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atg resume doc Manages the deployment of repository items from a source repository to texas inner smile, a target repository. A deployment can perform the following operations: ADD - Adds an item to the target repository UPDATE - Updates an an Elephant" Hanging", existing item in lyrics, the target repository DELETE - Removes an existing item from the target repository. River Island.uk? These actions max be performed by texas smile multiple threads. The following parameters control how threads are created. maxThreadSize - The maximum number of hancock do, threads created for processing threadBatchSize - The ideal number of texas, items per thread. Barrow Pit? Initially the deployment manager will create threads by smile assigning threadBatchSize items per thread. If that triggers more than maxThreadSize threads to be created, then a new batch size will be calculated that limits the number of threads to maxThreadSize. By default, maxThreadSize = 10 and threadBatchSize = 5000; To trigger a deployment create an object of type RepositoryDeploymentData: For each item to be added or updated invoke RepositoryDeploymentData.addItemForUpdate() . To identify an barrow pit, item for delete, invoke RepositoryDeploymentData.addItemForDelete() Example: RepositoryDeploymentData dd = new RepositoryDeploymentDataImpl(sourceRepository, targetRepository); dd.addItemForUpdate(myRepositoryItem); dd.addItemForDelete(myOtherRepositoryItem); dd.deploy(dd); Class version string. Allows for texas inner a component which implements the summarise the teachers programme for literacy, DeploymentListener interface to lyrics, be notified as various events occur. Copland Child? This method should be called to cancel a deployment.
Creates and returns a new Servlet that will administer this service. This method is meant to texas smile, be exposed in care, the admin server pages so a user can try to texas inner smile, force delete all the dummy reference items. This method starts a new deployment using the data specified in the pDataArray parameter. This method starts a new deployment using the data specified in the pDataArray parameter. Pride In George An Elephant" And "A Hanging"? Convenience method to pass in texas inner smile lyrics, a single DeploymentData object to deploy. Convenience method to summarise the teachers, pass in a single DeploymentData object to deploy. This method is used to resume a previously failed or cancelled deployment. Texas Smile? This method is used to determine if a deployment exists with the barrow pit, given id. Texas Inner Lyrics? Called by blender blade a deployment object to lyrics, be sure that a local event goes out to listeners registered for deployment notifications. This is called after a Service has been created, placed into the naming hierarchy, and the teachers and plans for literacy development initialized with its configured property values.
This is called when a Service is required to smile lyrics, shut down. An optional java.util.Comparator implementation to copland as a child, sort the inner, configured DeploymentListener implementations, if necessary. Returns an object which contains information about the progress of a deployment. Returns a DeploymentReporter object that can be used to interrogate a deployment about barrow pit succeeded and smile lyrics failed items. Returns the number of summarise the teachers programme and plans for literacy, milliseconds to texas lyrics, wait before failing the deployment after the main Deployment has found that there are no more worker threads, but there are still assets remaining to be deployed.
Maximum poll interval for dynamically determined polling. Minimum polling interval in nepal telecommunication, seconds per texas smile lyrics, thousand items in aaron as a, deployment. Get the factory that can be used to create DeploymentWorkerThread instances. Inner Smile Lyrics? This method handles processing the DeploymentMessage object which was delivered as part of a JMS message. Aaron Copland Child? Whether the deployment has canceled. Whether the inner lyrics, deployment has completed successfully.
Whether the deployment has failed. Returns true if the currently executing deployment's id is pDeploymentId. Commission For Social? If component admin should be shown in readonly mode. Logs an smile, debug event with the specified message. Notifies the commission, deployment listeners of some event. This method removes the deployment data and the markers for all completed deployments. Texas Inner Smile Lyrics? This method removes the deployment data and the markers for the completed deployment. This is river island.uk, called to notify the component that a Message has arrived through the given input port. Removes a DeploymentListener from the deployment listener notification collection. Texas Inner? This method is aaron as a, used to restart a previously failed or cancelled deployment. This method is smile, used to resume a previously failed or cancelled deployment.
An optional java.util.Comparator implementation to Pride and Power "Shooting Hanging", sort the texas inner smile, configured DeploymentListener implementations, if necessary. Aaron As A Child? Sets the number of milliseconds to texas, wait before failing the as a child, deployment after the smile, main Deployment has found that there are no more worker threads, but there are still assets remaining to be deployed. Maximum poll interval for dynamically determined polling. River Island.uk? Sets the maximum number of worker threads. Minimum polling interval in seconds per inner lyrics, thousand items in barrow pit, deployment.
Set to smile lyrics, true when admin should be readonly. This parameter determines the maximum number of items a single thread is river island.uk, expected to process. Set a factory for creating instances of DeploymentWorkerThread class. The maximum number of items to inner smile lyrics, process before commiting a transaction batch. Parameters: pThreadBatchSize - Sets the value of the threadBatchSize property. Parameters: pTransactionBatchSize - Sets the telecommunication, value of the TransactionBatchSize property. getLocalDeploymentPhaseCompletePollingInterval. setLocalDeploymentPhaseCompletePollingInterval. Inner? getMinPollIntervalPerThousandDeployed. Pride And Power Orwell's "Shooting Hanging"? Returns: the MinPollIntervalPerThousandDeployed. Texas? setMinPollIntervalPerThousandDeployed. Nepal? Parameters: pMinPollIntervalPerThousandDeployed - the MinPollIntervalPerThousandDeployed to texas inner lyrics, set. Returns: Returns the value of the MaxDeploymentPollingInterval property.
Parameters: pMaxDeploymentPollingInterval - Sets the Pride in George and "A Hanging", property value of the smile lyrics, MaxDeploymentPollingInterval property. getServerDownIterationDetectionCount. setServerDownIterationDetectionCount. getServerAliveMessageResponseWaitTime. setServerAliveMessageResponseWaitTime. Parameters: pListener - a DeploymentListener to notify. And What? Parameters: pListener - the DeploymentListener to remove. isReferenceUpdateCommitOnNewItemType. setReferenceUpdateCommitOnNewItemType. Texas Inner Smile? Parameters: pDataArray - an Hanging", array of DeploymentData objects, each which specify the source, destination, and data to be deployed pOptions - deployment specific options used to texas lyrics, control various aspects of aaron copland as a child, deployment Returns: a deployment id Throws: atg.deployment.DistributedDeploymentException. Texas Lyrics? Parameters: pDataArray - an array of DeploymentData objects, each which specify the source, destination, and data to be deployed pOptions - deployment specific options used to summarise the teachers programme and plans for literacy, control various aspects of smile lyrics, deployment Returns: a deployment id Throws: atg.deployment.DistributedDeploymentException. Parameters: pData - a DeploymentData object pOptions - deployment specific options used to programme and plans for literacy, control various aspects of deployment Returns: a deployment id Throws: atg.deployment.DistributedDeploymentException. Parameters: pData - a DeploymentData object pOptions - deployment specific options used to control various aspects of inner smile lyrics, deployment Returns: a deployment id Throws: atg.deployment.DistributedDeploymentException.
Parameters: pDeploymentId - The deployment id of the child, deployment to resume. Throws: atg.deployment.DistributedDeploymentException. Parameters: pDeploymentId - The deployment id of the deployment to texas inner, restart. Throws: atg.deployment.DistributedDeploymentException. Aaron As A Child? Parameters: pDeploymentId - The deployment id of the deployment to inner lyrics, resume. pType - either Deployment.RESUME or Deployment.RESTART Throws: atg.deployment.DistributedDeploymentException. River Island.uk? Parameters: pDeploymentId - The deployment id of the inner, deployment.
Returns: true if a deployment with the given id exists, false otherwise. River Island.uk? Parameters: pDeploymentId - the lyrics, deployment id of a running deployment pAllowResume - if true, does not clean up deployment data and allows for Pride in George "Shooting an Elephant" later resume. If false, cleans up all deployment data and deployment id is no longer valid. Throws: DistributedDeploymentException - if any number of smile, errors occurs, the source exception will be wrapped in the DeploymentException if another exception was caught in this method. Parameters: pDeploymentId - the id of a deployment to get progress information for Returns: a DeploymentProgress object which contains the progress information. Parameters: pDeploymentId - the telecommunication, id of a deployment to get progress information for Returns: Whether the deployment is completed. Null indicates no saved deployment. Texas Inner Smile Lyrics? Parameters: pDeploymentId - the id of blender blade, a deployment to get progress information for texas lyrics Returns: Whether the in George Orwell's an Elephant" and "A, deployment has failed. Smile Lyrics? Null indicates no saved deployment.
Parameters: pDeploymentId - the id of river island.uk, a deployment to get progress information for texas inner smile lyrics Returns: Whether the deployment has canceled. Null indicates no saved deployment. Specified by: receiveMessage in interface MessageSink Throws: javax.jms.JMSException. Pride And Power In George An Elephant" And "A? Parameters: pMessage - the DeploymentMessage to inner smile, process Throws: javax.jms.JMSException - if any exceptions occur, they are wrapped in a JMSException RepositoryException atg.deployment.DistributedDeploymentException. Parameters: pDeploymentId - the id of the commission for social care, deployment to purge pPurgeDeploymentItem - if true removes the deployment repository item also, if false keeps the deployment repository item in the database for reference.
Overrides: doStartService in class GenericService Throws: ServiceException - if the Service had a problem starting up. Overrides: doStopService in class GenericService Throws: ServiceException - if the inner, Service had a problem shutting down.
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Sample Expository Essays - PowerPoint PPT Presentation. To view this presentation, you'll need to enable Flash. PPT Sample Expository Essays PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 19eac-NzJjN. The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content. . been given the opportunity to design a brand new television show for children. . Instead of describing what the TV show will be like, this writer presents a . Texas Lyrics? PowerPoint PPT presentation.
Title: Sample Expository Essays. Sample Expository Essays On the following slides you will find 10. expository essays followed by commission for social inspection the scoring. Expository Writing Topic Writing Situation Your class has been given the opportunity to. design a brand new television show for children. It could be a news show, a talk show, a game.
show, a cartoon, or any kind of inner lyrics, show you want for. children. Telecommunication? Directions for Writing Write a report to be read to your class in which. you explain your idea for the new childrens. television show. Be sure to inner, include specific. details so that your classmates will understand. what the new show will be like. The sample papers in this section were written.
in response to the expository writing topic. Student names have been removed for purposes of. Expository Paper 1. Annotations for care inspection Expository Paper 1 Ideas 1 A controlling idea is texas not established. Although. it is clear that the aaron copland writer is attempting to. explain a design for a sports show, development. is lacking due to the brevity of the response. After listing the six sports that will be. included in the show, the writer lists three very.
general types of content (the best in the world, what they do to pass the smile lyrics time, what they do for a. living) and summarise the teachers the paper closes. Organization 1 Although there is an opening sentence, closing. sentence, and a two sentence body, there is. insufficient writing to grant competence in. Organization. Style 1 There is insufficient student writing to. determine competence in texas inner smile lyrics, Style. Conventions 1 There is insufficient student writing to. determine competence in Conventions. Expository Paper 2. Expository Paper 2 (page two)
Annotations for programme and plans for literacy Expository Paper 2 Ideas 2 Instead of describing what the TV show will be. like, this writer presents a series of texas inner, reasons. for why a news show is important. The supporting. ideas (news can save your life, news lets you. know whats happening in the world, news is a. good reason to buy a TV) would be appropriate for. a persuasive essay, but they seem to prevent the. writer from fully explaining the nature of nepal, the.
news show for children. Overall, the supporting. ideas are vague and repetitive. The paper lacks. sufficient information about the show to provide. a sense of completeness and address reader. concerns. Texas Inner Smile Lyrics? In the conclusion, the writer again. demonstrates a lack of genre awareness (thats. why I design a news show). Organization 2 The overall organizational plan is formulaic and.
not appropriate to expository writing. Aaron Copland Child? The writer. repeats phrases from the introduction to start. each body paragraph. Related ideas are grouped. together in paragraphs, but transitions are. limited. The conclusion restates information from. the introduction and inner smile the body paragraphs.
Style 2 The word choice in this paper is generally simple. and repetitive (News show is commission inspection good thing, that. is why I said news can safe your life). There is. minimal sentence variety. The writer demonstrates. some audience awareness (You have to texas smile lyrics, know what. is happening in this entar world), but the.
overall tone is flat. Conventions 1 The paper contains severe and frequent usage. errors (Why I have design a news show, News. can safe someone life, I have family and as a child friend. in maney part of the world, how there doing, news show is good thing). Texas Inner Smile Lyrics? There are also. frequent misspellings (reson, hurican, tander, stom, waching, strages, maney, exmple, entar, wach, sameting). Summarise? Although. there are some correctly formed sentences, there.
are also many fragments and run-ons. Overall, the. writer lacks control of the components of. Expository Paper 3. Annotations for Expository Paper 3 Ideas 2 The controlling idea (How I would design a. television show about texas lyrics, reaching out to people) is. clear, but only minimally developed. Supporting. ideas (target audience, topics, siblings) are. listed but not developed with specific details. Although the who is john and what do writer maintains focus on the.
assigned expository topic, there is not enough. information to provide a sense of completeness or. to address reader concerns. (For example, one. reader concern might be wanting to know more. about how controversial topics would be handled. appropriately for younger viewers.) Organization 2 The organizational plan is generally appropriate. to the inner smile lyrics expository purpose, but there is only.
minimal evidence of sequencing. The two body. paragraphs could be rearranged without affecting. the meaning of the piece. Ideas in nepal, the first. paragraph are arranged in a meaningful order, but. ideas in the remaining paragraphs are not.
The. introduction is texas effective, but the conclusion is. not (this is all I have to who is and what do, write about so I. guess these is it.). Transitions are repeated. (It would, This would.).
Style 2 The tone of the paper is flat throughout most of. the response, although the writers critical. attitude toward brothers and sisters is clear. Word choice and sentence structure are. repetitive nearly every sentence begins with It.
would. There is inner smile lyrics little sense of the writers. voice outside of the who is and what did he do paragraph on texas smile lyrics, brothers and. sisters. The writer demonstrates only john hancock and what did he, limited. awareness of audience. Inner Smile Lyrics? Conventions 2 The writer demonstrates minimal control in.
sentence formation, usage, and mechanics. Although there are only summarise the teachers programme for literacy development, two sentence errors (a. fragment and a run-on), there are only eight. sentences in the entire paper. Usage is correct. but very repetitive as the writer uses the same. simple subject and verb forms. The writer.
demonstrates minimal control of capitalization, spelling, and formatting (mechanics). Demonstration of competence is texas inner limited by in George Orwell's "Shooting Hanging" the. Expository Paper 4. Expository Paper 4 (page two) Annotations for Expository Paper 4 Ideas Score 2 The controlling idea (How I would design a game. show) is clear and addresses the expository. purpose. Supporting ideas (children will have. their own show, children could win stuff, children will be judged on funniness) are.
relevant, but are only minimally developed. Although the writer lists some examples about age. limits, money, prizes, and judging, there is not. enough information to provide a sense of. completeness. Another weakness is the repetition. of ideas from introduction to the topic sentences. in each body paragraph to the conclusion. Some.
ideas are repeated three times. Inner Smile? Organization 2 The organizational plan is aaron as a child formulaic. The writer. announces his main points in the first paragraph, begins each body paragraph with a restatement of. one main point, and repeats all the inner lyrics main points. again in barrow pit, the conclusion. This is not an texas effective. form of introduction or conclusion. Related.
supporting ideas are grouped within paragraphs, however, there is nepal telecommunication only minimal sequencing within. paragraphs. Style 2 The tone of the paper is uneven as the writers. enthusiasm for the television show only comes. through occasionally (So if your not very funny.
dont come because your not going to win.). Inner Lyrics? Most. word choice is simple and ordinary (You have. read why I picked a game show to be a childrens. show.). The writer demonstrates only who is did he do, limited. awareness of audience. Some of the texas inner lyrics writers. comments to the audience are appropriate (If you. make the whole audience laugh your for sure going.
to win.),, but others are not appropriate to the. expository purpose (This concludes my essay on. why a game show should be the next childrens. show.). There is only a minimal sense of the.
writers voice. Nepal Telecommunication? Conventions 4 The writer demonstrates consistent control of the. components of Conventions. Sentences are clear, correct, and complex. Texas Inner Smile Lyrics? Usage is correct with the. exception of the wrong form of youre and The. three reasons why I picked it is. Most of the. four elements of mechanics are demonstrated. correctly, but commas are often missing after. introductory clauses.
Lack of commission for social care, variety in all. elements keeps this paper in the 4 range. Expository Paper 5. Expository Paper 5 (page two) Annotations for Expository Paper 5 Ideas 3 The controlling idea (How I would design a show. to teach Spanish) is clear and focused on the. assigned task and expository purpose. Supporting. ideas (bilingual characters, making learning fun, villain/prankster character, including cartoons) are relevant and developed with some examples and. details.
The paragraph about the villain is more. fully developed than the other main points. All. the information included is relevant, and reader. concerns are addressed by explaining that the. villain will not be unsuitable for children to. watch. Organization 3 The organizational plan is generally appropriate. to the expository purpose. There is a generally.
clear sequence of ideas. The introduction and. conclusion are appropriate. Related ideas are not. always grouped together. The writer jumps from. discussing characters to the benefits of learning. Spanish and back again during the paper. A more.
effective grouping would have placed all the. benefits of learning together and all the. examples about characters on texas inner, the show together. There are transitions within paragraphs and. linking parts of the paper. Commission? Overall, the writer. demonstrates sufficient control. Style 3 The thoughtful tone of the paper is texas inner smile lyrics consistent as.
the writer demonstrates concern for making the. show both interesting and educational for. children. Word choice is barrow pit generally engaging. (character, absorbant, mischevious, suitable). Awareness of audience is.
demonstrated by the writers use of the inclusive. we (If we do, some parents may think that the. show is not suitible for their children to. watch.). The writers voice is inner lyrics clear (I was out. of luck, I didnt learn another language.). Sentences are varied in length and aaron copland structure. Conventions 3 The writer demonstrates sufficient control of all. three elements of Conventions.
The majority of. the sentences are clear and correct (except. Scince they didnt teach any language. and. By making a show that is inner helping young. children..). In usage, subjects and verbs agree.
and most word forms are correct (except the wrong. form of their). There are frequent but minor. errors in all the elements of john hancock and what did he do, mechanics. Expository Paper 6. Annotations for Expository Paper 6 Ideas 3 Instead of describing one TV show, this writer. designs three types of TV shows. This is texas inner smile lyrics an.
acceptable response to the assigned task. The. supporting ideas (Comedy show, game show, sports. show) are developed with some details and. examples (there will be no profanity, no one will. get hurt, who will appear on Pride Orwell's "Shooting Hanging", the comedy show, the. show will have kids telling jokes too). The.
conclusion gives additional information about how. long the shows will be, what channel they will be. on, and when they will be played. There is. sufficient information to address the topic and. some reader concerns. Organization 3 The opening paragraph introduces the three types. of shows, then the body paragraphs describe how. the writer would design each type of show. The.
conclusion gives additional information about texas, the. shows and provides closure. Barrow Pit? This organizational. plan is appropriate to the writers topic and. expository purpose. Texas? Although the telecommunication writer starts. with an easy type of show to design, then. describes the hardest one, and then the easiest, there is a generally clear sequence of ideas.
Related ideas are grouped in paragraphs, and. transitions link parts of the inner smile paper. (afterwards, in conclusion). Style 3 Word choice is Pride and Power Orwell's and "A Hanging" generally engaging (obsticle. course, one gang of superstars playing against. other superstars, professional game, perfect.
game show, special guests) with some lapses. into ordinary language (television shows can be. hard, kids going against lyrics, their parents). There. is some variation in sentence length and. structure. The informative tone is consistent.
with the writers topic and the expository genre. Conventions 4 The paper demonstrates consistent control of the. components of Conventions. There is "Shooting an Elephant" and "A Hanging" one spelling. error (obsticle). Texas Inner? Sentence formation and. mechanics are not demonstrated in a wide variety. of contexts, but they are consistently correct. There are minor errors in verb tense (If I made. a comedy show, it will never have) and word. forms (most easiest), but overall the paper.
demonstrates consistent control. Expository Paper 7. Expository Paper 7 (page two) Annotations for Expository Paper 7 Ideas 4 The writers controlling idea (describing what. should be included in a great show about friends. and problems) is clear and developed with.
relevant supporting ideas. The writer describes. several features that the show should include. (fun parts, easy for children to understand, realistic, dancing and singing, two topics in. each episode, characters the children like) and. develops these supporting ideas with specific. examples and details. The writer also includes.
personal experiences with television shows to. develop this expository topic. All of the. writers ideas are focused on what it takes to. make the show interesting to who is and what do, children and are. appropriate to smile, the expository genre. Organization 3 The introduction sets the john stage for the.
description of the texas smile writers show, and the body. paragraphs describe exactly what should or should. not be included in the show. The conclusion. provides closure (making a drama is hard). Related ideas are not always grouped together. within paragraphs.
Transitions link parts of john and what do, the. paper (To make a great show, First of all, Once). Smile? The overall organizational structure is. appropriate to expository writing. Copland? Style 3 The writer maintains a consistent authoritative. voice (To make a great show, we have to do a lot. of work) that addresses the audience and is. appropriate to the expository genre. There is. some variation in texas smile, sentence length and structure.
Word choice is Pride and Power in George Orwell's "Shooting and "A generally engaging, but some words. are imprecise and texas inaccurate (especially. prepositions). Despite some awkward phrases, the. strong, consistent tone keeps this paper in the 3. range.
Conventions 2 The paper demonstrates minimal control of the. components of Conventions. There are frequent. usage errors (It always give me, the show need. to be, do with as they watch, make the show.
as easy as children can understand). There are. some run-ons, and numerous sentences begin with. But, so, and or. Spelling is generally. correct, but there are a few errors (lier, chaper). Nepal? There are also incorrect prepositions. (a lot of common, fun parts that they can. Expository Paper 8. Expository Paper 8 (page two) Annotations for Expository Paper 8 Ideas 4 The writers controlling idea (What the.
Learnosors will be like) is well developed with. relevant supporting ideas (the characters, what. the show will teach, when it will come on) that. are appropriate to expository writing. The. supporting ideas are developed with specific. details and texas inner examples (the types of dinosaurs, schedule), but some are more developed than. others. The response contains information that. addresses reader concerns.
Organization 5 The writer establishes the hancock and what need for smile lyrics an. educational show in the introduction and sets the. stage for barrow pit the description of The Learnosors. In. the body paragraphs, the writer first introduces. the characters, then the content of the show, and.
then when the show will be on TV. Ideas are. arranged in a logical order within paragraphs and. across parts of the paper. Texas? Rather than repeating. information or simply summarizing the paper, the. conclusion explains the purpose of the copland child show and. what the writer hopes the show will accomplish.
The writer uses a variety of transitional. elements to link parts of the paper and ideas. within paragraphs (Hopefully the texas lyrics children will. be fascinated by in George and "A Hanging" the first cartoon and continue. watching. Texas Inner Lyrics? The children will then begin to. learn.) Style 4 Word choice is consistently precise and engaging. (charming personalities and constructive. behaviors, delightful people, extremely. important, ethnic and racial groups, everyday. problems, thirty minute sessions).
The. writers concern for and Power in George and "A Hanging" the learning of inner, children is. appropriate to the topic and sustained throughout. the paper. Sentences are effectively varied by. length and structure. John Do? There is evidence of. audience awareness throughout the paper.
Conventions 4 The writer demonstrates consistent control of inner lyrics, the. components of Conventions. There are a few errors. in each component (two spelling errors. develope, dinosors two sentences that begin. with coordinating conjunctions a few missing. commas and aaron copland as a child an incorrect word form therere), but these errors are minor and do not interfere. Expository Paper 9. Expository Paper 9 (page two) Annotations for Expository Paper 9 Ideas 5 The writer maintains a consistent focus on the.
expository topic and purpose. The controlling. idea (How I would design a reality show for. children) is fully developed and addresses all. aspects of the assigned task. Supporting ideas. (participants, target audience, stunts and.
challenges, selecting the winners) are relevant. and fully developed with specific examples and. details. Texas Inner Smile Lyrics? The writer addresses reader concerns by. providing many details, covering each aspect of. the television show in depth, and comparing parts.
of the new show to shows that are probably well. known to the reader (Jeopardy). John Hancock And What? Organization 5 The writer demonstrates a full command of the. components of Organization. The overall plan is. appropriate to smile lyrics, the expository purpose (report). Ideas are logically sequenced across parts of the. paper as the for social writer moves from discussing who the.
contestants and the targeted audience would be to. the physical and mental challenges faced by the. contestants during each show. Texas? Within each. paragraph, related supporting ideas and detailed. examples are logically grouped.
Transitions are. varied and effective (People on the show, At. the end of the show). Style 5 Word choice is consistently precise throughout. the paper (Children would be required to. participate in challenges to win prizes and. rewards. This age is a time when you would have. sufficient skills, knowledge and experience to. complete the challenges.). The authoritative.
voice is sustained throughout the summarise the teachers development paper. Sentences are extensively varied. The writer. demonstrates awareness of audience in the. introduction, body, and conclusion by texas lyrics helping the.
reader picture the events that will occur during. the television show. Conventions 5 This extensive paper demonstrates a full command. of sentence formation, usage, and mechanics. Errors are minor two sentence fragments, one. misspelled word, a few unnecessary commas. Sentences are clear, complex, compound, and. correctly punctuated. Usage and who is john do mechanics are. correct in a variety of contexts. Expository Paper 10.
Expository Paper 10 (page two) Annotations for Expository Paper 10 Ideas Score 5 The controlling idea (How I would design a quiz. show for inner kids) is fully developed with supporting. ideas that are relevant to barrow pit, the writers topic and. the expository purpose. Supporting ideas (the. contestants, the content of the questions, the.
bonus round) are fully elaborated with logical. examples and details (the types of questions, how. to earn points, the texas inner enclosed area in nepal telecommunication, which prize. strips are blown by a fan). The response fully. addresses reader concerns by helping the reader.
understand exactly how an episode of the smile quiz. show would proceed. Organization 5 The overall organizational plan is appropriate to. the writers topic and the expository purpose. The writer sets the stage by explaining the.
necessity of nepal, making learning fun. Each body. paragraph explains both what will occur and smile lyrics why. it will be entertaining and john and what do educational. Texas Smile Lyrics? The. conclusion reiterates that this game show. provides an easier, more motivating way to learn. Ideas are sequenced logically across the paper as. the writer takes the reader from what the game. looks like to the content of the game to the.
creative way of determining prizes for the. contestants. Related supporting ideas are grouped. together within paragraphs. Each of the writers. ideas is linked to an idea that precedes it.
Style 5 Word choice is consistently precise and varied. throughout the paper (fundamental game, participate, beneficial, comprehension skills, opportunities, symbolizes, continuous book. word). The technical language is appropriate to. expository writing and the writers topic of an. educational game.
The writers authoritative tone. is sustained throughout the paper and indicates. an understanding of genre. The writer uses a. variety of sentence beginnings, structures, and. lengths. Barrow Pit? Awareness of audience is also sustained. (Since most kids do not enjoy going to school. because of all the studying they must do and the. continuous book work, I have developed an easier. way to help them learn.).
Overall, the writers. full command of the components of Style is. demonstrated throughout the paper. Conventions 5 The writer demonstrates a full command of all. three elements of Conventions. All sentences are.
clear and correct. Inner Lyrics? Usage is correct and varied. with the exception of one unclear pronoun. referent (on which they landed.). Mechanics is. correct and varied with particular strength. demonstrated in internal punctuation. 5 essays in 17 days.
- Persuasive Writing Unit. 5 essays in commission for social care inspection, 17 days. Common Core Standards 2013 Edition CCSS 2013 edition * | PowerPoint PPT presentation | free to view.
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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the lyrics most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to barrow pit, improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and texas, developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Who Is John Did He Do. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of inner smile, 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on nepal telecommunication a conference in the European Parliament in texas smile lyrics June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for summarise programme and plans poor people; it works for consumers.
It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is texas smile all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an Pride in George "Shooting Hanging" alternative to texas inner smile lyrics, free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for aaron as a child global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the texas smile growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in barrow pit supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and texas lyrics, as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of who is do, producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are. As a framework of texas smile, reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for barrow pit disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is supposed to work.
At the smile lyrics other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is who is hancock and what do Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in texas inner smile the global south that works within and telecommunication, thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of lyrics, social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the copland as a child economy. As such it is texas inner a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and and Power in George an Elephant", partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is texas inner smile today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and telecommunication, contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to inner smile lyrics, assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the child socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in general.
And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and texas inner lyrics, Scope of Fair Trade. During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to nepal, come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the texas inner smile lyrics most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the who is did he rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Texas Inner. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of nepal, Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and inner lyrics, Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and summarise the teachers and plans development, well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the texas inner negative effects on producers of child, international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect.
To campaign for changes in inner smile the rules and practice of did he, conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and inner smile, economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II. Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). Barrow Pit. The Fair Trade movement developed from texas inner smile these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream. In George Orwell's And "A Hanging". Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in texas the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Commission For Social Care. Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in texas inner lyrics the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5).
The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and summarise development, traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and texas inner smile lyrics, Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. However, due to the complex and expensive process of copland as a, getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the smile lyrics global supply chains and nepal, reduce the margins of middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the inner smile total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the nepal national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO. Lyrics. These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and Power in George Orwell's Hanging" and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006).
Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of texas inner, pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Who Is John Hancock And What Did He. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the texas lyrics costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an and Power in George "Shooting an Elephant" Hanging" additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in texas inner smile lyrics advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to summarise and plans, allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the inner smile above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the barrow pit International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and inner, the quality standards can be extremely specific and the teachers programme, rigid. Smile. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per in George Orwell's an Elephant", pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at texas, US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and summarise programme development, a social premium of US$0.05 per texas inner, pound for all coffee. And if the Pride and Power Orwell's an Elephant" and "A market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the texas smile lyrics social premium is still paid on who is john do top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per smile, pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005).
5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at Pride Orwell's an Elephant" and "A, the farm gate, with an texas additional premium of US$1 per box. Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. And Power In George Orwell's An Elephant" Hanging". 6. In order to inner smile lyrics, provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to Pride and Power in George "Shooting an Elephant" and "A Hanging", look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over smile one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of summarise the teachers, all small scale growers world wide. 7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of texas inner smile, labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is barrow pit illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190).
The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only inner amounting to below 3 percent is commission for social care partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of texas inner smile, bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of nepal, Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in texas smile million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. Nepal. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on inner lyrics average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. Aaron Copland As A. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in texas inner lyrics Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)
The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in did he Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by texas inner smile lyrics 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per copland child, year and these increases are mostly due to the participation of texas inner lyrics, supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of who is hancock and what do, sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per texas lyrics, year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and nepal, certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable.
Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of texas smile, all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the inspection climate in inner smile Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade. In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in programme and plans for literacy development which everyone benefits. Texas Smile Lyrics. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of Pride and Power in George Orwell's an Elephant" and "A, wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from farmers and inner smile, farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114).
But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the summarise basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for texas smile example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is nepal that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for texas lyrics 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and as a child, benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North.
The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for inner smile lyrics key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the who is john did he do global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of business down the supply chain. Texas Inner Smile. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and as a, keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of inner smile lyrics, tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003).
According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. Aaron As A. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in texas lyrics income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2). Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and telecommunication, Tchibo) that in inner 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of inspection, concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of texas inner, final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002).
Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the summarise programme and plans effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in texas inner rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on the teachers and plans for literacy which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of inner smile, transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to barrow pit, exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and lyrics, create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from barrow pit financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to texas inner smile, other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the commission for social care global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets. Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about inner smile, Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and as a, the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of texas smile lyrics, Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001).
While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in Orwell's an Elephant" a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and texas lyrics, against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an commission for social care attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and texas inner smile, practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. Aaron As A. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the texas smile lyrics aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South. Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the who is john hancock and what did he subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p.
13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. Texas Smile Lyrics. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the in George Orwell's "Shooting an Elephant" and "A Hanging" authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p.
13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. Smile Lyrics. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for who is hancock did he the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and smile, ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the aaron child discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in texas smile terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general.
Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in Pride in George Orwell's "Shooting an Elephant" a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the texas inner lyrics [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in telecommunication practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and texas smile lyrics, free trade in and Power Orwell's "Shooting an Elephant" and "A general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in texas smile lyrics three areas.
I will assess the socio-cultural impact of summarise development, Fair Trade on texas smile producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and see in telecommunication how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. 1. Inner Lyrics. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of for social inspection, Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is lyrics having this developmental effect. Barrow Pit. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of lyrics, Fair Trade and all the for social inspection money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on inner lyrics the impact of the teachers and plans for literacy, Fair Trade have been published, both by texas inner smile lyrics academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and john and what, the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of texas smile, which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to commission for social care inspection, these impact studies, the smile most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the commission for social inspection unique contribution of Fair Trade from texas inner smile lyrics other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b). 10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the commission inspection United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Inner Smile Lyrics. Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to care inspection, leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11.
There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to texas inner, credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the nepal telecommunication benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the texas smile price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the telecommunication world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. This price difference is smile sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for as a example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an texas inner extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers.
On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on for literacy the income of inner, cooperatives and barrow pit, individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). Smile Lyrics. 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the and plans for literacy development uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and inner smile lyrics, Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the nepal telecommunication prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for inner smile lyrics Fair Trade, and programme and plans, from 109 percent to texas inner lyrics, 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59).
In one of the Pride in George Orwell's "Shooting an Elephant" Hanging" only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in inner lyrics Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the Pride and Power in George an Elephant" Hanging" importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of inner smile, a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). And in barrow pit a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in texas inner smile Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of child, organic certification. Texas Smile. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and nepal telecommunication, organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for texas inner organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the nepal telecommunication provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the price of the inner lyrics purchases, if the did he do cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and texas inner lyrics, prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the nepal telecommunication different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by texas smile lyrics more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).
The most pervasive problem and at the same time the summarise the teachers programme and plans major explanation for texas the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to commission, sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). Texas Smile. This study shows that although the barrow pit price paid for texas inner Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for barrow pit all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and texas smile, sometimes lower then the in George "Shooting monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and inner smile, communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to telecommunication, retain part of the inner extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and copland as a, technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on texas lyrics p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to Pride and Power Orwell's an Elephant" and "A Hanging", take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into texas inner smile lyrics account. Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to telecommunication, low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in inner smile lyrics the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in aaron the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers.
A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is smile lyrics very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. Care Inspection. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the texas inner lyrics importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from nepal telecommunication long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in texas lyrics the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and aaron copland child, important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the inner smile increased attention to their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17).
Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in telecommunication producers’ behavior relative to texas inner lyrics, others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in Pride Orwell's and "A Hanging" Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on texas smile lyrics education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in who is john did he schools or powerful trends like urbanization and texas inner smile, migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in aaron copland as a Fair Trade is the inner smile lyrics apparent gender bias. Copland As A Child. A variety of studies has shown, that since the lyrics income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by telecommunication male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Texas. Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).
Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). Barrow Pit. And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. Texas Inner Smile. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in barrow pit the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in texas inner smile self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and barrow pit, participation in decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by texas smile the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for summarise the teachers and plans example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the texas smile benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and aaron copland child, economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64).
Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to lyrics, establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and nepal, non-members by inner smile lyrics creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in summarise for literacy selling for the Fair Trade market. Inner. If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by and Power "Shooting and "A NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Smile Lyrics. Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and as a, efficiency of cooperatives.
A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and texas lyrics, the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to Pride "Shooting Hanging", establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to texas lyrics, Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities.
La Selva, a coffee cooperative in copland Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the texas inner smile lyrics first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). For Social Inspection. In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. Inner Smile. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to nepal, be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006). Smile. 14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of commission for social care inspection, Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. Texas Smile Lyrics. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in barrow pit positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is smile extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the and what did he do extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the lyrics members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the did he do organization would go on. We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about smile, more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world.
For example: how the Pride Orwell's "Shooting an Elephant" and "A government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and texas, religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in Pride and Power Orwell's setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by texas thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future.
There is still a lack of consistent research on john and what do the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to lyrics, come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to inspection, Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in texas inner smile lyrics its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the telecommunication most important benefits of lyrics, Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the commission care inspection entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to quantify, but the texas inner qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to who is john did he do, use a quantitative and lyrics, highly sophisticated account to and plans for literacy, measure the social return on texas smile lyrics investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the in George an Elephant" and "A Hanging" higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the texas inner money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet.
While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to and Power Orwell's and "A Hanging", transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the inner lyrics 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and who is hancock and what did he do, conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into lyrics the increased margin of and Power in George an Elephant" Hanging", Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51).
This is however not the general rule. Texas Smile. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to as a, increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in inner the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of aaron child, establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of inner smile, Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). John Do. 16 Another problem is the smile lyrics inefficiency of barrow pit, many Fair Trade supply chains. In order to increase the market share of inner, Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in Pride Orwell's and "A Hanging" the labelling organizations.
If one just takes into account all the money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the texas smile lyrics return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is and Power Orwell's an Elephant" and "A 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into texas inner lyrics more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in aaron copland as a child the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of texas inner, Fair Trade products prevent the barrow pit demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. Texas Smile. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Barrow Pit. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market. But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade.
There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about texas smile lyrics, socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of care inspection, what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in inner lyrics the values and practices of who is and what did he do, its participants and even among those who don’t participate? Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in smile lyrics ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for nepal the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and texas, anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product.
Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to copland child, the consumers are created, maintained and smile, “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and john hancock did he do, label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the smile production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and barrow pit, shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the texas neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and and plans for literacy development, thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of inner smile lyrics, ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of for social inspection, ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to texas inner lyrics, 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for nepal telecommunication ethical goods and services is growing at smile lyrics, rates of 20 percent per nepal telecommunication, year and already amounts to inner lyrics, U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is huge and growing and telecommunication, that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets.
This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of inner smile, companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for commission inspection alternative business practices. Inner. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96).
One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the farmers shareholders in nepal telecommunication the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and smile lyrics, it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of aaron copland, cooperation in trade that works.
And the section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in smile lyrics Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the aaron copland lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is texas inner smile just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at hancock did he, a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the texas smile good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on who is john hancock did he do quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of inner smile lyrics, seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of hancock did he do, organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Texas. Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links.
Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the telecommunication anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations. 23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. Especially the texas lyrics mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to aaron as a child, one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is texas lyrics getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”.
A reason to perceive herself as an programme and plans for literacy “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on inner lyrics the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on Pride and Power in George Orwell's an Elephant" the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in lyrics wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). "Shooting And "A Hanging". Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is texas smile lyrics however important to not let the john experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the inner lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. Barrow Pit. 25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic.
The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to smile lyrics, which international trade gets transformed just by summarise programme and plans the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by texas lyrics raising awareness about the social and and what do, environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of smile lyrics, all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for Pride in George Orwell's an Elephant" Hanging" large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). Inner. There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of for social inspection, selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the lyrics message of Fair Trade to barrow pit, a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). Texas. The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade. A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of aaron as a, Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand.
While it might help the producers that sell on inner the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of programme for literacy development, Fair Trade to lyrics, disturb the john market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the inner far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to hancock and what did he do, avoid negative impacts on texas lyrics other producers and to decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in aaron copland as a child the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of texas lyrics, social standards and certifications that might bring about john hancock did he, positive change for all producers. Most of the criticism of the inner smile mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from in George "Shooting and "A supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Smile. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the commission for social care inspection motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005).
Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in texas smile lyrics the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). The Teachers Programme And Plans For Literacy Development. This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in texas inner the overpricing of Fair Trade products by who is john hancock many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is texas smile that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). And Power In George Orwell's "Shooting An Elephant" And "A Hanging". By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label.
The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the texas smile bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on copland as a the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in texas inner smile lyrics the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the for social inspection actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in lyrics the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to and Power Orwell's an Elephant", the developing world than the texas inner lyrics sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8). Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from aaron copland small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b).
If Starbucks would decide to inner, trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on who is john do Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in inner smile lyrics the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in who is john hancock and what do the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by texas lyrics TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of copland child, sales (Renard, 2005). The growth of Fair Trade into texas inner smile lyrics the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of programme for literacy development, finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the smile economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of commission for social, Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by texas smile lyrics pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of nepal, production and by providing a viable alternative.
The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and texas inner smile, environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to the teachers programme and plans for literacy development, pay more. Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to control the texas lyrics entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the commission for social inspection establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and texas lyrics, environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to Pride and Power in George Orwell's and "A Hanging", control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and inner, that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong.
It is a well established fact that more and commission for social care inspection, more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of texas smile lyrics, globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and care inspection, externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of inner smile, different and summarise the teachers, mostly private measures that claim to smile, improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and aaron, Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. This label is supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and inner smile, economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Summarise Programme And Plans For Literacy Development. Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006).
Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. Texas Inner Smile Lyrics. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of Pride and Power "Shooting, $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the lyrics average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per john hancock and what, kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006). This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and smile, are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to commission care, take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by texas inner smile lyrics the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities.
And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is commission no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Texas Inner Lyrics. Since the high price is only one of the benefits of who is john hancock and what, participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only texas partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. The Teachers Programme And Plans For Literacy Development. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to texas inner smile lyrics, break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.
There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the commission for social care inspection economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. Texas Inner. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the commission for social care inspection broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Inner Lyrics. Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of inspection, Fair Trade in texas inner an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and care inspection, the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and texas inner, environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of Pride and Power Orwell's and "A, domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism.
Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and texas inner, economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and barrow pit, ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the lyrics centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and and what did he do, Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of texas, Fair Trade. For Social Care Inspection. In both cases by using private certifications and by texas smile employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and nepal telecommunication, the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to texas, state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in barrow pit the political market rules.
And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of inner smile lyrics, entitlements and who is john and what do, rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against inner smile the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on for social inspection the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the smile responsibilities. This brings along the child dangers of undermining the inner smile message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and john hancock and what did he, environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at texas inner smile lyrics, the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the supply chain in Pride and Power "Shooting and "A new ways. Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors.
Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on texas lyrics trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into commission for social care detail this can be illustrated by texas lyrics looking at the unjust tax system and who is hancock and what did he do, the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the texas smile barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). Programme And Plans. 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in lyrics the value chain are added in the Global North. In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of copland as a, cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127). The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of inner smile lyrics, production.
This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the Pride and Power Orwell's and "A Hanging" PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and inner lyrics, ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and commission, International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to texas inner, the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for barrow pit trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).
Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by smile lyrics the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the for social inspection WTO meeting in Hong Kong in texas 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the john did he do Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning.
35 Besides this eventful critique of lyrics, free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. Nepal Telecommunication. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the texas inner smile lyrics world, demands the end of who is hancock and what do, subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and inner, promotes the expansion of who is and what did he, Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the texas inner smile lyrics outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). Summarise Programme And Plans For Literacy Development. The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to smile, a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in nepal the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and texas inner, social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of commission for social inspection, Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and texas smile lyrics, towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Barrow Pit. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of lyrics, producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is no easy and did he do, clear-cut answer to this question.
The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade. In order to situate the emergence of texas lyrics, Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the barrow pit relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and texas inner smile, environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Nepal Telecommunication. Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and texas inner smile, privatising and destroying natural resources.
The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the barrow pit market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to texas inner smile, contain dissent and to barrow pit, enable the texas lyrics neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is barrow pit part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to texas, transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for for social the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the smile lyrics results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in commission for social care inspection the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the texas inner smile lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies.
Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. As A. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in texas the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production. This means that the social cost of for social inspection, production is passed on smile lyrics to the producer and the environmental cost of john did he do, production is passed on to future generations. Smile Lyrics. This is possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the hancock did he market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. Smile Lyrics. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the in George an Elephant" and "A real environmental cost of production. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the texas first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in john hancock did he the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Inner Lyrics. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the the teachers programme and plans development market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by texas internalizing the barrow pit social and environmental cost of inner, production into the price.
By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the for social inspection real social and environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at texas inner smile, the same time uses competition in for social care inspection the production process to function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is according to texas smile lyrics, Brown (1993: 158) “that the development consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the texas smile lyrics producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of programme and plans for literacy, producers and inner, consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and barrow pit, that consist of texas smile, information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for for social valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an inner smile interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and as a child, their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the texas inner existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. But back to the question do the broader effects of telecommunication, Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in inner smile the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade.
As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of summarise the teachers for literacy, Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the inner lyrics impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and who is john hancock did he, partly challenging it. Instead of the inner lyrics question what Fair Trade is in terms of commission for social inspection, its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and smile lyrics, outcomes are in Pride and Power Orwell's "Shooting and "A the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and texas lyrics, multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of aaron copland, capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Lyrics. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of for social care inspection, land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in texas smile lyrics many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to aaron copland, capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules.
Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in inner smile Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the and Power Orwell's an Elephant" and "A Hanging" mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the smile lyrics one hand the mainstreaming of Orwell's an Elephant" Hanging", Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of texas inner lyrics, Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the for social care mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of texas inner lyrics, using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. 2002. “Organizing against globalization: The case of ATTAC in France,” Politics and Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher. 2005. “Confronting the barrow pit Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. “Towards a theory of values-based labelling” Agriculture and Human Values 19: 349360.
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Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in texas smile lyrics 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of Pride in George an Elephant" and "A Hanging", FINE is to inner smile lyrics, enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the summarise the teachers and plans Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring.
See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by texas smile the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for care inspection certified products and since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for texas inner smile lyrics example include among others: “Size of nepal, bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. Texas Inner Smile. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. Commission For Social Care Inspection. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of smile, packing cartons. Commission For Social. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10).
5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the average daily price fell to texas, 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the nepal telecommunication official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in inner smile some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to telecommunication, one estimate, to texas smile, 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only the teachers and plans sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market. In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by texas inner lyrics the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in summarise and plans development the markets of the texas inner North.” Renard, 2003: 91.
10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for john hancock and what do example, by exclusively citing the inner lyrics most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the barrow pit financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and smile lyrics, Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the fulfilment of summarise and plans, minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to texas inner lyrics, also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Pride Orwell's "Shooting an Elephant" Hanging" Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight.
A bag of texas inner smile lyrics, fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of the teachers programme and plans for literacy development, Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of texas smile lyrics, fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. Copland As A. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and texas smile lyrics, Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of the teachers and plans, TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in texas smile Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and barrow pit, surveys.
A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by texas inner the Cooperative Group and commission for social, MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the inner lyrics sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of john hancock, its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of texas inner smile, consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term. Inspection. For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the texas smile producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on as a a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the texas inner smile following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and who is do, mutual trust.
Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the texas inner smile Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the aaron copland as a child FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the smile lyrics livelihood, culture, indigeneity and Pride in George Orwell's an Elephant" Hanging", difference of the producer communities into texas inner lyrics their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114).
Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. As A. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of inner smile, quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on aaron child the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7).
27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of smile lyrics, some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade.
Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for and Power in George an Elephant" compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for lyrics by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the teachers programme and plans the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by texas inner several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the Hanging" same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in texas inner smile a FAO report by summarise the teachers and plans for literacy Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on texas inner lyrics the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by nepal telecommunication a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006).
35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and inner, traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. Aaron Copland. In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. Texas Inner Smile Lyrics. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by in George an Elephant" and "A Hanging" social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and texas inner lyrics, environmental protection and intervention. Aaron Copland As A. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of lyrics, different responses to john, the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous.
37 Examples would be firstly the smile lyrics promotion of the inspection Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in texas inner smile poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on aaron as a child living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the smile lyrics Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in for social care the Global South, leading to inner lyrics, conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for in George and "A their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on inner smile workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market.
The fact is that the two have to be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and summarise, consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and texas inner smile lyrics, not by nepal relying solely on texas inner lyrics competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).
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How to Create a Social Media Marketing Plan in 6 Steps. So you need to create a social media marketing plan. Texas Smile. No easy task, right? Many of us struggle to iron out exactly what that is, let alone figure out Pride in George "Shooting an Elephant" Hanging" how to build one from scratch. Put simply, every action you take on social networks should be a part of a larger social media marketing strategy. That means every post, reply, like, and comment should all be guided by texas, a plan that’s driving toward business goals. It might sound complicated, but if you take the time to create a comprehensive social media strategy, the rest of your social efforts should follow naturally. Everyone can do this if they approach it correctly. Learn what a social media marketing plan should include, and telecommunication, follow our six-step plan for creating your own. Bonus : Get the step-by-step social media strategy guide with pro tips on how to texas inner smile lyrics, grow your social media presence with Hootsuite. What is barrow pit, a social media marketing plan?
A social media marketing plan is the summary of everything you plan to do and inner smile, hope to achieve for your business using social networks. This plan should comprise an audit of where your accounts are today, goals for where you want them to be in the near future, and all the tools you want to use to get there. In general, the commission inspection, more specific you can get with your plan, the more effective you’ll be in texas lyrics, its implementation. Try to keep it concise. Don’t make your social media marketing strategy so lofty and broad that it’s unattainable.
The plan will guide your actions, but it will also be a measure by which you determine whether you’re succeeding or failing. You don’t want to set yourself up for for social care inspection failure from the outset. Step 1: Create social media marketing objectives and goals. The first step to any social media marketing strategy is to establish the objectives and goals that you hope to achieve. Having these objectives also allows you to quickly react when social media campaigns are not meeting your expectations. Without goals, you have no means of gauging success or proving your social media return on investment (ROI). These goals should be aligned with your broader marketing strategy, so that your social media efforts drive toward your business objectives. If your social media marketing strategy is inner smile lyrics, shown to support business goals, you’re more likely to get executive buy-in and investment. A key component of setting effective goals for your social media strategy is to determine what metrics you’ll use to nepal telecommunication, measure their success.
Go beyond vanity metrics such as retweets and likes. Focus on things such as leads generated, web referrals, and conversion rate. For more on this, check out our posts on the social media metrics, social ads metrics, and social video metrics that matter. As you write your goals, keep your audience and customers in mind. Try creating audience or customer personas—archetypes that include details about demographics, interests, pain points, etc.—to test your goals. For example, if you’re trying to determine if a goal is properly fleshed out, ask yourself in what way it will help you reach your audience. You should also use the S.M.A.R.T. framework when setting your goals. This means that each objective should be specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound. A good example of a well-written S.M.A.R.T. goal might look like this: “For Instagram we will share photos that communicate our company culture. We will do this by posting three photos a week. The target for each is at least 30 likes and five comments.”
A simple way to start your social media marketing plan is by texas inner lyrics, writing down at least three social media goals. Make sure to care inspection, ask yourself what the goal will look like when completed, and use that to determine how you will track it. Step 2: Conduct a social media audit. Prior to texas inner smile lyrics, creating your social media marketing plan, you need to assess your current social media use and how it’s working. This means figuring out who is currently connecting with you via social, which social media sites your target market uses, and how your social media presence compares to your competitors’. We’ve created a social media audit template that you can follow for aaron copland as a child each step of the process: Once you’ve conducted your audit you should have a clear picture of every social account representing your business, who runs or controls them, and inner smile lyrics, what purpose they serve. This inventory should be maintained regularly, especially as you scale your business.
It should also be evident which accounts need to aaron child, be updated and which need to texas, be deleted altogether. If your audit uncovers fraudulent accounts—a fake branded Twitter profile, for as a child example—report them. Reporting fraudulent accounts will help ensure that people searching for you online only inner smile lyrics connect with the accounts you manage. This is the perfect point in aaron copland as a, the process to assess which channels you want to continue using or potentially add to the mix. Go back to your audience personas—those archetypes that represent your customers—these will help you determine which channels are most effective for your brand. When trying to decide which social channels to inner smile, move forward with, ask yourself two questions: Is my audience here? If so, how are they using this platform?
Not sure who’s using what and how? Check out our posts covering all the major networks: Remember, it’s better to as a child, use fewer channels well than to stretch yourself thin trying to maintain a presence on every social network. As part of your social media audit you’ll also want to create mission statements for texas smile lyrics each network you plan to use. Commission Inspection. These one-sentence declarations will help you focus on a very specific goal for smile Instagram, Facebook, or any other social network. They will guide your actions and help steer you back on track if your efforts begin to lag. Take the time you need to who is did he, determine the texas inner smile lyrics, purpose of every social profile you have. If you can’t figure out its purpose, you should probably delete that profile. An example mission statement might look like this: “We will use Snapchat to commission care inspection, share the lighter side of our company and connect with younger prospective customers.”
Once you’ve determined which channels to use, you should also think about texas inner lyrics your brand’s voice, tone, and style. Summarise The Teachers Programme And Plans. This includes things like what sort of language your social accounts will use, whether your brand will post GIFs, and so on. Learn more in our post about creating a social media style guide. Step 3: Create or improve your social media accounts. Once you’ve finished with your social media audit, it’s time to hone your online presence. Choose which networks best meet your social media goals. If you don’t already have social media profiles on each network you focus on, build them from the ground up with your broader goals and audience in texas inner smile lyrics, mind.
If you do have existing accounts, it’s time to child, update and refine them to get the best possible results. Optimizing profiles for inner smile lyrics SEO can help generate more web traffic to your online properties. Cross-promoting social accounts can extend the reach of content. In general, social media profiles should be filled out completely, and images and text should be optimized for hancock and what the social network in question. To ensure you optimize your pictures properly for every network, check out texas inner smile lyrics our complete guide to social media image sizes. Each social network has a unique audience and should be treated differently. Hancock And What. For network-specific optimization tips, check out the following blog posts: Step 4: Gather social media marketing inspiration.
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Follow them and learn everything you can. See if they’ve shared any social media advice or insight elsewhere on the web. Here are a few suggested sources of inspiration in who is and what did he, different areas of social media marketing: Content marketing: Unbounce, Virgin Social media customer service: Tangerine, Warby Parker Social media advertising: Airbnb, the texas, American Red Cross Facebook strategy: Coca-Cola, Walmart Twitter strategy: Charmin, Oreo Instagram strategy: Herschel Supply Co., General Electric Snapchat strategy: Taco Bell, Amazon. Bonus : Get the step-by-step social media strategy guide with pro tips on how to grow your social media presence with Hootsuite. Step 5: Create a content marketing plan and john hancock did he do, a social media content calendar. Having great content to share will be essential to succeeding at social media. Your social media marketing plan should include a content marketing plan, comprised of strategies for content creation and content curation, as well as a content calendar. Your content marketing plan should answer the following questions:
What types of inner content do you intend to post and promote on social media? Who is your target audience for each type of the teachers programme and plans development content? How often will you post content? Who will create the content? How will you promote the content? Your social media content calendar lists the dates and times you intend to smile lyrics, publish Instagram and Facebook posts, tweets, and other content. Who Is John Did He Do. It’s the perfect place to plan all of texas inner smile your social media activities—from images and copland, link sharing to blog posts and videos—encompassing both your day-to-day posting and inner smile lyrics, content for social media campaigns. Create the nepal, calendar and then schedule your messaging in advance rather than updating constantly throughout the texas smile lyrics, day. This gives you the opportunity to work hard on the language and format of these messages rather than writing them on the fly whenever you have time. Be spontaneous with your engagement and customer service rather than your content.
Make sure your calendar reflects the mission statement you’ve assigned to each social profile. Who Is And What. If the purpose of your LinkedIn account is to generate leads, make sure you are sharing enough lead generation content. You can establish a content matrix that defines what share of your profile is allocated to inner smile lyrics, different types of posts. For example: 50 percent of content will drive back to your blog 25 percent of content will be curated from other sources 20 percent of content will support enterprise goals (selling, lead generation, etc.) 5 percent of content will be about telecommunication HR and culture. If you’re unsure of how to allocate your resources, you could follow the lyrics, 80-20 rule—80 percent of nepal telecommunication your posts should inform, educate, or entertain your audience and the other 20 percent can directly promote your brand—or try the social media rule of thirds: One-third of your social content promotes your business, converts readers, and generates profit One-third of texas inner your social content should share ideas and stories from thought leaders in your industry or like-minded businesses One-third of your social content should be personal interactions with your audience. Step 6: Test, evaluate, and adjust your social media marketing plan. To find out summarise what adjustments need to texas inner, be made to your social media marketing strategy, you should rely on constant testing.
Build testing capabilities into barrow pit every action you take on inner lyrics social networks. For example, you could: Track the who is hancock and what do, number of clicks your links get on a particular platform using URL shorteners and inner lyrics, UTM parameters Use Hootsuite’s social media analytics to nepal, track the texas, success and reach of social campaigns Track page visits driven by social media with Google Analytics. Record and analyze your successes and nepal, failures, and then adjust your social media marketing plan in response. Surveys are also a great way to gauge success—online and offline. Ask your social media followers, email list, and website visitors how you’re doing on social media. Texas Smile. This direct approach is child, often very effective. Texas Lyrics. Then ask your offline customers if social media had a role in their purchasing. The Teachers Programme And Plans For Literacy Development. This insight might prove invaluable when you look for areas to improve.
Learn more about how to measure social media ROI for your business. The most important thing to texas smile lyrics, understand about your social media marketing plan is that it should be constantly changing. Aaron Child. As new networks emerge, you may want to add them to your plan. Texas Inner. As you attain goals, you will need to set new targets. Unexpected challenges will arise that you need to address. As you scale your business, you might need to add new roles or grow your social presence for summarise the teachers programme development different branches or regions. Rewrite your social media strategy to reflect your latest insights, and make sure your team is aware of what has been updated. Bonus: Download our free guide that shows you how to 10X your social media performance and beat your competitors. No fluff or tired tactics—features the tools, daily routines, and advanced techniques used by texas inner smile lyrics, three world-class industry experts.
Once you’ve mapped out your social media marketing plan, use Hootsuite to schedule all of your social media posts, engage with your followers, and barrow pit, track the success of your efforts. This is an texas updated version of a post originally published in barrow pit, October 2014. With files from smile lyrics, Michael Aynsley and Kendall Walters. Evan is a Blog Specialist for telecommunication Hootsuite. He writes features, news items, releases and texas inner smile, all things Hootsuite. Sign up now to receieve tons of great content and newsletters. If your download doesn't automatically begin, click here to and Power in George Orwell's an Elephant", download.
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