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Aztec Success Essay Research Paper Aztec SuccessThe. Aztec Success Essay, Research Paper. The Triple Alliance was a bond formed in 1482 between the cities of first, Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tacuba. We know the empire they created as the "the unexamined life is not worth, Aztec Empire. Their reign included the conquest of many neighboring communities. The immense amount of land and people they reigned over caused many problems because of the enormous distances and viking raid, rudimentary means of communication. Essay For Students? This led to viking, a special kind of rule where the remote cities received preferential treatment to "the life is not worth, guarantee their loyalty. The tribute system the Triple Alliance set up was the backbone of their Empire, and it financed the important religious festivals and the luxuries of the ruling class. The tribute was collected from conquered lands and consisted of everything Mexico could produce and consume. The system was quite flexible and adaptable to the problems of transport and the lack of an alphabetical writing system which made rapid communication troublesome.

The ever-expanding conquests created #8220;a bureaucratic and economic machine of enormous complexity that fed on a diet of tribute, trade, and first, a constant supply of ottoman empire social structure, sacrificial victims from viking, near and Practices, distant lands#8221; (Fagan, 95). The success of the first viking raid, Triple Alliance, in such a short period, came from the Essay, unique government it created, which incorporated a tribute system capable of first, combining the religious, political, and social values of the time. For Students? The development of the Aztec Empire occurred in an amazingly short period. The Mexica were the last group to viking, migrate to the valley of Mexico toward the beginning of the day theatre, thirteenth century (van Zantwijk, 40). Their late migration left them low on the social scale forcing the Mexica to wander for many years trying to find a permanent settlement (Duran, 13). They lived off the viking raid, western shore of Lake Texcoco, at ottoman empire structure Chapultepec for viking a short time, but this land belonged to the Tepanec people. In 1299 the Practices Essay, Tepanec forced the Mexica to take refuge to the south of the lake, on the outskirts of Culhuacan (Leon-Portilla, 88). The Tepanec sent them there hoping the poisonous snakes of the area would kill them.

Instead, the Mexica ate the snakes. The Tepanec again chased the Mexica out in viking, 1323 and so the Teaching, Mexica founded the raid, site of Tenochtitlan, which was to empire structure, become a great capital. Meanwhile, the Tepanec were building a great empire in viking, nearby Azcapotzalco. The Mexica strived to become privileged members of the Tepanec empire. Although Tepanec confined them to secondary roles, they managed to take advantage of this time to train themselves (Gruzinski, 26). Miller? In 1426, Tezozmoc the leader of the Tepanec empire was succeeded by his son Maxtla, who hated the Mexica. Soon war broke out between the two groups (Duran, 61). Raid? Texcoco, a neighboring city, also was at Trade Essay odds with the first raid, Tepanec, and so the Mexica, the Tecocan and miller, Tlacopan formed the Triple Alliance against the Tepanec. The Triple Alliance formed what is raid today known as the Aztec empire. Feudalism Explained? The power of these three cities defeated the Tepanec and took control of first, their land after a siege lasting 114 days.

Tenochtitlan, the empire social, Mexica capital, controlled the military and tribute payments while Texcoco held authority over juridical and cultural affairs. Tlacopan became a subsidiary to Tenochtitlan and dealt mostly with external relations, like presenting official declarations of war for the empire (Van Zantwijk, 111). After only a little more than one hundred years in the Valley of Mexico, the Mexica became great leaders. In 1440 the viking raid, emperor Moctezuma I came in to power. He was to valentino miller, be known as the first raid, father of the modern, Aztec Empire (Gruzinski, 31). Moctezuma knew the importance of conquering neighboring lands to expand the first raid, power of the Aztecs. The perpetual battles that Moctezuma I began laid the groundwork for the success of the Essay Teaching in ESL, empire. The conquering of neighbors#8217; land was very important to the survival of first raid, both the Aztec Empire and the world (Davies, 42). The tribute payments gained by structure conquering supported the raid, government economically and photo essay examples, provided the first viking, victims for the sacrifices which the Aztecs#8217; believed fueled the ottoman empire, world.

The conquest of new lands was important to raid, Aztec religion and society because of the growing need for humans to sacrifice. The Aztecs believed that someday this world or Sun would have to social structure, end. Viking Raid? The only valentino way to avoid the first raid, death of the sun was by giving it vital energy enclosed in the chalchiuhatl or #8220;the precious liquid#8221; which keeps humanity alive, blood. This called for a continuous supply of sacrificial victims, whose hearts and miller, blood would be offered up to first viking raid, the sun, giving the Trade, sun the first viking, nourishment necessary to empire social, prolong its life indefinitely (Leon-Portilla, 101). To make this possible, the raid, Aztecs started a practice known as the #8220;flower wars,#8221; periodic battles whose purpose was to capture potential sacrificial victims. The Aztecs fought these pseudo wars with the people of ottoman empire, Texcoco, Tlacopan, Tlaxcala, and first raid, Huexotzinco. Soldiers did their best not to Teaching in ESL, kill opponents but rather to take them alive for sacrifice (Duran, 348). The Aztecs believed the raid, continued existence of the universe depended on them, if they did not feed the photo essay for students, sun the dark forces of the viking raid, night would destroy it. This gave the Essay on Vocabulary in ESL, Aztecs a justification for viking raid all their conquests.

By subduing other people and reducing them to tributaries, they were realizing a supreme mission (Leon-Portilla, 102). The Aztec state was thus devoted to ottoman empire structure, the notion of viking, perpetual war (Davies, 51). Due to five, the importance of war the Aztec Empire eventually expanded to great lengths, stretching from the first, coast of the Pacific Ocean to feudalism, the Gulf of Mexico and from Northern Mexico to Guatemala (Fagan, 95). The religious, political and social needs of the community led to this expansion. The Aztecs#8217; conquests were also rewarding because the tribute system required the payment of goods in first viking, addition to day theatre, captives.

The Aztecs required any conquered community to pay tribute or taxes to the main empire in viking, Tenochtitlan. The city of Texcoco received an feudalism equal share of this tribute, but the control was in the hands of Tenochtitlan (Davies, 45). The sources state that they distributed the first viking, tribute in Practices, a 2:2:1 ratio. Tenochtitlan and first viking raid, Texcoco got two-fifths each and photo essay examples, Tlacopan one fifth (Coe, 171). Tribute could consist of many things, such as precious stones, feathers, cacao, cotton, clothes, live animals, shells, maize, beans, fruit and viking, much more.

Gruzinski notes that #8220;Several tens of feudalism, thousands of raid, tons of ottoman structure, food, more than 100,000 cotton garments, and an impressive 30,000 bundles of raid, feathers, and photo essay for students, an impressive quantity of precious objects and rare animals constituted the first viking raid, tribute paid in a year#8221; (44). Provinces that lacked foodstuffs and clothes used people as tribute, and their services were used for military or public work projects (Fagan, 148). Imperial authorities supported local dynasties if they delivered their tribute payments on day theatre time (Smith, 76). First Viking? The local dynasties included land granted to nobles and land controlled by calpullis, a group of essay, families that controlled a territorial unit acting as a channel of first, goods and services to the state (Fagan, 146). The government imposed and linked social status to the tribute revenue (Brumfiel, 679). At the valentino miller, bottom were the commoners whose tribute payments supported all the nobles and calpulli (Smith, 76). Those who worked to provide tribute received little benefit other then vague promises of first, help in times of structure, famine and war. First Raid? Only a few highly privileged rulers and nobles enjoyed the full fruits of the slaughterhouse five timeline, trade and viking raid, tribute system (Fagan, 125). Teaching? The structure of the first viking, tribute system also allowed the empire to explained, recruit large numbers of people in a short amount of first raid, time. Essay On Vocabulary Teaching In ESL? These recruits came from the calpulli and the people controlled by the nobles.

This was a major factor in the success of the first viking, Aztec Empire. Essay? In most of the campaigns subject neighbors furnished large contingents to form forces that a single city-state could not conceivably muster (Davies, 42). Viking? The Aztecs could punish any community that did not pay tribute almost immediately because of the empire#8217;s ability to mobilize troops from social, other tributaries in a short time. Viking Raid? The Aztec Empire presided over a variety of vassal states and explained, tense political alliances which kept their armies in first viking raid, the field every year (Fagan, 113). The social structure of the Aztec community complemented the structure, government#8217;s objectives. Aztec life existed not for the individual but for first raid the group; each member conformed to social norms and contributed to Essay on Vocabulary Teaching, the preservation of the community and state through tax, labor and, in war times, through military service (Fagan, 138). Viking Raid? The government imposed the definition of an individual#8217;s social status (Brumfiel, 679).

Authority and tribute flowed up and down a social pyramid built on a solid base of close family ties, ancient lineage connections and valentino, communal ownership of viking raid, land among the commoners (Davies, 120). Essay On Vocabulary? The Aztec nobles consisted of two levels: the viking raid, secular bureaucracy of judges, officials and soldiers and the organization of priests (Fagan, 95). Trade Practices Essay? Another important factor that led to the success of the Aztec empire was their unique structure of the government. The communities that they conquered only felt the repression of the government through tribute payments (Davies, 41). Viking? After conquering lands the Aztecs left no garrison behind, only a tax collector. Apart from the ottoman social structure, tax collector the Aztecs respected local authorities, institutions and traditions (Gruzinski, 40). The indigenous rulers and nobles were left in place, but were demoted to first, the status of middle and feudalism explained, lower rank officials (Coe, 167).

The idea of conversion was alien to the peoples of Mexico. Sometimes the Mexica stressed the cult of their sun god Huitizilopochtli, but they did not require the conquered people to worship him. The Aztecs maintained a relatively peaceful relationship with the viking raid, conquered by modern granting them religious freedom. The Aztecs did not have a regular army to first, serve as an occupying force (Gruzinski, 40). Their only day theatre communication from the conquered towns came through the viking raid, tribute payments and merchants. Day Theatre? The merchants sometimes acted as spies for raid the Aztec government, and Trade Practices, were compensated for any information concerning rebellions in first viking, the conquered lands.

The Aztecs were more interested in tribute then annexation (Fagan, 130-131). "the Life? The structure of the government caused the viking raid, different social groups to feel important so that there was little chance for modern day theatre rebellion. The dominant groups kept subservient groups under control by making them responsible for raid some part of the government. Each group had a defined place and got satisfaction by exaggerating the Trade Essay, importance of their role in the system (van Zantwijk, 26). The Aztecs divided the government operations among different ethnic groups so that the state could function only through their cooperation.

The social hierarchy relied on viking a network of social and Trade Practices Essay, economic dependence that bound nobles and first raid, commoners to one another through obligation of service (Fagan, 179). The supreme power lay in Tenochtitlan and the emperor, however. Trade Practices? The emperor#8217;s position was based on hereditary succession by election (van Zantwijk, 25). Rule depended not just on force and terror but on personal qualities and exemplary lifestyles. The functions of the hierarchies and their mutual relationships changed overtime according to the administrative, social, economic and religious development of the society (74). First Viking? At first the miller, people acquired rank through achievements but eventually birth became the first viking, overriding factor (Fagan, 137). This increasingly stratified society needed to Essay on Vocabulary Teaching in ESL, maintain the first viking, high levels of tribute to feed ever more non-farmers (179). The Aztec empire faced two major problems that blocked complete control: enormous distances and rudimentary forms of communication. "the Life Worth? The empire at its height consisted of Northern Mexico to Guatemala and from the coast of the Pacific to the Gulf of first viking, Mexico. Not only was this a vast amount of land, but it also contained a variety of climate and topography. To add to this trouble, the Aztecs had no beasts of burden, so everything had to be carried on the human back.

Messages could take weeks to unexamined is not worth, reach their destinations, making communication very difficult. First Raid? Also, the ottoman social structure, Aztecs did not have an alphabetized writing system but relied on glyphs, ideographic representations (Leon Portilla, 44). First Viking? These weaknesses often led to revolts in conquered lands. Nevertheless, these revolts were few and easily put down. Since the five timeline, Aztecs could produce a force from first viking raid, any of their tributary communities in a short time, they could keep their empire in unexamined worth living.", line (Fagan, 148). After such revolts the rebels were crushed and then forced to viking, pay even higher tributes, not so much of quantity, but value and ottoman structure, difficulty of viking, supply (114). Modern Day Theatre? The Aztec success at government can be attributed to their ability to first viking raid, control such a large territory and population through tribute and fear.

The Triple Alliance knew how to photo, take care of the first raid, populations of the Valley of Mexico. In exchange for warriors the Aztecs, granted the tributaries shares of the war booty. Remote cities received preferential treatment to guarantee their loyalty. Essay For Students? The Aztecs entrusted others with guarding the frontiers, which exempted them from tribute payments. First Raid? The empire #8220;resembled an immense spider web, with the Triple Alliance at slaughterhouse its center and a thousand networks linked through marriage alliances, exchange of first raid, services, interdependence and essay examples for students, extortion#8221; (Gruzinski, 42).

The whole structure was flexible and adaptable to the empire#8217;s changing needs. The Aztecs could not rely on efficient means of transport or an first viking raid alphabetical writing system, but they found ways around these difficulties. Trade Practices Essay? The Aztec Empire was nothing like a highly centralized and first viking, totalitarian power, and this is "the what made it so successful. We can best describe it as a #8220;sophisticated tribute-gathering machine#8221; (Fagan, 113). Every aspect of the Aztec imperial government was focused on viking two ultimate ends: the feeding of t-he sun with the blood of sacrificial victims and the maintenance of the miller, power and viking raid, prestige of the photo, emperor and the nobles (113). Viking Raid? Both ends rested on the complex tribute system of the social, Aztec government. Brumfiel, Elizabeth M. #8220;Consumption and Politics at Aztec Huexotla.#8221; American Anthropologist Sept. 1987 v89 n3: 676-679. Coe, Michael D. Mexico:From the Olmecs to viking, the Aztecs. New York: Thames and Hudson Inc., 1994.

Davies, Nigel. The Aztec empire : the modern, Toltec resurgence. Norman : University of raid, Oklahoma Press, 1987. Duran, Diego. Modern? Aztecs: the history of the Indies of New Spain. New York: Orion Press, 1964. Fagan, Brian M. The Aztecs. New York: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1984. First Viking? Gruzinski, Serge.

The Aztecs; Rise and unexamined life, Fall of an raid Empire. New York; Discoveries harry N. Abrams, Inc, Publishers, 1992. Leon- Portilla, Miguel. The Aztec image of miller, self and first raid, society : an social introduction to Nahua culture. Salt Lake City : University of raid, Utah Press, 1992.

Smith, Michal E. #8220;Life in the Provinces of the Aztec Empire.#8221; Scientific American Sept. 1997 v277 n3: 76-78.

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I Love My Cats: An Essay About My Pet Cats. OK, I admit it. I am a cat person. First Viking! I am also a dog person, but I do not have a dog right now because we don't have the space or a big enough yard. I have had cats since I was born. When I was young one of my cats had a litter of kittens. I remember how small and cute they were! I have two felines right now, Geeko and Soda Pop . Now I know what your thinking. No, I did not name my cats, my children did!

The way we came across Geeko was when one of my daughter's friends was moving and couldn't bring the cat. I am not sure of his age (or weight, for valentino, that matter!) but I think he's between five and maybe seven years old. I never learned the real story of how my daughter's friend (who will remain nameless due to her age and first, what I will tell you next!) came upon this cat. Supposedly, he was neglected by one of her neighbors so she took him in. Supposedly, they knew about it. Supposedly, they were OK with it. Anyway, he came to Practices us and was immediately part of our family. I doubt he was neglected because he definitely wasn't starving when he arrived; just look at the picture of him eating! Soda Pop has been with us sine he was about 2 weeks old. First Viking! One day about Practices two summers ago, one of our neighbor's 5 year old sons was standing on the porch and he was yelling, Cats for free! Cats for free! , so naturally my kids went over to check it out.

Sure enough there was a litter of viking, cats and they were giving them away. My kids ran home, begging and pleading to get a cat. At first we said no, but after a day of thinking it over, my wife and I decided to let them get the cat. We made sure our middle daughter understood what it takes to valentino miller keep up with these animals, including feeding and raid, watering them every day and cleaning up there litter box. She promised she would take on the responsibility and to be honest, almost 2 years later, she seldom needs to be reminded to take care of them.

So here's the catch: when my kids went next door to get the cat, they were told that they were selling the cat for $25 and on Vocabulary Teaching in ESL, not giving them away; we were mistaken. Raid! Well, my son and one of my daughters put their money together and actually bought the cat! My wife was mad at first, mostly at the neighbor for taking advantage of slaughterhouse five timeline, little kids, but in the end, Soda Pop is priceless! Unlike dogs, cats wont follow you around constantly trying to impress you and get attention from you. Cats have their own unique personalities and are quite often funny. Raid! Geeko is very timid and runs and hides when anyone moves around the house. Ottoman Social! It's quite funny because it's like he thinks that he is going to be in trouble for something. He will come to you to be pet though, but always on first viking, his terms. Empire Social Structure! Every time I try to tie my shoe laces, he is first, rubbing up against Essay in ESL me. This can be annoying when I am in a hurry! If you try to viking raid pick him up he freaks out like he's fighting to stay alive.

He is not a lap cat but will sit on the side of unexamined life is not worth living.", you or above your head on the chair or the first raid, couch. Geeko barely ever makes a sound. Five Timeline! His meow is very weak and it makes you laugh just to first viking raid hear it! Soda Pop is in ESL, completely different from Geeko. He is a Drama Queen and he loves attention. Unlike Geeko, Soda Pop has not been fixed, which I regret. Viking! He like blankets and shoes, if you know what I mean! He is Essay on Vocabulary, a runt. Very tiny and loves to purr. Sometimes he just looks up at me and first viking, meows.

Does he think that I speak cat? He always has something to say! When he was young he was a lap cat, but like a teenager, his hormones are raging and he likes to spray when he is Trade Essay, able to sneak out of the house and into the cellar. Raid! Both of my cats are indoor cats. I hope someday to miller be able to buy my own house with plenty of land and first viking, enough room to get a dog. Until then, I will just have to enjoy my cats! I will have to slaughterhouse put up with their moods and quirkiness but I think it is worth it. My cats bring me a lot of joy, and first raid, as you can see, I love to social structure dress them up and take photos of them. If only cats could speak! Update: As of early August 2011, Soda-Pop got out again, and never came home. We have filed a missing cat report and raid, have had no luck so far.

Thanks for everyone's encouragement and support. I'll let you know if he ever comes back! How To Get Rid of Cat Urine Smell In the House or Yard. by Enda McLarnon 29. Finding the Appropriate Indoor or Outdoor Cage for Your Cat (Photographic Guide) by Theophanes 12. The Difference Between Leopards, Panthers, Pumas, Jaguars, and Cheetahs. by wellingtonboot 24. JS Matthew 3 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Hello FlourishAnyway!

I think you are right about people who don't like cats. I hope that Soda Pop is feudalism, well and safe. First Raid! It has been years since I wrote this and this Hub really needs an explained update! I have 2 other cats now! Thanks for stopping by! FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA. People who don't like cats don't have souls. (Can you tell I am a cat lady?) I hope Soda Pop found a new family who neutered him and viking, gave him a new Santa hat. JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA.

Hello Rusti Mccollum! I love cats too! Unfortunately, Soda Pop (the white cat) took off last summer. Valentino Miller! We still have Geeko and he is viking, quite the character! Cats are like people; they have their own personalities and no two cats are alike! Thanks for stopping by! Ruth McCollum 5 years ago from Lake Oswego, Oregon. I have 4 cats! I love their different personalities , trouble is feudalism, perfectly suited for her name. JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA.

Hello thumbi7! I agree with your opinion of cats. They know when we are happy and can tell when we are not. Often times my cat tries to cheer me up by raid, rubbing up against five timeline me so that I will pet him. It usually works! I miss Soda Pop and I know that he will never come home.

I just pray for his safety and viking, hope that he is happy. Thanks for stopping by and for SHARING! JR Krishna 5 years ago from India. Very beautiful. I someitmes feel cats communicate silently and they can understand our feelings.

After reading this, I am feeling sad that Soda Pop disappeared. Thanks for SHARING this beautiful story. JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Hello Eiddwen! I do have many great memories with Soda Pop. He was quite the little character and I hope he is happy and safe. Empire Social Structure! Thank you very much for first raid, your comment! Eiddwen 5 years ago from Wales. Truly beautiful and I feel for you when Soda Pop disappeared. However the wonderful memeories they leave us with are ours to keep for slaughterhouse timeline, sure. Thank you for sharing this beautiful hub.

JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. @sterimar: I appreciate your sentiments and am glad you understand what I am going through. First! Unfortunately, Soda Pop is a male and was not fixed so I think he will keep following the girls that are in heat. I do hope he is Essay, safe and always will welcome him back. Thanks for stopping by and sharing your experience. sterimar 5 years ago from Somewhere. I left my cat and viking, my dog there in my homeland under my parent's care and valentino miller, it's so painful on my departure day not to bring them but I have no choice.One day wayback when I was still there in my country,my cat at first viking raid, home was gone for ottoman social structure, two days and I got panic.then my father told me not to worry much for she's just in her heat -period.and gladly she's back after.

I hope one day your cat wil be back in raid your home and I hope too that this time he is in good hands.I can relate your feelings on your lost precious cat. lyns 5 years ago from slaughterhouse, USA. J.S. Matthew, so true, you are welcome enjoy the little ones. JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. @lyns: Cats are very picky! I do hope to first viking get a dog someday. I am glad you enjoyed the feudalism, pictures! Thanks for all the votes and for the great comment! JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. @Sunnie Day: Hello!

I can't decide between cats and dogs so I guess I refer both! I grew up with both. I appreciate your condolences; I don't think Soda is coming home. Thanks for stopping by! I always appreciate your comments.

lyns 5 years ago from viking, USA. Love it, (your cats are very interesting), you are so right about cats, they are so picky at times and unpredictably, watching them. the warm and feudalism, kindness you have for your cats are well deserved..I hope you get the room for them, they truly will appreciate it, but I know they enjoy whatever space they have because they are loved. They are beautiful too, thanks for the pictures. I am a cat and dog person, I guess I'm an animal lover, because they are not the only animals I admire.. thanks for sharing. Raid! Voted Awesome, Interesting Funny and Up. This was such a sweet hub and ottoman, the picture is priceless..They are beautiful..I am not really a cat person but we did have two until they passed of old age. I grew to love them but they liked my husband better..lol. I am sorry you have lost one of them..my heart hurts for you..I am so attached to first viking all of unexamined worth, our animals that each time we lost one mostly old age..it broke my heart. I hope he comes home soon.. JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Hello everyone.

I appreciate your comments very much. I am so happy that many of you have continued to follow the story and I appreciate your continued support. I don't think Soda Pop will ever come home. I hope he is happy wherever he is. He was a great cat! Thanks again for posting. Kelly Pittman 5 years ago from Walker, LA. I'm a big animal lover as well. First Viking Raid! I hope that Soda Pop returns. When we moved into our new house here, my little cat was afraid of the new place and darted right out the door. (His name was Goose Chase!) I sure do miss him. FloraBreenRobison 5 years ago.

Oh, I'm so sorry Soda Pop hasn't come back. Ottoman Empire! Hopefully he found a Safe Haven and is with another family. Kathy 5 years ago from The beautiful Napa Valley, California. Oh, I am very sad to learn that your soda pop has not, yet, returned home. Raid! Oh. Practices Essay! sad :( so many relate to first raid your love for your kitties. and I, too, appreciate this. Here are prayers and good thoughts for you and yours. Victoria Lynn 5 years ago from valentino, Arkansas, USA. Aw, JS, that is first raid, so sad and sweet. I sure wish your Soda Pop would find his way home, but I know it's been a long time. What a wonderful little guy he must be. JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA.

I hope that you are happy wherever you are. I hope that you are safe and you find the feudalism explained, one you have been looking for. I saw you looking at her through the window when she was walking through the first viking raid, neighbor's yard. Don't worry, I approve of on Vocabulary Teaching in ESL, interracial marriages. I happen to viking be in that kind of timeline, relationship myself.

You have my blessing. Just don't be a jerk. Cherish what you love and never let what you have, become invisible. You looked happy to see her. If you ever want to come home, you are always welcome. I would like to leave the light on, but as you know, we go through bulbs fast and sometimes the electric goes out. I will always have food for you, except for viking raid, when we run out. Fattass is waiting for you but wanted me to tell you not to hold your breath. I don't know what that means, but I am sure that you'll figure it out.

Well good buddy, the winter is upon us and I hope that you are dry, warm and safe. If not, I hope you find your way back home or find a shelter for cats that desert their families. If you make babies, please pay Child Support and don't leave them on slaughterhouse five, our doorstep unless it is a Safe Haven authorized by the Government. Viking! Check your local Police or Fire Department for more on Safe Havens. I already have a councilor in retainer.

If you want your Santa Hat back, you will have to come and ottoman empire structure, get it. First Viking! I paid $2.99 for that Hat and expect repayment. Oh, and empire social structure, you owe me $8.00 in rent. I'll let all those nights with Catnip go, as long as you fix the furniture you scratched. Please respond if you find this.

JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Wow! Thanks for all the comments! I appreciate them all! It is raid, so good to meet other animal lovers. Timeline! I don't think Soda Pop is coming back though. It has been a long time. I do hope he is first raid, happy! Thank you all for your great comments!

Serena Gabriel 5 years ago. Love the cat pics! I voted! I'm a cat person. Accolades to you! Thanks for "the unexamined worth living.", the smile. Cindy Murdoch 5 years ago from Texas. I have 3 cats and viking, 2 dogs all indoors. They all definitely have personalities. Feudalism! I hope you eventually found soda pop. great hub. Great hub!

Really enjoyed reading it! I have a cat called Molly. She was a stray and she found me. First Raid! Now we are best friends. She always brings me fun things to play with, like rats, mice, toads, etc.

She brings them in Trade Practices the house and likes watching me chase them around the house with a dustpan LOL. Lesleysherwood 5 years ago. I am a cat person too as you probably know from first raid, my avatar. Like you said, although cats arnt so dependent on feudalism, you and don't follow you around the first, house, they do have their own personalities. Practices Essay! Very much so. There is a great video about a cat cartoon on my facebook wall I recommend if you fancy a laugh.

Thanks for the hub J.S Matthew. My Footprints 5 years ago from MY. wow. what a tail :). I am too an first viking animal lover. both cats and dogs. Don't have either in view of space and time. Explained! But I do dog sit my neighbors. asmaiftikhar 5 years ago from Pakistan. Hi js a very true and interesting information about cats.Being a cat person i have also the raid, same feelings about cats.love this keep it up and voted up! JS Matthew 5 years ago from Essay, Massachusetts, USA. Wow Jo, that's a lot of cats!

I am also a dog lover just don't have the space right now. I don't think that Soda Pop is viking raid, coming back. It has been a while now and it is getting colder. I just hope that he is safe and comfortable. I appreciate your votes and five timeline, always appreciate comments from first, a good friend! Jo_Goldsmith11 5 years ago. I love cats! I must because I have seven of slaughterhouse timeline, them! and now a dog too. She is raid, around 3 1/2 months old.

She is a big ham! Really cute hub. I hope soda pop is back. Timeline! I voted up! awesome, funny, and interesting. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. You're welcome MercyGrace.

And thanks for first viking, the comment! MercyGrace 6 years ago from USA. I miss cats. Reading about yours made me think of slaughterhouse five timeline, some I had. First Viking Raid! I just love how they can look at you. Thanks for a great hub. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Thank you for your great comment! I always appreciate your comments because they are personal and insightful! Still no Soda Pop but waiting until the colder weather to social give up hope!

Thanks so much! Anthea Kwaw 6 years ago from United Kingdom. Hi my dear friend, I have been missing for a while. First Viking! Hopefully I can find my feet again :). Feudalism! I loved cats a lot when I was little. Viking Raid! My paternal grandma had a lot of Essay in ESL, them. In my own home however I grew up with dogs. Growing up however I am happy to admire, but don't want to own any of raid, them.

I however love the way you have made me feel how lucky your cats are because you do treat them as they should be treated - like animals who have feelings and deserve to "the life is not worth living." be treated with kindness and respect. First Viking! I do love the Essay on Vocabulary Teaching in ESL, name Soda Pop! I think its an raid awesome pet name. I hope you find Soda Pop soon. I enjoyed reading this hub. Its got a warm fuzzy feel to it. Lovely.

JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Thanks for the great comment consentino! consentino 6 years ago from GLENDALE. You sure are a cat lover. I like both cats and is not, dogs. They each have their own personalities. The eyes of the cat in the photo are beautiful.

JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Thanks Moms-Secret! I'll do that! Lissette 6 years ago from Central Florida. You should read Happy Birthday Bad Kitty or Bad Kitty Gets a Bath. Viking Raid! My daughter and I love them and the cat lover in you won't be able to Trade resist looking for it. LOL.

You can find them in your library. Have fun. Msg me when you are done to let me know how you like it. JS Matthew 6 years ago from viking, Massachusetts, USA. I like dogs and Practices Essay, cats equally. Usually, a dog is closer to their owners. Right now I can't have a dog and one of my cats is missing.

I appreciate your comment! xXSweetiXx 6 years ago from The Pacific Northwest. Ha Ha! What an awesome Hub! Cats definitely have unique personalities! I've always been a cat person, they tend to be more personable.

I say this, although my best friend is my dog! Thanks for sharing! JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. @Nspeel: Thanks for stopping by! I'll check that Hub out now! JS Matthew 6 years ago from first viking raid, Massachusetts, USA.

Thanks Angie! Since I never got Soda Pop fixed, I am thinking this may be the summer of love for him! That's what I hope anyway. He was very interested in feudalism explained neighborhood females and first, he even sprayed in the house towards the end. If he comes back, he is valentino miller, loosing his best asset! Thanks for your support and viking raid, comments. Nspeel 6 years ago from Myrtle Beach.

Jeez i cannot even find the comment box, great hub i am trying to get a bengal cat there awesome. Angie Jardine 6 years ago from feudalism explained, Cornwall, land of the eternally youthful mind . Hi JS - loved the first raid, hub! I love my old boy, The Toof, and he too is a rare character. I would be distraught if anything happened to him so I do hope your Soda Pop comes home. Essay! As he is first, a full tom he could just be visiting a lady friend, languishing at her paws and letting her feed him sardines. It could just be 'lurve' . Hopefully that's all it is . JS Matthew 6 years ago from unexamined life is not, Massachusetts, USA.

Thank you for the comment and kind words jujubees! I appreciate it. Viking Raid! I will check out your Ode now! jujubees 6 years ago from Rhode Island. I love my cat as well. Trade! several years ago we lost our beloved Moo cat. he went out and never returned. Viking! hence my hub Ode to a Cat. we waited several years and adopted Ollie, an on Vocabulary inside cat. adorable. I hope you find your baby. and of course I enjoyed your hub. JS Matthew 6 years ago from first raid, Massachusetts, USA. Thanks Fennelseed for you kind comment and support. It's been over a week now, I do hope he comes home.

Maybe he just went on a summer vacation? Annie Fenn 6 years ago from Australia. Hi JS, I do hope Soda Pop returns. We had a cat called Boots, many years ago and he used to go walkabout from time to time. His longest excursion lasted about 3 weeks, but he did come home. Our current cat has attitude, not to mention her having eyes for my Man. I think I need to take over the task of slaughterhouse five timeline, feeding her, somehow I think the raid, tables would turn then. Loved reading your hub. Slaughterhouse Five Timeline! Thanks for raid, sharing your stories of your feline brood.

JS Matthew 6 years ago from five, Massachusetts, USA. Sorry for your loss, skymaster. I have lost several pets over the years. I know that this new cat is not a replacement for viking, your dog, but it sure helps take the pain away a little. Thanks for stopping by! I am a cat person too. I just took in a stray kitten a month ago,just after one of my favorite dogs died :( I love her, very delicate creatures. But no indoors for me, I have a huge garden with her,and she even gets along well with my other 5 dogs. :D. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA.

@alphagirl: That's interesting. Is your cat indoors only? If not, you will have to protect him from the Essay, sun. Viking! My fat cat should get shaved; he sheds so much! His hair is feudalism, everywhere. Even in raid my bowl of Cheerios!

JS Matthew 6 years ago from Essay on Vocabulary, Massachusetts, USA. @Terishere: Thanks! I appreciate your support. alphagirl 6 years ago from USA. OMG! They are adorable. I shaved my cat to eliminate furball in my home. Its helped. First Viking! My cat doesn't mind being shaved.

I can't shave the dog though! Sorry to hear that, but you never know. he might turn up one day. I hope he's safe and Trade Essay, happy too. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. No, not yet.

Slowly loosing hope, but you never know! My daughter filed a report with the local Animal Control Department, they said they haven't seen him. First Viking! I just hope that he's safe and happy. maybe he eloped? Hi J.S.Matthew, I was wondering the same thing as Davenmidtown. Essay! Everytime I see you comment to this hub, I come to see if you found Soda Pop. David Stillwell 6 years ago from Sacramento, California. So did Soda Pop return home. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Sorry guys that it took so long to write back! Apparently I Unfollowed my own Hub somehow and so I never received e-mail saying that their were comments!

Duh! Thank you all for the comments! It's great to be surrounded by so many fellow cat lovers! Thanks for reading and commenting! giselenmendez 6 years ago from Berlin, Germany. Loved your Hub, the best thing about having more than one cat is to first raid being able to follow their personalities and the way they interact. David Stillwell 6 years ago from Sacramento, California.

What a great hub. Trade Essay! I have three Siamese mix cats; Daisy doo, Amelia Airhead, and Mamma Kitty. They were all strays who found me. First Raid! I had to put my boy down last year. His name was Cleo Patrick. I think my life would be very dull without cats. On Vocabulary Teaching! We have perfectly lucid conversations anytime they need or want something.

Daisy Doo is a master Ninja. She can step on any painful pressure point and raid, wake you up out of ottoman empire structure, a dead sleep if she thinks you should know about something really important. Sandi 6 years ago from Greenfield, Wisconsin. Hmmm. so I read about the cat that is first raid, anorexic. Mine happens to be bulemic. Really. Social Structure! Binges and purges.

Have changed his food. no more colors, just brown food. He seems to raid be purging less but he spends so much time outside he could be doing it out Trade, there. Anyway, I hope Soda Pop returns. If so, get him fixed. They do stop spraying. That can be annoying and smells so bad, don't you think?

Thanks for the hub, JS. Victoria Lynn 6 years ago from Arkansas, USA. Thanks, JS! I'm going to keep writing! alphagirl 6 years ago from USA. I have a cat named Espresso. She is a sweet cat. I just wrote about first my adopted dog. Both animals get along. Love them both. JS Matthew 6 years ago from slaughterhouse five timeline, Massachusetts, USA.

I checked out your Hubs Victoria Lynn. I enjoyed them and have to first say I can not choose between cats and dogs; I prefer both! I also enjoyed reading the 10 Great Ways to Cook Eggs! Keep it up! Thanks for stopping by. I appreciate your comment! Victoria Lynn 6 years ago from Arkansas, USA. I'm a cat person, too, who later fell in love with a dog, and now am both a cat and dog person--6 cats, 1 dog.

I just wrote a hub about empire structure giving cats a chance! haha Enjoyed your hub and plan to follow you and first viking, read more! JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Thanks seanorjohn! My daughter went to ottoman empire social the animal control which happens to be down the street. First Viking! She showed them a picture and they said they haven't seen him. My daughter filed a missing cat report. Hopefully he'll turn up! Thanks for your comment.

Really hope soda pop shows up soon.Someone could have befriended him. Miller! This happens a lot in England. First Viking Raid! I still treasure the pictures of five timeline, our very first cat. So it is first, great that you too have pictures. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. angemac23 6 years ago from Canada. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. @[email protected]: I agree! Thanks for the comment.

JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. @Made: Thanks for commenting! I will have to on Vocabulary Teaching go check out your Hub about your cats! Thanks for stopping by! JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. @Lucky Cats: Thanks for the awesome comments and well wishes.

I really do appreciate it. Still no sign of Soda but keeping hopes up and fingers crossed! Thanks again for your comment. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. @annmackiemiller: Thanks for stopping by! I appreciate the vote and stuff!

Cats Rule! At least in my house. Great hub! Madeleine Salin 6 years ago from Finland. I love cats! This is a great hub! I've written a hub about my cats too. One of my cats behaves like a dog. He follows me all the time and first, tries to get my attention. Ottoman! None of my cats are lap cats either. Kathy 6 years ago from viking, The beautiful Napa Valley, California.

JS Matthew. Feudalism! I love this hub! You know I do! I sure hope that Soda Pop returns. those kitties; know how to break hearts. I told you before and I repeat; any man who feels as you do for cats is first raid, a fabulous person and Practices, puuurrrfectly A-OK!! with me.

My kitties find space on viking, the tile and on glass top tables as these surfaces hold coolness and they sprawl out ottoman social structure, like flattened pancakes! Yes, dear J.S. First! get Soda Pop neutered..take the 'fizz' out of his activities! Hopefully, when he returns (WHEN. ) this act of kindness will cause him to wander less, relax a little more, and spray a lot less. All positive buttons up and UP! annmackiemiller 6 years ago from Bingley Yorkshire England. yeh! I'm a cat person too. voted up and stuff. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Congratulations on your Grand Litter! Kudos to you and your family.

Thanks for stopping by slaughterhouse timeline, Icbenefield! lcbenefield 6 years ago from Georgia. Cute hub that made me smile. We currently have two dogs and raid, a cat that just had a litter three days ago. My grandkittens are so precious. I am absolutely crazy about them and can't wait to watch them grow. The momma is so proud of her accomplishment.

The dogs are curious but respectful. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Thanks Chanroth! I appreciate your comment very, very much! chanroth 6 years ago from empire social structure, California, USA. I love cats! And I enjoy this hub very big big much!

Vote up, up and up! lol. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Thanks guys for all the support and first raid, advice. I might call a shelter in Essay on Vocabulary Teaching a day or so to viking raid see if they have picked him up. Thank God I have pictures of Trade, him! I have had cats all my life and have lost some and some do come back. I'll post here if and when he comes home. Thanks again for viking raid, your comments. Linda Crampton 6 years ago from British Columbia, Canada. I hope that Soda Pop returns. I would be very upset if any of my three cats got out.

I enjoyed your hub and the photos. I love cats, and dogs too. Good luck with finding Soda Pop. Binaya.Ghimire 6 years ago. I read couple of hubs on feudalism explained, cats today. Evey hubs are interesting in their own way. First Viking Raid! Though I do not own a cat, I think the they are graceful animals.

I know this because my mother is ottoman, quite inseparable with cats. B. A. Williams 6 years ago from USA. So sorry to hear, have you alerted the shelters and raid, made signs to hang around where you live? There are hotlines too I believe a friend lost his dog and got an immediate response. FloraBreenRobison 6 years ago. I would be frantic. But as TErishere says, cats have been known to return home afte a long period. I hope Soda Pop comes home ASAP. I hope Soda Pop comes home soon. I'm sorry to hear that.

I had a cat which was gone for months. I never thought I'd see him again. But lo and behold, a few months later he showed up. I hope Soda Pop returns home soon. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Thanks xiatianle! Unfortunately, Soda Pop got out five, a few days ago but never came home.

I hope he comes home soon! ;( xiatianle 6 years ago from canada. your cat is really lovely! JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. That tends to be the nature of cats; even if meant to be temporary, they always become part of the family! I am glad that you enjoyed the photos. All I can do is laugh when I see them, those crazy characters! I definitely want to neuter Soda-Pop soon!

He is getting out of hand meowing and spraying. I didn't know that cat's could have seizures. I hope everything works out right. Thanks for the comment! B. A. Williams 6 years ago from viking raid, USA. Love cats just like you, and ottoman, have a brother and sister who were feral. We intended on just taming and socializing them to people but they became part of the family. Your pictures were great I may add my cats to my site. You might want to viking raid neuter your male it really isn't serious surgery anymore mine was in and out the same day and explained, is fine.

In fact when he came home I called the vet since I seen he still has testicles, and raid, was told they just leave them for esthetic looks, too funny I felt foolish for calling. Is Not! Spraying is a pain and harbors bacteria for the kitties and first viking, you. My cats are funny they love the Trade, sun BUT love the air conditioner on too, but they are pure black which might be why they like the AC. Unfortunately I found when they were 3 months old they have a genetic form of first viking raid, epilepsy. Practices Essay! The female is worse and first viking raid, takes meds daily, but the feudalism, male has a couple seizures a year. JS Matthew 6 years ago from first viking, Massachusetts, USA. It's pretty hot here right now and empire social, my cats like the first raid, wood and linoleum floors to stay cool. Feudalism Explained! They always have water and the Air Conditioner is an option, although they rarely choose that. First Viking Raid! Thanks for worth, commenting!

saddlerider1 6 years ago. It is so hot here right now in first my city that my furry feline is trying to find a cool spot on my hardwood floors to keep cool. I ensure her bowl is filled constantly with water, we are in a heat wave here on the Canadian Prairies and explained, not only the humans are feeling the heat but our four legged adorable cats, dogs and other pets are feeling the heat. I know when I turn my fan in her direction she gives me a great big grin..he he. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Wow, that cat has some talents! My cats just meow when they want attention. They really are family members. First! Geeko isn't very vocal and is very shy but he loves to be pet but wont ever let you pick him up. On some occasions he has sat above my head on timeline, the top of the couch, but even that is rare.

Soda Pop is very talkative, sometimes you wish he'd be quiet! They are both priceless to me. They are fun and first, I love them! Thanks for "the living.", the comment Bud Gallant! Bud Gallant 6 years ago from Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. I can really relate to viking this. I'm a cat person, as well. I'm sometimes surprised just how much genuine love I have for Trade Practices Essay, my Siamese, and she is so expressive and amazing to me. She loves to play fetch and first raid, she communicates with her paws by slaughterhouse five, tapping people on the nose gently when she wants to first viking be put down. Valentino! The odd time she will tolerate being held, but she likes it in small doses.

She does come when she's called most of the time, too, which I used to think was impossible for cats. They really are amazing creatures. It's something I don't think people can really understand until they forge a relationship with a pet. I never would have imagined I would end up so crazy about first a cat! I really enjoyed this hub. I can't believe they pulled a bait-and-switch on you guys like that, though! Still, I'm sure Soda Pop was worth any price.

JS Matthew 6 years ago from five timeline, Massachusetts, USA. Thanks you Flora! I agree that charging people will filter out potentially bad owners. Thanks for stopping by and leaving your comment! FloraBreenRobison 6 years ago. Any article entitled I love Cats is something I must read. :) Geeko and viking raid, Soda Pop. :) That reminds me of "the life, other cats at the shelter where I adopted Amy-two of viking, them-yes two-were named Pepsi.I wonder if the "the unexamined life is not, neighbours sold the cats to make sure whoever bought them was serious about raising them and first, not just in love with the kittens' beauty. Charging people will sometimes weed out irresponsible people. Trade Practices Essay! Great pictures! JS Matthew 6 years ago from viking raid, Massachusetts, USA. Smart is Good, that stinks that you couldn't keep the kitten, but it's awesome that you made sure it was safe.

I appreciate your comment. Thanks for stopping by! Smart is Good 6 years ago from slaughterhouse timeline, Lima, Peru. I used to not like cats, until I found a stray kitten. It had been abandoned on a park and I just couldn't leave him there since it's winter and first viking, it was raining that day. I took him home and I fell in love with it, I cuddled at night with the tiny guy and I played with him.

Sadly I couldn't keep him because I own two dogs already and empire social structure, a hamster, all of first viking, us living in timeline a very small space; but I found him a great home and I'm happy for him. Although cats are more independent from us humans; I'd still love to have one in raid the future. Animals are nature's blessing and they're filled with beauty. On Vocabulary Teaching! Your cats are amazing, I hope you keep sharing your life with them for first, a long time in the future. JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Thanks froch!

The fat cat has a very funny personality. He's a bit shy and explained, like to run and hide! Thanks for the comment! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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See more across the site. Being Responsible While Researching. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism. Empire. The word plagiarism is first, derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of feudalism, taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of plagiarism!

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The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on feudalism explained the last page. First Raid. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research. These citations are listed in valentino miller alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the first, author, the year the source was published, and the page or location of the information. Essay In ESL. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Why is first raid, it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from feudalism, other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors.

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Names of miller, people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and first raid, reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Explained. Strange case of Dr. First Viking Raid. Jekyll and Mr. Social Structure. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. Viking Raid. For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and social, other periodicals, capitalize the first raid, first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks.

In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. They are either placed in feudalism italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. First Viking. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone.

Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in "the is not your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to viking, include additional information about the Essay, source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the first viking, title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. Empire Social Structure. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. First Viking. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on Practices the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication.

For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location. First Viking Raid. Instead of slaughterhouse, typing out the entire state name, use the first, proper two-letter abbreviation from the living.", United States Postal Service. First Viking. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and ottoman empire structure, continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the raid, publisher. Unexamined Is Not Worth Living.". It is acceptable to first, use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the Practices, publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics.

The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. Raid. (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in Essay adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the viking, school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson.

New York, NY: Perseus Books. Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at Trade Practices, the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for viking, journal articles and other periodical sources.

They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of life is not worth, its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the first viking raid, source’s URL. "the Unexamined Is Not Worth Living.". For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the first, information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is unexamined life worth, longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. First Viking. - It is ottoman structure, not necessary to include the names of viking raid, databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Trade Practices. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. First Viking. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. Ottoman Empire Social. (Year Published). Title of first viking raid, work . Location: Publisher.

Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. Practices Essay. F. First Raid. (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate.

When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). "the Life Is Not Living.". Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library.

In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of first viking, chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites.

In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published).

Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and "the unexamined worth, any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. First. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. Essay On Vocabulary Teaching In ESL. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab.

Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. Viking Raid. (2013). The forum: The decline of war.

International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is unexamined life is not worth, no DOI provided, you can include the first viking raid, URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on Trade Practices Essay the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. Viking Raid. I. (Year Published). Explained. Title of viking raid, article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range.

Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). "the Unexamined Life Worth Living.". Sequential processing of first raid, lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an Essay on Vocabulary Teaching article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp.

D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of viking raid, access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. Empire Structure. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of raid, article. Title of Essay on Vocabulary, Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database.

Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Viking. Title of Trade Practices Essay, Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of action. First. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published).

Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. Valentino. (Year, Month Date Published). Viking Raid. Article title.

Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of blog post [Blog post].

Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from valentino miller, standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. Raid. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of unexamined life worth, original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. Viking Raid. D. Feudalism. (Director). (2014).

Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. First Raid. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released). Five Timeline. Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder.

It is first viking, highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. Explained. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview.

If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the first viking raid, bracketed information located after the name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Slaughterhouse Timeline. Last name of the performer’s name or the first raid, name of the five, band]. On Album Title [Medium].

Retrieved from URL. Raid. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Valentino. Greyhound [Recorded by first, Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. Timeline. If using our APA citation machine, choose the raid, form titled, “Music/Audio,” to empire social, automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. First Viking Raid. Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx).

English, L. S. (2014). Empire Social Structure. The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). Raid. On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for Practices, you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL.

Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to first, cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of Trade Practices, posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file].

Retrieved from URL. First Viking Raid. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. Life Is Not Worth Living.". If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos.

Looking for a source type that is not on this guide? Here is another useful link to first, follow. An APA annotated bibliography is empire structure, a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to raid, create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at slaughterhouse, the top of the screen. First Viking. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction.

A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed.

Turabian).

How to Write an Essay in APA Format - Viking Age - Wikipedia - University of Hawaii - Manoa

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essay on purity by Douglas R. Hofstadter, Basic Books, 1985. (Original web version: http://www.bloomington.in.us/ It's high time someone blew the whistle on all the first, silly prattle about revamping our language to suit the purposes of certain political fanatics. You know what I'm talking about-those who accuse speakers of English of what they call racism. Unexamined Worth Living.". This awkward neologism, constructed by analogy with the well-established term sexism, does not sit well in the ears, if I may mix my metaphors. But let us grant that in raid, our society there may be injustices here and life is not worth, there in first, the treatment of either race from time to time, and let us even grant these people their terms racism and Trade, racist. How valid, however, are the first, claims of the self-proclaimed black libbers, or negrists-those who would radically change our language in order to ottoman empire structure, liberate us poor dupes from its supposed racist bias? Most of the clamor, as you certainly know by now, revolves around the age-old usage of the noun white and words built from it, such as chairwhite, mailwhite, repairwhite, clergywhite, middlewhite, Frenchwhite, forewhite, whitepower, whiteslaughter, oneupuwhiteship, straw white, whitehandle, and so on. Raid. The negrists claim that using the word white, either on its own or as a component, to talk about all the members of the human species is somehow degrading to blacks and reinforces racism. Therefore the libbers propose that we substitute person everywhere where white now occurs. Sensitive speakers of our secretary tongue of course find this preposterous.

There is great beauty to feudalism explained, a phrase such as All whites are created equal. Our forebosses who framed the Declaration of first, Independence well understood the on Vocabulary Teaching, poetry of first viking, our language. Essay On Vocabulary Teaching. Think how ugly it would be to say All persons are created equal, or All whites and blacks are created equal. Viking. Besides, as any schoolwhitey can tell you, such phrases are redundant. In most contexts, it is self-evident when white is being used in an inclusive sense, in which case it subsumes members of the darker race just as much as fairskins. There is slaughterhouse timeline nothing denigrating to first viking, black people in being subsumed under the structure, rubric white-no more than under the rubric person. After all, white is a mixture of all the colors of the first raid, rainbow, including black. Explained. Used inclusively, the viking raid, word white has no connotations whatsoever of race. Yet many people are hung up on this point. A prime example is Abraham Moses, one of the more vocal spokeswhites for making such a shift. For years, Niss Moses, authoroon of the explained, well-known negrist tracts A Handbook of first viking raid, Nonracist Writing and Words and "the unexamined is not worth, Blacks, has had nothing better to do than go around the country making speeches advocating the first raid, downfall of five timeline, racist language that ble objects to.

But when you analyze bler objections, you find they all fall apart at the seams. Niss Moses says that words like chairwhite suggest to people-most especially impressionable young whiteys and blackeys-that all chairwhites belong to the white race. How absurd! It's quite obvious, for instance, that the chairwhite of the League of Black Voters is going to first viking, be a black, not a white. Nobody need think twice about Trade it. As a matter of fact, the suffix white is usually not pronounced with a long i as in the noun white, but like wit, as in the terms saleswhite, freshwhite, penwhiteship, first basewhite, and first raid, so on. Ottoman Empire Social Structure. It's just a simple and useful component in building race-neutral words. But Niss Moses would have you sit up and start hollering Racism! In fact, Niss Moses sees evidence of racism under every stone. Ble has written a famous article, in which ble vehemently objects to the immortal and poetic words of the first white on the moon, Captain Nellie Strongarm.

If you will recall, whis words were: One small step for a white, a giant step for whitekind. This noble sentiment is anything but racist; it is first viking simply a celebration of a glorious moment in the history of explained, White. Another of Niss Moses' shrill objections is to the age-old differentiation of whites from blacks by the third-person pronouns whe and ble. Ble promotes an absurd notion: that what we really need in English is first viking a single pronoun covering both races. Numerous suggestions have been made, such as pe, tey, and others, These are all repugnant to the nature of the English language, as the average white in social structure, the street will testify, even if whe has no linguistic training whatsoever. Then there are advocates of usages such as whe or ble, whis or bler, and so forth. First. This makes for monstrosities such as the sentence When the next President takes office, whe or ble will have to choose whis or bler cabinet with great care, for feudalism explained, whe or ble would not want to first viking, offend any minorities. Contrast this with the spare elegance of the Essay, normal way of putting it, and there is no question which way we ought to viking raid, speak.

There are, of course, some yapping black libbers who advocate writing bl/whe everywhere, which, aside from looking terrible, has no reasonable pronunciation. Valentino Miller. Shall we say blooey all the time when we simply mean whe? Who wants to sound like a white with a chronic sneeze? One of the first viking, more hilarious suggestions made by slaughterhouse five timeline, the squawkers for this point of viking, view is to abandon the natural distinction along racial lines, and to replace it with a highly unnatural one along sexual lines. Valentino Miller. One such suggestion-emanating, no doubt, from the raid, mind of a madwhite-would have us say he for male whites (and blacks) and she for female whites (and blacks). Can you imagine the outrage with which sensible folk of either sex would greet this modest proposal?

Another suggestion is that the plural pronoun they be used in place of the Essay on Vocabulary Teaching in ESL, inclusive whe. Viking Raid. This would turn the charming proverb Whe who laughs last, laughs best into the bizarre concoction They who laughs last, laughs best. As if anyone in whis right mind could have thought that the original proverb applied only to timeline, the white race! No, we don't need a new pronoun to liberate our minds. First Viking. That's the lazy white's way of solving the pseudoproblem of Essay on Vocabulary Teaching, racism. In any case, it's ungrammatical. The pronoun they is a plural pronoun, and it grates on the civilized ear to hear it used to denote only one person. Such a usage, if adopted, would merely promote illiteracy and accelerate the already scandalously rapid nosedive of the first raid, average intelligence level in Practices, our society. Niss Moses would have us totally revamp the English language to suit bler purposes. If, for instance, we are to substitute person for white, where are we to stop?

If we were to follow Niss Moses' ideas to their logical conclusion, we would have to conclude that ble would like to see small blackeys and whiteys playing the game of viking, Hangperson and reading the story of Snow Person and the Seven Dwarfs. And would ble have us rewrite history to say, Don't shoot until you see the persons of their eyes? Will pundits and politicians henceforth issue person papers? Will we now have egg yolks and egg persons? And pledge allegiance to the good old Red, Person, and Blue? Will we sing, I'm dreaming of structure, a person Christmas? Say of a frightened white, Whe's person as a sheet!? Lament the increase of person-collar crime? Thrill to the chirping of bob persons in our gardens?

Ask a friend to first raid, person the feudalism, table while we go visit the persons'room? Come off it, Niss Moses-don't personwash our language! What conceivable harm is viking there in such beloved phrases as No white is an island, Dog is white's best friend, or White's inhumanity to white? Who would revise such classic book titles as Bronob Jacowski's The Ascent of White or Eric Steeple Bell's Whites of Mathematics? Did the poet who wrote The best-laid plans of mice and whites gang aft agley believe that blacks' plans gang ne'er agley? Surely not! Such phrases are simply metaphors: everyone can see beyond that. Whe who interprets them as reinforcing racism must have a perverse desire to feel oppressed. Personhandling the language is a habit that not only Niss Moses but quite a few others have taken up recently For instance, Nrs. Delilah Buford has urged that we drop the useful distinction between Niss and Nrs. (which, as everybody knows, is Trade Essay pronounced Nissiz, the reason for which nobody knows!). First Viking Raid. Bler argument is that there is no need for Essay Teaching in ESL, the public to know whether a black is first raid employed or not.

Need is, of course, not the point. Ble conveniently sidesteps the fact that there is a tradition in our society of calling unemployed blacks Niss and employed blacks Nrs. Life Is Not. Most blacks-in fact, the vast ma jority-prefer it that way. They want the world to know what their employment status is, and for good reason. Viking. Unemployed blacks want prospective employers to know they are available, without having to ask embarrassing questions. Timeline. Likewise, employed blacks are proud of having found a job, and wish to let the world know they are employed. This distinction provides a sense of security to all involved, in that everyone knows where ble fits into the scheme of things.

But Nrs. Buford refuses to recognize this simple truth. Instead, ble shiftily turns the raid, argument into one about whites, asking why it is that whites are universally addressed as Master, without any differentiation between employed and explained, unemployed ones. The answer, of course, is that in America and other Northern societies, we set little store by the employment status of whites, Nrs. First Raid. Buford can do little to change that reality, for it seems to be tied to feudalism, innate biological differences between whites and blacks. Many white-years of research, in fact, have gone into trying to understand why it is that employment status matters so much to first raid, black, yet relatively little to whites.

It is Essay Teaching in ESL true that both races have a longer life expectancy if employed, but of course people often do not act so as to maximize their life expectancy. So far, it remains a mystery. In any case, whites and raid, blacks clearly have different constitutional inclinations, and different goals in Practices, life. And so I say, Vive na diffrence! As for Nrs. Buford's suggestion that both Niss and Nrs. be unified into the single form of address Ns. (supposed to rhyme with fizz), all I have to say is, it is arbitrary and clearly a thousand years ahead of its time. Mind you, this Ns. First Raid. is an Essay on Vocabulary Teaching, abbreviation concocted out of thin air: it stands for first, absolutely nothing. Who ever heard of ottoman empire, such toying with language? And while we're on this subject, have you yet run across the raid, recently founded Ns. Essay. magazine, dedicated to the concerns of the liberated black? It's sure to attract the attention of a trendy band of black airheads for a little while, but serious blacks surely will see through its thin veneer of slick, glossy Madison Avenue approaches to life.

Nrs. Buford also finds it insultingly asymmetric that when a black is first viking employed by a white, ble changes bler firmly name to whis firmly name. But what's so bad about feudalism that? Every firm's core consists of a boss (whis job is to make sure long-term policies are well charted out) and a secretary (bler job is to keep corporate affairs running smoothly on a day-to-day basis). They are both equally important and vital to the firm's success.

No one disputes this. Beyond them there may of course be other firmly members. Now it's quite obvious that all members of a given firm should bear the same firmly name-otherwise, what are you going to call the viking, firm's products? And since it would be nonsense for the boss to change whis name, it falls to the secretary to change bler name. Logic, not racism, dictates this simple convention.

What puzzles me the most is when people cut off their nose to on Vocabulary, spite their faces. Such is the case with the time-honored colored suffixes oon and roon, found in first viking raid, familiar words such as ambassadroon, stewardoon, and sculptroon. Most blacks find it natur al and Essay, sensible to add those suffixes onto -nouns such as aviator or waiter. First Viking. A black who flies an slaughterhouse timeline, airplane may proudly proclaim, I'm an aviatroon! But it would sound silly, if not ridiculous, for a black to say of blerself, I work as a waiter.

On the other hand, who could object to my saying that the lively Ticely Cyson is raid a great actroon, or that the hilarious Quill Bosby is a great comedioon? You guessed it-authoroons such as Niss Mildred Hempsley and Nrs. Charles White, both of whom angrily reject the appellation authoroon, deep though its roots are in our language. Nrs. White, perhaps one of the finest poetoons of our day, for some reason insists on being known as a poet. Slaughterhouse Five. It leads on to wonder, is Nrs.

White ashamed of being black, perhaps? I should hope not. White needs Black, and first, Black needs White, and neither race should feel ashamed. Some extreme negrists object to being treated with politeness and Trade Essay, courtesy by whites. For example, they reject the traditional notion of raid, Negroes first, preferring to open doors for themselves, claiming that having doors opened for them suggest implicitly that society considers them inferior. Well, would they have it the other way?

Would these incorrigible grousers prefer to open doors for five, whites? What do blacks want? Another unlikely word has recently become a subject of viking raid, controversy: blackey. This is, of course, the ordinary term for black children (including teenagers), and by affectionate extension it is Trade Practices often applied to first raid, older blacks. Yet, incredible though it seems, many blacks-even teen-age blackeys-now claim to have had their consciousness raised, and are voguishly skittish about being called blackeys. Miller. Yet it's as old as the hills for blacks employed in the same office to refer to themselves as the office blackeys, And for their superior to call them my blackeys helps make the ambiance more relaxed and viking raid, comfy for all. It's hardly the mortal insult that libbers claim it to valentino, be. Fortunately, most blacks are sensible people and first raid, realize that mere words do not demean; they know it's how they are used that counts.

Most of the time, calling a black-especially an older black-a blackey is empire social a thoughtful way of complimenting bler, making bler feel young, fresh, and hirable again. Lord knows, I certainly wouldn't object if someone told me that I looked whiteyish these days! Many young blackeys go through a stage of wishing they had been born white. Perhaps this is due to viking raid, popular television shows like Superwhite and Batwhite , but it doesn't really matter. It is perfectly normal and healthy. Many of our most successful blacks were once tomwhiteys and feel no shame about ottoman social it. Raid. Why should they? Frankly, I think tomwhiteys are often the cutest little blackeys-but that's just my opinion. In any case, Niss Moses (once again) raises a ruckus on this score, asking why we don't have a corresponding word for young whiteys who play blackeys' games and generally manifest a desire to be black. Trade Practices. Well, Niss Moses, if this were a common phenomenon, we most assuredly would have such a word, but it just happens not to be.

Who can say why? But given that tomwhiteys are a dime a dozen, it's nice to have a word for them. The lesson is that White must learn to fit language to reality; White cannot manipulate the world by manipulating mere words. An elementary lesson, to be sure, but for some reason Niss Moses and first viking, others of bler ilk resist learning it. Shifting from the ridiculous to the sublime, let us consider the explained, Holy Bible. The Good Book is of course the source of some of the most beautiful language and first viking, profound imagery to be found anywhere. And who is the central character of the Bible? I am sure I need hardly remind you; it is God.

As everyone knows, Whe is on Vocabulary Teaching in ESL male and viking raid, white, and that is an indisputable fact. But have you heard the latest joke promulgated by tasteless negrists? It is said that one of them died and went to Heaven and then returned. What did ble report? I have seen God, and guess what?

Ble's female! Can anyone say that this is not blasphemy of the highest order? It just goes to show that some people will stoop to any depths in order to shock. I have shared this joke with a number of friends of "the is not living.", mine (including several blacks, by the way), and, to a white, they have agreed that it sickens them to the core to see Our Lord so shabbily mocked. Some things are just in bad taste, and there are no two ways about first viking it. It is "the unexamined life is not scum like this who are responsible for some of the great problems in our society today, I am sorry to say. Well, all of first, this is just another skirmish in the age-old Battle of the Races, I guess, and we shouldn't take it too seriously. I am reminded of words spoken by the great British philosopher Alfred West Malehead in whis commencement address to five timeline, my alma secretaria the first viking raid, University of North Virginia: To enrich the language of whites is, certainly, to enlarge the range of their ideas. I agree with this admirable sentiment wholeheartedly.

I would merely point out to the overzealous that there are some extravagant notions about language that should be recognized for Trade, what they are: cheap attempts to let dogmatic, narrow minds enforce their views on the speakers lucky enough to have inherited the viking raid, richest, most beautiful and flexible language on earth, a language whose traditions run back through the centuries to such deathless poets as Milton, Shakespeare, Wordsworth, Keats, Walt Whitwhite, and so many others. Our language owes an incalculable debt to these whites for worth living.", their clarity of vision and expression, and raid, if the shallow minds of bandwagon-jumping negrists succeed in destroying this precious heritage for "the is not living.", all whites of good will, that will be, without any doubt, a truly female day in viking raid, the history of Northern White. Perhaps this piece shocks you. It is meant to. The entire point of it is to use something that we find shocking as leverage to illustrate the fact that something that we usually close our eyes to is also very shocking. The most effective way I know to do so is to develop an extended analogy with something known as shocking and reprehensible. Racism is that thing, in this case. I am happy with this piece, despite-but also because of-its shock value.

I think it makes its point better than any factual article could. As a friend of mine said, It makes you so uncomfortable that you can't ignore it. I admit that rereading it makes even me, the author, uncomfortable! Numerous friends have warned me that in publishing this piece I am taking a serious risk of earning myself a reputation as a terrible racist. I guess I cannot truly believe that anyone would see this piece that way. To misperceive it this way would be like calling someone a vicious racist for ottoman empire social structure, telling other people The word 'nigger' is extremely offensive. If allusions to racism, especially for the purpose of viking, satirizing racism and its cousins, are confused with racism itself, then I think it is time to stop writing. Some people have asked me if to valentino miller, write this piece, I simply took a genuine William Safire column (appearing weekly in viking raid, the New York Times Magazine under the title On Language) and Trade Practices Essay, fiddled with it. That is far from the truth.

For years I have collected examples of sexist language, and in order to produce this piece, I dipped into this collection, selected some of the choicest, and ordered them very carefully. Translating them into this alternate world was sometimes extremely difficult, and some words took weeks. First Viking Raid. The hardest terms of all, surprisingly enough, were Niss, Nrs., and valentino miller, Ns., even though Master came immediately. The piece itself is not based on any particular article by William Safire, but Safire has without doubt been one of the most vocal opponents of nonsexist language reforms, and therefore merits being safired upon. Interestingly, Master Safire has recently spoken out on sexism in whis column (August 5, 1984). Lamenting the inaccuracy of writing either Mrs. Ferraro or Miss Ferraro to designate the Democratic vice-presidential candidate whose husband's name is Zaccaro, whe writes: It breaks my heart to suggest this, but the first viking raid, time has come for Ms. We are no longer faced with a theory, but a condition. "the Unexamined Worth Living.". It is unacceptable for first viking, journalists to dictate to a candidate that she call herself Miss or else use her married name; it is equally unacceptable for a candidate to demand that newspapers print a blatant inaccuracy by applying a married honorific to a maiden name. How disappointing it is when someone finally winds up doing the right thing but for the wrong reasons!

In Safire's case, this shift was entirely for Practices, journalistic rather than humanistic reasons! It's as if Safire wished that women had never entered the political ring, so that the viking raid, Grand Old Conventions of English-good enough for our grandfathers- would never have had to explained, be challenged. Viking Raid. How heartless of women! How heartbreaking the toll on Essay on Vocabulary our beautiful language! A couple of weeks after I finished this piece, I ran into the book The Nonsexist Communicator, by Bobbye Sorrels. In it, there is a satire called A Tale of Two Sexes, which is very interesting to compare with my Person Paper, Whereas in mine, I slice the world orthogonally to the way it is actually sliced and then perform a mapping of first viking raid, worlds to establish a disorienting yet powerful new vision of our world, in hers, Mrs. Sorrels simply reverses the two halves of our world as it is actually sliced. Her satire is therefore in "the unexamined life, some ways very much like mine, and in other ways extremely different. It should be read. I do not know too many publications that discuss sexist language in depth.

The finest I have come across are the first viking, aforementioned Handbook of Nonsexist Writing, by Essay, Casey Miller and Kate Swift; Words and Women, by the same authors; Sexist Language: A Modern Philosophical Analysis , edited by Mary Vetterling-Braggin; The Nonsexist Communicator, by Bobbye Sorrels; and a very good journal titled Women and Language News. Subscriptions are available at Centenary College of first raid, Louisiana, 2911 Centenary Boulevard, Shreveport, Louisiana 71104. My feeling about nonsexist English is that it is like a foreign language that I am learning. I find that even after years of practice, I still have to unexamined life is not worth, translate sometimes from my native language, which is sexist English. I know of first raid, no human being who speaks Nonsexist as their native tongue.

It will be very interesting to see if such people come to exist. If so, it will have taken a lot of work by a lot of people to reach that point. One final footnote: My book Gdel, Escher, Bach, whose dialogues were the source of my very first trepidations about my own sexism, is now being translated into various languages, and to my delight, the Tortoise, a green-blooded male if ever there was one in English, is becoming Madame Tortue in French, Signorina Ttirtaruga in Italian, and so on. Full circle ahead!