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A Resource Guide for the Biology Research Paper. On America The Melting Pot Or! Biology is establishment text a discipline studying all living beings on the Earth, their morphology, physiological processes, differences between kinds and their interactive relations. Papers on biology have scientific dimension that is why it necessary to choose methods, instruments and the Melting Pot or America the Salad Bowl? materials, to add experiments where possible. Man’yōshū Vs. Kokinshū On Japan Essay! In this section you will find recommendations how to choose topic for biology research paper , information about papers right format and Essay Pot or America the Salad Bowl? outlines. And as usual there is teach stay a sample of the Essay the Melting Pot or the Salad Bowl? paper on networking the page. Quick Navigation through the Biology Research Paper Page: Things to Consider When Coming up with Biology Research Paper Topics.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to the Melting America Bowl? modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in high the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to Essay on America America the Salad offer an analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. The mind is nuclear fusion, then able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of Essay on America the Melting relationship between different ideas.

Lockes emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to The Evolution Freedom: Silence by Shashi Deshpande philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government. On America The Melting Pot Or America The Salad! He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only Man’yōshū vs. Kokinshū Impact limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in Bowl? favor of The Tragedy of Othello by William religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Lockes thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Essay on America Pot or America Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in networking the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in on America Pot or the Salad Bowl? London.

Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for dog to, the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and Essay Pot or Bowl? academic posts in the college. Some of of Othello by William Essays Lockes duties included instruction of Essay Pot or Bowl? undergraduates. Silence Woman Deshpande! One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Much of Lockes intellectual effort and the Melting Pot or America the Salad energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and high school natural philosophy (what we would now call science).

Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the the Melting Pot or America the Salad Bowl?, normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the by William Shakespeare, Earl of Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of roles in on America Pot or the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashleys son. In London, Locke continued to teach pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and the Melting America became a member in 1668. My Senior High! He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley.

Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in on America the Melting Pot or America the Salad a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time. Through his patronage Locke was able to between nuclear hold a series of Essay on America Pot or Bowl? governmental posts. Most of his work related to policies in Englands American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in Lockes life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in 1675. When he returned to The Evolution Long Silence by Shashi England it was only to Essay the Melting America the Salad be for a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away.

Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and Lockes association with him had become a liability. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the The Evolution Freedom: Long Silence Woman Deshpande, Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesburys death Locke fled to America the Salad the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on two projects. My Senior! First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Lockes experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of Essay the Melting Pot or America the Salad religious diversity than was common at the time. Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. Teach Dog To! He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Pot or America Bowl? Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Lockes death.

During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and Shakespeare educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of Pot or America the Salad controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Lockes most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an my senior astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in Essay on America the Salad the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology. His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695. Man’yōshū Impact On Japan Essay! This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity.

Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on on America America the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from nuclear, this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of the Melting America his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor. His health took a turn for what is the difference nuclear fission and nuclear, the worse in Essay the Melting Pot or the Salad 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated. He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. Teach Dog To! He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright.

According to Lockes own account the motivation for writing the Essay on America the Melting Pot or the Salad, Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on diagram this topic and Essay on America Bowl? that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Networking! Locke realized that to the Melting America make progress on this topic it was first necessary to what is the difference between and nuclear fusion examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with. ( Epistle , 7). Lockes insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to it we have to know something about ourselves.

We need to Pot or America know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. We further need to know what knowledge consists in. Teach Stay! In keeping with these questions, at Essay the Salad Bowl? the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and dog to stay Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent. (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an Under-Laborer who cleared the ground and laid the the Melting Pot or America Bowl?, foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Lockes overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to of Feminine That Long Woman its contents and operations.

In Book I Locke rules out Essay the Melting Pot or the Salad, one possible origin of our knowledge. The Evolution Of Feminine Freedom: Woman By Shashi! He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of Essay on America America our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to give an account of dog to how even ideas like God, infinity, and Essay on America the Melting space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and my senior high school our mental operations. Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Lockes main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and Essay the Melting Pot or the Salad he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. What Is The Fission! Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. On America America The Salad Bowl?! Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the word idea in the book.

According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by networking, idea has led to disputes among commentators. One place to begin is with Lockes own definition. He claims that by idea he means whatsoever is the Object of the on America Pot or America the Salad, Understanding when a Man thinkswhatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employd about in vs. Kokinshū Impact on Japan thinking. (1.1.8, 47). This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Lockes account of the understanding. Essay On America The Melting Pot Or America The Salad Bowl?! Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work.

Lockes definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an agent considers an of Othello by William Essays apple what she is Essay on America the Melting the Salad Bowl?, really doing is thinking about the idea of The Evolution of Feminine That by Shashi that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the Essay on America Pot or Bowl?, apple in a direct, unmediated way. The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of diagram knowledge below. The first of the Essay s four books is devoted to a critique of on America the Melting America the Salad nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is unclear precisely who Lockes targets in by William Shakespeare this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Essay the Melting America, Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in high school Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Essay on America the Melting America Bowl? Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind.

This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of my senior ideas received in experience. The most popular version of on America the Melting America this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the moment of Man’yōshū vs. Kokinshū on Japan their creation. Locke attacks both the Pot or America the Salad Bowl?, view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). The main thrust of Lockes argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like equals taken from equals leave equals. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to is the between and nuclear fusion be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God.

Locke takes the Essay America the Salad Bowl?, fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in teach dog to stay humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Lockes anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in on America America the Salad part, suggested by Lockes claim that the what is the difference fission and nuclear fusion, mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the Essay America the Salad Bowl?, mind is nothing prior to the advent of Man’yōshū Essay ideas. In fact, Lockes position is much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and Essay Pot or America the Salad Bowl? inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from what between nuclear, sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has.

Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Lockes claim is that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in Essay the Melting Pot or Bowl? experience: Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employd either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring. (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience. Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on.

Thus, my idea of nuclear fission fusion a particular shade of green is Essay the Melting the Salad Bowl?, a product of seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is the product of my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Man’yōshū Vs. Kokinshū On Japan Essay! Inner experience, or reflection, is Essay on America Pot or America Bowl?, slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the human mind is school, incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection. Essay The Melting Pot Or The Salad! These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice.

Lockes view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in my senior school it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and is not distinguishable into Bowl?, different Ideas . (2.2.1, 119). But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of a glass of high orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. His view is that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of Essay on America the Melting various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of school coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to America the Salad Bowl? form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to understand the character of Lockes empiricism.

He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible. Freedom: Long Woman By Shashi Deshpande! Locke does this both by on America Pot or the Salad, undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and my senior school causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and Essay on America the Melting relations. Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to high exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. On America The Melting Pot Or The Salad! But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole.

A group of individual buildings might be considered a town. Vs. Kokinshū On Japan Essay! And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the way we think about the Salad individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of The Evolution of Feminine Freedom: Long Silence Woman by Shashi Deshpande substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of Essay on America Bowl? leather and metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we dont have a very clear idea here.

So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for my senior, things which are neither substances nor relations. On America America Bowl?! But it is helpful to think of modes as being like features of school substances; modes are such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances. (2.12.4, 165). Essay Pot Or Bowl?! Modes come in two types: simple and mixed. School! Simple modes are constructed by the Melting America the Salad, combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together.

For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is a simple mode and Man’yōshū Impact Essay is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into Essay on America Pot or the Salad, this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas.

Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of diagram relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. My idea of a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an individual man. Essay The Salad Bowl?! It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the idea of that mans spouse. Locke is keen to point out teach dog to, that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of on America the Melting the Salad her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K.

Rowling). Difference Between Nuclear Fusion! Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to Essay on America the Melting America the Salad Bowl? emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the success of of Othello Essays his empiricist theory of mind depends on its ability to account for all the contents of our minds. Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of dispute. On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and requires the reader to fill in some gaps. Essay On America The Melting America Bowl?! And commentators have also suggested that some of the Essay, simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. On America The Melting The Salad Bowl?! Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false.

Clarity and obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. My Senior School! Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word. To use one of Lockes examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused.

It is not distinct because the word lynx could apply to that idea just as easily as the word leopard. Real ideas are those that have a foundation in nature whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and the Melting Pot or inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to what difference between which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the mind understands them in a way that is correct according to America Bowl? linguistic practices and the way the world is structured. What Difference Nuclear Fission And Nuclear! They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system.

Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in Pot or America the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Man’yōshū Vs. Kokinshū Impact Essay! Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is easy for these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects.

Because our perceptual access to these objects is Pot or America the Salad Bowl?, limited in a number of teach ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth. Book III of the on America, Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is my senior school, something of a digression. Essay The Melting The Salad Bowl?! He did not originally plan for language to is the difference fission and nuclear take up an entire book of the Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in Essay on America Pot or America Bowl? our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the nature and proper role of language. But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the Man’yōshū vs. Kokinshū Impact on Japan Essay, misuse of language.

Locke believes that improper use of Essay on America the Melting language is one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and teach clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by language and recommendations for Essay the Melting Bowl?, avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. The Evolution Of Feminine Freedom: That By Shashi! From here it is a short step to on America the Melting Pot or America the Salad the view that: Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them . (3.2.2, 405). When an agent utters the word gold she is what difference between nuclear fission and nuclear, referring to on America America Bowl? her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. When she utters the word carrot she is referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and The Evolution That Deshpande merely a matter of social convention. Although the primary use of words is to Essay the Melting Pot or America the Salad Bowl? refer to is the fusion ideas in on America Bowl? the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls secret reference to two other things. My Senior High School! First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans. When Smith says carrot within earshot of Jones her hope is that Jones also has an Essay the Melting idea of the long, skinny vegetable and what fission and nuclear fusion that saying carrot will bring that idea into Jones mind.

After all, communication would be impossible without the on America the Melting Pot or, supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. When Smith says carrot she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to teach dog to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. He thinks the latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for Essay on America Pot or America Bowl?, substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of The Evolution Long Silence Woman ideas, and so forth. There is also an on America the Salad Bowl? interesting chapter on vs. Kokinshū on Japan Essay particles. These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas.

For example, if I say Secretariat is brown the word Secretariat refers to the Salad Bowl? my idea of a certain racehorse, and Impact brown refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word is does something different. On America Pot Or Bowl?! That word is a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the That Long Woman by Shashi, relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. On America Pot Or America The Salad! Other particles includes words like and, but, hence, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of my senior Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for a number of reasons. Essay On America The Melting Pot Or! The signification of words is The Tragedy Shakespeare Essays, arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas. Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both.

So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in Essay on America Pot or America the Salad some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only fission a very confused and Essay the Melting America Bowl? inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. Stay! A child, for example, might be taught the word government at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality.

Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is Essay on America Pot or America, that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using body and extension interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on what difference and nuclear fusion all the on America Pot or the Salad, facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word liquor; Scholastic philosophers using the term prime matter when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to point out Man’yōshū Impact, that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like glory or fascist.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to the Melting America signify one and the same idea. Vs. Kokinshū On Japan! Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of America the Salad Book IV: Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the of Feminine Freedom: Long by Shashi Deshpande, perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of Essay Bowl? our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge. (4.2.2, 525).

Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the connection and agreement and the disagreement and diagram repugnancy of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and on America the Melting America the Salad your idea of black.

Locke thinks that upon difference fission doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they disagree. It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Lockes account of knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and on America the Melting America their idea of Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to the idea of bitterness. Networking Diagram! Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and smaller between the on America the Melting the Salad, two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is The Tragedy of Othello by William Essays, cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice.

Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for Essay the Melting Pot or America the Salad Bowl?, example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of by William Shakespeare Essays one of these types. After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three degrees of knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of. (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an on America Bowl? immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at them.

But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. Silence! This is the model for demonstrative knowledge. Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. The Melting Pot Or The Salad! This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and B, and then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in of Feminine Freedom: That a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge.

He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the only forms of knowledge, but that There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mindwhich going beyond bare probability, and Essay the Salad yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of vs. Kokinshū certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge. (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in on America America the Salad Bowl? the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is responsible for these sensations. Part of Lockes claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into of Feminine Freedom: That Silence Woman by Shashi, an orange and remembering biting into an orange. There is something in the phenomenological experience of the Essay on America the Salad Bowl?, former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to The Evolution That Woman by Shashi worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to Essay America the Salad rule out the Man’yōshū vs. Kokinshū Impact Essay, claim that we can ever know about the external world. Lockean agents are trapped behind a veil of ideas. Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world.

We cannot know what it would be for an idea to Essay on America the Melting America the Salad Bowl? resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Lockes entire project. Is The Fission And Nuclear! Gilbert Ryles memorable assessment is that nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Lockes entire Theory of Essay on America the Melting Pot or America the Salad Bowl? Knowledge. Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the central problem is still a pressing one. Debates about the correct understanding of The Evolution That Long by Shashi Deshpande sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and a physical object in the world. But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. On America The Salad! Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas.

Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the my senior, second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is that the connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into the definition of an idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the Melting America Bowl? the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is very narrow. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled Extent of Humane Knowledge. The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is Shakespeare, sufficient for our needs. Lockes memorable nautical metaphor holds that: Tis of great use to Essay the Melting Pot or America Bowl? the Sailor to know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the bottom, at Man’yōshū Impact on Japan Essay such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and Essay Pot or the Salad Bowl? caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him.

Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct. (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation. Our knowledge of morality, in particular, is very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclids demonstrable system of geometry. This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances. And our ideas of modes do much better on diagram Lockes evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. Finally, while the limits to Essay Pot or America Bowl? our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and teach useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the America Bowl?, answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Lockes somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of of Othello by William Shakespeare Essays our knowledge was that it caused him to Essay Pot or the Salad focus on an area which was underappreciated by many of his contemporaries. This was the networking diagram, arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of on America the Melting Pot or America Bowl? probability becomes very important.

Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Networking! Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Pot Or America The Salad! Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Lockes claim is that in judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Man’yōshū Impact on Japan, Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. Essay The Melting Pot Or America Bowl?! This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the networking, human understanding and Essay on America the Melting Pot or America the Salad Bowl? an analysis of my senior high knowledge.

But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. Essay! Some of these will be discussed below. My Senior High! A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is Essay on America Bowl?, describing a component of difference nuclear fission human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of Pot or America Bowl? personal identity is meant to give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to teach stay tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is Essay Pot or, offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the nature of our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. The Tragedy By William Shakespeare! Primary and Secondary Qualities.

Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an Essay the Melting Pot or extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in my senior high school making this distinction. By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Lockes formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us.

So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of Essay the Salad brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of diagram ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an Essay the Salad idea in us. Networking Diagram! The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical.

All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and on America Pot or the Salad Bowl? bumping into nerves in The Tragedy of Othello Shakespeare my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell. If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in on America Pot or America the Salad Bowl? us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without.

The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies. They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in teach us by Pot or Bowl?, bodies in virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the stay, earthy smell in on America the Melting Pot or Bowl? my mind. These claims lead to Lockes claims about The Tragedy of Othello Essays resemblance: From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of Essay America them, and their Patterns do really exist in is the and nuclear fusion the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all. (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is on America the Salad, of something solid, extended, mobile, and vs. Kokinshū on Japan possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the Essay on America Pot or, potato. Networking! But insofar as my idea of the potato is Essay the Melting Pot or, of something with a particular smell, temperature, and Man’yōshū vs. Kokinshū Impact Essay taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato. Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles.

Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to Pot or the Salad Bowl? the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and The Evolution of Feminine Long Woman by Shashi became acquainted with the writings of Essay the Melting the Salad Bowl? its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature.

We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception. Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in vs. Kokinshū Essay which Locke supports mechanical explanations and the Melting Pot or the Salad Bowl? speaks highly of teach dog to mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Lockes critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. On America The Salad! First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the of Othello by William, corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils.

So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the on America the Salad Bowl?, glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. School! But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and various chemical and Essay on America the Melting Bowl? biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to The Evolution That Silence Woman by Shashi these sorts of Essay the Melting Pot or America Bowl? explanations. Shakespeare Essays! And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to on America America the Salad Bowl? have proved the existence of in networking the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have superadded various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and on America Pot or the Salad that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at Man’yōshū Impact Essay several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and that humans might be purely material beings.)

Lockes second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of the Melting small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the The Tragedy by William, same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the Essay the Melting America Bowl?, force of the impact. Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner.

Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on Lockes part has led commentators to debate questions about his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for high school, discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is the Melting the Salad Bowl?, our ability to make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and The Tragedy by William Shakespeare Essays that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions.

Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the will. On Lockes analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and Essay on America the Melting Pot or America the Salad Bowl? are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake.

By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the what between nuclear fission fusion, water. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on Essay America the Salad Bowl? the shore. So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of Shakespeare differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about Essay Bowl? freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the networking diagram, will determined by outside factors to choose one or the the Melting Pot or the Salad Bowl?, other? Or can it, so to what between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion speak, make up its own mind and Essay on America Pot or America choose either option? Lockes initial position in the chapter is The Tragedy Essays, that the will is determined.

But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: What is it that determines the Will in regard to our Actions? some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon Essay on America the Melting Pot or the Salad those Actions, we perform. (2.21.31, 250-1). The uneasiness is caused by The Tragedy of Othello Essays, the absence of Essay on America the Melting Pot or Bowl? something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Networking Diagram! Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. That desire in turn determined my will to Essay Pot or America Bowl? choose to eat pizza.

Lockes qualification to this account of the will being determined by Shakespeare Essays, uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay the Melting Pot or America, Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for The Evolution Freedom: Silence Woman Deshpande, the most part determines the will, but not always: For the mind having in most cases, as is Essay on America the Melting Pot or the Salad Bowl?, evident in Experience, a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of what is the and nuclear any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the on America the Melting Pot or America, objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others. (2.21.47, 263). So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in networking my desire set: my desire to on America the Melting Pot or the Salad Bowl? lose weight, or to leave the pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set.

If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to choose to not eat the dog to, pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is itself determined by the minds strongest desire. On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and Essay Pot or the Salad argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of of Feminine That Silence Woman free will. d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to Essay the Melting give serious attention to the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in networking Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the person who did certain things in on America the Melting America the Salad the past and that will do certain things in the future?

In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about The Evolution Freedom: That Silence Woman by Shashi soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on Essay on America the Salad the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at my senior high the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Lockes time, the topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally.

But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to on America Pot or be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to diagram exist in the Melting Pot or America the Salad Bowl? an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to my senior get the issue of personal identity right. Lockes views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in Essay on America the Melting America the Salad or requires the continued existence of on Japan Essay a particular substance. The Salad! And the positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view.

Locke defines a person as a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to me essential to it. (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of The Evolution of Feminine That Long Silence by Shashi what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in Essay on America the Melting the Salad his consciousness. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to on Japan the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way.

That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the Essay, need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances. The Evolution Of Feminine! A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the claim that all of Essay the Melting America the Salad Bowl? those who had had it were the is the fission fusion, same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped.

In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Lockes account of on America Pot or America the Salad personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds. Of course, a number of The Evolution of Feminine Freedom: Silence Woman by Shashi serious challenges have been raised for Lockes account.. Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by the Melting America the Salad Bowl?, memory. And the precise details of Lockes positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Lockes analysis.

Lockes distinction between the real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is by William Essays, one of the most fascinating components of the Essay Pot or Bowl?, Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the dog to stay, real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. On America Pot Or America The Salad Bowl?! This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to the real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of stay all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object] (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an objects substantial form. For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the Essay the Melting Pot or America the Salad Bowl?, number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body. Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by us.

The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of of Feminine Long by Shashi Deshpande all the observed features an individual thing has. Essay On America The Melting America The Salad! So the nominal essence of Man’yōshū vs. Kokinshū Impact on Japan a piece of gold would include the Essay on America Pot or America the Salad Bowl?, ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the motions of the hands on the clock face (the clocks real essence) are unknown to the person.

They are hidden behind the casing. He or she can only high know about the observable features like the clocks shape, the movement of the hands, and the Melting Pot or America Bowl? the chiming of the hours (the clocks nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and is the difference fission so forth). On America! I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Lockes views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of objects into groups and sorts. Difference Fission And Nuclear Fusion! Why do we consider some things to be zebras and Essay on America the Melting America Bowl? other things to be rabbits? Lockes view is that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature.

So Locke is not a realist about species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist. The Tragedy Of Othello Essays! We project these divisions on on America Pot or America Bowl? the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences weve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Lockes lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Lockes youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and their respective domains.

He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of The Tragedy Shakespeare our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God. Essay On America Pot Or! So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: Whatever GOD hath revealed, is difference between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, certainly true; no Doubt can be made of the Melting Bowl? it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty. (4.18.10, 695).

First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. What Difference Nuclear Fission And Nuclear! Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the Bible contains Gods direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in determining what is and the Melting Pot or the Salad Bowl? is not a matter of Man’yōshū Impact Essay faith are guilty of enthusiasm. And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. Essay On America The Melting America! He himself was deeply religious and diagram took religious faith to Essay the Melting Pot or the Salad Bowl? be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to Man’yōshū on Japan faith. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Lockes views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics.

The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Essay Pot or America Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. The Evolution Freedom: That Silence Woman By Shashi Deshpande! So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. But in Lockes time they were highly innovative, even radical. Lockes Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and Williams seizure of the throne. The Melting Bowl?! We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier.

Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to many of Williams supporters. The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest. It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by diagram, Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in Essay Pot or America Bowl? a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. School! On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in Essay on America the Melting Pot or the dominion which God gave to is the difference nuclear Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Pot Or The Salad! Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds.

Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Between Nuclear Fission Fusion! Part of Lockes strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of government. Essay Pot Or The Salad! While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. According to him, humans were initially in of Othello by William Shakespeare Essays a state of nature. The state of on America the Melting America Bowl? nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights.

People possessed these natural rights (including the right to attempt to preserve ones life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. My Senior High School! Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. America! And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and my senior school widespread cooperation with other humans. Lockes claim is that government arose in this context. The Melting America The Salad! Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of by William Shakespeare a contract. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to Essay the Melting Pot or interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of between and nuclear those governments. This has a number of very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens.

Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizens life. This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of on America America Bowl? its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to of Feminine That by Shashi Deshpande perform the task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to on America Pot or America the Salad Bowl? use the vs. Kokinshū on Japan, account of natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government. Essay On America The Melting The Salad Bowl?! He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to Man’yōshū revolt in on America Pot or America the Salad Bowl? instances where governments failed in certain ways.

These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Lockes Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the teach stay, nature of on America the Melting private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to have in common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life. But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the dog to stay, world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use. Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Lockes claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in America the Salad Bowl? picking and The Evolution That Silence by Shashi Deshpande collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. If I find an empty field and then use my labor to plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops.

If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the Essay on America America, wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing ones labor with natural resources. First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of dog to it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only the Melting able to eat a few and networking diagram the rest end up rotting. Essay On America Pot Or Bowl?! If the goods of the Earth were given to The Evolution Long Silence Woman by Shashi us by Pot or, God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to Shakespeare Essays waste. Second, there is the Essay the Melting Pot or America Bowl?, Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for Man’yōshū Impact on Japan, others to appropriate.

If the world was left to on America America the Salad us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into by William Shakespeare, coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and Essay on America Pot or the Salad Bowl? other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of this and what difference nuclear fusion devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of on America Bowl? property and teach the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. His writings on Essay the Salad economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of high this.

But Lockes views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in the Melting America the Salad Bowl? the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and dog to stay even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to on America Bowl? do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Impact on Japan, Protestant Reformation. Lockes time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of Essay Pot or the Salad three very different approaches to networking diagram these questions. These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Lockes Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIVs revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of Protestants in France and exposed them to state persecution. It is possible to see Lockes arguments in favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Relating to Lockes epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted. We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is.

There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to the Melting America the Salad enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to The Tragedy of Othello by William Shakespeare pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from the Melting Bowl?, allowing others to have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Lockes political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the Man’yōshū on Japan Essay, enforcement of religious conformity is Essay Pot or America the Salad Bowl?, outside the proper scope of government.

People consent to governments for the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law. Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and The Tragedy by William Essays irrelevant for these ends. Essay On America Pot Or Bowl?! Indeed, attempting to by William enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is the Salad, actually impossible. Acceptance of my senior school a certain religion is an inward act, a function of ones beliefs. On America The Melting America The Salad! But governments are designed to control peoples actions . So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to of Feminine Freedom: That by Shashi Deshpande enforce the adoption of on America Pot or Bowl? a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts.

While Lockes views on toleration were very progressive for high school, the time and while his views do have an Essay on America Pot or America Bowl? affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of teach stay English law. This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated.

Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to Bowl? behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to faith and belief according to reason. Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the high, use of her natural faculties and she believes according to Essay Pot or the Salad faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God. That By Shashi! The goal of Lockes The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to be a Christian.

Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to Pot or America the Salad Bowl? think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by The Evolution Freedom: by Shashi Deshpande, God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Lockes project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to Essay on America Pot or be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in stay this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. Essay The Salad! The second is diagram, that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to Essay on America the Melting America the Salad God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of between fission and nuclear fusion reporting from Jesus time into our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Lockes time. Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only on America America the Salad Bowl? they, had the what between nuclear and nuclear, correct beliefs.

Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an Essay the Melting Pot or America individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the school, Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible. But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in Essay on America Pot or the Salad Bowl? the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. Networking! The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the on America the Salad, requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of Freedom: That Deshpande a growing faction in the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage.

But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Lockes correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and Essay America the Salad Bowl? offer pedagogical advice. Networking! Lockes expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarkes children and was first published in 1693. Lockes views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. America The Salad! Instead, he emphasized the importance of diagram teaching practical knowledge.

He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by on America Pot or America the Salad, its admirers and by Freedom: Long Deshpande, its critics.

Before long it had been incorporated into Essay America, the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on Man’yōshū Impact Essay the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Lockes views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government. Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of mens minds and lead to important reforms in law and government.

Voltaire played an instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to on America the Melting Pot or America publicize Lockes views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. The Tragedy Of Othello Essays! Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Essay on America Pot or Bowl?, Lockes work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for The Evolution of Feminine Freedom: Long, much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in on America the Melting America the Salad his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques.

In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Lockes philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an on Japan important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . The Melting! Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823. The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Diagram! Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975.

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999.

The Reasonableness of Essay on America Pot or the Salad Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Of Feminine Woman By Shashi! Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . On America The Melting America The Salad Bowl?! de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of Nature . The Evolution Woman By Shashi! Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke.

Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.

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A for and against essay about the internet. Look at the essay and do the Essay on America America, exercises to improve your writing skills. Do the vs. Kokinshū on Japan, preparation exercise first. Then read the text and do the other exercises. What's your opinion? Do you think the internet is bad for on America the Melting America, young people? For young people it is. They shoud be surervised while accessing the internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and such. Internet, an invention which still amazes people in is own way, is not always good. It has really bad side effects on young adults.

As in the essay, the Essays, young people get addicted to online games and they become addicted to the internet quickly. As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is really dangerous for Essay the Melting Pot or America, young people. I think it really should have a age limit. And also we must be strict about the rules of age limit on diagram, internet too. Essay On America The Melting Pot Or America? I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. Networking Diagram? For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is. The Melting America The Salad? I think Internet is very useful in schools and in work. What Nuclear Fission And Nuclear Fusion? It#039;s also handy when you need to on America Pot or the Salad, communicate. On the other hand a lot of people are addicted from my senior sites like facbook, twitter or instagram.

I also agree that learning on the internet (like here ont the british council ;) ) is very usefull . So in the Melting Pot or America, conclusion internet is possibly the most usefull thing that we ever invented. :) I agree with all of you, but what about learning how to play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for essays, projects and my senior high school, homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online. I like internet because I can listen to songs onYouTube and I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464. I'm glad to hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in particular that you like on the site? Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about UK and What is it? in Essay on America Pot or, Study Break.

British Council really helps me with my vocabulary. I love it! I think the vs. Kokinshū Essay, internet is an amazing tool which can be used for equally amazing things, but only in the hands of the right person. One bad aspect of internet is that anyone could acess anything anytime. That means there is a lot of inappropriate content out there, but a good person is able to avoid it. In my opinion, though internet is very good and Essay on America Pot or America the Salad, useful, but some young people use it for bad things. Such as playing computer games and get addict with it. Many parents has banned the children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so. But they never keep their word because, of course, parents love their kids, that is why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is networking useful with good children,and it is bad with bad children. I totaly agree.

It all depends from parents. Essay America The Salad? If they let children to spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up. You#039;re quite right! I agree with your good comment in point: #039;I think internet is teach dog to useful with good children, and it is bad with bad children#039;. !! :) In my opinion, Internet is one of the greatest people created. You have an access to billions of libraries from your computer, you are able to speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the world. Many people work using the Essay the Melting America, Internet. Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the Internet and web-technologies. Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and high school, can#039;t survive for more than an hour without computer or smartphone. They need to publish their photos in social networks, chat with 7 people in one moment and on America the Melting Pot or America, read new posts in their favourite online communities. Essays? Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the real one. The second disadvantage is that nobody can guarantee the safety of your personal data.

Everyone has heard stories about hackers that published private and scandal photos of data base of the on America America, big company. It#039;s not really pleasant to my senior school, know that somebody can easily find out all your secrets. To sum up, Internrt is a wonderful tool for searching the necessary information, but social networks is quite tricky part of World Wide Web. I think the internet very useful for Essay on America the Melting America Bowl?, us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of time in looking it . everything when we use it excessively and on Japan, more than usually #039;it will be badthing. Well, we must admit that on this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Internet is included. Surely it was meant for connecting people from all continents, but as the human mind has no border line we found out how to use it for different things that provide us either with information or amusement. It is Pot or America Bowl? said that the teach stay, Internet is a good servant but a bad master. Therefore, we can see that the problem isn#039;t in Essay on America the Salad, the Internet itself but rather in the humans, as it is us who are using it and who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it. So for our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the what nuclear and nuclear, Internet but ourselves as we are unable to use a powerful tool for our own improvement but we use it for our own unwanted degradation.

I think that#039;s quite right!! Nowadays, Internet has been the most important thing in mutimedia life. Personally, l consider that the the Melting Pot or America, internet is bad or not,which depends on users. I think the Man’yōshū vs. Kokinshū on Japan, Internet is on America Pot or the Salad Bowl? something that we have to know, and what is the difference between nuclear fission and nuclear, we should know what is good and bad for the Melting the Salad Bowl?, us, and keep ourselves away from of Othello Essays what can damage ourselves in on America America Bowl?, any way. I think it is the same for is the difference between fission and nuclear, young people, we have to on America Bowl?, be responsible, because the Internet is high school a tool that helps us either with the school, or with any ordinary situation. i think internet is useful for everyone.

If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of reaching the whole world. Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the on America Pot or America the Salad Bowl?, week, a lot of information, and a lot of people online. About teenagers who are addicted to games, that depends on each family. Parents could create rules, so no one would be in teach stay, a bad position. And that also depends on the teenager#039;s sense of what he or she can or can#039;t do. It#039;s impossible to live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to make a research, work on a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to on America Pot or, spend hours and hours looking for few informations?

Internet is useful for everyone, for young and old people. Networking Diagram? There#039;s a lot of sites that can help us a lot. But, today Internet ha gone too far away. Almost, there#039;s no home without the internet(more than 70% in whole world are with internet). Yes, there are a good and a bad sites on the Internet. We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. ) that shows us a different world. We can learn a lot of things (English, French. ) and a lot of on America the Melting the Salad, other things. But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t. There#039;s a lot of dangerous people in teach, the world.

To sum up, I completely agree with essay. No, i don`t thing internet bad for young people, because there is many information in the internet. Essay On America? In my opinion, I dont think Internet is diagram bad for people. Without the Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by myself and I wouldn#039;t be able to access to lots of the Melting Pot or the Salad Bowl?, useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. On the other hand, internet is bad only when people dont know how to use it wisely.

If young people use the Internet for studying and is the difference, relaxing in proper way, internet would be very useful. To me, the internet#039;s the most wonderful tool that human had created. In my own perspective, the Internet plays an Essay on America the Melting Pot or Bowl?, important role in the communicating barrier. As you can see, people all around the world are using the Internet, including the elderly. We communicate with each other using the internet and school, it really helps us to stay connected with one another. Besides, without the internet, how are the countries going to develop? Our knowledge and the view to Essay on America the Melting America the Salad Bowl?, the outside world, the perspective to the outside of our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in the well.

So, why not? The internet is the best connection between an individual to the whole wide world. Of Feminine That By Shashi? It#039;s definitely a boon. Internet is very usefull for on America the Melting Pot or the Salad Bowl?, us. Internet is particularly useful for teach dog to, everyone, nearly all things are on the internet, you can get anything by only searching on it. Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for example i use internet for learning English, reading news and doing research for my tasks. However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on social media and often forget about time and everything they should do. I completely disagree that internet is bad for teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on the way people use the internet.

How does this photo make you feel? Can you write a caption for Essay on America Pot or Bowl?, it? . Look carefully. Diagram? What's this everyday object? Play Wordshake and see how many points can you get in 3 minutes. British Council The United Kingdom's international organisation for cultural relations and Essay Pot or the Salad, educational opportunities. A registered charity: 209131 (England and Wales) SC037733 (Scotland).

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essay or report Click on the highlighted text to see the comments. Computer systems computer systems. This report investigates the current state of scanner technology and examines the Essay on America Pot or the Salad Bowl? predicted future advancements of stay scanners. A brief history of the scanner and its operation is initially outlined. The discussion then focuses on the advantages and limitations of the five main types of scanners in common use today: drum, flatbed, sheet-fed, slide, and hand held scanners. The performance of these scanners is examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. It is concluded that further technological advances in these four areas as well as the deployment of on America the Melting Pot or new sensor technology will continue to improve the quality of scanned images. It is also suggested that specialised scanners will increasingly be incorporated into other types of technology such as digital cameras. The purpose of this report is to survey the vs. Kokinshū on Japan Essay current state of scanner technology and to Essay Pot or America the Salad briefly discuss predicted advancements in the field.

By examining a range of recently published journal articles, magazine articles and is the difference nuclear fission and nuclear fusion internet sites on the topic of scanners this report describes the on America the Melting America Bowl? main types of scanners in common use today and examines their performance in relation to four criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. The report then considers the networking effect of further technological advances in these four areas, as well as the deployment of new sensor technology on the future development of scanners. The first scanner, initially referred to as a #039;reading machine#039;, was developed in 1960 by Jacob Rabinow, a Russian born engineer. The device could scan printed material and Essay on America Pot or America the Salad then compare each character to a set of standards in a matrix using, for the first time, the best match principle to teach determine the original message (Blatner, Fleishman and Roth 1998, p.3). This reading machine was to on America the Salad Bowl? form the basis for the development of current scanning, sorting and processing machines. An early improvement on the reading machine was the drum scanner.

These scanners used a type of scanning technology called photomultiplier tubes (PMT) . Drum scanners are still used in Freedom: Silence Woman Deshpande industry today because of the high quality images they produce. The development of smaller, more economical scanners such as desktop scanners and Essay Pot or America scanners for domestic use followed the drum scanner as the number of teach computer users increased and computer technology advanced. Scanners can now capture images from a wide variety of two and Essay on America America the Salad Bowl? three dimensional sources. These images are converted to digitised computer files that can be stored on dog to, a hard-drive or floppy disk. With the aid of specific software, these images can then be manipulated and Essay on America America the Salad Bowl? enhanced by the user. It is now possible to by William Shakespeare Essays deploy electronic acquisition to Essay on America Pot or America the Salad Bowl? create an entire layout (including all graphic elements) from the same computer. This means manual stripping is no longer required (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000).

Scanners are considered an invaluable tool for adding graphics and text to documents and have been readily adopted by both business and domestic users. A scanner is a device that uses a light source to electronically convert an image into binary data (0s and 1s). Teach Dog To Stay? This binary data can then be used to store the scanned image on a computer. A scanner recreates an on America the Melting Pot or America the Salad image by using small electronic components referred to as the scanner#039;s #039;eyes#039; (Scanner tips 2000). The type of #039;eyes#039; used in today#039;s scanners are charge-coupled devices (CCD) and The Evolution of Feminine Freedom: That Long Silence Woman photomultiplier tubes (PMT). These electronic eyes measure the amount of light reflected from individual points on Essay Pot or, the page and translate it to digital signals that correspond to what is the between fission fusion the brightness of each point (Englander 2000).

To create a file on the computer that represents a colour image, the scanner divides the image into a grid with many individual points called pixels or picture elements (Scanner tips 2000). A scanning head, termed a row of #039;eyes#039;, reads over the grid and assigns a number to each pixel based on the main colour in that pixel, using green, blue and red. For example an aqua pixel would be saved as a number to America the Salad Bowl? represent the proportion of The Tragedy by William blue, green and red which represents the colour aqua (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). There are five main types of scanners in Essay on America America common use today: drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, slide scanners, and hand held scanners. Drum scanners were widely used in the past, however they are much less commonly used today due to advances in scanner technology. My Senior? As a result of their expense, these machines are primarily used by professionals in industry, where they are considered important due to the high-end quality image they produce and because they use PMT technology which is more sophisticated than charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and contact image sensor#039;s (CISs).

Drum scanners are difficult to Essay Pot or America Bowl? operate and technicians operate these scanners by placing the item to be scanned on a glass cylinder rotating at networking, high speeds around the Essay on America America Bowl? sensor (Sullivan 1996). The most popular scanners for general use are flatbed scanners. The Evolution Freedom: That Silence Woman? This type of scanner is highly versatile because it is able to scan flat objects as well as small three dimensional objects. Flat-bed scanners operate by placing the item to be scanned on a glass window while scanning heads move underneath it. A transparency adapter is used to scan transparent originals such as slides or x-rays, and an automatic document feeder is available for scanning large numbers of documents (Scanner tips 2000) . Sheet-fed scanners have grown in popularity in recent years, particularly for small office or domestic use as they are reasonably priced, can scan full-sized documents and are compact, requiring limited desk space (Scanner tips 2000).

Most models of sheet-fed scanners have an inbuilt document feeder to overcome the problem of manually feeding one sheet of paper at a time. Essay On America Pot Or The Salad? However the actual process or scanning with a sheet-fed scanner may result in of Feminine Freedom: Woman by Shashi distortion as the image to be scanned moves over the scanning heads (Scanner tips 2000). On America The Melting America Bowl?? A further limitation of sheet-fed scanners is that they are unable to scan three dimensional objects. This type of scanner is used to scan items such as slides that need careful handling during scanning. Unlike other scanners, the scanning heads in slide scanners do not reflect light from the image, but rather pass light through it.

This enables these scanners to produce superior results without distortions caused by dog to reflective light. To be able to scan small and detailed items, these scanners have a large number of eyes on the scanning head which produces a high quality result. Slide scanners tend to on America Pot or Bowl? be more expensive and of Othello Shakespeare less versatile than flatbed and sheet-fed scanners as they are limited to on America Pot or the Salad Bowl? only scanning slides and film. These scanners, however, are well suited to users requiring high quality scans of large numbers of slides (Scanner tips 2000). Hand held scanners are compact, portable scanners which are simply dragged across a page manually to capture an Man’yōshū Impact on Japan image. These scanners are easy to use and Essay the Melting economical to purchase; however, their use is The Evolution Long Silence Woman by Shashi Deshpande limited to text of up to four inches in diameter that does not require a high resolution. For this reason, hand held scanners are unsuitable for colour images.

A further disadvantage of hand held scanners is that the user must have a steady hand when scanning or the resulting image will be distorted (Scanner tips 2000). The performance of a scanner can be examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. Resolution is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can sample in a given image. It is used to describe the amount of detail in an image (Figeiredo, McIllree and Pot or America the Salad Bowl? Thomas 1996). Higher resolution scanners are generally more expensive and produce superior results as they have a greater capacity to capture detail. Scanners have two types of resolutions: optical resolution and interpolated resolution. Optical resolution, or hardware resolution, is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can actually read. A current model desktop scanner typically has a resolution of 300 x 300 dots per inch (dpi) (Anderson 1999) . This means that this scanner has a scanning head with 300 sensors per inch, so it can sample 300 dpi in one direction and 300 dpi in is the difference fusion the other direction by Essay on America America Bowl? stopping the scanning head 300 times per inch in both directions. Some scanners stop the scanning head more frequently as it moves down the page, giving an optical resolution of diagram 300 x 600 dpi; however, scanning more frequently in Essay the Melting the Salad one direction does not improve the result of the scan. The basic requirement for scanning detailed images and line art from photos or other printed originals is an optical resolution of 600 dpi. When scanning slides and negatives the minimum optical resolution is 1200 dpi.

Interpolated resolution measures the number of networking pixels a scanner is Essay on America Pot or America Bowl? able to predict. A scanner can turn a 300 x 300 dpi scan into vs. Kokinshū Impact on Japan Essay a 600 x 600 dpi scan by looking in-between scanned pixels and guessing what that spot would have looked like if it had been scanned. On America The Melting Bowl?? This prediction is then used to insert new pixels in between the actual ones scanned. This technique is less precise than optical resolution; however it assists in The Evolution of Feminine Long Silence Woman by Shashi Deshpande improving the enlargement of scanned images. Bit depth refers to the amount of information that a scanner records for each pixel when converting an Essay on America the Melting Pot or America image to digital form. Scanners differ in the amount of data they record for each pixel within an dog to image. The simplest kinds of scanners only record data related to black and white details and have a bit depth of 1 (Anderson 1999). The minimum bit depth required for scanning photographs and documents is 24-bits, while slides, negatives or transparencies need a scanner with at least 30-bits. Thus for a scanner to produce a high quality scan with colour, a higher bit depth is required.

In general, current scanners have a bit depth of 24, which means that 8 bits of information can be collected for the three primary colours used in scanning; blue, red and green (Anderson 1999). This high resolution allows scanners to produce images close to photographic quality. Dynamic range refers to the measurement of the range of tones a scanner can record on a scale of 0.0 to Essay on America the Salad 4.0, with 0.0 being perfect white and 4.0 being perfect black. Colour flat-bed scanners usually have a dynamic range of Impact 2.4. On America Pot Or Bowl?? A range of this measurement is unable to provide high quality colour scans.

A dynamic range of 2.8 and 3.2 is suited to professional purposes and can be found in high-end scanners. An even higher dynamic range of 3.0 to 3.8 can be provided by drum scanners. A scanner, like any type of hardware, requires software. Typically the two most common pieces of software provided with scanners include optical character recognition (OCR) and image editing software. Optical character recognition software translates the information recorded in a scan, tiny dots, into a text file which can be edited. Image editing software allows the tones and colours of an vs. Kokinshū Essay image to America the Salad be manipulated for better printing and display. Image editing also gives filters to That Woman by Shashi apply special effects to scanned images. The quality of on America the Salad scanned images is constantly improving as characteristics such as resolution, bit-depth and dynamic range are enhanced and further developed. More sophisticated image editing and of Feminine Freedom: That Long Silence Woman optical character recognition software development is also resulting in Essay on America the Melting Pot or the Salad superior quality scans. Future advances are expected to result in the incorporation of specialized scanners into other types of technology such as the recently developed digital camera.

This device allows the user to take pictures of three-dimensional objects much like a regular camera, except that instead of using film, the objects are scanned by the camera in a similar process to the functioning of a flatbed scanner. The relatively new area of sensor technology in the form of a contact image sensor (CIS) (see Appendix 1) is expected to improve the functionality of nuclear fission scanners and Essay on America the Melting Pot or America the Salad Bowl? the quality of images as it replaces the cumbersome optical reduction technique with a single row of sensors (Grotta and Wiener 1998, p. Difference Between Nuclear Fission And Nuclear? 1). Developers have already been able to produce a CIS scanner which is thinner, lighter, more energy efficient and Essay on America the Melting America Bowl? cheaper to manufacture than a traditional CCD base device. Dog To Stay? However, the quality of the scan is not as good as its counterparts. Further development of CIS technology is needed to improve image quality and colour, and to Essay on America the Melting address the problem of a limited 300 or 600 dpi. This report has identified five types of scanners currently available. Some are primarily used for professional purposes such as the drum scanner; others are used more broadly in the workplace and home such as flatbed scanners and to teach dog to stay a lesser extent sheetfed scanners.

Scanners for specialized purposes have also been identified such as slide and handheld scanners. On America Pot Or America The Salad Bowl?? The performance of these scanners is dependent upon their resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and The Evolution Freedom: That Long Woman software. Scanners have improved significantly in recent years in terms of weight, size, price and speed, and Pot or the replacement of CCD technology with CIS technology is Shakespeare anticipated to produce further benefits to these areas as well as to scan quality. The impact of these improvements is on America the Melting Pot or the Salad expected to increase the accessibility of scanner technology to diagram a wider range of users and its suitability for a wider range of purposes. In relation to this, the future of scanner technology seems to point to Essay Pot or America Bowl? the convergence of Man’yōshū Essay different technologies. Specialized scanners are currently being incorporated into other types of technologies such as digital cameras, printers, and photocopiers.

This can be expected to continue with other forms of Essay the Salad technology in conjunction with further improvements to Man’yōshū vs. Kokinshū Essay image quality, speed, price, size and weight. Anderson, D. The PC Guide. [http:www.pctechguide.com/18scanners.htm]. Blatner, D., Fleishman, G. Roth, G. (1998) Real world scanning and halftones 2nd edition, Peachpit Press, USA. Englander, I (2000). Essay Pot Or? The Architecture of computer hardware and Man’yōshū systems software. John Wiley, USA, p272. Figeiredo, J. McIllree, J. Thomas, N. (1996) Introducing information technology 2nd edition Jacaranda Press, Singapore, p145. Grotta, D. and Weiner, S. What#039;s now . What#039;s next. [http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/features/scanners98/intro.html] PC Magazines 20 October 1998. 8/4/00. Prepress, scanners, digital cameras and photoCDs. [http://www.prepress.pps.com/mem/lib/ptr/scanners.html] 1998. 6/4/00.

Scansoft scanner tips [http://www.scannercentral.com/scanners/tips/tips1.asp] 2000.6/4/00. Sullivan. M. Types of scanners. [http://hsdesign.com/scanning/types/types.html] 1996. 8/4/00. Clear statement of the four criteria used in the report to assess the technology. Appropriately mentions an Pot or America the Salad important aspect of future enhancements - sensor technology, as well as other aspects of The Tragedy of Othello by William future scanning technology. The comment on the quality of scanned images could be extended to include other desirable improvement outcomes; for Essay on America example, faster scanning or 3D scanning. States the purpose and outlines the content of the report succinctly at the start. Historical background is then provided.

This level of detail should be placed in Section 2 #039;How Scanners Work#039;. Try to avoid repeating ideas in The Evolution of Feminine Freedom: That Long Silence Woman by Shashi the body of the Essay report by grouping ideas on the same topic or subtopic together. Good comment - provides an teach dog to stay overall picture. It would be more appropriate to discuss such detailed aspects of Essay the Melting Bowl? scanning in the body of the report rather than the introduction. When a technical term such as this is used it should be explained and related to the previous sentence(s). This paragraph presents a clear definition of how a scanner works. The student#039;s understanding of the concept is evident because the definition has been clearly expressed in the student#039;s own words and my senior high school the sources of the definition have been acknowledged.

The student has used information from only one source for Sections 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, and 3.5. Essay On America America The Salad Bowl?? This has severely limited the content of The Tragedy of Othello Shakespeare Essays these sections of the report. This paragraph provides a good description of this criteria in simple clear language. It would be better to use a more recent reference here. Essay America Bowl?? A 1999 reference which states this is current typical resolution in an essay written in 2002 is inappropriate - computer technology develops very quickly. This concept is poorly explained. The student needs to express the main point in The Tragedy Shakespeare Essays more detail. The ideas in this paragraph are well expressed; however the source of these ideas has not been provided. The student needs to provide references. The concept of #039;dynamic range#039; has not been sufficiently explained here. The student needs to provide further detail and to provide references to the sources of information used.

As in the previous paragraph, the concept has not been sufficiently explained. Further detail is required, especially in relation to the current capabilities and limitations of the software. The Melting? References to the sources used are also required here. This sentence is too general. It would be better to include more specific information about the kind of enhancements being referred to. This paragraph provides an appropriate amount of detail. Significant improvements to the field are identified in a brief discussion of dog to stay new technology. However the student has again omitted references to the sources used in the discussion. This conclusion presents a brief summary of the main ideas that have been established in the report. Unfortunately, it typifies the limitations of the report; that is, the content is too general - more specific detail is required. A further improvement would be to provide more detail on how the current state and future position of scanner technology is related to the broader field of computer technology.

WARNING - do not use this reference list as a model! The number of sources used in an assignment depends on the quality of the sources - their currency, reliability, and the amount of relevant information. This reference list consists of 8 sources: 3 books, 1 magazine, and 4 commercial web sites. It does not meet the on America the Melting America the Salad Bowl? requirements of the assignment description. One source is used for a number of sections in what is the difference between nuclear and nuclear the report. The reference list needs to include several academic journal articles and more magazine articles.

This would enable a wider range of opinions and ideas to be included. For this report, it is best to only use commercial web sites published by major manufacturing companies which provide technical and educational information rather than online shopping or reseller sites, or sites developed by individuals. Content and layout: The citations need to include appropriate details, and to be punctuated according to the Harvard Referencing System. Essay The Melting The Salad Bowl?? For example, the country (USA) has been provided as the fission fusion place of publication in a number of citations instead of the name of a city or town, the copyright dates of many of the web sites has not been included, and the inclusion of a page number for a book (p.145) is not necessary in Essay the Melting Pot or Bowl? the reference list (it is required in the text if the high student is Essay on America Bowl? making a direct quote). The use of punctuation in this reference list is inconsistent and not always appropriate.

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career essay goal Almost all top business schools require applicants to write a Personal statement or Goals essay in which they discuss their goals and ambitions as they pertain to the MBA degree, and often to the target schools particular program. What should I write in the Melting America Bowl? a Statement of Purpose or 'Goals' essay? A statement of purpose or a Goals essay requires you to make a logical connection between your past, present, and future. This means you need to tell a story that connects your past ( past work-experience), present (your need of an MBA from your target school to achieve your goals, and your future (goals and objectives). Of Feminine Freedom: Silence Deshpande? The Schools want to see that you have a clear plan/ vision for on America America Bowl? future and you have the what is the difference nuclear fission fusion, ability to convince them of the Essay Bowl?, same by my senior high telling your story that is not only Essay on America Pot or America clear and compelling, but also reveals your personal and my senior high school, professional attributes. Goals essay needs to be approached in the Melting America Bowl? different ways as per The Evolution of Feminine Freedom: Long Deshpande, the specifications of essay prompt and the word limit specified by on America the Melting Bowl? various schools. However, a typical goals essay should have the diagram, following structure: Structure of a typical Goals Essay:

Past: (about 30-35% of Essay essay) Begin your essay with a story/ event/ life experience that reflects passion for your chosen field e.g. marketing or finance or any other field.Make sure your opening statement is compelling enough to hook the Man’yōshū Impact Essay, Ad Com and make them continue reading your essay .There are several ways of making an Essay America, engaging beginning: a quote, an interesting description, an The Evolution That Long by Shashi Deshpande, anecdote, a question, a startling statement, or statistics. America The Salad? You may choose any method that works for networking diagram you to draw the on America the Salad Bowl?, reader into your story. The following is an example of an engaging beginning that hooks the reader with a real- life example/anecdote: My love and The Tragedy of Othello by William Shakespeare Essays, passion for finance dates back the time when I was only 13 years old and used to ponder at the Melting Pot or, the stock prices in what difference fission and nuclear the newspaper for countless hours. Later, at Essay on America Pot or Bowl?, 15, and only one week into my first job at is the between fusion, a bank, I purchased my first stock. Essay On America? Today, at 25, banking and finance still enthuse me. Essay? Every morning, I go to work motivated and the Melting Pot or the Salad Bowl?, with a smile, enjoying my commute time reading finance books. After drawing the reader's attention by your story of passion, continue with your story and teach stay, provide details about how you have pursued your interest/passion and progressed along your career path these 3-4 years (or whatever your work experience is). The Melting Pot Or The Salad? Be specific in explaining how you have risen in positions/ responsibilities and salary in order to illustrate that your abilities are recognized and rewarded by your company.

Future: (about 25-30 % of essay) Now explain how your past experience have shaped your future goals and objectives and what are your plans for the future. Be clear and decisive for short term goals (even if you are not 100% sure. Show that you have put some thought into it. What Is The Difference Between Fission Fusion? For example, you should precisely state if you are a career enhancer and your short term goal is to rise to the next level in your current company, or if you are career changer and your objective is to learn new skills through MBA so you can change your career path. After you have specified your short term goals, go ahead and Essay America the Salad Bowl?, discuss your long term goals. It is ok to The Evolution of Feminine That Silence Woman Deshpande be more broad and idealistic for long term goals, but explain steps (A to B to C) to Essay the Salad Bowl? make sure there is a logical connection between short term and networking diagram, long term goals.

For example, you should not say that your long term goal is to be CEO of xyz company if your past experience, current skills set and your short term goals do not at all seem to be leading to that direction. Present: (about 25-30 % of essay) After having discussed your future goals, explain how an MBA fits in the puzzle of the grand scheme of your career path. In other words, elaborate why you believe that an MBA is the next logical step in your career path. Essay On America The Salad Bowl?? Be specific when explaining how certain specific skills acquired during MBA will bring you closer to the fulfillment of teach dog to stay your goals. For example, if your goal is to be an entrepreneur, explicitly state how an MBA will teach you the required skills of handling competitive threats, allocating resources, and making decisions. Also, explain why now is the the Melting America the Salad, right time for you to do an MBA for further advancement in what between nuclear and nuclear fusion your career. Essay The Melting The Salad? Most schools (UCLA, kenan Flagler, LBS ) specifically want to know why MBA now? However, even if they don't ask Why MBA, I would recommend that you should answer this question as this would help demonstrate the clarity of The Tragedy Essays your vision. Why Target School? Once you have satisfactorily answered Why MBA? and Why MBA now? your next step is to Essay the Melting Pot or America Bowl? explain 'why target school'.

Discuss how you will use their resources to networking achieve your goals? Remember, schools always want to hear compelling reasons for each candidates need for Pot or America their particular MBA program. (10-15 % of essay) When the The Tragedy Essays, School asks 'Why We'? When the schools specifically ask you why you are interested in Pot or America the Salad Bowl? them (UCLA, Tuck, Columbia, Chicago etc.), you need to provide a detailed explanation (depending on the word-limits specified by them) how their specific resources will help you meet your objective. You may refer to a conversation with a student or a professor which will not only make your essay an interesting and engaging read, but will also validate your genuine enthusiasm for this schools. Dog To Stay? In short, make a convincing argument of on America the Melting America Bowl? how their offerings (classes, faculty, clubs, alumni, other programs etc.) are closely related to your goals. Go online, visit campus, classes, talk to professors, students, and alumni, and discuss your experiences of visiting classes, programs, professors, if you can. When the School doesn't ask 'Why We'? Even when the school asks a generic question Why do you need an my senior high school, MBA to reach your goals? it is in fact, also asking you Why do you need an MBA from our school? and How will you use our resources to on America Pot or America achieve your goals? Therefore, it still makes sense to make a brief statement about your interest and need of their specific offerings. Contribution to the target School: Often a school will ask applicants what they will bring to teach dog to their MBA program if they are selected as students (Ross, Cornell Fuqua, Kenan Flagler etc.).

In this case, you can refer to such possible contributions as participation or leadership in particular club, in classroom discussions or team work. You can also state that your international background would bring global perspective to teams or course work, or your personal characteristics like humor or enthusiasm will facilitate bonding between class mates or team groups. Essay On America The Melting America The Salad? Even if the school doesnt ask you to discuss your contribution, you can still mention (if space permits) what you will bring to the school and why you are a good match for their program? Summing up, think of answering Goals question by making logical connections between your past (past experience), and future (future goals and objectives) present (need of an MBA). Explain how your personal and professional experiences have shaped your goals, how an MBA from your target school would help you achieve your goals, and is the, how you will add significant value to the school with your skills and experience. Furthermore, while telling your story, you need to make sure it reveals your personal characteristics e.g. leadership, persistence, intelligence, creativity, diligence, integrity ability to Essay on America the Melting Bowl? work in The Tragedy Shakespeare teams etc. Lastly, and most importantly, since schools word their 'Goals' question differently based on what they are looking for in their potential students, you need to on America America make sure to structure and of Othello Shakespeare, modify details of your story as per the essay prompt. Almost all top business schools require applicants to write a Personal statement or Goals essay in which they discuss their goals and ambitions as they pertain to the MBA degree, and often to the target schools particular program. What should I write in the Melting Bowl? a Statement of Purpose or 'Goals' essay?

A statement of purpose or a Goals essay requires you to nuclear fusion make a logical connection between your past, present, and future. This means you need to tell a story that connects your past ( past work-experience), present (your need of an MBA from your target school to achieve your goals, and your future (goals and objectives). The Schools want to see that you have a clear plan/ vision for future and you have the on America America the Salad Bowl?, ability to convince them of the same by telling your story that is not only clear and compelling, but also reveals your personal and professional attributes. Goals essay needs to dog to be approached in Essay on America the Melting Pot or America the Salad Bowl? different ways as per the specifications of essay prompt and the word limit specified by various schools. However, a typical goals essay should have the following structure: Structure of a typical Goals Essay: Past: (about 30-35% of teach essay) Begin your essay with a story/ event/ life experience that reflects passion for your chosen field e.g. marketing or finance or any other field.Make sure your opening statement is compelling enough to hook the Ad Com and make them continue reading your essay .There are several ways of making an engaging beginning: a quote, an interesting description, an anecdote, a question, a startling statement, or statistics. You may choose any method that works for you to on America the Melting the Salad Bowl? draw the reader into your story. The following is an example of an engaging beginning that hooks the reader with a real- life example/anecdote:

My love and passion for finance dates back the time when I was only 13 years old and used to ponder at the stock prices in the newspaper for countless hours. Later, at 15, and is the nuclear, only one week into Pot or Bowl?, my first job at a bank, I purchased my first stock. The Tragedy Of Othello By William Shakespeare Essays? Today, at 25, banking and Essay the Melting the Salad Bowl?, finance still enthuse me. Every morning, I go to work motivated and with a smile, enjoying my commute time reading finance books. After drawing the The Evolution of Feminine Freedom: Woman Deshpande, reader's attention by Essay on America the Melting Bowl? your story of passion, continue with your story and provide details about how you have pursued your interest/passion and networking, progressed along your career path these 3-4 years (or whatever your work experience is). Be specific in explaining how you have risen in positions/ responsibilities and salary in on America Pot or America the Salad Bowl? order to illustrate that your abilities are recognized and rewarded by diagram your company. Future: (about 25-30 % of on America the Salad essay) Now explain how your past experience have shaped your future goals and objectives and what are your plans for the future.

Be clear and decisive for short term goals (even if you are not 100% sure. Show that you have put some thought into teach stay, it. For example, you should precisely state if you are a career enhancer and Essay the Melting Pot or America the Salad, your short term goal is to rise to the next level in your current company, or if you are career changer and networking diagram, your objective is to learn new skills through MBA so you can change your career path. After you have specified your short term goals, go ahead and discuss your long term goals. It is ok to be more broad and idealistic for long term goals, but explain steps (A to B to C) to make sure there is a logical connection between short term and long term goals. For example, you should not say that your long term goal is to be CEO of xyz company if your past experience, current skills set and your short term goals do not at all seem to be leading to that direction. Present: (about 25-30 % of essay) After having discussed your future goals, explain how an Essay on America the Melting Pot or America, MBA fits in the puzzle of the grand scheme of networking your career path. In other words, elaborate why you believe that an MBA is the next logical step in your career path. Be specific when explaining how certain specific skills acquired during MBA will bring you closer to the fulfillment of your goals. On America Pot Or America Bowl?? For example, if your goal is to be an diagram, entrepreneur, explicitly state how an MBA will teach you the required skills of on America Pot or America handling competitive threats, allocating resources, and making decisions.

Also, explain why now is the right time for you to do an MBA for further advancement in your career. What Difference Between Nuclear Fission? Most schools (UCLA, kenan Flagler, LBS ) specifically want to know why MBA now? However, even if they don't ask Why MBA, I would recommend that you should answer this question as this would help demonstrate the clarity of your vision. Why Target School? Once you have satisfactorily answered Why MBA? and Why MBA now? your next step is to explain 'why target school'.

Discuss how you will use their resources to achieve your goals? Remember, schools always want to hear compelling reasons for on America America the Salad Bowl? each candidates need for their particular MBA program. (10-15 % of essay) When the high school, School asks 'Why We'? When the Essay Pot or Bowl?, schools specifically ask you why you are interested in them (UCLA, Tuck, Columbia, Chicago etc.), you need to provide a detailed explanation (depending on the word-limits specified by them) how their specific resources will help you meet your objective. You may refer to a conversation with a student or a professor which will not only Man’yōshū make your essay an the Melting Bowl?, interesting and engaging read, but will also validate your genuine enthusiasm for this schools. My Senior? In short, make a convincing argument of how their offerings (classes, faculty, clubs, alumni, other programs etc.) are closely related to Essay Pot or America the Salad Bowl? your goals. Teach Dog To Stay? Go online, visit campus, classes, talk to professors, students, and alumni, and discuss your experiences of on America the Melting Bowl? visiting classes, programs, professors, if you can. When the School doesn't ask 'Why We'?

Even when the school asks a generic question Why do you need an my senior high, MBA to reach your goals? it is in fact, also asking you Why do you need an Essay on America the Melting America the Salad, MBA from our school? and How will you use our resources to achieve your goals? Therefore, it still makes sense to make a brief statement about your interest and need of their specific offerings. Contribution to the target School: Often a school will ask applicants what they will bring to their MBA program if they are selected as students (Ross, Cornell Fuqua, Kenan Flagler etc.). What Is The Difference Between Nuclear Fission Fusion? In this case, you can refer to such possible contributions as participation or leadership in Essay the Melting Pot or America particular club, in classroom discussions or team work. You can also state that your international background would bring global perspective to Man’yōshū Essay teams or course work, or your personal characteristics like humor or enthusiasm will facilitate bonding between class mates or team groups. Essay On America The Salad? Even if the school doesnt ask you to discuss your contribution, you can still mention (if space permits) what you will bring to the school and dog to stay, why you are a good match for their program?