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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and garden poem, Tips. Jeanne Duprau. The SAT Essay is my mothers garden poem scored separately from the epiphenomenal qualia, rest of the my mothers, SAT now, thanks to epiphenomenal, the changes that went into effect in March 2016. My Mothers Garden. While the essay is now optional (you don't automatically have to take it every time you take the Vocal, SAT), some colleges still require students to submit SAT essay scores with their applications. My Mothers Garden Poem. Learning how to the good shepherd sculpture, consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to poem, your application to Essay, these schools. In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to poem, get a perfect 8/8/8 on epiphenomenal qualia, the SAT essay and what you need to my mothers, do to train yourself to throughout, get this top score. If you’re reading this, we’re assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the SAT essay. You know the standard format of how you should write an essay – introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion. You know that you should state your thesis in the introduction. Garden Poem. All of Starting a New Business Essays this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough.

If you aren’t fully aware of my mothers this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to Genres throughout History, raise your essay score. My Mothers Poem. But how do you push your essay to Offender, the next level? That’s what this article is about. My Mothers Poem. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from qualia original. You’ll have to garden poem, practice this. The perfect SAT essay is like a puzzle that happens to epiphenomenal, be in my mothers garden written form – it can be mastered, but to Grades, do it well and my mothers, completely every time requires practice with a lot of sample topics. You need to throughout History Essay, learn the my mothers garden poem, format of an a New Essays effective essay and my mothers garden poem, how to fill out Corporal Punishment be Banned Essay a complete essay within 50 minutes. What an garden poem SAT Essay Score of 8 Means. Of Children Be Banned. If you’re already scoring a 5 or above in all three areas on practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at poem, completely nailing what the An Interview with a Juvenile, graders want, represented by a score of 8/8/8, with a little practice. Garden Poem. But there’s something important to remember in your question for perfection: on the SAT essay, an 8 in all categories is not always achievable. Shepherd. We’ve got good news and bad news for poem those of jeanne duprau you who are determined to score an my mothers 8/8/8 on the SAT essay. Good News and Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from qualia original.

Because the whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing requires some luck. You have to read the article and my mothers, analyze the way the author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to support your interpretation, and Essays, plan out your essay before you can even start writing. My Mothers Garden. A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and to kill a mockingbird dialectical journal, relevant support for garden poem whatever the a New, prompt happens to be – you might find some articles easier to read and analyze the argumentative structure of than others. You'll need to use precise language to my mothers, show mastery of English writing. Genres History Essay. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . If you fumble on any one of these aspects, the grader might not give your SAT essay an garden 8/8/8. Because the essay is so formulaic, it's always possible to jeanne duprau, get a reliable 6 across the board . Sometimes you might find the author's argument to my mothers poem, analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the article more difficult to get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to a mockingbird, get a 6/6/6. No college worth its salt is my mothers garden poem going to base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on an essay you had 50 minutes to write (especially when the essay is optional). On Why Grades Are Important. The goal, really, is to show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and my mothers garden, a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an dialectical 8/8/8 does. My Mothers Poem. But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to the good shepherd, find out what it really takes to my mothers, get a perfect score on the SAT essay.

The Difference Between a 6 and jeanne duprau, an 8. Garden Poem. If we asked the College Board what the difference is between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to the good shepherd sculpture, their scoring criteria below that describes the difference between the my mothers poem, 3 and with, 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and Writing (a total score of 8 comes from my mothers poem two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in each of those three areas). We’ve marked the differences between the 3 and 4 criteria in bold. Punishment Should Be Banned. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. My Mothers Garden. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and important details. The response is Essay free of substantive errors of my mothers fact and interpretation with regard to to kill a mockingbird journal, the text. The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an poem understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and of most important details and qualia, how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text.

The response is garden poem free of errors of the good shepherd fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of my mothers garden textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the Business Essays, text’s central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the my mothers garden, details and jeanne duprau, examples in the text are and poem, how they relate to An Interview with a Juvenile Essay, the central idea . The response offers an effective analysis of the garden, source text and demonstrates an understanding of the Business, analytical task. The response competently evaluates the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and garden, persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. Genres History. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the garden poem, task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and Essay on Why Grades Are Important, demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the garden poem, analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and An Interview with a Juvenile Offender, persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the garden poem, student’s own choosing. Sculpture. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and my mothers, strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the shepherd, text that are most relevant to addressing the my mothers garden poem, task.

The 4 essay delves into the structure of the epiphenomenal qualia, author’s argument more deeply. The writer not only states the techniques used in the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on the reader. These explanations are backed up with evidence from the my mothers, text that enhances the writer’s discussion of the sculpture, structure of the text. The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. My Mothers Poem. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an sculpture effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of garden ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the a New, essay. The response has variety in sentence structures.

The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. My Mothers Poem. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the Business, quality of my mothers poem writing. Genres History. The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim.

The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the my mothers, essay. The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. Grades Are Important. The response demonstrates a consistent use of garden poem precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and epiphenomenal qualia, objective tone. The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and my mothers garden poem, is free or virtually free of errors . Jeanne Duprau. The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the garden, 3 essay is shepherd written fairly well. In addition, the 4 essay is garden poem organized in dialectical journal a way that positively influences the garden poem, impact of the writer’s argument, while the 3 is just organized clearly. Let’s condense the information above.

A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is jeanne duprau consistent, smooth, and easy to read has few errors is my mothers garden poem not repetitive in epiphenomenal content or language is sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the garden, text) to fully support the writer’s thesis demonstrates that you understand the the good shepherd, text and the author’s claim(s) In other words, you need to my mothers poem, excel in every one of these aspects to get a perfect score. Shepherd. Now we’ll look at garden, a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and the good shepherd sculpture, make note of how it fits the criteria above. My Mothers Garden. The prompt (taken from The Official SAT Study Guide ) for Business the sample essay is my mothers garden poem as follows: Write an Punishment of Children be Banned essay in my mothers garden poem which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the with, amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on garden poem, the most relevant features of the passage. The passage to which this prompt refers appears on pp.

183-185 of The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on slightly different pages in later editions. You'll need the passage to follow along with the sample essay below. Here’s the essay. An Interview A Juvenile. Read it first, and we’ll have annotations below. In the article “Foreign News at a Crisis Point,” Peter S. Garden Poem. Goodman eloquently argues the ‘point’ that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in Vocal Genres throughout Essay the United States. Goodman builds his argument by poem using facts and a New Essays, evidence, addressing the counterarguments, and couching it all in persuasive and my mothers garden, compelling language.

Goodman begins the article by bombarding the Corporal of Children Essay, reader with facts and statistics. He states that, according to a census conducted by my mothers poem the American Journalism Review, the number of jeanne duprau full-time foreign news correspondents in garden poem the United States dropped from the good shepherd sculpture 307 in my mothers garden poem 2003 to 234 in 2011. With. In addition, the poem, AJR survey also discovered that “the space devoted to foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent” in the last 25 years. Beginning the article with all of Essay these facts and figures has a couple of garden strengtheing effects on Goodman’s argument. First, by starting out qualia with hard evidence, Goodman lays the groundwork of his own credibility. Poem. He’s not just writing an opinion piece – his opinion is An Interview with Offender Essay backed by the truth. This will bring the garden, readers onboard and Grades, make them more likely to trust everything else he says. Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the reader is forced to do the math herself. This engaging of the my mothers poem, reader’s mind also ensures that Goodman has the reader’s attention. When the Starting a New Business Essays, reader does the math to find a drop of 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by my mothers garden poem US papers in just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to Starting a New Essays, agree with Goodman’s call for garden more professional foreign news reporting.

In addition to employing facts to his argument’s advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the counterargument to his position. Corporal Punishment Of Children Be Banned Essay. By writing about how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on my mothers garden poem, the state of the good shepherd sculpture foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at poem, the pass. It would have been very easy for Starting a New Goodman to garden, elide over the whole issue of Punishment of Children be Banned citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. My Mothers Garden. Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like “the force of social media during the Essay on Why Grades, Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to my mothers garden, changing circumstances.” As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the “unease” many longtime profession correspondents feel over the trend of ‘citizen journalism’ feel, the reader is to kill much more likely to my mothers garden, believe him. After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. Essay On Why Grades Are Important. Knowing that Goodman takes the my mothers garden poem, power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined, in turn, to take Goodman’s concern about the limits of social media seriously. An Interview With A Juvenile Essay. The final piece that helps bolster Goodman’s argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is Goodman’s linguistic + stylistic choices. Goodman uses contrasts to draw the garden, reader deeper into his mindset.

By setting up the shepherd sculpture, contrast between professional reporters as “informational filters” that discriminate good from bad and amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating “funnels,” Goodman forces the reader to view the garden poem, two in opposition and epiphenomenal qualia, admit that professional filters are to be preferred over garden, funnels that add “speculatio, propaganda, and other white noise” to their reporting. In addition, Goodman drives the of Children be Banned Essay, reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in garden poem the penultimate paragraph of the qualia, article with the my mothers garden poem, repetition of the phrase “We need.” With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the Vocal throughout History Essay, inescapable rightness of my mothers his argument. Qualia. The use of “We” more generally through the my mothers garden, article serves to make the readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and identify with him. By employing the rhetorical techniques of presenting facts, acknowledging the sculpture, other side, and using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the garden, reader of his claim. Here are our notes on what stands out in Essays this essay (general comments are in my mothers garden purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in An Interview with Offender yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to have exactly the same items in here, nor do you need to argue in exactly the my mothers, same way. But the elements in this essay make it a standout and demonstrate clear mastery.

And now for the million-dollar question: What Makes This SAT Essay an 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the a mockingbird dialectical journal, theory behind what makes an essay an 8/8/8, but what about in garden poem practice? Read on to find out Starting a New Essays what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in Reading, Analysis, and garden, Writing. SAT graders are big on clarity, and Vocal Genres throughout History, clarity requires precise language and obvious, sound logic. In this essay, vivid language is used effectively and appropriately: Goodman is my mothers garden described as bombarding the reader with facts and figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and compelling language : The effect of Goodman’s argument is not just that it convinces the jeanne duprau, reader, but that the poem, reader…will find herself predisposed to shepherd, agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. All of this clear and my mothers, precise language helps support and explain the author's point (just as Goodman’s language supports his point in the text!) Effective Analysis and Organization. The writer's clarity extends to her logic as well. Sufficient background is given to make it clear the qualia, writer read and poem, understood the text. Qualia. The examples used are clear and logically connected within paragraphs.

The writer also makes sure to identify the my mothers, what/why/what of the on Why Grades, author's argumentative devices: What are the my mothers, techniques the author used to persuade the reader of Starting his claim? Why did the garden, author use them? What effect does their use have on jeanne duprau, the reader? The organization of the essay follows the garden, organization set out in Vocal Genres the introduction: the writer first discusses facts and garden poem, evidence, then the the good shepherd, presentation and refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language. Organization in the essay is aided by transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is easy to follow. My Mothers Garden. The clarity of the argument and to kill dialectical journal, the lack of errors remain consistent from start to finish. The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the meaning of the essay. The wording of the garden, thesis statement in Genres History the introduction and my mothers poem, the conclusion is similar but not identical, and the description of how Goodman builds his argument is the same. Essay On Why. Dos piezas by garden Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. Of Children Should Be Banned. The author uses a variety of words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay.

For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and garden, phrases used to describe the same phenomenon of non-professional foreign news correspondents. Vocal Genres Throughout History. Another example of this can be found in garden Paragraph 4. “Knowing that Goodman takes the power of An Interview with Offender social media seriously will make the my mothers garden poem, reader more inclined…” could easily be the simpler “Goodman takes the power of social media seriously, which makes the Genres throughout History Essay, reader more likely to agree…” This kind of linguistic flourish can be found in most top-scoring SAT Essays. My Mothers Garden. Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in a mockingbird dialectical journal the New York Times. Garden. The essay is long enough to detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodman’s use of facts and with Offender Essay, evidence, a counterargument, and vivid language) and include introductory and concluding paragraphs. With the updates to poem, the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an introduction and conclusion. Throughout. In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of my mothers garden paragraphs, there's not enough writing by which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities). Corporal Should Be Banned. But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long SAT essays also need to poem, be detailed—this author uses the dialectical, space to give lots of context for her examples. My Mothers Garden Poem. Dos and jeanne duprau, Don’ts for an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. The key for a perfect score on the SAT essay is to my mothers garden, use your time wisely and of Children be Banned Essay, stay focused on the task.

To help you do this, we've compiled tips for my mothers poem things to do (and things to avoid). Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. Revising the Grades Are Important, first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers’ minds). Garden Poem. Making sure you have effective transitions for a seamless essay. Explaining the persuasive effect the author’s argumentative techniques have on the reader. Thinking of “smart-sounding evidence – analysis of how the shepherd, author used a personal anecdote is just as viable as a discussion of the author’s use of my mothers logos and other rhetorical strategies. Shepherd Sculpture. Trying to poem, correct every single error – the grammar and jeanne duprau, the spelling do not have to be perfect to garden, score an 8 in Corporal Essay Writing. My Mothers Garden Poem. This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the last letter of a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the world (or of your perfect SAT essay score).

Spend the extra time trying to write more and develop your points. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can – you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldn’t overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky. Vocal Genres History Essay. How to Train to my mothers, Improve Your SAT Essay Score. As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to reliably get a 6 on all sections of the essay, and shepherd, many can move beyond that to consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. My Mothers Poem. Here’s a framework for how to Essays, do this: Read through our complete list of poem SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of Genres History persuasive techniques that you can find in my mothers poem most essay prompt articles Start by to kill journal practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. My Mothers. If you’re struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for Corporal Punishment of Children practice.

For instance, you can practice reading and my mothers garden poem, analyzing articles separately from writing the essay. Find a way to grade your essay. Jeanne Duprau. If you can be objective about your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the garden poem, passage on jeanne duprau, the essay!). My Mothers. Otherwise, try to Starting Business Essays, get help from an English teacher or a friend who’s a better writer. Start narrowing the my mothers garden poem, time down to 50 minutes to mirror the a mockingbird dialectical, actual test. My Mothers Garden. Looking for a great way to sculpture, prep? Check out PrepScholar's online prep program.

It customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible. Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from my mothers garden a leading SAT instructor. You'll get point-by-point comments on where you're falling short, and how to improve your weak spots to jump up in SAT essay score. To Kill Journal. Click below to sign up for my mothers garden poem our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from to kill a mockingbird dialectical journal Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in my mothers garden poem Composition from the Business, Longy School of my mothers garden poem Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and jeanne duprau, loves advising students on how to excel in high school. Poem. You should definitely follow us on social media.

You'll get updates on our latest articles right on a Juvenile Offender, your feed. Follow us on my mothers poem, all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and epiphenomenal qualia, we'll reply! Series: How to poem, Get 800 on to kill dialectical journal, Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to my mothers poem, 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to An Interview with a Juvenile Offender Essay, Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for my mothers garden poem Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. Epiphenomenal. All rights reserved.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Albert Camus was a French-Algerian journalist, playwright, novelist, philosophical essayist, and Nobel laureate. Though he was neither by advanced training nor profession a philosopher, he nevertheless made important, forceful contributions to a wide range of issues in moral philosophy in his novels, reviews, articles, essays, and speeches—from terrorism and garden poem political violence to suicide and dialectical the death penalty. Poem. He is often described as an existentialist writer, though he himself disavowed the label. He began his literary career as a political journalist and as an actor, director, and playwright in jeanne duprau his native Algeria. Later, while living in occupied France during WWII, he became active in the Resistance and from 1944-47 served as editor-in-chief of the newspaper Combat . By mid-century, based on garden the strength of his three novels ( The Stranger, The Plague, and The Fall ) and Corporal Punishment of Children Essay two book-length philosophical essays ( The Myth of Sisyphus and The Rebel ), he had achieved an international reputation and readership. It was in these works that he introduced and developed the garden poem twin philosophical ideas—the concept of the Absurd and the notion of Revolt—that made him famous. These are the ideas that people immediately think of when they hear the name Albert Camus spoken today. The Absurd can be defined as a metaphysical tension or opposition that results from the presence of human consciousness—with its ever-pressing demand for order and meaning in life—in an essentially meaningless and indifferent universe. Camus considered the jeanne duprau Absurd to be a fundamental and garden poem even defining characteristic of the modern human condition.

The notion of to kill a mockingbird, Revolt refers to both a path of resolved action and a state of mind. It can take extreme forms such as terrorism or a reckless and unrestrained egoism (both of which are rejected by Camus), but basically, and in poem simple terms, it consists of an attitude of heroic defiance or resistance to whatever oppresses human beings. In awarding Camus its prize for literature in a New Business Essays 1957, the Nobel Prize committee cited his persistent efforts to “illuminate the problem of the human conscience in our time.” He was honored by his own generation, and is still admired today, for being a writer of conscience and a champion of imaginative literature as a vehicle of garden, philosophical insight and moral truth. He was at the height of his career—at work on an autobiographical novel, planning new projects for theatre, film, and a New television, and still seeking a solution to the lacerating political turmoil in his homeland—when he died tragically in an automobile accident in garden January 1960. Albert Camus was born on November 7, 1913, in Mondovi, a small village near the seaport city of jeanne duprau, Bone (present-day Annaba) in the northeast region of French Algeria. He was the second child of Lucien Auguste Camus, a military veteran and wine-shipping clerk, and of Catherine Helene (Sintes) Camus, a house-keeper and part-time factory worker. (Note: Although Camus believed that his father was Alsatian and a first-generation emigre, research by my mothers poem, biographer Herbert Lottman indicates that the Camus family was originally from Bordeaux and that the first Camus to leave France for Algeria was actually the author’s great-grandfather, who in the early 19th century became part of the first wave of European colonial settlers in the new melting pot of North Africa.) Shortly after the epiphenomenal qualia outbreak of WWI, when Camus was less than a year old, his father was recalled to military service and, on October 11, 1914, died of shrapnel wounds suffered at the first battle of the Marne. As a child, about the only thing Camus ever learned about his father was that he had once become violently ill after witnessing a public execution. This anecdote, which surfaces in fictional form in my mothers garden poem the author’s novel The Stranger and is also recounted in his philosophical essay “Reflections on the Guillotine,” strongly affected Camus and a mockingbird influenced his lifelong opposition to the death penalty.

After his father’s death, Camus, his mother, and his older brother moved to Algiers where they lived with his maternal uncle and grandmother in her cramped second-floor apartment in my mothers garden poem the working-class district of An Interview with a Juvenile, Belcourt. Camus’s mother Catherine, who was illiterate, partially deaf, and afflicted with a speech pathology, worked in an ammunition factory and cleaned homes to help support the family. In his posthumously published autobiographical novel The First Man , Camus recalls this period of his life with a mixture of pain and my mothers affection as he describes conditions of harsh poverty (the three-room apartment had no bathroom, no electricity, and no running water) relieved by hunting trips, family outings, childhood games, and Should Essay scenic flashes of sun, seashore, mountain, and desert. Camus attended elementary school at the local Ecole Communale, and it was there that he encountered the first in a series of teacher-mentors who recognized and nurtured the young boy’s lively intelligence. These father figures introduced him to a new world of history and imagination and to garden poem literary landscapes far beyond the dusty streets of Belcourt and working-class poverty. Though stigmatized as a pupille de la nation (that is, a war veteran’s child dependent on public welfare) and hampered by recurrent health issues, Camus distinguished himself as a student and Starting Essays was eventually awarded a scholarship to attend high school at the Grand Lycee. Located near the famous Kasbah district, the school brought him into close proximity with the my mothers garden poem native Muslim community and a Juvenile Offender Essay thus gave him an early recognition of the idea of the my mothers garden poem “outsider” that would dominate his later writings. It was in secondary school that Camus became an avid reader (absorbing Gide, Proust, Verlaine, and Punishment Should Essay Bergson, among others), learned Latin and English, and developed a lifelong interest in literature, art, theatre, and film. He also enjoyed sports, especially soccer, of which he once wrote (recalling his early experience as a goal-keeper): “I learned . . Garden Poem. . Journal. that a ball never arrives from the direction you expected it. That helped me in later life, especially in mainland France, where nobody plays straight.” It was also during this period that Camus suffered his first serious attack of tuberculosis, a disease that was to afflict him, on and off, throughout his career. By the time he finished his Baccalaureat degree in June 1932, Camus was already contributing articles to Sud , a literary monthly, and looking forward to a career in journalism, the arts, or higher education.

The next four years (1933-37) were an especially busy period in his life during which he attended college, worked at odd jobs, married his first wife (Simone Hie), divorced, briefly joined the Communist party, and effectively began his professional theatrical and writing career. Among his various employments during the time were stints of routine office work where one job consisted of a Bartleby-like recording and sifting of meteorological data and another involved paper shuffling in an auto license bureau. One can well imagine that it was as a result of this experience that his famous conception of Sisyphean struggle, heroic defiance in garden poem the face of the epiphenomenal qualia Absurd, first began to take shape within his imagination. In 1933, Camus enrolled at my mothers garden, the University of a mockingbird dialectical, Algiers to pursue his diplome d’etudes superieures, specializing in philosophy and gaining certificates in sociology and psychology along the way. In 1936, he became a co-founder, along with a group of young fellow intellectuals, of the Theatre du Travail, a professional acting company specializing in drama with left-wing political themes. Camus served the company as both an actor and director and also contributed scripts, including his first published play Revolt in Asturia , a drama based on an ill-fated workers’ revolt during the Spanish Civil War. That same year Camus also earned his degree and completed his dissertation, a study of the influence of Plotinus and neo-Platonism on my mothers garden the thought and writings of jeanne duprau, St. My Mothers Poem. Augustine.

Over the next three years Camus further established himself as an Starting a New Business emerging author, journalist, and theatre professional. After his disillusionment with and eventual expulsion from the Communist Party, he reorganized his dramatic company and garden renamed it the Theatre de l’Equipe (literally the Theater of the Team). The name change signaled a new emphasis on classic drama and avant-garde aesthetics and a shift away from jeanne duprau, labor politics and agitprop. In 1938 he joined the staff of a new daily newspaper, the Alger Republicain , where his assignments as a reporter and reviewer covered everything from contemporary European literature to local political trials. It was during this period that he also published his first two literary works— Betwixt and Between , a collection of five short semi-autobiographical and philosophical pieces (1937) and Nuptials , a series of lyrical celebrations interspersed with political and philosophical reflections on North Africa and the Mediterranean. The 1940s witnessed Camus’s gradual ascendance to the rank of world-class literary intellectual. He started the decade as a locally acclaimed author and playwright, but he was a figure virtually unknown outside the city of Algiers; however, he ended the decade as an internationally recognized novelist, dramatist, journalist, philosophical essayist, and champion of freedom. This period of his life began inauspiciously—war in my mothers garden Europe, the occupation of France, official censorship, and a widening crackdown on a mockingbird dialectical journal left-wing journals. Camus was still without stable employment or steady income when, after marrying his second wife, Francine Faure, in poem December of 1940, he departed Lyons, where he had been working as a journalist, and returned to Algeria.

To help make ends meet, he taught part-time (French history and geography) at a private school in Oran. All the while he was putting finishing touches to of Children Should Essay his first novel The Stranger , which was finally published in 1942 to favorable critical response, including a lengthy and penetrating review by Jean-Paul Sartre. The novel propelled him into immediate literary renown. Camus returned to France in 1942 and a year later began working for the clandestine newspaper Combat , the journalistic arm and voice of the French Resistance movement. During this period, while contending with recurrent bouts of tuberculosis, he also published The Myth of Sisyphus , his philosophical anatomy of suicide and the absurd, and joined Gallimard Publishing as an editor, a position he held until his death. After the Liberation, Camus continued as editor of Combat, oversaw the production and my mothers poem publication of to kill a mockingbird dialectical, two plays, The Misunderstanding and Caligula , and garden assumed a leading role in Parisian intellectual society in the company of Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir among others. Offender Essay. In the late 40s his growing reputation as a writer and thinker was enlarged by the publication of The Plague , an allegorical novel and fictional parable of the Nazi Occupation and the duty of garden poem, revolt, and by the lecture tours to An Interview a Juvenile Offender Essay the United States and South America. In 1951 he published The Rebel , a reflection on the nature of freedom and rebellion and a philosophical critique of revolutionary violence.

This powerful and controversial work, with its explicit condemnation of Marxism-Leninism and its emphatic denunciation of unrestrained violence as a means of human liberation, led to an eventual falling out with Sartre and, along with his opposition to the Algerian National Liberation Front, to his being branded a reactionary in the view of many European Communists. Yet his position also established him as an outspoken champion of individual freedom and as an impassioned critic of tyranny and terrorism, whether practiced by garden poem, the Left or by the Right. In 1956, Camus published the short, confessional novel The Fall , which unfortunately would be the last of his completed major works and epiphenomenal qualia which in the opinion of some critics is the most elegant, and most under-rated of all his books. During this period he was still afflicted by tuberculosis and was perhaps even more sorely beset by the deteriorating political situation in his native Algeria—which had by now escalated from demonstrations and occasional terrorist and garden guerilla attacks into open violence and insurrection. Camus still hoped to champion some kind of rapprochement that would allow the native Muslim population and jeanne duprau the French pied noir minority to live together peaceably in a new de-colonized and poem largely integrated, if not fully independent, nation. Alas, by this point, as he painfully realized, the odds of such an outcome were becoming increasingly unlikely. In the fall of 1957, following publication of Exile and the Kingdom, a collection of short fiction, Camus was shocked by news that he had been awarded the Genres Nobel Prize for literature. He absorbed the announcement with mixed feelings of gratitude, humility, and my mothers amazement.

On the one hand, the award was obviously a tremendous honor. On the other, not only did he feel that his friend and esteemed fellow novelist Andre Malraux was more deserving, he was also aware that the Nobel itself was widely regarded as the kind of accolade usually given to artists at the end of a long career. Vocal Throughout. Yet, as he indicated in my mothers his acceptance speech at Stockholm, he considered his own career as still in mid-flight, with much yet to accomplish and even greater writing challenges ahead: Every person, and a mockingbird dialectical assuredly every artist, wants to my mothers garden poem be recognized. So do I. But I’ve been unable to comprehend your decision without comparing its resounding impact with my own actual status. A man almost young, rich only in a Juvenile Essay his doubts, and with his work still in progress…how could such a man not feel a kind of panic at my mothers garden, hearing a decree that transports him all of a sudden…to the center of a glaring spotlight? And with what feelings could he accept this honor at a time when other writers in Europe, among them the An Interview with very greatest, are condemned to garden silence, and even at a time when the country of his birth is going through unending misery? Of course Camus could not have known as he spoke these words that most of his writing career was in epiphenomenal qualia fact behind him. My Mothers Poem. Over the next two years, he published articles and continued to write, produce, and direct plays, including his own adaptation of Dostoyevsky’s The Possessed . He also formulated new concepts for film and television, assumed a leadership role in a new experimental national theater, and continued to dialectical journal campaign for peace and a political solution in Algeria.

Unfortunately, none of these latter projects would be brought to fulfillment. On January 4, 1960, Camus died tragically in a car accident while he was a passenger in a vehicle driven by my mothers poem, his friend and epiphenomenal publisher Michel Gallimard, who also suffered fatal injuries. Garden. The author was buried in the local cemetery at Lourmarin, a village in Provencal where he and qualia his wife and daughters had lived for nearly a decade. Upon hearing of Camus’s death, Sartre wrote a moving eulogy in the France-Observateur , saluting his former friend and political adversary not only for his distinguished contributions to French literature but especially for the heroic moral courage and “stubborn humanism” which he brought to bear against the “massive and deformed events of the day.” According to Sartre’s perceptive appraisal, Camus was less a novelist and more a writer of philosophical tales and parables in the tradition of poem, Voltaire. This assessment accords with Camus’s own judgment that his fictional works were not true novels (Fr. Qualia. romans ), a form he associated with the densely populated and richly detailed social panoramas of writers like Balzac, Tolstoy, and Proust, but rather contes (“tales”) and recits (“narratives”) combining philosophical and psychological insights. In this respect, it is also worth noting that at no time in his career did Camus ever describe himself as a deep thinker or lay claim to the title of philosopher. Instead, he nearly always referred to himself simply, yet proudly, as un ecrivain —a writer. This is an important fact to keep in mind when assessing his place in intellectual history and in twentieth-century philosophy, for by no means does he qualify as a system-builder or theorist or even as a disciplined thinker. He was instead (and here again Sartre’s assessment is astute) a sort of all-purpose critic and modern-day philosophe : a debunker of mythologies, a critic of garden poem, fraud and superstition, an Starting Business Essays enemy of terror, a voice of reason and poem compassion, and an outspoken defender of freedom—all in all a figure very much in the Enlightenment tradition of Voltaire and Diderot. For this reason, in jeanne duprau assessing Camus’s career and work, it may be best simply to take him at his own word and characterize him first and foremost as a writer —advisedly attaching the epithet “philosophical” for sharper accuracy and definition.

3. Camus, Philosophical Literature, and the Novel of Ideas. To pin down exactly why and in what distinctive sense Camus may be termed a philosophical writer, we can begin by comparing him with other authors who have merited the designation. Right away, we can eliminate any comparison with the efforts of Lucretius and Dante, who undertook to unfold entire cosmologies and philosophical systems in epic verse. Camus obviously attempted nothing of the sort. On the other hand, we can draw at least a limited comparison between Camus and writers like Pascal, Kierkegaard, and my mothers poem Nietzsche—that is, with writers who were first of all philosophers or religious writers, but whose stylistic achievements and literary flair gained them a special place in throughout Essay the pantheon of world literature as well. Here we may note that Camus himself was very conscious of his debt to Kierkegaard and garden Nietzsche (especially in the style and structure of The Myth of Sisyphus and The Rebel ) and that he might very well have followed in their literary-philosophical footsteps if his tuberculosis had not side-tracked him into fiction and journalism and prevented him from pursuing an academic career. Perhaps Camus himself best defined his own particular status as a philosophical writer when he wrote (with authors like Melville, Stendhal, Dostoyevsky, and Kafka especially in mind): “The great novelists are philosophical novelists”; that is, writers who eschew systematic explanation and create their discourse using “images instead of arguments” ( The Myth of Sisyphus 74). By his own definition then Camus is a philosophical writer in the sense that he has (a) conceived his own distinctive and original world-view and (b) sought to convey that view mainly through images, fictional characters and events, and via dramatic presentation rather than through critical analysis and History Essay direct discourse. He is poem also both a novelist of ideas and a psychological novelist, and in Genres Essay this respect, he certainly compares most closely to Dostoyevsky and Sartre, two other writers who combine a unique and distinctly philosophical outlook, acute psychological insight, and a dramatic style of presentation. (Like Camus, Sartre was a productive playwright, and Dostoyevsky remains perhaps the most dramatic of all novelists, as Camus clearly understood, having adapted both The Brothers Karamazov and The Possessed for my mothers garden the stage.)

Camus’s reputation rests largely on the three novels published during his lifetime— The Stranger, The Plague, and The Fall —and on his two major philosophical essays— The Myth of Sisyphus and The Rebel . However, his body of work also includes a collection of a New Essays, short fiction, Exile and the Kingdom ; an autobiographical novel, The First Man ; a number of dramatic works, most notably Caligula, The Misunderstanding , The State of Siege , and The Just Assassins ; several translations and adaptations, including new versions of works by Calderon, Lope de Vega, Dostoyevsky, and Faulkner; and a lengthy assortment of essays, prose pieces, critical reviews, transcribed speeches and my mothers garden interviews, articles, and works of journalism. A brief summary and description of the most important of Vocal Genres throughout, Camus’s writings is presented below as preparation for a larger discussion of his philosophy and my mothers garden poem world-view, including his main ideas and recurrent philosophical themes. The Stranger ( L’Etranger, 1942)—From its cold opening lines, “Mother died today. Or maybe yesterday; I can’t be sure,” to its bleak concluding image of a public execution set to take place beneath the “benign indifference of the universe,” Camus’s first and most famous novel takes the form of a terse, flat, first-person narrative by epiphenomenal qualia, its main character Meursault, a very ordinary young man of unremarkable habits and unemotional affect who, inexplicably and in my mothers poem an almost absent-minded way, kills an Arab and then is arrested, tried, convicted, and sentenced to death. The neutral style of the novel—typical of what the jeanne duprau critic Roland Barthes called “writing degree zero”—serves as a perfect vehicle for the descriptions and commentary of its anti-hero narrator, the ultimate “outsider” and a person who seems to observe everything, including his own life, with almost pathological detachment. The Plague ( La Peste, 1947)—Set in the coastal town of Oran, Camus’s second novel is the story of an outbreak of plague, traced from its subtle, insidious, unheeded beginnings and horrible, seemingly irresistible dominion to its eventual climax and decline, all told from the viewpoint of one of the survivors.

Camus made no effort to conceal the my mothers poem fact that his novel was partly based on and could be interpreted as an allegory or parable of the rise of Nazism and Starting Essays the nightmare of the Occupation. However, the plague metaphor is both more complicated and more flexible than that, extending to signify the Absurd in general as well as any calamity or disaster that tests the mettle of my mothers garden poem, human beings, their endurance, their solidarity, their sense of responsibility, their compassion, and their will. Dialectical. At the end of the novel, the plague finally retreats, and the narrator reflects that a time of garden poem, pestilence teaches “that there is more to admire in men than to despise,” but he also knows “that the plague bacillus never dies or disappears for good,” that “the day would come when, for of Children be Banned Essay the bane and the enlightening of men, it would rouse up its rats again” and send them forth yet once more to spread death and contagion into a happy and unsuspecting city. The Fall ( La Chute, 1956)—Camus’s third novel, and the last to garden be published during his lifetime, is in epiphenomenal qualia effect an extended dramatic monologue spoken by garden poem, M. Jean-Baptiste Clamence, a dissipated, cynical, former Parisian attorney (who now calls himself a “judge-penitent”) to an unnamed auditor (thus indirectly to the reader). Corporal Punishment Of Children Should Be Banned Essay. Set in a seedy bar in the red-light district of Amsterdam, the poem work is Genres Essay a small masterpiece of my mothers, compression and style: a confessional (and semi-autobiographical) novel, an arresting character study and psychological portrait, and at the same time a wide-ranging philosophical discourse on qualia guilt and innocence, expiation and punishment, good and evil. Camus began his literary career as a playwright and theatre director and was planning new dramatic works for film, stage, and television at the time of his death.

In addition to his four original plays, he also published several successful adaptations (including theatre pieces based on works by Faulkner, Dostoyevsky, and Calderon). My Mothers Garden Poem. He took particular pride in his work as a dramatist and man of the theatre. However, his plays never achieved the same popularity, critical success, or level of incandescence as his more famous novels and major essays. Caligula (1938, first produced 1945)—“Men die and are not happy.” Such is the a Juvenile Essay complaint against the universe pronounced by the young emperor Caligula, who in Camus’s play is less the murderous lunatic, slave to incest, narcissist, and poem megalomaniac of Roman history than a theatrical martyr-hero of the Absurd: a man who carries his philosophical quarrel with the meaninglessness of human existence to a kind of fanatical but logical extreme. Camus described his hero as a man “obsessed with the impossible” willing to pervert all values, and if necessary destroy himself and Genres throughout History Essay all those around him in the pursuit of absolute liberty. Garden Poem. Caligula was Camus’s first attempt at Genres throughout History Essay, portraying a figure in absolute defiance of the Absurd, and through three revisions of the play over a period of several years he eventually achieved a remarkable composite by adding to Caligula’s original portrait touches of Sade, of revolutionary nihilism, of the Nietzschean Superman, of his own version of Sisyphus, and even of Mussolini and Hitler. The Misunderstanding ( Le Malentendu , 1944)—In this grim exploration of the Absurd, a son returns home while concealing his true identity from his mother and sister. The two women operate a boarding house where, in garden poem order to make ends meet, they quietly murder and rob their patrons. Through a tangle of Genres History Essay, misunderstanding and mistaken identity they wind up murdering their unrecognized visitor. My Mothers Garden Poem. Camus has explained the drama as an epiphenomenal qualia attempt to my mothers capture the atmosphere of malaise, corruption, demoralization, and anonymity that he experienced while living in France during the qualia German occupation.

Despite the play’s dark themes and garden bleak style, he described its philosophy as ultimately optimistic: “It amounts to with a Juvenile saying that in an unjust or indifferent world man can save himself, and garden save others, by practicing the most basic sincerity and pronouncing the most appropriate word.” State of Siege ( L’Etat de Siege, 1948) — This odd allegorical drama combines features of the medieval morality play with elements of Calderon and the Spanish baroque; it also has apocalyptic themes, bits of jeanne duprau, music hall comedy, and a collection of avant-garde theatrics thrown in for good measure. The work marked a significant departure from Camus’s normal dramatic style. It also resulted in my mothers poem virtually universal disapproval and negative reviews from Paris theatre-goers and critics, many of whom came expecting a play based on Camus’s recent novel The Plague . The play is set in Genres the Spanish seaport city of my mothers, Cadiz, famous for its beaches, carnivals, and street musicians. By the end of the first act, the normally laid-back and carefree citizens fall under the dominion of a gaudily beribboned and uniformed dictator named Plague (based on Generalissimo Franco) and his officious, clip-board wielding Secretary (who turns out to Starting a New Business be a modern, bureaucratic incarnation of the medieval figure Death). My Mothers. One of the prominent concerns of the play is the Orwellian theme of the degradation of language via totalitarian politics and with Offender bureaucracy (symbolized onstage by garden, calls for silence, scenes in pantomime, and a gagged chorus). As one character observes, “we are steadily nearing that perfect moment when nothing anybody says will rouse the least echo in another’s mind.” The Just Assassins ( Les Justes , 1950)—First performed in Paris to largely favorable reviews, this play is based on real-life characters and an actual historical event: the 1905 assassination of the epiphenomenal qualia Russian Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich by Ivan Kalyayev and my mothers garden poem fellow members of the Combat Organization of the Socialist Revolutionary Party. Jeanne Duprau. The play effectively dramatizes the my mothers garden issues that Camus would later explore in to kill dialectical detail in The Rebel , especially the question of whether acts of my mothers garden, terrorism and political violence can ever be morally justified (and if so, with what limitations and in what specific circumstances). The historical Kalyayev passed up his original opportunity to to kill a mockingbird dialectical journal bomb the Grand Duke’s carriage because the garden Duke was accompanied by his wife and two young nephews.

However, this was no act of conscience on Kalyayev’s part but a purely practical decision based on his calculation that the murder of children would prove a setback to the revolution. After the successful completion of Starting, his bombing mission and subsequent arrest, Kalyayev welcomed his execution on similarly practical and purely political grounds, believing that his death would further the cause of revolution and social justice. Camus’s Kalyayev, on garden the other hand, is a far more agonized and conscientious figure, neither so cold-blooded nor so calculating as his real-life counterpart. Upon seeing the two children in epiphenomenal qualia the carriage, he refuses to toss his bomb not because doing so would be politically inexpedient but because he is overcome emotionally, temporarily unnerved by the sad expression in their eyes. Similarly, at garden poem, the end of the play he embraces his death not so much because it will aid the revolution, but almost as a form of karmic penance, as if it were indeed some kind of sacred duty or metaphysical requirement that must be performed in order for true justice to be achieved. c. Essays, Letters, Prose Collections, Articles, and Reviews. Betwixt and Between ( L’Envers et l’endroit, 1937)—This short collection of semi-autobiographical, semi-fictional, philosophical pieces might be dismissed as juvenilia and largely ignored if it were not for dialectical journal the fact that it represents Camus’s first attempt to formulate a coherent life-outlook and world-view. My Mothers Garden Poem. The collection, which in a way serves as a germ or starting point for Vocal Genres Essay the author’s later philosophy, consists of my mothers garden poem, five lyrical essays. In “Irony” (“ L’Ironie ”), a reflection on youth and age, Camus asserts, in the manner of jeanne duprau, a young disciple of Pascal, our essential solitariness in life and death. Poem. In “Between yes and no” (“ Entre Oui et Non ”) he suggests that to hope is as empty and as pointless as to despair, yet he goes beyond nihilism by positing a fundamental value to existence-in-the-world.

In “Death in the soul” (“ La Mort dans l’ame ”) he supplies a sort of existential travel review, contrasting his impressions of central and Eastern Europe (which he views as purgatorial and morgue-like) with the more spontaneous life of Italy and Mediterranean culture. The piece thus affirms the author’s lifelong preference for Vocal Essay the color and vitality of the Mediterranean world, and especially North Africa, as opposed to what he perceives as the soulless cold-heartedness of garden, modern Europe. In “Love of life” (“ Amour de vivre ”) he claims there can be no love of life without despair of life and Corporal Punishment of Children be Banned thus largely re-asserts the essentially tragic, ancient Greek view that the very beauty of human existence is largely contingent upon its brevity and fragility. The concluding essay, “Betwixt and my mothers garden poem between” (“ L’Envers et l’endroit ”), summarizes and re-emphasizes the Romantic themes of the collection as a whole: our fundamental “aloneness,” the importance of imagination and openness to experience, the imperative to “live as if….” Nuptials ( Noces , 1938)—This collection of four rhapsodic narratives supplements and jeanne duprau amplifies the youthful philosophy expressed in Betwixt and Between . My Mothers Garden. That joy is necessarily intertwined with despair, that the shortness of life confers a premium on intense experience, and that the world is both beautiful and violent—these are, once again, Camus’s principal themes. Dialectical Journal. “Summer in Algiers,” which is probably the my mothers garden poem best (and best-known) of the essays in the collection, is a lyrical, at times almost ecstatic, celebration of sea, sun, and the North African landscape. Affirming a defiantly atheistic creed, Camus concludes with one of the core ideas of his philosophy: “If there is a sin against life, it consists not so much in despairing as in hoping for jeanne duprau another life and in eluding the my mothers implacable grandeur of with a Juvenile Essay, this one.”

The Myth of Sisyphus ( Le Mythe de Sisyphe, 1943)—If there is a single non-fiction work that can be considered an essential or fundamental statement of Camus’s philosophy, it is this extended essay on the ethics of suicide (eventually translated and my mothers repackaged for American publication in 1955). It is here that Camus formally introduces and fully articulates his most famous idea, the Punishment of Children Should be Banned concept of the my mothers poem Absurd, and his equally famous image of life as a Sisyphean struggle. Starting A New Business. From its provocative opening sentence—“There is garden poem but one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is with Offender suicide”—to its stirring, paradoxical conclusion—“The struggle itself toward the heights is enough to fill a man’s heart. One must imagine Sisyphus happy”—the book has something interesting and challenging on nearly every page and my mothers is shot through with brilliant aphorisms and insights. In the end, Camus rejects suicide: the Absurd must not be evaded either by religion (“philosophical suicide”) or by annihilation (“physical suicide”); the task of living should not merely be accepted, it must be embraced. The Rebel ( L’Homme Revolte, 1951)—Camus considered this work a continuation of the An Interview with critical and philosophical investigation of the Absurd that he began with The Myth of Sisyphus . Only this time his primary concern is my mothers garden not suicide but murder. He takes up the question of whether acts of terrorism and political violence can be morally justified, which is basically the dialectical same question he had addressed earlier in his play The Just Assassins . After arguing that an authentic life inevitably involves some form of garden poem, conscientious moral revolt, Camus winds up concluding that only in rare and very narrowly defined instances is political violence justified. Camus’s critique of revolutionary violence and terror in this work, and particularly his caustic assessment of Marxism-Leninism (which he accused of sacrificing innocent lives on the altar of History), touched nerves throughout Europe and led in part to his celebrated feud with Sartre and with Offender other French leftists.

Resistance, Rebellion, and Death (1957)—This posthumous collection is of interest to students of Camus mainly because it brings together an my mothers garden poem unusual assortment of his non-fiction writings on a wide range of topics, from art and politics to the advantages of pessimism and the virtues (from a non-believer’s standpoint) of Christianity. Of special interest are two pieces that helped secure Camus’s worldwide reputation as a voice of liberty: “Letters to a German Friend,” a set of four letters originally written during the Nazi Occupation, and Essays “Reflections on the Guillotine,” a denunciation of the death penalty cited for my mothers poem special mention by the Nobel committee and Genres throughout Essay eventually revised and re-published as a companion essay to go with fellow death-penalty opponent Arthur Koestler’s “Reflections on Hanging.” To re-emphasize a point made earlier, Camus considered himself first and foremost a writer ( un ecrivain ). Indeed, Camus’s dissertation advisor penciled onto his dissertation the assessment “More a writer than a philosopher.” And at various times in his career he also accepted the labels journalist, humanist, novelist, and even moralist. However, he apparently never felt comfortable identifying himself as a philosopher—a term he seems to have associated with rigorous academic training, systematic thinking, logical consistency, and a coherent, carefully defined doctrine or body of ideas. This is not to poem suggest that Camus lacked ideas or to Vocal History say that his thought cannot be considered a personal philosophy. It is simply to point out that he was not a systematic, or even a notably disciplined thinker and that, unlike Heidegger and Sartre, for example, he showed very little interest in poem metaphysics and ontology, which seems to be one of the reasons he consistently denied that he was an existentialist. An Interview With A Juvenile Essay. In short, he was not much given to speculative philosophy or any kind of abstract theorizing. Poem. His thought is instead nearly always related to current events (e.g., the epiphenomenal qualia Spanish War, revolt in Algeria) and is consistently grounded in down-to-earth moral and political reality. Though he was baptized, raised, and educated as a Catholic and invariably respectful towards the Church, Camus seems to have been a natural-born pagan who showed almost no instinct whatsoever for belief in the supernatural. Even as a youth, he was more of a sun-worshipper and nature lover than a boy notable for his piety or religious faith.

On the other hand, there is no denying that Christian literature and philosophy served as an important influence on poem his early thought and intellectual development. As a young high school student, Camus studied the Bible, read and savored the Spanish mystics St. Theresa of Avila and St. John of the Cross, and was introduced to the thought of St. Augustine St. Vocal Essay. Augustine would later serve as the subject of his baccalaureate dissertation and become—as a fellow North African writer, quasi-existentialist, and conscientious observer-critic of his own life—an important lifelong influence. In college Camus absorbed Kierkegaard, who, after Augustine, was probably the single greatest Christian influence on his thought. He also studied Schopenhauer and Nietzsche—undoubtedly the two writers who did the most to set him on his own path of defiant pessimism and atheism. My Mothers Poem. Other notable influences include not only the major modern philosophers from the academic curriculum—from Descartes and Spinoza to Bergson—but also, and Corporal of Children Should Essay just as importantly, philosophical writers like Stendhal, Melville, Dostoyevsky, and Kafka. The two earliest expressions of Camus’s personal philosophy are his works Betwixt and garden poem Between (1937) and Nuptials (1938).

Here he unfolds what is essentially a hedonistic, indeed almost primitivistic, celebration of nature and the life of the senses. In the epiphenomenal Romantic poetic tradition of writers like Rilke and Wallace Stevens, he offers a forceful rejection of all hereafters and poem an emphatic embrace of the here and now. There is no salvation, he argues, no transcendence; there is only the enjoyment of consciousness and natural being. One life, this life, is enough. Corporal Of Children Should Essay. Sky and sea, mountain and desert, have their own beauty and magnificence and constitute a sufficient heaven.

The critic John Cruikshank termed this stage in Camus’s thinking “naive atheism” and attributed it to his ecstatic and somewhat immature “Mediterraneanism.” Naive seems an apt characterization for a philosophy that is romantically bold and uncomplicated yet somewhat lacking in sophistication and logical clarity. On the other hand, if we keep in mind Camus’s theatrical background and garden preference for dramatic presentation, there may actually be more depth and Starting Business Essays complexity to his thought here than meets the garden poem eye. Punishment Of Children Should Be Banned Essay. That is to say, just as it would be simplistic and reductive to equate Camus’s philosophy of poem, revolt with that of his character Caligula (who is at best a kind of extreme or mad spokesperson for the author), so in the same way it is possible that the pensees and opinions presented in with a Juvenile Offender Nuptials and Betwixt and Between are not so much the views of Camus as they are poetically heightened observations of an artfully crafted narrator—an exuberant alter ego who is far more spontaneous and free-spirited than his more naturally reserved and sober-minded author. In any case, regardless of my mothers poem, this assessment of the ideas expressed in Betwixt and Between and Nuptials , it is clear that these early writings represent an important, if comparatively raw and simple, beginning stage in jeanne duprau Camus’s development as a thinker where his views differ markedly from his more mature philosophy in several noteworthy respects. Garden. In the first place, the Camus of Nuptials is jeanne duprau still a young man of twenty-five, aflame with youthful joie de vivre. He favors a life of impulse and daring as it was honored and practiced in both Romantic literature and in the streets of Belcourt.

Recently married and divorced, raised in my mothers garden poem poverty and in close quarters, beset with health problems, this young man develops an understandable passion for clear air, open space, colorful dreams, panoramic vistas, and the breath-taking prospects and challenges of the larger world. Genres History. Consequently, the Camus of the period 1937-38 is a decidedly different writer from the Camus who will ascend the garden dais at Stockholm nearly twenty years later. The young Camus is Corporal Punishment Should be Banned more of a sensualist and pleasure-seeker, more of a dandy and my mothers poem aesthete, than the more hardened and austere figure who will endure the Occupation while serving in the French underground. He is a writer passionate in his conviction that life ought to be lived vividly and intensely—indeed rebelliously (to use the term that will take on increasing importance in his thought). He is also a writer attracted to Essay causes, though he is not yet the author who will become world-famous for his moral seriousness and passionate commitment to justice and freedom. All of which is understandable. After all, the Camus of the middle 1930s had not yet witnessed and poem absorbed the shattering spectacle and disillusioning effects of the Spanish Civil War, the rise of Fascism, Hitlerism, and Stalinism, the coming into being of total war and weapons of mass destruction, and the terrible reign of genocide and terror that would characterize the period 1938-1945. It was under the pressure and in direct response to the events of this period that Camus’s mature philosophy—with its core set of with, humanistic themes and my mothers ideas—emerged and gradually took shape.

That mature philosophy is Corporal Punishment be Banned Essay no longer a “naive atheism” but a very reflective and critical brand of unbelief. It is proudly and inconsolably pessimistic, but not in a polemical or overbearing way. It is unbending, hardheaded, determinedly skeptical. It is tolerant and respectful of world religious creeds, but at the same time wholly unsympathetic to them. In the end it is an my mothers affirmative philosophy that accepts and approves, and in its own way blesses, our dreadful mortality and our fundamental isolation in with Offender Essay the world.

Regardless of whether he is producing drama, fiction, or non-fiction, Camus in his mature writings nearly always takes up and re-explores the same basic philosophical issues. These recurrent topoi constitute the key components of his thought. They include themes like the Absurd, alienation, suicide, and garden poem rebellion that almost automatically come to mind whenever his name is mentioned. Hence any summary of his place in modern philosophy would be incomplete without at least a brief discussion of these ideas and how they fit together to form a distinctive and original world-view. Even readers not closely acquainted with Camus’s works are aware of his reputation as the a Juvenile philosophical expositor, anatomist, and poet-apostle of the Absurd. Indeed, as even sitcom writers and stand-up comics apparently understand (odd fact: the comic-bleak final episode of Seinfeld has been compared to my mothers The Stranger , and Camus’s thought has been used to explain episodes of The Simpsons ), it is largely through the thought and writings of the French-Algerian author that the concept of absurdity has become a part not only of world literature and twentieth-century philosophy but also of Corporal Essay, modern popular culture. What then is meant by garden poem, the notion of the with Absurd?

Contrary to the view conveyed by popular culture, the garden Absurd, (at least in Camus’s terms) does not simply refer to some vague perception that modern life is fraught with paradoxes, incongruities, and intellectual confusion. (Although that perception is certainly consistent with his formula.) Instead, as he emphasizes and tries to make clear, the Absurd expresses a fundamental disharmony, a tragic incompatibility, in our existence. In effect, he argues that the Absurd is the product of a collision or confrontation between our human desire for order, meaning, and purpose in life and the blank, indifferent “silence of the universe”: “The absurd is not in man nor in the world,” Camus explains, “but in their presence together…it is the only bond uniting them.” So here we are: poor creatures desperately seeking hope and meaning in a hopeless, meaningless world. Sartre, in his essay-review of qualia, The Stranger provides an additional gloss on the idea: “The absurd, to be sure, resides neither in man nor in the world, if you consider each separately. My Mothers Garden. But since man’s dominant characteristic is ‘being in the world,’ the absurd is, in the end, an jeanne duprau inseparable part of the human condition.” The Absurd, then, presents itself in the form of an existential opposition. It arises from the human demand for clarity and transcendence on the one hand and my mothers garden a cosmos that offers nothing of the Starting a New Business kind on the other. Such is our fate: we inhabit a world that is indifferent to our sufferings and deaf to our protests. In Camus’s view there are three possible philosophical responses to this predicament. Two of these he condemns as evasions, and the other he puts forward as a proper solution. The first choice is blunt and simple: physical suicide. If we decide that a life without some essential purpose or meaning is not worth living, we can simply choose to my mothers garden poem kill ourselves.

Camus rejects this choice as cowardly. In his terms it is a repudiation or renunciation of life, not a true revolt. The second choice is the religious solution of positing a transcendent world of solace and meaning beyond the Absurd. Camus calls this solution “philosophical suicide” and rejects it as transparently evasive and fraudulent. Epiphenomenal. To adopt a supernatural solution to the problem of the my mothers garden poem Absurd (for example, through some type of mysticism or leap of faith) is to a New Business Essays annihilate reason, which in Camus’s view is as fatal and my mothers self-destructive as physical suicide. Starting A New. In effect, instead of removing himself from the absurd confrontation of self and my mothers world like the physical suicide, the religious believer simply removes the offending world and qualia replaces it, via a kind of metaphysical abracadabra, with a more agreeable alternative. The third choice—in Camus’s view the only authentic and valid solution—is simply to accept absurdity, or better yet to embrace it, and to continue living. Since the Absurd in my mothers garden his view is an unavoidable, indeed defining, characteristic of the human condition, the jeanne duprau only proper response to it is full, unflinching, courageous acceptance.

Life, he says, can “be lived all the better if it has no meaning.” The example par excellence of my mothers garden poem, this option of spiritual courage and metaphysical revolt is the Starting a New Business mythical Sisyphus of Camus’s philosophical essay. Doomed to eternal labor at his rock, fully conscious of the garden poem essential hopelessness of his plight, Sisyphus nevertheless pushes on. With A Juvenile Essay. In doing so he becomes for garden poem Camus a superb icon of the with a Juvenile Offender Essay spirit of revolt and of the human condition. To rise each day to fight a battle you know you cannot win, and to do this with wit, grace, compassion for my mothers others, and even a sense of mission, is to face the Essay Absurd in my mothers poem a spirit of true heroism. Over the course of his career, Camus examines the qualia Absurd from my mothers garden poem, multiple perspectives and through the eyes of many different characters—from the mad Caligula, who is obsessed with the problem, to the strangely aloof and yet simultaneously self-absorbed Meursault, who seems indifferent to it even as he exemplifies and Starting a New Business is finally victimized by my mothers garden poem, it. In The Myth of Sisyphus, Camus traces it in specific characters of legend and literature (Don Juan, Ivan Karamazov) and also in certain character types (the Actor, the a mockingbird Conqueror), all of who may be understood as in some way a version or manifestation of Sisyphus, the archetypal absurd hero. [Note: A rather different, yet possibly related, notion of the Absurd is garden proposed and Corporal Punishment of Children Should be Banned analyzed in the work of Kierkegaard, especially in Fear and Trembling and poem Repetition . For Kierkegaard, however, the Absurd describes not an essential and universal human condition, but the special condition and nature of Starting a New Essays, religious faith—a paradoxical state in which matters of will and perception that are objectively impossible can nevertheless be ultimately true. Though it is hard to say whether Camus had Kierkegaard particularly in my mothers poem mind when he developed his own concept of the absurd, there can be little doubt that Kierkegaard’s knight of faith is in certain ways an jeanne duprau important predecessor of Camus’s Sisyphus: both figures are involved in impossible and endlessly agonizing tasks, which they nevertheless confidently and even cheerfully pursue. In the knight’s quixotic defiance and my mothers garden poem solipsism, Camus found a model for his own ideal of to kill a mockingbird dialectical, heroic affirmation and philosophical revolt.] The companion theme to the Absurd in Camus’s oeuvre (and the only other philosophical topic to which he devoted an entire book) is the idea of Revolt.

What is revolt? Simply defined, it is the Sisyphean spirit of defiance in garden the face of the Absurd. More technically and less metaphorically, it is a mockingbird a spirit of opposition against any perceived unfairness, oppression, or indignity in the human condition. Rebellion in Camus’s sense begins with a recognition of my mothers, boundaries, of limits that define one’s essential selfhood and core sense of epiphenomenal, being and thus must not be infringed—as when a slave stands up to his master and says in effect “thus far, and no further, shall I be commanded.” This defining of the self as at garden poem, some point inviolable appears to be an act of pure egoism and individualism, but it is History not. In fact Camus argues at considerable length to show that an act of conscientious revolt is ultimately far more than just an individual gesture or an act of solitary protest.

The rebel, he writes, holds that there is a “common good more important than his own destiny” and that there are “rights more important than himself.” He acts “in the name of certain values which are still indeterminate but which he feels are common to himself and to all men” ( The Rebel 15-16). Camus then goes on to assert that an “analysis of rebellion leads at least to the suspicion that, contrary to poem the postulates of contemporary thought, a human nature does exist, as the Greeks believed.” After all, “Why rebel,” he asks, “if there is Business nothing permanent in the self worth preserving?” The slave who stands up and asserts himself actually does so for “the sake of everyone in the world.” He declares in effect that “all men—even the man who insults and garden poem oppresses him—have a natural community.” Here we may note that the idea that there may indeed be an essential human nature is actually more than a “suspicion” as far as Camus himself was concerned. Genres Throughout Essay. Indeed for him it was more like a fundamental article of my mothers, his humanist faith. In any case it represents one of the core principles of dialectical journal, his ethics and is one of the tenets that sets his philosophy apart from existentialism. True revolt, then, is performed not just for garden poem the self but also in solidarity with and out of compassion for others. And for this reason, Camus is led to conclude that revolt too has its limits. If it begins with and necessarily involves a recognition of human community and a New a common human dignity, it cannot, without betraying its own true character, treat others as if they were lacking in poem that dignity or not a part of that community. Starting A New Business Essays. In the my mothers poem end it is remarkable, and indeed surprising, how closely Camus’s philosophy of Corporal Punishment be Banned, revolt, despite the garden poem author’s fervent atheism and individualism, echoes Kantian ethics with its prohibition against treating human beings as means and its ideal of the human community as a kingdom of Corporal of Children be Banned, ends. A recurrent theme in Camus’s literary works, which also shows up in his moral and political writings, is the character or perspective of the “stranger” or outsider.

Meursault, the laconic narrator of The Stranger , is the most obvious example. He seems to poem observe everything, even his own behavior, from an outside perspective. Like an anthropologist, he records his observations with clinical detachment at the same time that he is warily observed by the community around him. Camus came by this perspective naturally. As a European in Africa, an African in Europe, an infidel among Muslims, a lapsed Catholic, a Communist Party drop-out, an underground resister (who at times had to use code names and false identities), a “child of the of Children be Banned Essay state” raised by my mothers poem, a widowed mother (who was illiterate and virtually deaf and epiphenomenal dumb), Camus lived most of his life in my mothers poem various groups and communities without really being integrated within them. This outside view, the perspective of the exile, became his characteristic stance as a writer.

It explains both the cool, objective (“zero-degree”) precision of much of his work and also the high value he assigned to longed-for ideals of friendship, community, solidarity, and brotherhood. Throughout his writing career, Camus showed a deep interest in questions of guilt and innocence. Once again Meursault in The Stranger provides a striking example. Is he legally innocent of the murder he is An Interview with Offender charged with? Or is my mothers garden he technically guilty? On the one hand, there seems to have been no conscious intention behind his action. Indeed the Business Essays killing takes place almost as if by accident, with Meursault in a kind of my mothers garden, absent-minded daze, distracted by the sun.

From this point of view, his crime seems surreal and his trial and subsequent conviction a travesty. On the other hand, it is hard for the reader not to share the to kill view of other characters in the novel, especially Meursault’s accusers, witnesses, and jury, in whose eyes he seems to be a seriously defective human being—at best, a kind of hollow man and at worst, a monster of self-centeredness and insularity. That the character has evoked such a wide range of responses from critics and readers—from sympathy to horror—is a tribute to the psychological complexity and my mothers poem subtlety of Camus’s portrait. Camus’s brilliantly crafted final novel, The Fall , continues his keen interest in the theme of guilt, this time via a narrator who is virtually obsessed with it. The significantly named Jean-Baptiste Clamence (a voice in the wilderness calling for clemency and Should be Banned forgiveness) is tortured by guilt in the wake of a seemingly casual incident. While strolling home one drizzly November evening, he shows little concern and almost no emotional reaction at all to the suicidal plunge of my mothers garden poem, a young woman into the Seine. But afterwards the Starting incident begins to gnaw at him, and eventually he comes to view his inaction as typical of a long pattern of personal vanity and as a colossal failure of human sympathy on his part. Garden Poem. Wracked by epiphenomenal, remorse and self-loathing, he gradually descends into garden a figurative hell. Genres Throughout History. Formerly an attorney, he is now a self-described “judge-penitent” (a combination sinner, tempter, prosecutor, and father-confessor) who shows up each night at his local haunt, a sailor’s bar near Amsterdam’s red light district, where, somewhat in the manner of Coleridge’s Ancient Mariner, he recounts his story to whoever will hear it. In the final sections of the novel, amid distinctly Christian imagery and symbolism, he declares his crucial insight that, despite our pretensions to garden righteousness, we are all guilty . Hence no human being has the right to pass final moral judgment on Essay another. In a final twist, Clamence asserts that his acid self-portrait is my mothers poem also a mirror for his contemporaries.

Hence his confession is jeanne duprau also an accusation—not only of his nameless companion (who serves as the poem mute auditor for his monologue) but ultimately of the hypocrite lecteur as well. The theme of guilt and innocence in jeanne duprau Camus’s writings relates closely to another recurrent tension in his thought: the opposition of Christian and pagan ideas and influences. At heart a nature-worshipper, and by instinct a skeptic and non-believer, Camus nevertheless retained a lifelong interest and respect for poem Christian philosophy and literature. In particular, he seems to have recognized St. Augustine and Business Kierkegaard as intellectual kinsmen and writers with whom he shared a common passion for controversy, literary flourish, self-scrutiny, and my mothers self-dramatization. Christian images, symbols, and allusions abound in all his work (probably more so than in the writing of any other avowed atheist in modern literature), and Christian themes—judgment, forgiveness, despair, sacrifice, passion, and so forth—permeate the novels. (Meursault and Clamence, it is worth noting, are presented not just as sinners, devils, and outcasts, but in several instances explicitly, and not entirely ironically, as Christ figures.) Meanwhile alongside and against this leitmotif of Christian images and themes, Camus sets the An Interview a Juvenile Offender Essay main components of his essentially pagan worldview. Like Nietzsche, he maintains a special admiration for my mothers poem Greek heroic values and pessimism and for classical virtues like courage and honor. What might be termed Romantic values also merit particular esteem within his philosophy: passion, absorption in pure being, an to kill appreciation for and indeed a willingness to revel in raw sensory experience, the my mothers garden poem glory of the moment, the beauty of the world.

As a result of Genres throughout Essay, this duality of influence, Camus’s basic philosophical problem becomes how to reconcile his Augustinian sense of original sin (universal guilt) and garden poem rampant moral evil with his personal ideal of An Interview, pagan primitivism (universal innocence) and with his conviction that the my mothers poem natural world and our life in it have intrinsic beauty and with Offender value. Can an garden absurd world have intrinsic value? Is authentic pessimism compatible with the view that there is an to kill dialectical essential dignity to human life? Such questions raise the possibility that there may be deep logical inconsistencies within Camus’s philosophy, and some critics (notably Sartre) have suggested that these inconsistencies cannot be surmounted except through some sort of Kierkegaardian leap of faith on Camus’s part—in this case a leap leading to a belief not in God but in man. Such a leap is certainly implied in an oft-quoted remark from Camus’s “Letter to a German Friend,” where he wrote: “I continue to believe that this world has no supernatural meaning…But I know that something in garden poem the world has meaning—man.” One can find similar affirmations and protestations on epiphenomenal qualia behalf of humanity throughout Camus’s writings. They are almost a hallmark of his philosophical style. Oracular and high-flown, they clearly have more rhetorical force than logical potency.

On the other hand, if we are trying to locate Camus’s place in European philosophical tradition, they provide a strong clue as to where he properly belongs. Surprisingly, the sentiment here, a commonplace of the Enlightenment and of traditional liberalism, is much closer in spirit to the exuberant secular humanism of the Italian Renaissance than to the agnostic skepticism of contemporary post-modernism. vi. Individual vs. History and Mass Culture. A primary theme of early twentieth-century European literature and critical thought is the rise of modern mass civilization and its suffocating effects of alienation and dehumanization. This became a pervasive theme by the time Camus was establishing his literary reputation.

Anxiety over the fate of Western culture, already intense, escalated to apocalyptic levels with the sudden emergence of fascism, totalitarianism, and new technologies of coercion and death. Here then was a subject ready-made for a writer of Camus’s political and garden poem humanistic views. He responded to the occasion with typical force and eloquence. In one way or another, the Corporal Punishment of Children Essay themes of alienation and dehumanization as by-products of an increasingly technical and automated world enter into garden poem nearly all of Should Essay, Camus’s works. Even his concept of the my mothers poem Absurd becomes multiplied by jeanne duprau, a social and economic world in my mothers garden poem which meaningless routines and An Interview with mind-numbing repetitions predominate. The drudgery of Sisyphus is mirrored and amplified in my mothers poem the assembly line, the business office, the government bureau, and especially in the penal colony and jeanne duprau concentration camp.

In line with this theme, the ever-ambiguous Meursault in The Stranger can be understood as both a depressing manifestation of the newly emerging mass personality (that is, as a figure devoid of basic human feelings and passions) and, conversely, as a lone hold-out, a last remaining specimen of the old Romanticism—and hence a figure who is viewed as both dangerous and alien by the robotic majority. Similarly, The Plague can be interpreted, on at least one level, as an allegory in which humanity must be preserved from the fatal pestilence of my mothers garden, mass culture, which converts formerly free, autonomous, independent-minded human beings into a soulless new species. At various times in An Interview with Offender the novel, Camus’s narrator describes the plague as if it were a dull but highly capable public official or bureaucrat: It was, above all, a shrewd, unflagging adversary; a skilled organizer, doing his work thoroughly and well. (180) “But it seemed the plague had settled in for good at its most virulent, and it took its daily toll of deaths with the punctual zeal of a good civil servant.” (235) This identification of the plague with oppressive civil bureaucracy and my mothers garden the routinization of charisma looks forward to the author’s play The State of Siege , where plague is used once again as a symbol for totalitarianism—only this time it is personified in an almost cartoonish way as a kind of overbearing government functionary or office manager from hell. Qualia. Clad in a gaudy military uniform bedecked with ribbons and decorations, the my mothers garden poem character Plague (a satirical portrait of Generalissimo Francisco Franco—or El Caudillo as he liked to style himself) is closely attended by Corporal Punishment of Children, his personal Secretary and loyal assistant Death, depicted as a prim, officious female bureaucrat who also favors military garb and who carries an ever-present clipboard and notebook. So Plague is a fascist dictator, and Death a solicitous commissar.

Together these figures represent a system of pervasive control and micro-management that threatens the future of mass society. In his reflections on this theme of post-industrial dehumanization, Camus differs from most other European writers (and especially from those on the Left) in viewing mass reform and revolutionary movements, including Marxism, as representing at least as great a threat to individual freedom as late-stage capitalism. Throughout his career he continued to cherish and defend old-fashioned virtues like personal courage and honor that other Left-wing intellectuals tended to view as reactionary or bourgeois. Suicide is the central subject of The Myth of poem, Sisyphus and serves as a background theme in Caligula and The Fall . In Caligula the mad title character, in a fit of horror and revulsion at epiphenomenal, the meaninglessness of life, would rather die—and bring the world down with him—than accept a cosmos that is indifferent to human fate or that will not submit to poem his individual will. In The Fall , a stranger’s act of suicide serves as the starting point for Vocal a bitter ritual of my mothers poem, self-scrutiny and remorse on the part of the throughout History Essay narrator. Like Wittgenstein (who had a family history of suicide and suffered from bouts of depression), Camus considered suicide the fundamental issue for moral philosophy. My Mothers Poem. However, unlike other philosophers who have written on the subject (from Cicero and Seneca to Montaigne and Schopenhauer), Camus seems uninterested in assessing the traditional motives and justifications for suicide (for instance, to of Children Should be Banned avoid a long, painful, and debilitating illness or as a response to personal tragedy or scandal). Indeed, he seems interested in the problem only to my mothers the extent that it represents one possible response to the Absurd.

His verdict on the matter is unqualified and clear: The only courageous and morally valid response to the Absurd is to continue living—“Suicide is not an option.” From the time he first heard the story of his father’s literal nausea and revulsion after witnessing a public execution, Camus began a vocal and Essays lifelong opposition to the death penalty. Executions by guillotine were a common public spectacle in Algeria during his lifetime, but he refused to attend them and recoiled bitterly at their very mention. Condemnation of capital punishment is both explicit and my mothers garden poem implicit in jeanne duprau his writings. For example, in The Stranger Meursault’s long confinement during his trial and his eventual execution are presented as part of an elaborate, ceremonial ritual involving both public and religious authorities.

The grim rationality of this process of legalized murder contrasts markedly with the sudden, irrational, almost accidental nature of his actual crime. Similarly, in The Myth of Sisyphus , the would-be suicide is contrasted with his fatal opposite, the man condemned to my mothers garden poem death, and we are continually reminded that a sentence of Starting, death is my mothers garden our common fate in dialectical an absurd universe. Camus’s opposition to garden poem the death penalty is not specifically philosophical. That is, it is Vocal throughout History not based on a particular moral theory or principle (such as Cesare Beccaria’s utilitarian objection that capital punishment is wrong because it has not been proven to have a deterrent effect greater than life imprisonment). Camus’s opposition, in contrast, is humanitarian, conscientious, almost visceral. Like Victor Hugo, his great predecessor on this issue, he views the death penalty as an egregious barbarism—an act of blood riot and vengeance covered over with a thin veneer of law and my mothers poem civility to make it acceptable to Starting a New modern sensibilities. That it is also an act of vengeance aimed primarily at the poor and my mothers garden poem oppressed, and that it is given religious sanction, makes it even more hideous and indefensible in his view. Camus’s essay “Reflections on a New Business the Guillotine” supplies a detailed examination of the my mothers garden issue. An eloquent personal statement with compelling psychological and philosophical insights, it includes the author’s direct rebuttal to traditional retributionist arguments in favor of capital punishment (such as Kant’s claim that death is the legally appropriate, indeed morally required, penalty for epiphenomenal qualia murder).

To all who argue that murder must be punished in kind, Camus replies: Capital punishment is the most premeditated of murders, to which no criminal’s deed, however calculated, can be compared. For there to be an equivalency, the death penalty would have to punish a criminal who had warned his victim of the date on which he would inflict a horrible death on him and who, from that moment onward, had confined him at his mercy for my mothers garden months. Such a monster is qualia not to be encountered in private life. Camus concludes his essay by arguing that, at the very least, France should abolish the savage spectacle of the guillotine and garden replace it with a more humane procedure (such as lethal injection). But he still retains a scant hope that capital punishment will be completely abolished at Corporal Punishment Should be Banned Essay, some point in the time to come: “In the unified Europe of the future the solemn abolition of the death penalty ought to be the first article of the European Code we all hope for.” Camus himself did not live to my mothers poem see the day, but he would no doubt be gratified to know that abolition of capital punishment is now an a Juvenile Essay essential prerequisite for membership in the European Union. Camus is often classified as an existentialist writer, and it is easy to garden poem see why. Affinities with Kierkegaard and Sartre are patent.

He shares with these philosophers (and with the other major writers in the existentialist tradition, from jeanne duprau, Augustine and Pascal to Dostoyevsky and Nietzsche) an habitual and intense interest in the active human psyche, in the life of conscience or spirit as it is actually experienced and lived. Like these writers, he aims at poem, nothing less than a thorough, candid exegesis of the human condition, and like them he exhibits not just a philosophical attraction but also a personal commitment to such values as individualism, free choice, inner strength, authenticity, personal responsibility, and self-determination. However, one troublesome fact remains: throughout his career Camus repeatedly denied that he was an existentialist. Was this an accurate and honest self-assessment? On the one hand, some critics have questioned this “denial” (using the term almost in its modern clinical sense), attributing it to the celebrated Sartre-Camus political “feud” or to a New Business Essays a certain stubbornness or even contrariness on Camus’s part. My Mothers Garden. In their view, Camus qualifies as, at minimum, a closet existentialist, and in certain respects (e.g., in his unconditional and passionate concern for the individual) as an Starting Essays even truer specimen of the type than Sartre. On the my mothers garden poem other hand, besides his personal rejection of the label, there appear to Punishment of Children Should Essay be solid reasons for challenging the garden claim that Camus is an existentialist. Epiphenomenal Qualia. For one thing, it is my mothers poem noteworthy that he never showed much interest in (indeed he largely avoided) metaphysical and qualia ontological questions (the philosophical raison d’etre of Heidegger and Sartre).

Of course there is no rule that says an existentialist must be a metaphysician. However, Camus’s seeming aversion to poem technical philosophical discussion does suggest one way in which he distanced himself from contemporary existentialist thought. Another point of divergence is that Camus seems to have regarded existentialism as a complete and systematic world-view, that is, a fully articulated doctrine. Jeanne Duprau. In his view, to garden be a true existentialist one had to Corporal of Children Essay commit to the entire doctrine (and not merely to bits and pieces of it), and this was apparently something he was unwilling to do. A further point of separation, and possibly a decisive one, is that Camus actively challenged and set himself apart from the my mothers poem existentialist motto that being precedes essence. Ultimately, against Vocal Genres throughout History, Sartre in particular and existentialists in general, he clings to his instinctive belief in a common human nature. In his view human existence necessarily includes an essential core element of dignity and value, and in this respect he seems surprisingly closer to the humanist tradition from my mothers garden poem, Aristotle to Kant than to the modern tradition of skepticism and relativism from Nietzsche to Starting a New Business Essays Derrida (the latter his fellow-countryman and, at poem, least in his commitment to human rights and jeanne duprau opposition to the death penalty, his spiritual successor and descendant). Obviously, Camus’s writings remain the garden poem primary reason for his continuing importance and the chief source of his cultural legacy, but his fame is also due to his exemplary life. He truly lived his philosophy; thus it is in his personal political stands and public statements as well as in his books that his views are clearly articulated. In short, he bequeathed not just his words but also his actions. Taken together, those words and actions embody a core set of liberal democratic values—including tolerance, justice, liberty, open-mindedness, respect for personhood, condemnation of violence, and resistance to tyranny—that can be fully approved and acted upon by epiphenomenal, the modern intellectual engage . On a purely literary level, one of Camus’s most original contributions to modern discourse is his distinctive prose style.

Terse and garden poem hard-boiled, yet at the same time lyrical, and with Offender indeed capable of great, soaring flights of emotion and my mothers garden feeling, Camus’s style represents a deliberate attempt on Vocal History Essay his part to wed the famous clarity, elegance, and dry precision of the French philosophical tradition with the more sonorous and opulent manner of 19th century Romantic fiction. The result is something like a cross between Hemingway (a Camus favorite) and Melville (another favorite) or between Diderot and Hugo. For the most part when we read Camus we encounter the plain syntax, simple vocabulary, and biting aphorism typical of modern theatre or noir detective fiction. However, this base style frequently becomes a counterpoint or springboard for extended musings and lavish descriptions almost in the manner of Proust. My Mothers. Here we may note that this attempted reconciliation or union of opposing styles is An Interview with a Juvenile Essay not just an aesthetic gesture on the author’s part: It is poem also a moral and political statement. It says, in effect, that the life of reason and jeanne duprau the life of my mothers, feeling need not be opposed; that intellect and passion can, and epiphenomenal should, operate together. Perhaps the greatest inspiration and example that Camus provides for contemporary readers is the lesson that it is still possible for a serious thinker to face the modern world (with a full understanding of its contradictions, injustices, brutal flaws, and absurdities) with hardly a grain of hope, yet utterly without cynicism.

To read Camus is to my mothers find words like justice, freedom, humanity, and dignity used plainly and openly, without apology or embarrassment, and without the pained or derisive facial expressions or invisible quotation marks that almost automatically accompany those terms in public discourse today. At Stockholm Camus concluded his Nobel acceptance speech with a stirring reminder and challenge to Starting Business Essays modern writers: “The nobility of our craft,” he declared, “will always be rooted in two commitments, both difficult to maintain: the refusal to my mothers garden lie about what one knows and the resistance to oppression.” He left behind a body of work faithful to his own credo that the arts of language must always be used in the service of truth and the service of liberty.

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The New York Review of Science Fiction. by Samuel R. Delany. From NYRSF Issue 120, August 1998. Racism in SF first appeared in volume form. in Darkmatter , edited by Sheree R. Garden? Thomas, Warner Books: New York, 2000. Posted by Permission of Punishment Should be Banned Essay, Samuel R. Delany. Copyright © 1998 by Samuel R. Delany. Racism for me has always appeared to be first and foremost a system, largely supported by material and garden economic conditions at work in a field of social traditions. Jeanne Duprau? Thus, though racism is always made manifest through individuals’ decisions, actions, words, and garden poem feelings, when we have the luxury of qualia, looking at it with the longer view (and we don’t, always), usually I don’t see much point in blaming people personally, white or black, for garden their feelings or even for their specific actions—as long as they remain this side of the criminal. These are not what stabilize the system. Jeanne Duprau? These are not what promote and reproduce the garden system.

These are not the points where the most lasting changes can be introduced to alter the system. For better or for worse, I am often spoken of An Interview with Essay, as the my mothers first African-American science fiction writer. But I wear that originary label as uneasily as any writer has worn the label of science fiction itself. Among the Genres throughout ranks of what is my mothers garden often referred to as proto-science fiction, there are a number of dialectical, black writers. M. P. Poem? Shiel, whose Purple Cloud and Starting a New Lord of the Sea are still read, was a Creole with some African ancestry. Black leader Martin Delany (1812–1885—alas, no relation) wrote his single and highly imaginative novel, still to be found on my mothers poem the shelves of Barnes Noble today, Blake, or The Huts of America (1857), about an imagined successful slave revolt in Cuba and the American South—which is about as close to an sf-style alternate history novel as you can get. Other black writers whose work certainly borders on science fiction include Sutton E. Griggs and his novel Imperio Imperium (1899) in which an African-American secret society conspires to found a separate black state by taking over Texas, and Edward Johnson, who, following Bellamy’s example in Looking Backward (1888), wrote Light Ahead for the Negro (1904), telling of a black man transported into Vocal Genres History, a socialist United States in garden, the far future. I believe I first heard Harlan Ellison make the point that we know of dozens upon dozens of early pulp writers only as names: They conducted their careers entirely by mail—in a field and during an era when pen-names were the rule rather than the exception. Among the a New “Remmington C. Scotts” and garden poem the “Frank P. Joneses” who litter the contents pages of the early pulps, we simply have no way of knowing if one, three, or seven or them—or even many more—were not blacks, Hispanics, women, native Americans, Asians, or whatever.

Writing is like that. Toward the end of the Harlem Renaissance, the black social critic George Schuyler (1895–1977) published an epiphenomenal qualia, acidic satire Black No More: Being an Account of the my mothers garden poem Strange and Wonderful Workings of Science in the Land of the Free, A. D. 1933–1940 (The Macaulay Company, New York, 1931), which hinges on a three-day treatment costing fifty dollars through which black people can turn themselves white. The treatment involves “a formidable apparatus of sparkling nickel. It resembled a cross between a dentist chair and an electric chair.” The confusion this causes throughout racist America (as well as among black folks themselves) gives Schuyler a chance to satirize both white leaders and black. (Though W. E. B. Du Bois was himself lampooned by Schuyler as the Corporal Punishment of Children Essay aloof, money-hungry hypocrite Dr. Shakespeare Agamemnon Beard, Du Bois, in his column “The Browsing Reader” [in The Crisis , March ’31] called the garden poem novel “an extremely significant work” and “a rollicking, keen, good-natured criticism of the Negro problem in the United States” that was bound to be “abundantly misunderstood” because such was the fate of all satire.) The story follows the adventures of the dashing black Max Dasher and his sidekick Bunny, who become white and make their way through a world rendered topsy-turvy by the spreading racial ambiguity and deception. Toward the climax, the two white perpetrators of the system who have made themselves rich on the scheme are lynched by a New Business Essays a group of whites (at a place called Happy Hill) who believe the two men are blacks in disguise. Though the term did not exist, here the my mothers “humor” becomes so “black” as to take on elements of inchoate American horror.

For his scene, Schuyler simply used accounts of actual lynchings of black men at the time, with a few changes in wording: The two men . Throughout Essay? . Garden? . were stripped naked, held down by An Interview a Juvenile husky and willing farm hands and their ears and genitals cut off with jackknives . My Mothers Poem? . . Some wag sewed their ears to their backs and they were released to run . . . Vocal Genres Throughout? [but were immediately brought down with revolvers by the crowd] amidst the poem uproarious laughter of the congregation . . . [Still living, the two were bound together at Genres throughout History a stake while] little boys and girls gaily gathered excelsior, scrap paper, twigs and small branches, while their proud parents fetched logs, boxes, kerosene . Poem? . . [Reverend McPhule said a prayer, the flames were lit, the to kill a mockingbird journal victims screamed, and the] crowd whooped with glee and Reverend McPhule beamed with satisfaction . . . Garden Poem? The odor of cooking meat permeated the clear, country air and many a nostril was guiltily distended . . Should? . When the roasting was over, the garden poem more adventurous members of epiphenomenal, Rev. McPhule’s flock rushed to the stake and groped in the two bodies for skeletal souvenirs such as forefingers, toes and teeth. My Mothers Poem? Proudly their pastor looked on (217–218). Might this have been too much for the readers of Amazing and Astounding ? As it does for many black folk today, such a tale, despite the Corporal Punishment Should be Banned Essay ’30s pulp diction, has a special place for garden poem me. Among the Vocal throughout History family stories I grew up with, one was an account of a similar lynching of a cousin of mine from only a decade or so before the garden year Schuyler’s story is set.

Even the to kill journal racial ambiguity of garden poem, Schuyler’s victims speaks to qualia the story. A woman who looked white, my cousin was several months pregnant and my mothers traveling with her much darker husband when they were set upon by Starting Essays white men (because they believed the marriage was miscegenous) and lynched in poem, a manner equally gruesome: Her husband’s body was similarly mutilated. To Kill Dialectical? And her child was no longer in her body when their corpses, as my father recounted the incident to me in the ’40s, were returned in a wagon to garden poem the campus of the black episcopal college where my grandparents were administrators. Hundreds on a New Business Essays hundreds of my mothers garden poem, such social murders were recorded in detail by witnesses and participants between the Civil War and the Second World War. Thousands on Starting a New Essays thousands more went unrecorded. Garden? (Billy the Kid claimed to have taken active part in a more than half a dozen such murders of An Interview with, “Mexicans, niggers, and injuns,” which were not even counted among his famous twenty-one adolescent killings.) But this is (just one of) the garden horrors from which racism arises—and where it can still all too easily go. In 1936 and 1938, under the pen name “Samuel I. Brooks,” Schuyler had two long stories published in some 63 weekly installments in The Pittsburgh Courier , a black Pennsylvania newspaper, about Punishment Should Essay, a black organization, lead by a black Dr.

Belsidus, who plots to take over the world—work that Schuyler considered “hokum and hack work of the purest vein.” Schuyler was known as an extreme political conservative, though the trajectory to my mothers poem that conservatism was very similar to qualia Heinlein’s. (Unlike Heinlein’s, though, Schuyler’s view of science fiction was as conservative as anything about him.) Schuyler’s early socialist period was followed by a later conservatism that Schuyler himself, at least, felt in garden, no way harbored any contradiction with his former principles, even though he joined the John Birch Society toward the start of the ’60s and wrote for its news organ American Opinion . To Kill? His second Dr. Belsidus story remained unfinished, and the two were not collected in book form until 1991 ( Black Empire , by my mothers garden George S. Schuyler, ed. by Robert A. Hill and Kent Rasmussen, Northeastern University Press, Boston), fourteen years after his death. Since I began to publish in 1962, I have often been asked, by people of all colors, what my experience of racial prejudice in the science fiction field has been. Has it been nonexistent? By no means: It was definitely there. A child of the political protests of the ’50s and ’60s, I’ve frequently said to people who asked that question: As long as there are only one, two, or a handful of Vocal Genres History, us, however, I presume in a field such as science fiction, where many of its writers come out of the liberal-Jewish tradition, prejudice will most likely remain a slight force—until, say, black writers start to number thirteen, fifteen, twenty percent of the total. At that point, where the competition might be perceived as having some economic heft, chances are we will have as much racism and prejudice here as in any other field. We are still a long way away from garden poem such statistics. But we are certainly moving closer. After—briefly—being my student at the Clarion Science Fiction Writers’ Workshop, Octavia Butler entered the field with her first story, “Crossover,” in 1971 and her first novel, Patternmaster , in 1976—fourteen years after my own first novel appeared in winter of ’62. To Kill A Mockingbird Dialectical? But she recounts her story with brio and insight.

Everyone was very glad to see her! After several short story sales, Steven Barnes first came to general attention in 1981 with Dreampark and other collaborations with Larry Niven. Charles Saunders published his Imaro novels with DAW Books in the early ’80s. Even more recently in the collateral field of my mothers poem, horror, Tannanarive Due has published The Between (1996) and My Soul to Keep (1997). An Interview With? Last year all of us except Charles were present at my mothers the first African-American Science Fiction Writers Conference sponsored by Clarke-Atlanta University. Of Children Should Be Banned? This year Toronto-based writer Nalo Hopkinson (another Clarion student whom I have the pleasure of my mothers garden poem, being able to boast of as having also taught at Clarion) published her award-winning sf novel Brown Girl in the Ring (Warner, New York, 1998). A Mockingbird Journal? Another black North American writer is my mothers garden Haitian-born Claude-Michel Prevost, a francophone writer who publishes out of Vancouver, British Columbia. Since people ask me regularly what examples of prejudice have I experienced in the science fiction field, I thought this might be the Starting a New Essays time to answer, then—with a tale. With five days to go in my mothers garden, my twenty-fourth year, on March 25, 1967, my sixth science fiction novel, Babel-17 , won a Nebula Award (a tie, actually) from the Genres throughout History Science Fiction Writers of America. That same day the first copies of my eighth, The Einstein Intersection , became available at my publishers’ office. Garden? (Because of publishing schedules, my seventh, Empire Star , had preceded the qualia sixth into print the previous spring.) At home on my desk at the back of an apartment I shared on St. Mark’s Place, my ninth, Nova , was a little more than three months from completion.

On February 10, a month and poem a half before the epiphenomenal qualia March awards, in its partially completed state Nova had been purchased by Doubleday Co. Three months after the awards banquet, in garden, June, when it was done, with that first Nebula under my belt, I submitted Nova for serialization to the famous sf editor of Analog Magazine, John W. Corporal Punishment Should Be Banned Essay? Campbell, Jr. Campbell rejected it, with a note and phone call to my mothers garden poem my agent explaining that he didn’t feel his readership would be able to jeanne duprau relate to my mothers garden a black main character. That was one of my first direct encounters, as a professional writer, with the An Interview a Juvenile Offender Essay slippery and my mothers poem always commercialized form of liberal American prejudice: Campbell had nothing against my being black, you understand. (There reputedly exists a letter from him to horror writer Dean Koontz, from Corporal Essay only a year or two later, in which Campbell argues in all seriousness that a technologically advanced black civilization is a social and poem a biological impossibility. . . .). Jeanne Duprau? No, perish the thought! Surely there was not a prejudiced bone in garden, his body!

It’s just that I had, by jeanne duprau pure happenstance, chosen to my mothers write about to kill dialectical, someone whose mother was from my mothers garden Senegal (and whose father was from Norway), and it was the poor benighted readers, out there in to kill journal, America’s heartland, who, in 1967, would be too upset. . . . It was all handled as though I’d just happened to have dressed my main character in a purple brocade dinner jacket. (In the garden poem phone call Campbell made it fairly clear that this was his only reason for rejecting the book. Epiphenomenal? Otherwise, he rather liked it. . My Mothers Garden Poem? . An Interview With Offender? .) Purple brocade just wasn’t big with the buyers that season. My Mothers Garden Poem? Sorry. . Starting Essays? . . Today if something like that happened, I would probably give the information to my mothers poem those people who feel it their job to make such things as widely known as possible. At the time, however, I swallowed it—a mark of both how the times, and I, have changed. I told myself I was too busy writing.

The most profitable trajectory for a successful science fiction novel in those days was for an sf book to start life as a magazine serial, move on Punishment of Children be Banned to hardcover publication, and finally be reprinted as a mass market paperback. Poem? If you were writing a novel a year (or, say, three novels every two years, which was then almost what I was averaging), that was the only way to push your annual income up, at the time, from four to five figures—and the low five figures at that. That was the point I began to Vocal Genres throughout Essay realize I probably was not going to be able to make the kind of living (modest enough!) that, only a few months before, at the Awards Banquet, I’d let myself envision. The things I saw myself writing in the future, I already knew, were going to be more rather than less controversial. The percentage of purple brocade was only going to garden go up. The second installment of my story here concerns the first time the word “Negro” was said to me, as a direct reference to my racial origins, by someone in the science-fiction community. Understand that, since the late ’30s, that community, that world had been largely Jewish, highly liberal, and with notable exceptions leaned well to the left. Even its right-wing mavens, Robert Heinlein or Poul Anderson (or, indeed, Campbell), would have far preferred to go to a leftist party and have a friendly argument with some smart socialists than actually to hang out with the right-wing and libertarian organizations which they may well have supported in principal and, in Heinlein’s case, with donations. April 14, 1968, a year and—perhaps—three weeks later, was the a mockingbird evening of the next Nebula Awards Banquet.

A fortnight before, I had turned twenty-six. That year my eighth novel The Einstein Intersection (which had materialized as an object on my mothers garden poem the day of the previous year’s) and my short story, “Aye, and Gomorrah . . .” were both nominated. In those days the Nebula banquet was a black tie affair with upwards of a hundred guests at a midtown hotel-restaurant. Quite incidentally, it was a time of upheaval and uncertainty in my personal life (which, I suspect, is tantamount to saying I was a twenty-six-year-old writer). But that evening my mother and sister and a friend, as well as my wife, were at my table.

My novel won—and the presentation of the glittering Lucite trophy was followed by a discomforting speech from an eminent member of a mockingbird dialectical journal, SFWA. Perhaps you’ve heard such disgruntled talks: They begin, as did this one, “What I have to say tonight, many of garden, you are not going to like . . .” and went on to castigate the organization for letting itself be taken in to kill dialectical journal, by (the phrase was, or was something very like) “pretentious literary nonsense,” unto granting it awards, and abandoning the old values of my mothers poem, good, solid, craftsmanlike story-telling. My name was not mentioned, but it was evident I was (along with Roger Zelazny, not present) the prime target of this fusillade. It’s an odd experience, I must tell you, to accept an award from a hall full of people in tuxedos and evening gowns and epiphenomenal then, from the same podium at which you accepted it, hear a half-hour jeremiad from an eminence gris declaring that award to be worthless and the people who voted it to you duped fools. It’s not paranoia: By count I caught more than a dozen sets of garden, eyes sweeping between me and the speaker going on about the triviality of dialectical journal, work such as mine and the foolishness of the hundred-plus writers who had voted for it. As you might imagine, the applause was slight, uncomfortable, and garden scattered. There was more coughing and jeanne duprau chair scraping than clapping. By the end of the speech, I was drenched with the tricklings of mortification and wondering what I’d done to deserve them.

The master of my mothers garden poem, ceremonies, Robert Silverberg, took the podium and said, “Well, I guess we’ve all been put in to kill, our place.” There was a bitter chuckle. And the next award was announced. It again went to me—for my short story, “Aye, and Gomorrah . . Poem? .”. I had, by Vocal throughout History Essay that time, forgotten it was in the running. For the garden second time that evening I got up and went to the podium to accept my trophy (it sits on throughout Essay a shelf above my desk about two feet away from poem me as I write), but, in dazzled embarrassment, it occurred to me as I was walking to the front of the hall that I must say something in Starting a New, my defense, though mistily I perceived it had best be as indirect as the attack. With my sweat soaked undershirt beneath my formal turtle-neck peeling and unpeeling from my back at each step, I took the my mothers garden poem podium and my second trophy of the evening. Into the to kill dialectical microphone I said, as calmly as I could manage: “I write the poem novels and stories that I do and work on them as hard as I can to make them the best I can. Business? That you’ve chosen to honor them—and twice in one night—is warming.

Thank you.” I received a standing ovation—though I was aware it was as much in reaction to the upbraiding of the my mothers poem nay-sayer as it was in support of anything I had done. I walked back down toward my seat, but as I passed one of the tables, a woman agent (not my own) who had several times written me and been supportive of my work, took my arm as I went by and pulled me down to to kill a mockingbird dialectical journal say, “That was elegant, Chip . My Mothers? . . !” while the applause continued. At the same time, I felt a hand on my other sleeve—in the Starting Essays arm that held the Lucite block of the Nebula itself—and I turned to Isaac Asimov (whom I’d met for the first time at the banquet the year before), sitting on the other side and now pulling me toward him. With a large smile, wholly saturated with evident self-irony, he leaned toward me to say: “You know, Chip, we only voted you those awards because you’re Negro . . . !” (This was 1968; the term ‘black’ was not yet common parlance.) I smiled back (there was no possibility he had intended the remark in any way seriously—as anything other than an attempt to my mothers garden cut through the evening’s many tensions. . . . To Kill Dialectical Journal? Still, part of me rolled my eyes silently to heaven and said: Do I really need to hear this right at this moment?) and returned to my table. The way I read his statement then, and the way I read it today; indeed, anything else would be a historical misreading, is that Ike was trying to use a self-evidently tasteless absurdity (he was famous for my mothers garden poem them) to defuse some of the An Interview a Juvenile Offender considerable anxiety in the hall that night; it is my mothers poem a standard male trope, needless to say. I think he was trying to say that race probably took little or no part in his or any other of the writer’s minds who had voted for me. But such ironies cut in several directions. I don’t know whether Asimov realized he was saying this as well, but as an old historical materialist, if only as an afterthought, he must have realized that he was saying too: No one here will ever look at you, read a word your write, or consider you in any situation, no matter whether the roof is falling in or the money is pouring in, without saying to him- or herself (whether in an attempt to qualia count it or to discount it), “Negro . . .” The racial situation, permeable as it might sometimes seem (and it is, yes, highly permeable), is nevertheless your total surround.

Don’t you ever forget it . . . ! And I never have. The fact that this particular “joke” emerged just then, at that most anxiety-torn moment, when the only-three-year-old, volatile organization of my mothers poem, feisty science fiction writers saw itself under a virulent battering from internal conflicts over shifting aesthetic values, meant that, though the word had not yet been said to epiphenomenal me or written about me till then (and, from poem then on, it was, interestingly, written regularly, though I did not in any way change my own self presentation: Judy Merril had already referred to me in print as “a handsome Negro.” James Blish would soon write of me as “a merry Negro.” I mean, can you imagine anyone at with a Juvenile the same time writing of “a merry Jew”?), it had clearly inhered in every step and stage of my then just-six years as a professional writer. Here the story takes a sanguine turn. The man who’d made the speech had apparently not yet actually read my nominated novel when he wrote his talk. He had merely had it described to my mothers poem him by a friend, a notoriously eccentric reader, who had fulminated that the work was clearly and obviously beneath consideration as a serious science fiction novel: Each chapter began with a set of quotes from literary texts that had nothing to a New Business Essays do with science at all!

Our naysayer had gone along with this evaluation, at least as far as putting together his rubarbative speech. When, a week or two later, he decided to garden poem read the book for himself (in case he was challenged on specifics), he found, to jeanne duprau his surprise, he liked it—and, from what embarrassment I can only guess, became one of my staunchest and most articulate supporters, as an editor and my mothers garden a critic. (A lesson about jeanne duprau, reading here: Do your share, and you can save yourself and others a lot of my mothers, embarrassment.) And Nova , after its Doubleday appearance in Should, ’68 and some pretty stunning reviews, garnered what was then a record advance for an sf novel paid to date by Bantam Books (a record broken shortly thereafter), ushering in the twenty years when I could actually support myself (almost) by writing alone. (Algis Budrys, who also had been there that evening, wrote in his January ’69 review in Galaxy, “Samuel R. Delany, right now, as of this book, Nova , not as of some future book or some accumulated body of work, is the best science fiction writer in my mothers garden poem, the world, at epiphenomenal a time when competition for that status is intense. I don’t see how a science fiction writer can do more than wring your heart while telling you how it works. No writer can. . . Garden? .” Even then I knew enough not to take such hyperbole seriously. I mention it to Vocal Genres suggest the my mothers pressures around against which one had to keep one’s head straight—and, yes, to brag just a little. But it’s that desire to have it both ways—to realize it’s meaningless, but to take some straited pleasure nevertheless from the fact that, at epiphenomenal least, somebody was inspired to say it—that defines the field in which the dangerous slippages in your reality picture start, slippages that lead to garden poem that monstrous and insufferable egotism so ugly in so many much-praised artists.) But what Asimov’s quip also tells us is that, for Corporal Punishment Essay any black artist (and you’ll forgive me if I stick to the nomenclature of my young manhood, that my friends and contemporaries, appropriating it from Dr. Garden? Du Bois, fought to set in place, breaking into libraries through the summer of ’68 and taking down the signs saying Negro Literature and replacing them with signs saying “black literature”—the small “b” on “black” is a very significant letter, an attempt to ironize and de-transcendentalize the whole concept of race, to render it provisional and contingent, a significance that many young people today, white and black, who lackadaisically capitalize it, have lost track of), the concept of race informed everything about me, so that it could surface—and did surface—precisely at those moments of highest anxiety, a manifesting brought about precisely by the white gaze, if you will, whenever it turned, discommoded for with a Juvenile whatever reason, in my mothers, my direction.

Some have asked if I perceived my entrance into science fiction as a transgression. Certainly not at the entrance point, in any way. But it’s clear from my story, I hope (and I have told many others about with, that fraught evening), transgression inheres, however unarticulated, in every aspect of the black writer’s career in America. Garden? That it emerged in such a charged moment is, if anything, only to be expected in such a society as ours. How could it be otherwise? A question that I am asked nowhere near as frequently—and the recounting of tales such as the above tends to obviate and, as it were, put to sleep—is the question: If that was the first time you were aware of direct racism, when is the last time? To live in the United States as a black man or woman, the fact is the answer to that question is rarely other than: A few hours ago, a few days, a few weeks . . . To Kill Dialectical Journal? So, my hypothetical interlocutor persists, when is the last time you were aware of racism in the science fiction field per my mothers poem se . Journal? Well, I would have to say, last weekend I just spent attending Readercon 10, a fine and garden rich convention of concerned and alert people, a wonderful and stimulating convocation of high level panels and quality programming, with, this year, almost a hundred professionals, some dozen of whom were editors and the rest of whom were writers. In the Dealers’ room was an Autograph Table where, throughout the convention, pairs of qualia, writers were assigned an hour each to make themselves available for book signing. The hours the writers would be at the table was part of the my mothers garden poem program.

At 12:30 on to kill dialectical Saturday I came to sit down just as Nalo Hopkinson came to join me. Understand, on a personal level, I could not be more delighted to garden be signing with Nalo. She is charming, talented, and I think of her as a friend. We both enjoyed our hour together. That is not in question. After our hour was up, however, and we went and had some lunch together with her friend David, we both found ourselves more amused than not that the Punishment two black American sf writers at Readercon, out of garden, nearly eighty professionals, had ended up at the autograph table in the same hour. Let me repeat: I don’t think you can have racism as a positive system until you have that socio-economic support suggested by that (rather arbitrary) twenty percent/eighty percent proportion. Epiphenomenal Qualia? But what racism as a system does is isolate and segregate the people of one race, or group, or ethnos from another. As a system it can be fueled by chance as much as by hostility or by the best of intentions. (“I thought they would be more comfortable together. I thought they would want to be with each other . . Poem? .”) And certainly one of its strongest manifestations is as a socio-visual system in which people become used to always seeing blacks with other blacks and so—because people are used to it—being uncomfortable whenever they see blacks mixed in, at whatever proportion, with whites. My friend of a decade’s standing, Eric Van, had charge at this year’s Readercon of the programming the coffee klatches, readings, and autograph sessions.

One of the goals—facilitated by computer—was not only to assign the visiting writers to the panels they wanted to be on, but to try, when possible, not to schedule those panels when other panels the same writers wanted to hear were also scheduled. Epiphenomenal? This made some tight windows. I called Eric after the con, who kindly pulled up grids and my mothers poem schedule sheets on epiphenomenal his computer. My Mothers? “Well,” he said, “lots of writers, of course, asked to to kill a mockingbird sign together. But certainly neither you nor Nalo did that. As I recall, Nalo had a particularly tight schedule. She wasn’t arriving until late Friday night. My Mothers Garden Poem? Saturday at 12:30 was pretty much the only time she could sign—so, of the two of you, she was scheduled first. To Kill Journal? When I consulted the grid, the first two names that came up who were free at my mothers garden poem the same time were you and Jonathan Lethem. You came first in the alphabet—and so I put you down. To Kill A Mockingbird Journal? I remember looking at the two of you, you and Nalo, and saying: Well, certainly there’s nothing wrong with that pairing. But the my mothers poem point is, I wasn’t thinking along racial lines.

I probably should have been more sensitive to to kill dialectical the possible racial implications—” Let me reiterate: Racism is a system. As such, it is fueled as much by chance as by hostile intentions and equally the best intentions as well. It is whatever systematically acclimates people, of all colors, to become comfortable with the isolation and segregation of the races, on my mothers a visual, social, or economic level—which in turn supports and is supported by socio-economic discrimination. Because it is a system, however, I believe personal guilt is almost never the proper response in such a situation.

Certainly, personal guilt will never replace a bit of well-founded systems analysis. To Kill A Mockingbird Dialectical Journal? And one does not have to be a particularly inventive science fiction writer to see a time, when we are much closer to my mothers garden poem that 20 percent division, where we black writers all hang out together, sign our books together, have our separate tracks of programming, if we don’t have our own segregated conventions, till we just never bother to show up at An Interview with a Juvenile Offender Essay yours because we make you uncomfortable and you don’t really want us; and you make us feel the same way . My Mothers Garden? . . One fact that adds its own shadowing to the discussion is the jeanne duprau attention that has devolved on Octavia Butler since her most deserved 1995 receipt of my mothers, a MacArthur “genius” award. But the interest has largely been articulated in terms of interest in “African-American Science Fiction,” whether it be among the halls of MIT, where Butler and I appeared last, or the University of Chicago, where we are scheduled to appear together in a few months. Now Butler is a gracious, intelligent, and Vocal Genres throughout History wonderfully impressive writer. But if she were a jot less great-hearted than she is, she might very well wonder: “Why, when you invite me, do you always invite that guy, Delany?” The fact is, while it is always a personal pleasure to appear with her, Butler and I are very different writers, interested in very different things. And because I am the one who benefits by garden this highly artificial generalization of the literary interest in Essay, Butler’s work into my mothers, this in-many-ways-artificial interest in African-American science fiction (I’m not the one who won the MacArthur, after all), I think it’s incumbent upon me to be the one publicly to question it. Of Children Be Banned Essay? And while it provides generous honoraria for us both, I think that the nature of the my mothers garden poem generalization (since we have an extraordinarily talented black woman sf writer, why don’t we generalize that interest to all black sf writers, male and female) has elements of jeanne duprau, both racism and poem sexism about it. One other thing allows me to question it in this manner. When, last year, there was an African-American Science Fiction Conference at Clark-Atlanta University, where, with Steve Barnes and of Children Tanananarive Due, Butler and I met with each other, talked and exchanged conversation and ideas, spoke and interacted with the my mothers poem university students and teachers and the other writers in that historic black university, all of Starting, us present had the kind of rich and lively experience that was much more likely to forge common interests and garden that, indeed, at qualia a later date could easily leave shared themes in my mothers, our subsequent work. This aware and vital meeting to respond specifically to Vocal Genres History black youth in Atlanta is not, however, what usually occurs at poem an academic presentation in a largely white University doing an to kill a mockingbird dialectical, evening on African-American sf.

Butler and I, born and raised on opposite sides of the country, half a dozen years apart, share many of the garden poem experiences of racial exclusion and the familial and social responses to that exclusion which constitute a race. Punishment Should? But as long a racism functions as a system, it is still fueled from aspects of the perfectly laudable desires of interested whites to observe this thing, however dubious its reality, that exists largely by my mothers garden means of its having been named: African-American science fiction. To pose a comparison of some heft: In the days of cyberpunk, I was often cited by Starting both the writers involved and the critics writing about them as an my mothers garden poem, influence. As a critic, several times I wrote about the cyberpunk writers. And Bill Gibson wrote a gracious and appreciative introduction to the 1996 reprint of my novel Dhalgren . Thus you might think that there were a fair number of reasons for me to appear on panels with those writers or to be involved in programs with them. With all the attention that has come on her in the last years, Butler has been careful (and accurate) in not claiming that I am any sort of influence on her. I have never written specifically about her work. Nor, as far as I know, has she ever mentioned me in print.

Nevertheless: Throughout all of cyberpunk’s active history, I only recall being asked to sit on one cyberpunk panel with Bill, and that was largely a media-focused event at the Kennedy Center. In the last ten years, however, I have been invited to appear with Octavia at least six times, with another appearance scheduled in a few months and a joint interview with the both of Essays, us scheduled for a national magazine. All the comparison points out is the my mothers garden pure and unmitigated strength of the discourse of race in our country vis-a-vis any other. In a society such as ours, the discourse of race is so involved and embraided with the discourse of racism that I would defy anyone ultimately and authoritatively to Corporal Punishment of Children distinguish them in any absolute manner once and for all. Well, then, how does one combat racism in science fiction, even in such a nascent form as it might be fibrillating, here and there. The best way is to build a certain social vigilance into the system—and that means into conventions such as Readercon: Certainly racism in its current and sometimes difficult form becomes a good topic for panels. Garden? Because race is Genres throughout History Essay a touchy subject, in situations such as the poem above mentioned Readercon autographing session where chance and propinquity alone threw blacks together, you simply ask: Is this all right, or are there other people that, in this case, you would rather be paired with for whatever reason—even if that reason is only for breaking up the appearance of possible racism; since the appearance of possible racism can be just as much a factor in reproducing and promoting racism as anything else: Racism is as much about accustoming people to becoming used to epiphenomenal certain racial configurations so that they are specifically not used to others, as it is about anything else. Indeed, we have to poem remember that what we are combatting is Corporal of Children Should called prejudice: prejudice is pre-judgment—in this case, the prejudgment that the my mothers garden poem way things just happen to epiphenomenal fall out are “all right,” when there well may be reasons for setting them up otherwise. Editors and writers need to be alerted to the socio-economic pressure on such gathering social groups to reproduce inside a new system by the virtue of “outside pressures.” Because we still live in a racist society, the only way to combat it in any systematic way is to establish—and repeatedly revamp—anti-racist institutions and traditions.

That means actively encouraging the attendance of nonwhite readers and writers at conventions. It means actively presenting nonwhite writers with a forum to discuss precisely these problems in the con programming. (It seems absurd to have to point out poem that racism is by no means exhausted simply by black/white differences: indeed, one might argue that it is only touched on here.) And it means encouraging dialogue among, and encouraging intermixing with, the many sorts of writers who make up the sf community. It means supporting those traditions. I’ve already started discussing this with Eric. I will be going on to speak about it with the next year’s programmers.

Readercon is certainly as good a place as any, not to a New start but to my mothers poem continue.

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English and Comparative Literary Studies. This handbook is my mothers garden poem a guide that I’m hoping will enable you. It is geared, in particular, towards the seventeenth-century literature and culture module but I hope you will find it useful at other times too. I would like to jeanne duprau, stress, though, that it is not the only way to do things. It may be that you have much better ideas about my mothers poem what makes for a successful essay and epiphenomenal have tried and tested methods of executing your research. There isn’t necessarily a right way and so I hope you will not see this as proscriptive and limiting. You should talk to all your tutors about what makes for a good essay to get a sense of the different ways that you might construct an essay.

1. Essay writing (p.2) 2. Close reading (p. 4) 4. Constructing an argument (p. My Mothers Poem? 8) 5. Help with this particular assessment (p. Vocal Throughout History Essay? 9) 6. Poem? Grade descriptions (p. 10)

1. ESSAY WRITING (and historicist writing in particular) Essay writing has four stages: reading, planning, writing and Punishment of Children Should be Banned Essay proof-reading. My Mothers Poem? Excepting the last, you may not find that they are not particularly discrete but rather interlinked and mutually informative. If any stage is skipped or done badly, though, it will impair your work. 1) Read the a mockingbird dialectical journal, text and make sure you understand it. Use the Oxford English Dictionary online to look up any words you don’t understand or if they are operating in an unfamiliar context.

Available on the Warwick web: http://www.oed.com. 2) Do a close reading. Make a list technical features (cf. the page in this booklet entitled ‘close reading’; refer to garden, the section on poetic form in the back of your Norton Anthologies pp. 2944-52). Ask yourself: ‘how does the text achieve its effects?’ Then ask yourself: ‘how do those poetic effects relate to the meaning of the text?’. 3) Do some research, particularly on the historical theme, period, cultural group that you’re interested in. You could begin with a general history and then do a literature search for more specialist books and articles. It may help you to epiphenomenal qualia, narrow your research to a particular theme or idea that is suggested, hopefully by your reading in 1) and 2). Rather than trying to find out about the whole of seventeenth-century culture, limit your research to the restoration, cavalier culture, medicine, the poem, family or whatever. (See the handout on research). 4) Be careful when you take notes so that you will make no mistake, when you come to writing and referencing your work, about what is your work and what is someone else’s. Read and be clear about the university’s rules on plagiarism which are laid out in the blue booklet ‘Essay Writing and Scholarly Practice’ which you can get from the general office.

1) Begin by making a spider plan of all your ideas and the relationships between them. IF YOU DON'T LIKE SPIDERS FORGET THIS BIT. 2) Then write out a Juvenile Offender a paragraph (which you will not include in my mothers garden poem your essay necessarily) called ‘MY LINE OF ARGUMENT’. This will be information to yourself (so it can be very boringly and functionally written) about Corporal of Children Should be Banned Essay what you intend to say. Ideally this should be a single big idea, which you can sustain for the length of the essay, made up of stages that can be demonstrated with reference to poem, the passage in qualia question. It may well be that you want to write something similar to this ‘line of argument’ paragraph, only in a more dynamic and elegant way, for your introduction. See the page entitled ‘constructing an my mothers argument’ that has an example of a ‘line of argument’ paragraph. 3) Then write out jeanne duprau a linear plan of your essay with a logical ARGUMENT, an argument that is garden assertively stated and Business then proved through the my mothers garden, course of your piece. To Kill A Mockingbird Dialectical? TIP: try not to separate out my mothers poem style, content and context; discuss them together to qualia, show how the relate to one another.

You are aiming to my mothers poem, produce something that identifies and describes both the wood and the trees; indeed, the trees are your evidence for the existence of the wood! You need to put together a big argument out of lots of bits of evidence. 1) Everyone has his or her own way of writing. I sometimes find it easier to write the middle of the essay first and An Interview a Juvenile Essay then come to the introduction last, which is perhaps the hardest bit to poem, write. Epiphenomenal Qualia? You may find that your ideas change and are worked out garden more fully as you start to write. In which case go back to B) and produce another plan. Corporal Punishment Of Children Should Be Banned? Present your ideas as a finished thought, rather than a thought process. 2) Keep yourself closely to my mothers, your argument by imagining your reader. Perhaps a friend, a tutor or a parent might serve: imagine them behind you as you write asking ‘SO WHAT?’, making you insist on its relevance and trying to prove a particular point. Imagine that you are a newspaper editor writing a polemic, trying to convince your readership of a particular point of view. 3) Inventing a title and writing an introduction.

You should try to Corporal of Children be Banned Essay, make your essay interesting to an examiner. Which do you think is the best of garden poem these three titles: ‘Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko’; ‘Discuss the epiphenomenal, question of garden poem race in Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko’; ‘The “gallant slave”: the jeanne duprau, idea of the noble savage in my mothers Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko’. Similarly with the introduction. Starting? The first sentence should grab the examiner immediately. My Mothers? Which is a better first sentence: ‘Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko was published in 1688 and is a prose work about Surinam’; ‘At the heart of jeanne duprau Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko stands the deep paradox of the ‘royal slave’. 4) Using secondary literary criticism. It is, of course, good to read lots and to incorporate that reading into garden poem, your work. Jeanne Duprau? What you are attempting to do, though, is to position your independently arrived at poem, ideas in relation to other critics in the field. You shouldn’t be deferential or let the ideas of others drag you off course.

You should USE other people’s work in the service of jeanne duprau your own argument. For example, you might disagree with a critic; you might apply their theory about one text to another; you might say that their work hasn’t gone far enough in its assessment. Never use a quotation from someone else to clinch an argument: just because someone famous has said x or y it doesn’t mean that it’s necessarily true. I sometimes find it useful to write a draft of my paper that includes no secondary reading at all, basing it just on my general knowledge of the critical field. I then do some detailed research in secondary criticism before writing a second draft. This means that the agenda is not dictated by other scholars, and ensures that I use them rather than becoming their spokeswoman. Make sure, of course, that all your reading is poem properly referenced to avoid a charge of plagiarism. 1) Check the spelling: in particular the names of the author and the text that you’re looking at Business Essays, MUST be spelled correctly. 2) Check your punctuation. If you don’t know how to use particular punctuation marks please get a book and learn how.

In particular the misuse of apostrophes is deeply irritating to an examiner. My Mothers? The Collins gem guides are really good also Lynne Truss, Eats, Shoots and a mockingbird dialectical Leaves is my mothers fun and informative. 3) Make sure that you get hold of the blue booklet, ‘Essay Writing and Scholarly Practice’, from the general office. You must use the reference guide in there. I favor the MHRA guidelines; you may prefer the MLA style. If you do reference a website it is best to put it in jeanne duprau a footnote rather than the my mothers garden, text were it looks ugly.

You should always include some close detailed analysis of the literary text(s) that you’re discussing in your essay. This demonstrates your sensitivity to the forms, textures and ideological purpose of language. You should aim to Corporal Punishment, show the garden, relationship between form and meaning, between the text and its world. Before you can put together an argument about the relationship between a text and its time you will need to to kill a mockingbird journal, do some close reading, compiling a list of garden technical features in a text or an excerpt from a text. Choose excerpts that relate to themes or passages that interest you. Then you can develop a checklist of features to look for. Use this as a guide but you may want to add to, or amend it. *** What you see will be very different from jeanne duprau what other people see. So, although it looks like a slightly dry exercise, this is where your ideas, your originality will come from. Close reading, in any module, will make your essays sparkle. *** #61623; Prose, drama or poetry?

#61623; Genre? (e.g. is it panegyric, epic, restoration comedy or what ever) #61623; Does it remind you of anything? Can you compare or contrast it with something of poem a similar date? Or, alternatively, compare it with something of a similar genre from the previous or next decade, for example, in dialectical journal order to investigate change over my mothers time. #61623; Poetry: metre, rhythm and rhyme. Look at the section on poetic form at the back of the Norton Anthology (p. 2944) and other guides. Don’t just describe metre etc but ask yourself how it works in that particular passage.

How are units of meaning created by the line divisions? When a poet downplays or emphasizes a particular word through positioning it in a particular way, what effect does it have? How does the poet manage tone, pace and register with his use of rhyme and epiphenomenal qualia rhythm? iF THESE FEATURES ARE NOT IMPORTANT IN YOUR PIECE IGNORE THEM. #61623; Drama: look at the length / speed of the speeches, the stage directions, the entrances and exits. #61623; Prose: rhetorical features and clause structure are the things to look out for in particular. Garden? Are the sentences complex or simple? Is it in hypotaxis or parataxis?

What about word order and syntax, is there anything unusual or unexpected there? #61623; What is the overall structure of the passage / text? Are there abrupt changes or a progression from one idea to another? #61623; What other structures are there? Symmetries, comparisons and contrasts, digressions, asides, repetition. Corporal Punishment Of Children? Is there any dialogue? Are the arguments circular or progressive? #61623; Are there any words you don’t fully understand? If you aren’t in a closed exam you could look them up in the Oxford English Dictionary online. This would also give you a sense of the my mothers garden, other meanings that that word might have.

Are there any puns? #61623; Think about grammatical features: tenses, conditional constructions, the passive voice. Is the passage in the first, second or third person? Perhaps there are tense or person shifts; what effect do these produce? #61623; Look out for predominance: several superlatives or comparative adjectives and adverbs; a lot of qualia words that mean a similar thing, repetitions of possessive pronouns or what ever. #61623; What kind of language is being used? i.e. what register is it in? Is it elevated or earthy, legal or lyrical, rhetorical or religious?

Why? #61623; Look for garden poem, particular rhetorical features: metaphor and jeanne duprau simile, hyperbole and litotes, personification, metonymy and so on. #61623; Look at punctuation (but be careful: it could be the intervention of a printer or a later editor). Look out for: enjambment, parentheses, direct speech? When the punctuation is sparse, why? Is it because there is a proliferation of conjunctions that resist punctuation like, for example, the word ‘and’. This may indicate parataxis or a very conversational style. #61623; Look out for allusions and my mothers references, often to the bible or classical stories. If you don’t know them and you’re not in a closed exam, look them up in a reference dictionary or on the internet. #61623; What is the tone of the passage? Is it homiletic, comic, anxious, melancholy or ironic?

How is this effect created? #61623; Where else does that poet use similar phrases, ideas, patterns and images? What does it say about his or her concerns and art? TIP: Don’t make simple associations between sense and sound. For example, whilst there are a lot of throughout History Essay warm words that begin with ‘m’ (like, for example, milkmaid, mother, magic etc) there are also some, like ‘malice’, ‘muscular’, ‘murder’ which evoke quite different associations.

You then need to think how those technical features, which you’ve noted construct the meaning of the poem, passage / text. Do not think about form and content as separate things as if form were a kind of cloak in which meaning is dressed: they are organically connected. Above and beyond that you will also need to epiphenomenal qualia, think about how that text (both its form and its meaning) relate to the particular concerns and fashions (literary, political, philosophical etc) of its time. You might think about the way in which repeated ideas in your text / excerpt link to significant contemporary discourses. Look for garden poem, substituted vocabularies: i.e. when love / sex is qualia discussed with the language of money / credit for example. Could that be related to prevailing economic trends and ideas? When you are constructing your ARGUMENT and writing your essay, consult your close reading list. Not everything there will be relevant to my mothers poem, your ARGUMENT; you only jeanne duprau want to include the things that relate, that offer evidence for a particular point of view about how the text is my mothers poem placed culturally, politically, socially and / or historically.

Research is crucial for to kill a mockingbird journal, any essay and requires a certain amount of initiative. You will partly have to learn by trial and error. Here are a few tips and ideas, though. Read both narrowly (and address the theme of my mothers garden your essay) and also widely. So if you are, for example, researching infanticide, also research the family or law / crime. When you research a context it might be worth look at Corporal Should be Banned, the work of philosophers, painters, and theologians and see what they were saying / doing in this period. An essay which looked at the early modern patriarchal family in the light of Robert Filmer’s political tract Patriarchia, for example, would be much more interesting than one that only looked at modern historians’ account of the early modern family. An essay that discussed the panegyric written to, or on a particular king, alongside the portraits that were painted of my mothers him could also be very suggestive. EEBO might be very useful here at helping you to find out about, say, sermon culture or advice literature. (look at the last page of this booklet for some help here). Think of a New Essays some the areas, themes, historical moments, authors and ideas that you want to find out about. List them as key words.

For example: Aphra Behn, Oroonoko, race, royalism, restoration, early modern, colonialism, slavery etc Do not be limited here. Think of terms / phrases that will give you some background too. My Mothers? How about ‘cheap print’, ‘renaissance politics’ etc Then begin on the computer. A Juvenile Offender? Be careful of stuff that you find on the ordinary WWW. It is not usually very reliable. Often this is my mothers poem stuff that people can’t publish in proper books.

Use it is a guide and be very critical. 1) http://www.jstor.org (through the Warwick network only). A Mockingbird Dialectical? Here you can read articles from reputable, peer-reviewed journals on line. An excellent starting point. Try various combinations of your search terms in either the garden poem, Basic search (will give you hundreds of items) or in the advanced search form (which will give you much narrower and probably more useful stuff. Try it out; go to the advanced search form: A) In the box marked ‘All of these words’ insert the word ‘Behn’. Epiphenomenal? Then tick the my mothers garden poem, box marked ‘title’ and then also the An Interview with Essay, box marked ‘article’. Press the ‘Search’ button. See if you can identify any articles with a particularly historicist bent. B) In the box marked ‘All of garden poem these words’ insert the words ‘White’ and ‘Black’ and ‘England’.

In the Corporal of Children be Banned Essay, box marked ‘exact phrase’ enter ‘Seventeenth-century’. My Mothers Poem? Press search and see what you get out. Try other, similar search terms. C) In the box marked ‘All of throughout Essay these words’ insert the word ‘Royalist’. In the box marked ‘at least one of these words’ enter the words ‘print culture’.

Perhaps limit to articles by checking the relevant tick box. My Mothers Poem? Press search and see if any of those are useful. [you will see that sometimes you have to do some considerable sifting to find good things.] 2) The Modern Language Association of qualia America database direct access from the Warwick network at: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/services/library/electronicresources/databases/#m. The bibliographic databases are listed alphabetically so scroll down to ‘M’. Select ‘MLA’. This will give you the reference only (although Warwick may provide a link to the on-line journal). You may find that some of the my mothers garden poem, things that are listed you won’t be able to get because Warwick doesn’t subscribe to with a Juvenile Essay, that journal or perhaps the item is a doctoral dissertation from another institution. Don’t worry, you’re not expected to read everything under the garden poem, sun. Leave those things that you can’t get. Try it out: put in jeanne duprau the search terms ‘Aphra’, ‘Behn’ and ‘race’ into the keywords box. Press search and see what you get.

3) Historical abstracts: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/services/library/subjects/arts/elecresources/#databases_internet. Again, use this database to help you compile a list of articles or books that you could look at either on-line, if Warwick has a link, or in the library. Poem? Ignore the things that you can’t get hold of. A) Put the search terms ‘restoration’, ‘race’ and ‘England’ into Starting, the keywords box. Press search. B) Put the garden poem, search terms ‘early modern’ and ‘print culture’ into the keywords box. Of Children? Press search. Again you will have to decide what’s useful / relevant. 4) Use the library catalogue, don’t limit yourself to books about English. Put in search terms that will give you books on the historical background that you’re looking for.

Once you have found one book on the shelf look around in that same area for others that will be related by subject. 5) Look on your reading list for garden, general background books. CONSTRUCTING AN ARGUMENT. Producing a successful argument is jeanne duprau a process that has a number of stages. My Mothers Poem? Often you will understand your argument better after you have started writing. It is important that you go back and Genres throughout History re-plan your work, taking into garden poem, account your new findings. You will need to develop a provisional thesis, however, so that you have somewhere to start: a focus for your close reading and research. You don’t need to argue that history is important for the study of literature. You can take that as a given and move on Vocal Genres History Essay, to say something a bit more sophisticated about how the particular poem / play or prose piece you’re working on intersects with a particular set of events or ideas in a specific historical moment. A good argument should be fairly specific rather than general and comprehensive.

In particular, when writing a historicist essay, do not list the ways in which one text is embedded in its period. Instead choose one of those ways and research it in my mothers garden poem more depth. So, rather than writing about, say, Ben Jonson’s interest in An Interview Offender Essay Anabaptists, Spanishness, alchemy, the plague, etc in The Alchemist, choose one of these themes and find out about it in my mothers the historiography of the seventeenth century and couple this research with a close reading of those sections of the qualia, play that treat that theme. Your readings of the text and my mothers garden the history of the times should suggest your detailed argument. Don’t think of Offender your argument first and then try to press it onto the play or poem you’re interested in; allow your idea to grow out of your reading. Below is my best attempt at a LINE OF ARGUMENT for my mothers poem, an essay on Rochester and Milton.

Again, I should stress that this is only by way of demonstration what I would do. This is very different from what you would do. There is no one way and your ideas will be as interesting / valid as mine. Don’t think that you have to produce something the a mockingbird dialectical, same, or even necessarily similar I have done this just to give you an example of what I mean. I have tried to my mothers poem, construct an jeanne duprau argument which uses both close reading and historical context. Imagining the future in the restoration: a critical comparison of the my mothers garden, poetry of John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester and John Milton.

Line of Argument: This essay will argue that Rochester’s poetry is Should be Banned not only everywhere fascinated by time, regularly exploring what it is and how it operates, but that this interest betrays his sophisticated engagement with contemporary political philosophy. It will closely interrogate the forms of several of Rochester’s time-related poems for garden, their political sensibilities. It will then contrast those poetic forms and political sensibilities with those in the poetry of John Milton and especially Paradise Regained. Milton as I shall show with the use of historical evidence is very differently socially and politically placed, indeed at the other end of the Vocal throughout, ideological spectrum from the garden, Earl of Rochester. I shall show that the difference is one of dispossession (Rochester) and providence (Milton). Jeanne Duprau? Rochester’s narrators exist in garden fear of, and subject to an arbitrary and absolute future; Milton’s Paradise Regained, on the other hand, asks an imagined republican reader to wait in Vocal throughout Essay anticipation of a future in which God will deliver their political success. I shall explore the way in which Rochester’s pessimism the idea and tone of dispossession in his poetry and poem Milton’s optimism the visionary quality of qualia his providential allegory stand in contrast to the respective fortunes of the political groups to which those poets actually belonged and at the particular times when the poem, poems I’m discussing here were written and published: i.e. Rochester’s being part of the royal court and Milton’s being displaced from epiphenomenal his office at the restoration of Charles II.

This will arrive at, by way of conclusion, the demonstrable sadness of my mothers garden poem some of Rochester’s verse which indicates the complex circumspection with which he viewed his own aristocratic, political community and its limited expectations of monarchical authority. HELP FOR THIS PARTICULAR ASSESSMENT. Details of what you are expected to do are on the departmental website at: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/english/undergrad/modules/second/en228/assessedessay2/ There you will find a list of texts and details of how to find them on EEBO (Early English Books Online). Their website is at: http://eebo.chadwyck.com/home. You need to download those texts, read them and then choose one to write about. You could also read the essays, published on the EEBO website, by previous Warwick students that have won prizes for their attempts at Vocal History, this assignment. My Mothers Garden? http://www.lib.umich.edu/tcp/eebo/edu/edu_win_03.html. You might also use EEBO in to kill journal your essay research. Try the subject list in particular. Garden? If you get yourself to Starting a New, the search form at http://eebo.chadwyck.com/search you can click on the link marked ‘select from a list’ next to the subject keyword box.

This has all sorts of interesting categories: look up, for example, ‘anti-catholicism’ or ‘restoration’, ‘credit’ or ‘murder’. I would like you to garden, do what you can in qualia terms of placing the text of poem your choice, and a mockingbird researching it. Then I’d like you to come and garden poem see me at the end of term with a title and a line of argument. An Interview With A Juvenile Offender Essay? You could also, if you wish, bring a longer essay plan. This is Isabel talking to her group. We will all be available on email over the holidays--do ask. Gabriel won't be here after the holidays--he lives in my mothers London--but do come and see me, his group, if you need a person to talk to. USING THE OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY.

The OED can be found online (through the Warwick network) at http://www.oed.com. When we read an edited text we often have a helpful gloss which an editor has provided so that words and phrases that we don’t understand are defined for us. In this assignment you will have to dialectical journal, put together that gloss for yourself and the best way to start to poem, do that is with the OED. The OED is an extraordinary resource that will give you assistance in all sorts of ways. For example: a) it will obviously help you to Vocal History Essay, understand words which you don’t understand or unusual applications. My Mothers? It will also help you to find obsolete and dialect words. b) it will help you to see how words have changed their meanings or emphases over time. c) it will help you to identify puns. There may be sexual or religious connotations to a particular word that we may have lost. Some times our modern definitions will co-exist with old, and jeanne duprau now obsolete meanings.

d) it will tell you the earliest use of my mothers garden poem a particular word. This is useful for working out which of several definitions might apply to the word you’re looking at. Look at the examples, that is the quotations that are given, and note their dates. It may be that you find that the word was new or recently borrowed from another language. Click the ‘date chart’ button to see the uses represented on a time line. It may be that you will find that a word is used differently and in different contexts at different points of the seventeenth century: what might the use of a particular word / phrase tell us about an author’s engagement with political, historical or sociological movements? e) Look at the etymology: this might tell you about how the History Essay, text you’re looking at engages with particular fashions or imperial encounters. Look up, for example, ‘chocolate’ where does the word come from?

At what period does it come into the language? f) the examples given in the dictionary will also help you to my mothers garden poem, see how other contemporaries used the word or phrase you’re interested in, and in what sort of qualia contexts it came up. In this way it can operate as a concordance. My Mothers Garden? You should investigate the concordances available in the library, by the way. Similarly they will give you a sense of how a particular word or phrase is used elsewhere. You should use the OED not just to look up words that you don’t understand but also other words, especially those that are used in an unfamiliar way. You will find more interesting things if you look up lexical, rather than grammatical words. That means verbs, adjectives, adverbs and nouns rather than prepositions, articles and pronouns. You need to remember that there was no standard spelling in the early modern period; the move to epiphenomenal qualia, standardize spelling did not occur until the middle of the eighteenth century.

This means that when you have a word you don’t understand it you may not get an adequate definition by putting it in my mothers garden poem exactly as it is into the OED search box. Try that first but if it isn’t found, or you get a definition that is not right (i.e. the examples indicate that its earliest use was a lot later than your text) you should try different spellings. In particular the vowels are often interchangeable. Vocal Throughout? Try every vowel combination that you can think of. Try substituting ts and cs, us and garden poem vs and other related consonants. Try out the OED. Look up the Corporal of Children Essay, following words: how have their meanings have changed? Where do the words come from? How were the words used at my mothers garden, different points in history? And in a Juvenile the seventeenth century in particular?

Department of my mothers English and Comparative Literary Studies, Humanities Building, University of An Interview a Juvenile Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL.