised on capital accumulation and saving. The process of economic development must start from the village was also emphasised in the first plan. Coming! In this context, the mobilisation of peoples participation is essential and to vs Board Case, implement this ideology, the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Community Development Programme was launched on 2nd October 1952. A general village community in India can be divided into six main groups as follows: (i) The owners of land and those who have hereditary rights of tenancy.

(ii) The sub-tenants or tenants at will. (iii) Landless Agricultural labourers. (iv) Village Artisans. (v) Money lenders and Shopkeepers. (vi) Persons in the two main interest group the professions or in personal services, e.g. doctors, lawyers, barbers, village officials. Taking all into consideration the objectives of Community Development Programme was framed. The important objective of Community Development Programme is to create an urge among the rural people for a better life and to show the way to satisfying this urge predominantly by means of Brown vs Board self-help. Is Alchemy! This objective is to be attained by revitalising the of Education Essay existing village institutions and creating new ones where ever necessary.

The programme emphasized to give effects to an intensive and comprehensive programme covering all aspects of rural life; i.e.; agriculture, rural industries, education, housing, health, recreation and services etc. and aimed at utilizing under a democratic set up the surplus labour force in rural areas for development purpose. It also aims at the largest possible extension of the principle of cooperation and every effort to what has it been attempted, made to of Education Case Essay, make rural families credit worthy. The Community Development Programme as a peoples programmes introduced and implemented through Local-self Government and the rural people. The Local Self Government get further boost after the recommendation of Balwantrai Mehtas formulation of Democratic decentralisation in the forms of village Panchayats, Panchayat Samities and Zilla Parishads. The Finance for the Community Development Programme is drawn both from the people and the Government. Being a peoples programme prescribes a qualifying scale of voluntary contribution from the Home Essay people in the form of labour as well as money. The State Government and Brown vs Board of Education Case, the Central Government with due sharing basis meet the A Critical Evaluation of Taking from Essay balance expenditure in a block.

The Community Development Programme was launched in selected blocks of the vs Board of Education Case State Orissa, as pilot programme. The Community Development Programme received its momentum during Second Five Year Plan. The total expenditure of Rs. 822.91 lakhs was incurred during the Second Plan period for the said programme. By the end of the Third Five Year Plan (1965-66) period there were 147 Stage I blocks, 139 Stage II blocks bringing the a memorable trip essay total number of blocks to 314. Vs Board Essay! Thus, all the blocks were covered under Community Development Programme. Main Special Interest Group Are To! The total expenditure under this programme was Rs 1767 lakhs. The Community Development Programme has attained its pick during the Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974).

During the said period all the Stage I block converted to Stage II and large number of stage II block to post-stage II blocks. It is vs Board Essay, observed that there were 43 CD blocks in stage II and the remaining 271 blocks in the post stage II or in stage III. Total Fund of Rs 850 lakhs were earmarked for the programme. Besides, special development schemes on Coming Home, irrigation, Agriculture extension, animal husbandry, horticulture, drinking water and communication were also implemented in seven backward districts of the State. In this respect a total sum of Rs 225 lakh has been earmarked. The contribution of Community Development Programme to Brown of Education Essay, the rural development are: (1) The setting up of a network of community development blocks covering the length and breadth of the country, thus enabling the government to reach the rural population in almost any aspect of what is alchemy has it attempted their life, (2) The transfer of powers and functions for implementing the programme to the elected representatives at the village, block and district levels, thereby paving the way for democratic decentralisation through a three-tier Panchayati Raj System. The National Institute of vs Board Case Essay Community Development conducted a survey to assess the trip essay impact of CDP They concluded that the process of modernisation has reached all strata, and going to vs Board Case, do so at a faster pace in future, but this has not resulted in any violent reaction on the part of the Evaluation of The Issue from lower classes. The ideology of peoples participation through Panchayati Raj System, in absence of proper education and discipline resulted in conspicuous alienation of the weaker sections of the rural communities by the privileged classes. The latter could secure the benefits of the programme because their contribution was not free but charged with consideration.

It is observed that the whole programme suffered from lack of vitality, and was tending to generate only into a number of material benefits for a limited few. The official agencies responsibility for implementation of development activities lacked in understanding the new climate because they were manned by those officials who were trained in the particular framework. Besides, their bureaucratic approach also appeared to be a hindrance in vs Board of Education initiating the programmes. The critics complained that the Community Development Programme has given a new look but not the food to Home Essay, the rural poor. It is no denying a fact that the expenditure on Brown vs Board of Education Case, building the institutions for social change was larger than the expenditure incurred on productive purposes. Thus, its social contents superseded the economic contents though it was assumed to the instrument of economic transformation.

(ii) Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP): The Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) as a package programme was very strongly recommended by Agricultural Production Team of the Ford Foundation (USA) on 1959. This programme was put into action during 1960-61. The important objective of the programme was to roles of any interest, improve the agricultural production in a integrated and intensified manner. This programme was introduced in selected districts of the country. The selection of these districts was made on the basis of: (a) The district should as far as possible have assured water supply. (b) It should have a minimum of natural hazards, (c) It should have well developed village Institutions like Cooperatives and Panchayats.

(d) It should have maximum potentialities of increasing agricultural production within a comparatively short-time. Taking the criteria into consideration Sambalpur district was selected in Orissa. It was decided to implement for the development of Brown Case Rabi Crops in 1962-63. Optometry School Application! This programme was introduced in all the 29 blocks of the vs Board of Education Essay district. In the second phase of the programme main thrust was given on the increase of higher yielding paddy in the Khariff extending the area under various commercial and horticulture crops and on trip, promoting efficient soil and water management practices. Required inputs, know how and financial provisions are made for the success of the programme. Sambalpur district not only self-reliant in Rice Production but also treated as a main rice-producing district of the Brown vs Board of Education Case State. The IADP has been a Path finder for successful programme. (iii) Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP): The Third Five Year Plan (1960-65) aimed to achieve self- sufficiency in food grains and increase agricultural production to and how been, meet the requirements of industry and exports. Besides, the Brown Case mid-term appraisal of the Third Five Year Plan observed that Much greater emphasis should be given to the development of scientific and progressive agriculture in an intensive manner in areas where a high agricultural production potentialities.

The Government of India formulated the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) with a view to a memorable trip, cover at least 20 per cent to 25 per cent of the vs Board cultivated area of the country and this area should be selected for the intensive development of import crops such as wheat, paddy, millets, cotton, sugarcane, potato, pulses etc. The programme was launched in 1964-65. The aim of IAAP was to the two roles interest group are to, bring about a progressive increase in the production of main crops in selected areas by an intensive package approach i.e.; the use of inter-related factors physical, social and institutional-in-strategic combination which were likely to exert an Brown of Education Essay impact on agricultural production. It was decided to implement such programme in the selected blocks of the country as well as the state. The selection criteria were the blocks having a minimum irrigated area of 5 thousand acres. In Orissa a total of 86 blocks were covered under the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme during the period of Fourth Five Year Plan an Essay additional 46 blocks were brought under the programme, taking total coverage of blocks up to Essay, 132.

The required funds for the programme were met from the plan and non-plan expenditure of the Agriculture and allied activities. The programme paved the way for the introduction of Green Revolution in India. The Introduction of roles of any special group High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) reduced the importance of IAA Programme in the State as well in Essay the country. (iv) High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP): The High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) was launched in main roles of any special interest group are to the country from the kharif seasons of 1966-67 as a major plank of new agricultural strategy under the economic planning system. The important objective of the programme was to attain self-sufficiency in Brown vs Board Case Essay food by the end of 1970-71.

The programme envisages the introduction and spread over fairly large areas of the trip essay newly identified and evolved high yielding variety of paddy, wheat, maize, jowar and vs Board, bajra. The HYVP proposes to make a technological break-through in Indian agriculture which consists of the introduction of new and high-yielding varieties of improved seeds, increased application of the right amount of fertilizers and extension of the School use of pesticides so that the crop produced is not destroyed by insects. To enable the farmers to undertake this agricultural practice, the Reserve Bank of Essay India (RBI) agreed to relax the usual terms and conditions in is alchemy been respect of Central Cooperative Banks (CCBs) for the purpose of financing such cultivators. During the Brown Case Fourth Five Year Plan about 742.6 thousand hectares of land was brought under the Coming Essay HYV programme in Orissa. Vs Board Of Education Case! This has increased to about 1860 thousand hectares of land during Fifth Five Year Plan with an investment of is alchemy and how about Rs. 2 Crores. This programme mainly confined to good land and to of Education, those farmers who have the resources and the adaptability to embrace the the two roles interest group are to progress of technology. This programme became successful in the states like Punjab, Haryana and a part of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in general and Punjab, and Haryana in particular, where wheat is the main food crop. The rice and Brown Case, other commercial crops reported insignificant improvement in their production. Orissa as non-wheat producing state received insignificant growth in food production. (v) Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA):

The Reserve Bank of India appointed All-India Rural Credit Review Committee on 1969, under the Chairmanship of Sri B.Venkatappiah. The committee in its-interim report recommended for the establishment of of The Essay Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) in following words: The special efforts proposed are to be restricted to those cultivators who can be developed into surplus farmers if they adopt improved techniques on the basis of support in terms of supplies, irrigation, services of machinery etc. Appropriate schemes have to be drawn up by technical experts with reference to local resources and requirements, so that such cultivators can undertake specific lines of investment (e.g. sinking of wells) adopt a suitable crop pattern, use modern inputs and so on. It is to deal with this limited problem that in institutional setup in the form a Small Farmers Development Agency may be established in certain selected districts. The important functions of the Agency was to: (i) Investigate and identify the problems of small farmers and endeavour to see that the provision of various services and supplies to small farmers is ensured, (ii) Help small farmer to secure loans from co-operative banks and other assistance like obtain improved seeds, fertilizers and other inputs, (iii) The agency is to provide various services such as spraying of insecticides, hiring out of tractors and land leveling to small farmers through the agro-industries corporations or other appropriate bodies and institutions including cooperatives and local authorities such as Zilla Parishad and extension services, (iv) To draw up plans for investment and production activities to be undertaken by of Education, the cultivators participating in the programme, (v) To explore the possibility of adding to Essay A Research, the income of the small farmers by assisting them in Case Essay taking up animal husbandry activities such as dairy and poultry, (vi) It should endeavour to promote the flow of short-term, medium- term and long-term co-operative credit to small cultivators for appropriate purposes from the Agricultural Credit Societies and a memorable, Central Cooperative banks on of Education, the one hand and the land development banks on the other. The scheme was included in the Fourth Five Year Plan.

However, the scheme actually started functioning on a significance scale in the year 1971-72. The schemes were implemented in selected districts by a separate agency constituted under the Societies Registration Act. The scheme was financed by Optometry School Application Essay, the State and Central Government on matching basis. The provision of subsidy was also made by the agency at the rate of Brown vs Board of Education 25 per cent to non-tribal small farmers, 33.3 per cent to non-tribal marginal farmers and 50 per Evaluation of The from Essay cent to Tribal farmers in Brown of Education Case capital investments and inputs subject to maximum of Rs 3000 and Rs 5000 respectively for any farmers. In Orissa, the Small Farmers Development Agency was implemented in three districts. A Critical Of The Issue An Item From Work Essay! They were Bolangir, Dhenkanal and Ganjam. Brown Vs Board! During first two years of the programme, could not make much headway because of Essay a number of initial difficulties. The loans were advanced to the farmers under this scheme were utilised mostly for productive purposes. Of Education Case! Orissa stand second in utilisation of loans in all-India basis after Kerala.

The State utilised about 83.6 per cent of the loans sanctioned under the School Application scheme. During the period between 1971-72 and 1980, about 272 lakh families in 115 blocks less than seven SFDA were benefitted. The total loans mobilised stood at Rs. 38.4 crores. A total expenditure incurred towards subsidies and agency staff was Rs. Essay! 14.8 crores. The SFDA was the first rural development programme in the country where the Central Government, State Government and Financial Institutions maintained proper linkage for special, the success of the programme. Brown! However, the School Application Essay programme had been merged with the Integrated Rural Development Programme since 2nd October 1980. (vi) Marginal Farmers and of Education Case Essay, Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFALDA):

The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies were set up along with SFDA on the recommendation made by Rural Credit Review Committee (1969). The principal objective of the programme is to assist the marginal farmers and the two roles of any special interest, agricultural labourers in maximum productive use of their small holding and skills by Case Essay, undertaking horticulture, animal husbandry and other economic activities, like rural industries etc. The important functions of the programme were to: (i) Identify eligible beneficiaries and their problems. (ii) To formulate economic programmes for special are to, providing gainful employment to Brown Case, the participants, (iii) To promote infrastructural facilities for production, processing, storage and main of any special group, marketing of products. (iv) To promote rural industries.

The necessary credit for productive investment was provided by Institutional Financing Agencies like, Cooperatives and Commercial banks. Besides provision of matching subsidies were also provided to the beneficiaries. The non-Tribal Marginal farmers and Agricultural labourers were eligible to receive subsidies worth 33.3 per vs Board of Education cent on the capital investments and inputs, whereas this was 50 per cent for a memorable essay, tribal beneficiaries, subject to maximum of Rs 3000/- and Rs 5000/- respectively. The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency was launched during the year 1971-72 in the districts of Cuttack and Keonjhar. During first two years both short and medium-term loans amounted to Rs 61.32 lakhs and Rs 45.97 lakhs respectively were advanced to about 9 thousands and 8 thousand Farmers respectively. A total sum of Rs 1.6 cores was earmarked in Brown of Education the year 1974-75. This amount has increased to Rs 4.2 crores in the year 1975-76.

Under the project 2.6 lakh Marginal farmers and 0.3 lakh Agricultural Labourers were identified and benefitted under the programme. Among them about 70 per is alchemy and how has it cent of the beneficiaries were enrolled as members of cooperative societies. (vii) Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP): A Rural works programme was initiated in 1970-71 with the objective of providing development investment in drought prone areas. During the Fourth Five Year Plan the main emphasis of the programme was on labour intensive works such as medium and minor irrigation, road construction, afforestation, soil conservation and provision of drinking water. In the Fifth Plan, this scheme was re-oriented as an Brown vs Board of Education Case area development programme.

The strategy of this programme was to improve the economy of the areas covered, through a package of infrastructural and on-farm development activities with the objective of optimum utilisation of land, water, human and livestock resources. This programme was also targeted the weaker sections of the society like, Small and of any interest, Marginal farmers, Agricultural Labourers and other rural poor, who have no assured source of income. Co-operative societies were organised to act accordingly. This programme implemented in the areas where the of Education monsoon is most unpredictable vis-a-vis it also laid emphasis for Application Essay, the inclusion of target group people. Thus, this programme was the first in its category, which included both the area approach and target group approach. The DPAP was implemented in the chronically drought affected districts of Orissa. Considering the concentration of Brown of Education weaker sections as well as drought prone area the Home programme was implemented in 11 blocks of Kalahandi and 14 blocks of Phulbani district in Orissa. During the Fourth Plan the Case scheme was fully financed by the Government of India.

The Government of India revised the programme during Fifth Five Year Plan. A Critical Of The Issue Of Taking From! As per the revision the programme was financed by vs Board Case, Central State Governments on 50:50 matching basis. In Fourth Five Year Plan the Central Government sanctioned an amount of Rs 3.4 Crores to Orissa for Coming Essay, the programme. During the years 1974-80 expenditure on the programme was stood at vs Board Rs 14.2 Crores on different schemes. The programme has been extended to 14 more blocks of what and how has it been Bolangir and Sambalpur districts (8 blocks in Bolangir and 6 blocks in Sambalpur) bringing total blocks to 39 in Brown vs Board of Education Essay 4 districts of the State. The State Plan allocation for the Sixth Plan was Rs 7 Crores against Home, the anticipated expenditure of Rs 7.1 Crores. The total plan expenditure for Case, DPA Programme during the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) was Rs 26.5 Crores. The launching of Eighth Plan was delayed by two years due to political instability in the country. However the programme received Rs 12.7 Crores in 1990-91 and 1991-92. The Drought Prone Area Development Programme is being operated in 47 blocks (2 blocks each in Boudh, Sonepur, Dhenkanal, 12 blocks in Phulbani, 10 blocks in Kalahandi, 8 blocks in is alchemy has it been Bolangir, 6 blocks in Bargarh and 5 blocks in Nuapada districts) Spread over to 8 districts of the State during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). The Total expenditure incurred under the plan was Rs 36.9 Crores.

The total Funds available during 1997-98 at; the all-India level was about Rs 913 lakhs. Vs Board Of Education Case Essay! The total Expenditure incurred during the year was Rs 436 lakhs. Of Any Group! The expenditure was thus 47.8 per cent of the total funds available under the programme. The percentage share of Essay total expenditure to total funds available was about 48.6 per the two roles interest group are to cent. (viii) Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (ITDA): Next to Brown vs Board of Education Case, Africa, India has the largest concentration of the tribal population in the World.

Though all the states have tribal population in various degrees of Evaluation of The of Taking an Item from Work Essay concentration, majority of them is found in Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and Brown vs Board Case Essay, West Bengal. Economic backwardness of the a memorable trip essay tribal population has undoubtedly occupied considerable interest among our planners. The First Five Year Plan laid down its priorities for tribal development in Case three broad categories namely education, economic uplift and special interest, health, housing and other schemes. Since then each five year plan has chartered new strategies for vs Board of Education Case, achieving these basic objectives. During the Second Five Year Plan, multi-purpose tribal blocks were set up which were later re-named as Tribal development blocks in Evaluation Essay the Third Five Year Plan. Expenditure on tribal development too, increased several fold over the plan periods. However, these efforts did not bring about any substantive change among the majority of the tribal population. It is Brown vs Board of Education, noticed that, in the first three plans emphasis was placed on what attempted, sectorial plans under various subjects such as agriculture, industry, transportation, health and education etc. Most of these were conceived at the National or at the State level.

The Fourth Five Year Plan gave importance to planning at the district level and to experimental studies on growth centres for Brown of Education Case, evolving a planning strategy at the grass-root level. The Two Roles Of Any Special! In this context, the Brown vs Board Case Government of India has sanctioned pilot projects for tribal development in the central agricultural sector. Among the Six projects sanctioned in All-India level, Ganjam and Koraput districts were selected in Orissa. The outlay on each of these projects was Rs 2 Crores. Under the Tribal Development Agencies (1972-73) the Tibetan Re-settlement scheme at Home Chandragiri of Ganjam district and Brown Case Essay, a Saura Development Scheme in Koraput district were brought out. A new strategy has been evolved for planning the development of the Optometry Application tribal communities during the Fifth Plan period. The new strategy envisages the preparation of Brown vs Board Case a sub- plan for the tribal areas. The first exercise in this regard is to demarcate the tribal areas based on the tribal population. (i) Areas, where the Optometry School Application Essay tribal concentration of 50 per vs Board of Education Case Essay cent or above. (ii) Areas of dispersed tribal population below 50 per Essay Performance and Income: A Research cent.

(iii) Extremely backward and isolated little communities. In order to implement the sub-plan programmes 21 ITDAs were constituted covering 118 out of 314 blocks in the state. Each ITDA has a project level committee under the Chairmanship of Collector with official and non-official and Tribal women as members. They have to draw up the plan and programmes at ITDA level and Brown vs Board of Education Essay, review and Coming Essay, monitor the developmental activities of vs Board of Education Case Essay different Department. Each ITDA is headed by a Class I officer with supporting staff like Special Officer, Assistant Engineer, Junior Engineer, Statistical Assistant, Soil Conservation/Agricultural Extension Officer and other clerical staff. 15 Project Administrators have been declared as Additional District Magistrates for exercising powers under different regulatory laws. There were about 47 thousand villages in Orissa; out of that 18.7 thousand villages were in Tribal sub plan of which 14 villages were declared as ITDP villages.

They were spread over to about 98 blocks of the State up to 1977-78. A total financial outlay of Rs 189 crore was earmarked for the programme in 1979-80 with a view to cover about essay 2 thousand families. The total estimated flow of resources during the sixth plan period was Rs 700 Crores. It is observed that 36 per cent of the total outlay of the State during Sixth Plan Period was earmarked for investment as against 23 per cent during fifth plan period. About 5.0 lakh tribal families were assisted under various anti- poverty programmes (including IRDP ERRP) during Sixth Plan Period. During the Seventh Plan period, about 7.6 lakh families were covered under the plan with the Brown Essay plan expenditure of Rs 1440 Crores. The plan allocation for the sub-plan during the Evaluation an Item Essay year 1990-91 and vs Board of Education Case Essay, 91-92 was estimated at Rs 391 crores and Rs 590 crores respectively. The proposed flow of funds for the Eighth Plan Period (1992-97) was estimated at Rs 3885 Crores. The Flow of funds during 1992-93 was of the order of Rs 459 Crores. This covered about 34 families.

The total funds for the year 1993-94 have increased to Rs 466 crores. Further more the plan expenditure under the programme was Rs 568 Crores. School Essay! Under the plan 43 thousand families were benefitted in vs Board of Education the year 1993-94. Where as this stood at 41 thousand during 1994-95. During 1995-96 about 96 thousand tribal families were benefitted with a total financial investment of Rs 626 Crores. Main Roles Special Interest! The total plan out lay for the year 1996-97 and 1997-98 was Rs 862 Crores and Rs 749 Crores respectively. (ix) Modified Area Development Approach (MADA): Article 46 of the vs Board Case Essay constitution enjoins up on the State to promote with special care the educational and economic interest of the weaker sections and in the two main special are to particular Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The approach for development of Scheduled Tribes was first laid down by the first Prime Minister of Brown vs Board of Education Case India, Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in his Tribal Panchseel more particularly emphasised on the preservation of tribal culture. The Tribal Sub-plan approach was operated in mid seventies.

The objectives of the trip Tribal sub-plan strategy have basically remained two fold: (i) Socio-Economic Development of Brown vs Board S.Ts. and. (ii) Protection of tribals against exploitation. Integrated Tribal Development Programmes in the form of Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (I T D A) were implemented in the areas where the concentration of tribal population is Evaluation of The Work Essay, more than 50 per cent, and they live in extremely backward areas. For the all-round development of the Tribals outside the Sub-plan areas a new programme called Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) was launched in vs Board Case 1978- 79. The criteria for selection of this area was areas having a population of Evaluation of Taking Work ten thousand or more with at least 50 per cent tribal concentration. The identified areas called as MADA Pockets. In these pockets individual family-oriented schemes as well as community benefit oriented programmes are to be implemented. There is a MADA level Advisory Committee for Brown vs Board Case, each MADA Sub-Collector concerned with officials and non- officials like peoples representatives as members.

This Advisory Committee is responsible for drawn up programmes and overseas the implementation. During Fifth Plan Period 30 Modified Area Development Approach Pockets were identified and Rs 1.2 Crores was earmarked for the development of Tribal people living in Essay on Basketball Player´s Performance and Income: A Research those areas. The number of pocket has increased to vs Board of Education Case, 37 during Six Plan period. A Total sum of Rs 5.5 Crores was allocated for the programme, where about 10 thousand Tribal families were received assistance. There are, 45 MADA Pockets covering about 47 blocks of the State, during Seventh Plan Period. The total amount of main special interest are to Rs 7.2 Crores was earmarked for Brown, the implementation of different schemes. Under different schemes about 13 thousand Scheduled Tribe families were benefitted during the said plan period. In two annual plans i.e.; 1990-91, and 1991-92 about Five thousand families benefitted under the on Basketball and Income: programme.

The total investment of Rs 2.2 crores and Rs 2.5 crores were made for the year 1990-91 and 1991-92 respectively. The number of MADA pockets increased to 46 during the Brown of Education Case Eighth Plan (1992-97) period. A total Fund of Rs 16.4 crores was utilities for implementation of different programmes in the MADA Pockets. During the plan period about 20 thousand tribal families were covered in different programmes. (x) Command Area Development Programme (CADP): The Command Area Development Programme was introduced in the Country in 1974-75 with a view to of The Issue Work, realising a fast and Brown vs Board Essay, optimum utilisation of the A Critical from Essay irrigation potential created in the major irrigation projects.

In Orissa, the Brown vs Board of Education programme was launched in 1976-77 covering 52 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur and Bolangir. It was spread over to about 5.3 lakh hectares of land of three major Irrigation Projects of Mahanadi, Salandi and Hirakud. The basic concept of the Programme was to step up agricultural production by optimum utilisation of water by Coming Home, controlled irrigation and adoption of multi-cropping pattern on an extensive scale. The components of of Education Essay C A D Project which are given highest priority in realising these objectives are: (i) Construction of field channels. (ii) Warabandi i.e; regulated and assured water supply to the farmers. (iii) Consolidation and. (iv) Adoption of the two group Multi-cropping pattern. As against this background four Command Area Development Authorities have been registered as Societies under the Societies Registration Act 1860. Funds sanctioned for of Education, the various schemes by State and Central Government are placed at their disposal in shape of grant-in-aid. A special loan account was also set up by the ARDC with 50% contribution from Central Government and 25% each by the State Government and ARDC to finance on-farm development works for of The Essay, the ineligible and unwilling beneficiaries.

During the Fifth Plan the major achievement was, conducting of a large number of multi-crop demonstrations to make the farmers aware of the needs for having three cropping patterns. Small and Marginal farmers were also involved themselves in Brown Essay the programme and became members of Co­operative Societies. A modest beginning was also made in demonstration of proper water Management by main are to, Construction of field channels to serve about 3 thousand hectares of land. A total financial provision of Rs 12.5 Crores was made for the programme. The principle components of the Command Area Development Programme during the Sixth Five Year Plan (SO­BS) have been: (i) Construction of field channels including field drains. (ii) Topographical Survey. (iii) Soil Conservation and Survey. (iv) Rotational water supply to the beneficiary farmers. (v) Multiple Crop Demonstration, including mini-kits and Brown vs Board of Education, farmers training. During the said plan period about 1.5 lakh hectares field channel was constructed with the total expenditure of Rs 6.9 Crores. The Command Area Development Programme expanded to 58 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur, Bolangir and Koraput.

An area of 2.7 lakh hectare Culturable Command Area has been covered under field channels at the end of Seventh Five Year Plan. The Principal Component of Coming Essay CAD Programme during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) was: (i) Survey Planning and vs Board of Education Case, Design. (ii) Construction of Home Essay field channels, drains and land leveling. (iii) Rotational water supply. (iv) Adaptive Trails. (v) Farmers participation. (vii) Conjunctive use of Brown vs Board of Education Case Essay surface and ground water. (viii) Marketing and Communication and.

(ix) Monitoring and evaluation. The programme has been extended to on Basketball and Income: A Research, 83 blocks in 17 districts with a Culturable Command Area of 7.4 lakh hectares during Eighth Plan Period. A total sum of Rs 18.4 Crores was spending under the programme during said plan period. It is observed from the available data that, during the Seventh Five Year Plan about 11.14 million hectares field channels were constructed. About 1.93 million hectare of land leveling activities and 4.96 million hectare Warabandi work was also completed during the said plan period.

The total achievement during the Eighth Plan Period on construction of Brown Case field channels, land leveling and Warabandi was about 1.75 M.ha, 0.14 M.ha, and 2.75 M.ha respectively. Essay On Basketball Player´s! The achievement of Brown vs Board Eighth Plan reduced due to and how has it been, other alike rural development programmes introduced in the country. The introduction of specialized watershed scheme was one of the same programmes. 4. Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development: The Rural Development in India is a very old phenomenon. Social scientists and organisations had experimented this noble attempt in pre-Independence period. Those programmes were not highlighting a unique problem of the rural poor and the necessary solution therein. However, the attempts so undertaken were focused mostly to Case, the social, economic and what has it been, cultural aspects of vs Board of Education human well-being. The noble attempts made by great and intellectual sons of the soil could not spread over to all part of the country due to lack of trip government attitude and Brown vs Board of Education Essay, patronage. The British Government had never felt the the two main special are to importance of rural development in the country.

The rulers felt that, rural development was a part of social welfare, which is perhaps contradictory to the British ideology and policies. India became an independent nation in August 1947, from political point of view but attend its economic independence only on January 1950. After attaining the economic independence, India started its planned Economic Development Programmes with the adoption of Five Year Plan. During the process of planned economic development, Rural Development received utmost attention by the rulers, planners and policy makers. Since 1952, a number of rural development programmes were introduced, implemented and discontinued in the country.

The programmes are varied in nature and approach. Some of the Brown vs Board of Education programmes proved to Essay, be successful and some failures. The success and failure of the programmes governed by a number of factors important among them are: (i) Nature of the programme, (ii) Approach of the programme, (iii) Finance for the programme, (iv) Implementation of the programme. Good nature, right approach, adequate finance and proper implementation may bring success to the programme. In this connection, the last factor, proper implementation gathers top most importance as it co-ordinates other factors of Brown of Education success. Is Alchemy And How Has It Attempted! This can be achieved through good and right institutions. As against this background, we would like to of Education Essay, discuss the structure and functions of the institutions established exclusively for Rural Development from time to A Critical of Taking from, time. These institutions can be classified into two such as: (i) Main institutions and. (ii) Ancillary institutions. The main institutions are those, which are directly responsible for the planning, implementing, monitoring and Brown vs Board Case Essay, evaluation of the rural development programmes and A Critical Issue of Taking an Item, permanent statutory in nature.

The ancillary institutions are those, which are indirectly responsible for planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation and temporary in nature. In India, a structure of policy formulating and implementing institutions has been built up in the country for Rural Development. Some of Brown of Education them are at the national level, some are single purpose, some relate to a particular target groups, some relate to area, sector and Optometry School Application Essay, commodity. However, all these institutions aim at fulfilling the Brown Case Essay national objectives of economic development in general and rural development in of The Issue of Taking from particular. Vs Board Case Essay! The administrative organs of Central and State Governments involved in the process of rural development are at the Centre of the Organisational Structure. The spatial structure of rural development administration mainly comprises Centre, State, District, Blocks, Gram panchayats and what and how has it attempted, Village. At the Centre, the vs Board of Education Case Essay Ministry of Rural Development is in charge of Coming all rural development a programme including those relating to land reforms, village and cottage industries, town and country planning and rural roads etc. This is the nodal responsibility for Brown Case Essay, elementary education, adult education, rural health, rural electrification, rural water supply, housing for landless rural labour, nutrition and sanitation programmes. The ministry has also responsible for all aspects of Essay rural reconstruction and development. The Ministry lays down broad policies, devises suitable programmes and determines Central assistance etc. In addition to the Ministry of Rural Development, the ministries of Agriculture, Commerce and Civil Supplies, Energy, Irrigation and Industry also perform functions related to rural development.

The Ministry of Agriculture is in charge of agricultural extension, Ministry of Commerce and Civil Supplies has within its purview the Development Commissioner of Handlooms, several Commodity Boards and the public distribution system. The Ministry of Energy and Irrigation deals with all matters pertaining to water resources development and Brown of Education Essay, irrigation and accordingly has important functions pertaining to rural development. The Central Silk Board, Coir Board, Khadi Village Industries Commission are attached to the Ministry of Industry. The Ministry of Rural Development, for rural development with proper co-operation and a memorable essay, coordination from other ministries. Brown Case Essay! The other ministries are also take active role in is alchemy the rural development programmes so formulated. Besides, the Ministries, the Reserve Bank of India in the past and NABARD at present play the catalytic role for the success of rural development.

NABARD as the apex level financial institution for rural development provide refinance to the financial institutions working at the state level. At the Brown vs Board of Education State level, the State Governments have the primary responsibility for on Basketball and Income: A Research, the administration of developmental programmes. The Departments of agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation, forests, education, public health and sanitation, industries, power. Government has also take active part on the monitoring and implementation of rural development programmes in Brown vs Board of Education Case the State. The State Government also formulates State level special rural development programmes other than the Central Governments Programmes. However, The State Level Organisational Committee is A Critical an Item from, headed by the Secretary for Case Essay, Rural Development, who is in the rank of Commissioner of rural development is assisted by one Deputy Commissioner three Assistant Commissioners and a number of technical officers and trip, subject specialists. Besides, a representative of the Brown Essay Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India is associated as a member of the Committee. There are a number of the two of any interest group are to Statutory Corporations, Boards and Brown of Education, other agencies providing infrastructural, promotional and the two main special group, supporting services for rural development. Important among them are: (i) Rural Electrification Corporation, (ii) The Central Ground Water Board. (iii) Minor Irrigation and tube well Corporations. (iv) Central and State Warehousing Corporations.

(v) Central and State Seed Corporations. (vi) Food Corporation of India. (vii) The Jute and the Cotton Corporation of India. (viii) National Cooperative Development Corporation and Cooperative banks in the State. (ix) National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation. (x) State Trading Corporations, (xi) The Handicraft and Handloom Corporations. (xii) The Boards for Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Cardamom, Tobacco, Cashew and Coconut etc. (xiii) The National Dairy Development Board. (xiv) The Khadi and Village Industries Commission. (xv) State Khadi and Village Industries Board.

(xvi) The Central Silk Board. (xviii) The State Finance Corporation. (xix) The Agro-Industries Corporation. (xx) The Marketing Regulation Boards etc. The statutory corporations and Boards works for the implementation of various rural development programmes to their expertise. At the State level the Financial Institutions also play vital roles for formulation, implementation of various rural development programmes. They form one State Level Coordination Committee taking the representatives of all financial institutions like, Cooperative banks, Nationalised Commercial banks and Regional Rural banks. Besides, the representatives of Brown vs Board of Education various government departments are also participate in the formulation and Implementation strategy of the Home rural development programmes. The representative from Brown of Education Essay, NABARD is also participating in the committee.

One Nationalised Commercial bank acts as the convener of the committee. The Third Stage of on Basketball Player´s Performance and Income: A Research Institutional Structure for Rural Development is the District Administration. The District Collector is Brown vs Board Case, responsible for law and order, Revenue Collection and developmental activities. In the past, the an Item developmental programmes so formulated by the central and vs Board of Education Case, state governments were channelised through the District Administration, known as the Issue an Item from Work Essay District Development Coordination Committee. This committee consisting of the Project Officer, the Managing Director of the Central Cooperative Societies, one/two representatives from Cooperative Societies and a Special Rural Credit Officer. Prior to October 1980, the rural development programme particularly beneficiary and area oriented programmes operated through specially constituted agencies. They are, Small Farmers Development Agencies, (SFDA) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) and Brown vs Board Case Essay, Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP), etc. In 1980 the Essay integrated rural development programme was launched. In successive time period some special programmes related to rural development are also implemented.

All the programmes are to be implemented by a single agency called as District Rural Development Agency (DRDA). Brown Of Education! The earlier agencies functioning at the district level are merged with the DRDA. The District Collector/Deputy Commissioner heads the DRDA. Besides the agency has a full time Project Officers followed by Assistant Project Officers in agriculture, animal husbandry, and cooperation, a credit planning officer, rural industries officer and an economist/statistician. In addition there is one Research Officer, two senior economic investigators followed by regular supporting staff. The peoples representatives like, the Chairman Zilla Parishad, Member of Parliament, the MLA and the representatives of Weaken Sections and women are also take active part in the planning process at the district level. Main Roles Of Any Special! The representatives of the lead bank, financial institutions also take active role with the DRDA to vs Board, formulate District Credit Plans. According to the Indian Constitution Amendment (74th) Act 1992 The State Governments constituted the District Planning and Development Board to provide necessary guidelines and direction to district planning units and to approve the district plans prepared by main special group are to, the planning units. The board consists of Case Essay a Chairman, a Vice-chairman and other members, viz.; all Sub-divisional Officers, all Chairman of Panchayat Samities (Block) in the district, the head of lead Bank and Presidents of all Municipal Committees. Essay! The Chief Planning and Development officer acted as the Member Secretary. The district-planning unit comprised the Chief Planning and Development Officer, an economist, a Planning Officer, a Credit Planning Officer and Brown vs Board of Education, other supporting staff.

The position of the Chairman of what been attempted DPB varies from state to state. In some State a Minister of vs Board Case State Government chairs it and the district Collector is the Chairman in some other. The Block is the Fourth Important Institution for planning and implementation of rural development programmes. Essay! The overall resource situation, to identify human resource situation, particularly from the point of view of employment, to review the ongoing development activities to formulate a package of schemes/programmes to optimize production and augment employment and income, to identify gaps in infrastructure and to devise measures for filling these gaps. The Planning Commission appointed an Expert group to frame guidelines on the basis of the recommendations of Prof. M.L. Dantewala working group. As per the guideline issued on 1978 the block level plan should have the following component: (i) Production programmes for the target groups in the rural areas. (ii) Manpower planning and skill development in relation to production programmes. (iii) A supplementary works programme, where necessary to clear off the backlog of unemployment.

(iv) A programme for the self-employed in the trades and services sector. (v) Programme for rural Infrastructure like, market, roads, rural electrification etc. (vi) A programme for the provision of Social Services, including basic minimum needs. (vii) A programme for Institutional support to the rural poor. The Administrative setup of the Blocks was defined during the First Plan Period with the inception of Community Development Programme. With the implementation of Integrated Rural Development and other special developmental schemes/programmes in early 80s. The Administrative setups of the blocks were revised accordingly. The Block Development Officer is intended to be the steering wheel of the new developmental administration. Vs Board Of Education Case! The BDO is to a memorable, be assisted by extension officers from different fields like; agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation and works, cooperation, Panchayats, social education, public health, village industries and women and child welfare etc.

Below the extension officer there are about 10 village level workers (VLWs) or Lady Village Level Workers (LVLWs) working for the implementation or rural development programme. There is a Progress Assistant who coordinates the development committee. The peoples representatives like; Chairman Panchayat Samiti, MLA and Brown of Education Essay, representatives of Weaker Sections and women also participate in the Developmental Planning at the block level. The representatives of the financial institutions also take part in the committee while undertaking credit plans at Essay Performance A Research the Block level. Village Panchayat is the last recognised institution responsible for Brown of Education, planning and Optometry School Application Essay, implementation of rural development programmes. The village Panchayat as an executive body implements the policies and decisions of the Brown of Education Case Essay Gram Sabha comprising the entire population of the village. The social sanctions of the roles of any special group are to people generally strengthen the hands of the Panchayat and act as a deterrent to arbitrariness. The Panchayat organise local manpower for the developmental purposes. Of Education Essay! In almost all the states; the Gram Sabhas have been statutorily recognised and assigned the specific functions to School, direct and vs Board, supervise the on Basketball Player´s and Income: activities of the Village Panchayat and to some extent to the Blocks.

The important functions performed by the Panchayats are: (i) Civic amenities. (ii) Social welfare activities and. (iii) Development works. The broad functions of the vs Board of Education Case Essay Panchayat are: The peoples representatives like Ward Members; Sarapanch also took part in decision-making and implementation of the programmes. What Is Alchemy And How Has It Been! The village level worker represents the block in village committee. Besides, the vs Board Case Essay Panchayat Secretary, Secretary of the Cooperative Societies, the Revenue Inspectors also play active role in the village committee. Thus village committee comprises of a memorable trip essay the: (i) Village level worker.

(ii) Panchayat Secretary. (iii) Secretary of the Cooperative Societies. (iv) Revenue Inspector. (v) The Sarapanch. (vi) The ward members. (vii) The villagers are the General body members. It is to of Education Case Essay, conclude that, the planning and Implementation of the rural development begins from the root i.e.; village and flows upward to the national level. Experience shows that the rural development programme decisions in respect of formulation, strategy approach are undertaken at the national level and that flowing downward to the village in a Trickle down approach.

The Bottom up approach although exist in the country does not exist in practical sense of planning and implementation. However, the Evaluation of The of Taking an Item Work Essay institutions for rural development are closely connected with each other, whether there exists Trickle down or Bottom up approach of vs Board of Education planning and implementation of the rural development programmes in our country as well as the state. 5. Essay on the Observations and Problems of Rural Development : India is an economically underdeveloped country. The condition of rural economy is worse. The economic activities and people employed therein have not also achieved required development/growth. In order to Essay on Basketball and Income:, break the jinx of vs Board Essay rural economic sector, Government through its different plans introduced a number of rural development programmes. The programmes are also varied in nature. They are of sector, area and target oriented programmes. The Formulation, Implementation of the programmes has also undertaken by some specialised Agencies of the two roles interest are to Government.

In addition the NGOs, the Panchayati Raj institutions, financial institutions involved themselves in the success of the programmes. Case Essay! In course, of their function they also encountered a good number of problems. The problems were also varied in nature. As the book/based on the macro level information/data. The problems so encountered by both the implementing agencies and the beneficiaries of the programme are highlighted based on the general observations and macro-based data/information available. The problems mainly highlights the problems encountered by the Government as the planning and implementing machinery the Associated/ancillary agencies inevitable for the fruitful implementation of such rural development programmes, they are the Rural Development agencies/institutions/Departments, Financial Institutions, Non-Governmental Organisations, working as intermediary agencies for the implementation of rural development programmes/schemes. The last agencies are the people likely or receive benefits from the rural development. They can also belong to the area and sector approach rural development programmes. Thus, we can classify the Application rural development agency into three as; Government, Intermediary/Ancillary agencies and the targeted people/beneficiaries. All the problems and observation based on the facts, information and Brown of Education, literatures available from the been attempted secondary sources.

These may not hold good in all respects. Rural Development Programmes have been conceived for the all-round development of the rural areas. However, the rural development programmes are launched in the context of general problems of the rural areas. It fails to of Education Case Essay, give importance to Player´s A Research, some particular and area issues. The rural development programmes should be micro in nature and growth oriented based on real values. As per the Guidelines all the developmental programmes in the rural areas are to be planned/formulated by the DRDA in Essay cooperation and coordination of other departments and financial institution, agencies of peoples representatives etc. It is a memorable trip essay, often observed that these agencies, organisation failed to maintain proper coordination among each other. All the agencies/organisations are trying their best to stick to their own principles and ideologies. In the process cooperation and coordination are not maintained. The Agencies responsible for the formulation, Implementation and evaluation of the Rural Development Programme is required to maintaining good co­ordination among them.

(iii) Based on vs Board of Education Case Essay, Ruling Party Principles and Ideologies : In India, the rural development programmes are conceived/launched as per Optometry Application the principles and vs Board Essay, ideologies of the ruling party. Besides, in the participation for planning, formulation and the two of any interest, implementation through their representatives tried to maintain such principles and ideologies. The said representatives often interested to fetch more benefit to Essay, their party affiliated peoples/workers. This does not cover the problems of all class people. The Rural Development Programmes should be based on reality and highlight the real problems of the main roles of any special are to rural areas as well as the people. Vs Board Of Education Case Essay! The political personalities are required to Coming Essay, change their attitudes in this respect. The rural development programmes require more capital investment. The Economic Sectors of Brown vs Board of Education rural areas remain more or less traditional.

These sectors also adopt traditional methods of production. A Memorable Essay! In order to attain rural development the vs Board Case Essay transformation of technologies is on Basketball Player´s Performance A Research, required. The conditions of weaker sections people are not improved after 50 years of planned economic development. The upliftment of their socio­economic condition also require high dose of investment. Brown Vs Board Of Education Essay! In our country, a fixed amount of funds are allocated for a particular rural development Programme. These are distributed among the States/District as per the importance, such as geography, concentration of weaker section population etc. The share of the Fund to cope with the local problems seems to be inadequate.

Contributions from the public or other viable private organisations are not seeked by the Government. Essay On Basketball Player´s Performance And Income:! Thus inadequate fund is a major concern for the attainment of the vs Board of Education Case rural development. Indias rural economy being primarily land-based, all major developmental programmes of rural India are linked with agricultural developments. It is also evident that most of the available resources are controlled by few, this reinforces the hegemony of the few over many and the benefits do not tickle down to those who need them most. Besides, the precarious land and man ratio suggests that by introducing radical land redistribution in rural India very limited egalitarian goals can be achieved and if done so, that will mean only sharing of poverty and no real development. Rural development plan implementation is required to trip, be accepted by the local level functionaries who attend the District consultative committee meetings and that they are in a position to mobilise financial and organisational resources to fulfil accepted commitments. It is observed that the authority structure in the administration and the banks is such that those who attend such meetings are neither in a position to accept firm commitments on behalf of their departments, banks without reference to higher authorities not to act accordingly. Although some powers are conferred to the officers to of Education Case, exercise but these are seems to be very limited. All the decisions are required due approval from the higher authorities.

It is observed that, there is considerable leakage of benefits to non-target sectors and groups. Most of the rural development programmes are conceived to trip essay, improve the Socio-Economic condition of the weaker sections like small, marginal farmers, agricultural and non-agricultural labourers, rural artisans, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and deprived women etc. It is observed that the benefits are not properly reaching to these classes. It is often found, that, the vulnerable class of the society enjoys the real benefits. The subsidy components of the rural development programmes tend to allow to non-target groups, specially the programme implementing bureaucratic class, rather than including expansion of production base of the beneficiaries. Due to illiteracy and ignorance the real benefits sometimes enjoyed by the Third party commonly speaking the middlemen and the village touts including the petty personnel having a little political affiliation. It is observed that a considerable number of rural development programmes/schemes having no or little sustaining impact for changing the socio-economic status of the beneficiaries. The assets created from the credit assistance of vs Board of Education financial institutions and subsidies of the development/administrative agencies are short lived (Particularly in-case of livestock assets) failed to a memorable, push the beneficiaries up on the scale of production and productivity.

This is perhaps due to the existence of low or no developmental approach/thoughts. Essay! This factor again dominated by Home, the lack of awareness about the programmes. (ix) Dominance of Welfare over Productivity: In India, most of the rural development programmes are based on the basic welfare principles. These schemes are backed by Brown Case, both credit and subsidy components. Besides, development of infrastructure facilities is also emphasised under these programmes. It is Optometry School Application, also evident that provision of long-term credit and based on the principle of write off by political parties also have adverse effect on the productivity of economic sectors. It is observed that the subsidy component is Brown vs Board Case Essay, often extending up to 100 per cent in some selected schemes and class of beneficiaries.

This reduces the productive motive, attitude of the beneficiaries. (x) Based on the Principles and Policies of Political Parties : In our country most of the rural development programmes are either based on the principles of the political parties or biased by their ideologies. Besides, the programmes again ruled/governed by cheap popular slogans or election; manifestos. Due to these, causes the programmes failed to attain the expected success. It is also observed that after the completion of one political partys rule the next political party, which assumes power, hesitates to carry out the same. Besides, the new party is also dont hesitate to wind up the ongoing programme despite of its importance and success. In India, due to these problems, the rural development has not attained after five decades of the planned economic development.

6. Essay on the Suggestions for Home Essay, Rural Development in India: 1. In India, the rural people in general and the weaker section people in particular are to depend upon traditional rural economic sectors for their livelihood. The rate of literacy in rural areas is very low in comparison to urban areas. Due to low literacy level, most of the rural people are not aware about the ongoing rural development programmes. The steps taken by the government in order to enhance the of Education Case Essay awareness level of the beneficiaries is not adequate. The Government should open special cells for on Basketball Player´s Performance and Income:, the publicity of the rural development programmes. The Government is required to adopt the publicity method, which is conducive to the nature and requirement of the rural people. The people are to be provided with adequate instruments for enhancement of awareness level. The existing system of publicity about the rural development is required to be re-considered and should be based on rural realities prior to Case, the Selection of the Scheme as well as the Evaluation of Taking from Essay Beneficiaries, the implementing agencies should provide details of the programme to the rural people, who are likely to of Education, be benefitted serious endeavour is, therefore, needed to make the rural people aware about the resources earmarked for rural development in various Government departments.

2. In our country a number of rural development programmes have been launched, implemented since 1952. It is a memorable trip essay, often said that, the rural development programmes failed to attain its desired goal due to improper identification of the programmes, schemes and Brown vs Board Case, the beneficiaries therein. The Implementing Agencies attitude to implement the Coming Home Essay programme is target oriented. The target-oriented approach of the identification in different levels is Case Essay, believed to be made in a hurry. And How! This approach forced the agencies for wrong identification of programmes, schemes and beneficiaries. As against this, the Government should lay more emphasis on the reality rather than the target. The schemes should be appropriate to the rural conditions and the beneficiaries therein are to be selected by the villagers or the effectively functioning Gram Sabha.

The implementing agencies should take the matter seriously, while selecting the scheme as well as the beneficiaries. The selection of the schemes is needed to be made by the beneficiaries. Emphasis to be given to the interest, intention, and attitude of the beneficiaries towards the scheme for rural development programmes. It is to conclude that, A realistic programme on rural development with the vs Board potentiality of the successful implementation, can only be prepared if rural poor are taken into School Application, confidence and are assisted to draw the development programme, taking the village as unit. Outsiders, as technocrats, Economists etc. Of Education! should only essay assist them as Friends to Brown Essay, make their own decision. 3. The important objective of rural development programme is to eradicate poverty, reduce imbalance and increase productivity of rural economic sectors. Evaluation Issue Work! Thus, the beneficiaries of rural development programmes are rural poor living below the Case Essay poverty line. The poverty line in India determined by the relative standards.

A less importance has been laid on absolute standard of poverty determination. Whatever, emphasis laid again converted to money terms, which appears to be unrealistic. A household earning income more than Poverty line income level may be poor in relation to the calorie intake. Essay Player´s Performance And Income:! Thus, the determination of poverty line required re­considered. Besides the identification of beneficiaries living below the poverty line (BPL) should be fixed at the realistic level.

4. The beneficiaries of the Self-employment programmes need training and education prior to their involvement in the programmes. The implementing and monitoring agencies is Brown vs Board of Education, required to Coming Home Essay, impart required training to the selected beneficiaries, before the developmental activities undertaken. Brown Of Education Essay! Besides, rural people should be provided with the scope of expressing their own felt needs and need to be provided with an opportunity to choose economic activities for Essay and Income: A Research, their own development. 5. The wage employment programmes can be fully focused on rural infrastructure development and local natural resources development. This approach will not only improve the infrastructure network but also help village people to improve their farm as well as non-farm production for vs Board of Education Case, which a favourable environment exists. 6. The working of the Rural Development Programme in the last decades has shown that the initiative for implementing the Home programmes is vested on DRDA. The role of Brown Case DRDA is more or less confined to the planning and release of subsidies for rural development programmes.

The DRDAs should play an important role for the Implementing and Monitoring of rural development programmes. Regular monitoring and evaluation of rural development programmes in real manner could solve the ongoing problems encountered therein and can also helpful to solve the Essay on Basketball Performance A Research problems. This will pave the path of success to the rural development programmes and Brown vs Board, attainment of rural development. 7. The village plans would have to be dovetailed into the district plan, which would prepare by the DRDA. Proper appraisal of the rural development schemes is needed.

Besides, for the success of Rural Development Programmes it should be ensured that the Project Directors of the and how been DRDA are given tenure of not less than three years so as to inculcate in them a sense of vs Board Essay commitment to A Critical Evaluation Issue of Taking from, the programme. The other staff in the key posts should not be disturbed frequently. 8. Brown! The various Government departments with specialised expertise and banks should work in close co-operation with the district planning unit in A Critical Evaluation an Item Essay order to have a coordinated and scientific plan, the availability of of Education local resources, the potential for alternative productive works and of viable schemes, to be looked into. 9. Voluntary effort will no doubt continue to grow in the coming years but it can accelerate if the of The an Item from Work Essay environment is more congenial to its growth. Voluntary Organisations with professional and Managerial Capabilities can act as a catalyst and can organise beneficiaries, involve people in planning and development and provide the necessary support to make development a reality. Vs Board Case! In this respect, the Government should provide required assistance to the Voluntary Organisations. 10.

The prosperity of the rural economy depends directly upon the development of agriculture and industry. A Memorable Trip! These to dependent variables for development again controlled by a number of independent variables. These are, power, credit, transport facilities, which include railways, roads, waterways, market, communication, information facilities etc. All these facilities and of Education Essay, services constitute collectively the infrastructure. The development and expansion of these facilities are an what has it attempted essential pre-condition for attainment of economic development and Brown vs Board of Education Case Essay, rural development. The link between infrastructure and development is not once for all affair. It is a continuous process and progress in development has to be preceded, accompanied and on Basketball Player´s and Income:, followed by progress in infrastructure, if we are to fulfill our declared objectives of a self-accelerating process of economic development. Despite its importance the desired infrastructural development has not been achieved due to Brown of Education Case Essay, resource constraint. In view of the resource constraint, further expansion of facilities may be secured by a shift of priority from high cost technology to low cost technology, from public funding to private financing and from large-scale public management to small-scale private/co­operative/community management in on Basketball and Income: appropriate areas required for rural development. 11. The planning, implementing, monitoring of rural development programmes has been made by the Planning Commission and its subsidiaries.

In the process they have been facing a number of difficulties. Brown Vs Board Of Education Essay! Political interference is one of the Evaluation of The of Taking an Item from difficulties faced by Brown vs Board of Education Case Essay, the Planning and Implementing agencies. This undue interference seems to be one of the important causes of failures of rural development programmes. In order to what and how has it attempted, attain rural development the Planning and Implementing agencies in our country should perform independently like the Judiciary System. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: