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My Mother's Paramount Influence Essay

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ligeia essay Poe's 'Ligeia' and the Pleasures of My Mother's Paramount Essay Terror. The apparent delights with which we dwell upon objects of Psychotherapy pure terror where our moral feelings are not the least concerned, and no passion seems to be excited but the depressing one of fear, is a paradox of the heart, much more difficult of solution. 1. This essay appeared originally in Gothic 2:2 (December 1980) 39-48. My Mother's Influence Essay! I have revised it slightly but not substantially in this reprinting. Essay! Thanks are due to Gary William Crawford for Paramount Influence Essay, editing Gothic and tending the flame of Gothic studies. When Joseph M. Garrison, Jr. undertakes to resolve the ostensible tension between Poe's acknowledged commitment to 'Supernal Beauty' as the poetic ideal and his preoccupation - especially in his prose fiction - with horror, madness and those demonic influences which paralyze personality, destroy social bonds and alienate men from spiritual environments, he not only raises a persistently puzzling question about Poe, but also raises by implication a question about the value of horror as an artistic effect. 2 Garrison concludes that for Poe, Horror and terror are legitimate effects when they are calculated to Essay Eyed-Man, compel the reader to My Mother's Influence, turn his attention and affections from a debilitating and terrifying analysis of the human condition to on Revolutionized, an alternative - an ideal - in Poe's case, 'the sentiment of Intellectual Happiness here, and the Hope of a higher Intellectual Happiness hereafter' (p, 148).

While such an argument may appeal to admirers of My Mother's Influence Poe, it remains on the face of it fundamentally unsound if Garrison means that a competent reading of Ligeia, for on Revolutionized, example, ought to turn the reader's affections from horror toward Intellectual Happiness. There is a general sense in which Garrison may be correct about the reader's experience. A tale of My Mother's Influence terror may contribute to enhancing a reader's humanity - as do all valuable works of art - by exercising and improving his perceptions and perspectives, his sympathies and Psychotherapy Essay self - awareness; only Paramount Influence Essay, so far may such a tale perform an ethically valuable function. Art Of Psychotherapy! However, as Garrison demonstrates, connecting such a function with a tale such as Ligeia is no simple matter. Garrison's thesis seems a defense of Poe's Gothicism, a quality often thought of dubious value. Devendra P. Paramount Essay! Varma's discussions of the critical receptions of Ann Radcliffe and Monk Lewis illustrate the kinds of factors that have contributed to a felt need to defend the Gothic by showing its horrors to serve some worthy end. 3 Radcliffe's reception tended toward the positive because she successfully appealed to her readers' taste for the sentimental (Varma, p. 86) and because one could depend on poetic justice and moral virtue to triumph (p. 91). Because Lewis' The Monk was much less clearly sentimental or didactic, response to the novel was more negative. Narrative Of Frederick Douglass! Even though The Monk contains many didactic elements and presents a world in which poetic justice operates, reviewers often were unable or unwilling to justify the novel's horrors on these grounds (pp.

142 - 48). The tendency to subordinate the horrors of the Influence Essay Gothic to another end such as the sublime (Radcliffe's own justification), 4 or sentimentalism or didacticism is implicit in Essay on The One Eyed-Man, the receptions of these works. As sentimentalism and the sublime became less interesting or available as justifications, critics tended to turn toward the didactic as a way of making acceptable the My Mother's Paramount Influence horrors of powerful works of fiction. The difference between the examples receptions of My Mother's Paramount Radcliffe and epic similes Lewis is My Mother's Paramount Influence, mirrored in the receptions of The House of the Seven Gables and Faulkner's Sanctuary. Chapter Eighteen of Hawthorne's romance is among the more terrifying episodes in nineteenth century American fiction, yet because Hawthorne's moral purposes have rarely been doubted, because the prevailing opinion is narrative of frederick douglass, that all his works are moral allegories, and perhaps because this episode of entrapment with a corpse is part of a narrative comedy, this novel has fared well in critical opinion. My Mother's Essay! But Faulkner's Sanctuary, widely thought a powerful work, appeared at a time when Faulkner was not thought particularly moral and has been vigorously attacked on moral grounds. Mozambique Tourism! Those who have defended the My Mother's novel have tended to turn to allegory or another didactic mode as a means of defense. 5.

It seems natural, then, that Garrison's defense of Ligeia should try to locate in Poe's intentions a specific and laudable moral effect for the tale of tourism terror. Garrison is not alone in this effort. Stuart Levine and E.W. Carlson are among the more able interpreters of My Mother's Paramount Essay Poe's career who would prefer that stories as powerful and interesting as Ligeia and The Fall of the House of Usher not be considered merely tales of terror. 6 Garrison apparently did not intend to directly raise the question of the value of terror as an artistic effect, but perhaps he should have.

It is Essay, natural, both aesthetically and My Mother's Influence historically, to seek to justify the dilemma value of My Mother's Influence horror and terror as means to a didactic end. Garrison's is Essay on Revolutionized Revolution, a highly sophisticated attempt of this kind. But such a justification, as I plan to show, will not do for Ligeia. Therefore, we are forced to consider the more difficult questions raised in the epigraph of this essay: Why do we read horror literature? What rewards does it offer? As one might expect, a fair number of Poe's best known modern critics either do not read Ligeia as a horror story at all or argue along with Carlson that beneath a surface of apparently gratuitous Gothicism is an undercurrent of meaning that redeems the horror. This undercurrent consists of the Essay narrator's salvation through the transcendant visionary experience offered him by Ligeia's return (Poe's Vision of Man, p. 17). 7 Such readings seem the most sophisticated and sophistical attempts to rescue Poe from the disreputable Gothic. More true to the tone of Ligeia, though still problematic, are readings such as those given by on Revolutionized Revolution, Sidney Moss and G.R. Thompson.

8 These readings originate in three differing conceptions of Poe's career and vision. Carlson sees Poe's career as a clarification of his idealism and the alignment of his technique and subjects to serve that idealism. Moss sees Poe as essentially a nihilist whose stories teach a bleak view of man's place and fate. Thompson sees Poe as a romantic ironist, who willfully believes in his idealism, but is able at will to stand back from it and even to contemplate the My Mother's likelihood that what he chooses to believe might be false. According to Thompson, Ligeia leads the reader first, into the world of supernatural horror, and then out of that world into a world of mental horror, and then, out of that purely mental world into a limbo region of ambiguity where we cannot be sure what did or did not take place ( Poe's Fiction, p. 104). To mediate among these views of Poe is Essay Revolution, not the intent of this paper. Because Thompson's reading seems truer to what I take to My Mother's Paramount Influence, be a normal reader's competent response to Ligeia and because this reading acknowledges that the tale's effect is horror at various levels, I propose to use this interpretation as a basis for examining how the Art of story produces the effects of horror, what these effects are, and finally, what might make such effects attractive to normal readers. By what means does Ligeia arouse horror in the reader? At the literal level where most readers begin to understand the story, we find a narrator explaining his mysterious association with Ligeia, a woman of My Mother's Paramount mysterious origin, great beauty, wealth and learning. She engages the narrator in the study of forbidden transcendental doctrine centering on the story's thrice repeated epigraph. The epigraph asserts that the will is mysterious, that God is a great Will pervading all things, and that man dies only because his will is not strong enough to keep him in life.

This central doctrine expresses both despair and hope: Man's will is weak, but if he can merge it with God's will, he might achieve immortality. On this literal and Essay The One supernatural level, Ligeia succeeds in strengthening her will. She continues her existence beyond the death of My Mother's Paramount Influence her own body and takes a second body, that of the innocent Rowena. In the final scene, we witness the apparent transformation of fair Rowena into dark Ligeia. This reading is on Eyed-Man, horrifying, but a closer reading on this supernatural level reveals more horrors. What is the meaning of Ligeia's act? Joel Salzberg has taken note of the fact that Ligeia's shrinking from the narrator's touch after her reincarnation suggests her aversion to him, an aversion inconsistent with the love she expresses for him when she is dying. Salzberg sees Ligeia becoming what she most feared, the Conqueror Worm . (living) only through the death of Rowena, returning to him as a spiritual nullity in a grotesque rebirth. My Mother's Influence! 9 Other details of the story suggest deeper horrors. Ligeia possesses the knowledge of the ages, beyond the Essay Revolution learned narrator's ability to Essay, conceive. He cannot remember how he came to know her.

He knows nothing of her ancestry, not even her last name. Her face and eyes are unforgettable. The latter arouse in him feelings he cannot interpret but which numerous other objects also arouse, objects such as the glances of unusually aged people, a few distant stars, rapidly growing plants, and the passage that is the Essay story's epigraph. One implication of his observations on Essay, her eyes is that they reflect the will that refuses to die. She binds him to her with her incredible knowledge and mysterious beauty.

At her death, she fully reveals to him a love that amounts to narrative douglass, idolatry. She leaves him great wealth. After her death, he surrenders his will to whatever forces will move him - and Essay what results? He becomes a slave to narrative, opium, buys an isolated home and buys a new bride. Their bridal chamber is a pentagonal room decorated by the narrator with magical designs. Here Rowena soon falls ill and, not long after, dies on a night when the My Mother's Essay narrator both feels and desires another presence in douglass, the room and thinks he sees ruby drops fall into Rowena's wine. Essay! One need not be convinced by this compiling of detail, but it does not require an overly active imagination to take the Essay The One hint that Ligeia has taken more than one body in her time and My Mother's Essay that she uses men such as the narrator without their knowledge to procure the bodies she needs for reincarnation. Ligeia is like the Conqueror Worm of her poem. In the poem, the angels watch the tragedy of Man in which human life consists of the pursuit of an ever sought never caught phantom, the pursuit a puppet show controlled by formless things, a show that ends with the entrance of the Conqueror Worm that devours the puppets most bloodily.

What the worm does to mankind, Ligeia appears to have done physically to tourism, Rowena and spiritually to the narrator. How many other men have been her procurers? How many women have been her hosts? She has achieved immortality through feeding on Influence, the rest of narrative mankind, dominating their feeble wills with her great will. The horror on the supernatural level does not end with the terrifying events we have noticed thus far.

Beyond cannibalism and transformation, beyond the possibility that Ligeia has fed on her kind for My Mother's Paramount Essay, ages, and tourism beyond the suggestion in the poem that these acts reveal some fundamental truth about human condition lurk still more horrors. The epigraph implies that the power of will Ligeia seems to have achieved is a reflection of the will of God. This implication forces the reader to conceive a world that is a horror to the understanding. Paramount Essay! To conceive of this world is to Essay on Revolutionized Revolution, be trapped in a threatening situation, to experience to some degree the My Mother's frailty of one's own will, and to contemplate the terrifying implications of a desire for immortality. Essay On Revolutionized Revolution! The narrator finds himself in a world where, despite his and Ligeia's desires, death seems to be the ultimate force. Even if a will attains the strength to conquer death, it conquers by causing death, by My Mother's Paramount Influence, becoming death. On this literal level, Ligeia is a powerful tale of Art of Psychotherapy terror. It presents the My Mother's reader with a series of horrifying events that, upon examination, opens out into a possible world that is inimical to human needs and of frederick douglass desires. On this literal level, the horror of incident is deepened by a horror of the spirit that should produce varying degrees of terror in the reader. Paramount Essay! The degree of terror should vary in relation to on, the reader's perception of the Essay distance between the fictionally presented world and Psychotherapy the reader's world. (By terror, I mean the fear that harm will come to oneself.

Horror is one's response to fearing or to witnessing harm befalling another sensitive being.) 10 Some terror is inevitable as a result merely of Influence imagining such a world, but this reaction should increase in intensity as one approaches nearer to believing this fictional world a true picture of one's own world. Thompson's other two levels of interpretation will reveal Poe's probable intention of reducing, perhaps even eliminating, the distance between the world of the story and the world of the Art of reader. My Mother's! As we examine these levels, it will be crucial to keep in mind that Poe's procedure is not designed to convince readers that the world of the tale is their world by terrorizing them, but rather to terrorize them by Essay on Revolutionized Revolution, strengthening the illusion that they inhabit the fictional world of the story. We must resist the easy route of choosing a relatively simple didactic end as a justification for the story's painful emotions. Still at a literal level, but moving from a supernatural to a psychological understanding of events, we enter the Influence Essay territory of the apparent majority of critics who see the narrator's reliability as a central issue. It has been amply demonstrated that the narrator's reliability is dilemma, questionable, especially after he moves to his English abbey and My Mother's Paramount Essay becomes a slave to Essay on Eyed-Man, opium. Once the narrator is questioned, Pandora's box is open, as is testified to My Mother's Essay, by some strong attempts to reseal the lid. 11 For the purposes of this paper, two of the problems resulting from the opened box seem especially interesting. Dilemma! First, critics begin to wonder just how much of the story is hallucination. Second, they have great difficulty determining the narrator's motives.

Does the My Mother's Paramount Essay narrator hallucinate only epic similes, Ligeia's re - incarnation? Does this hallucination result from his megalomaniac desire to conquer death (Basler)? Does the narrator grow to hate Rowena so much that he is driven to murder her in Paramount Influence Essay, order to Essay on Revolutionized, restore Ligeia? 12 Perhaps. Ligeia is Influence Essay, a visionary figure to whom the narrator sacrifices the real Rowena. 13 Joel Porte argues that the entire story is a fantastic projection of the narrator's internal romantic conflicts. 14 Explanations of the narrator's motivation range from seeing him as a ruthless idealist who almost knows what he is doing when he destroys Rowena (Salzberg, pp. 112 - 114) to seeing him as a helpless victim of Art of Psychotherapy Essay a world drained of its power to arouse joy and a sense of elevated being (Gargano, p. 338). My Mother's Influence Essay! These and related interpretations lead almost directly to Thompson's third level of meaning, but before turning to that level, let us examine how the psychological level of Ligeia intensifies the douglass reader's terror. What happens to a reader who discovers that the story he has been understanding as a supernatural tale may, in fact, be a psychological study of the narrator? It seems natural to move from relatively simple acceptance of the My Mother's Paramount Essay narrator to growing doubt about his reliability.

This gradual movement increases the reader's terror by decreasing his distance from the horrifying events. Thompson has pointed out that doubting the narrator opens an ironic distance between the reader and the narrator as it becomes clear that the narrator is closely involved in the eerie events. ( Poe's Fiction , p. 81). This observation overlooks the dynamic of the reader's transition from the supernatural to the psychological level of understanding. On the supernatural level, the narrator is the victim of inimical forces beyond his ken. On Revolutionized! Furthermore, it is the nature of first person narration to create a strong bond between reader and Paramount narrating character. When the supernatural events begin to Psychotherapy Essay, change into psychological symbols, the Paramount Influence reader is more likely to abandon the supernatural world view than his closeness to the narrator. With the disappearance of the supernatural, the narrator's world becomes more like the reader's world. The distance between reader and narrator is reduced. At this stage of the transition between levels, the narrator's victimization becomes a puzzle for the reader.

If the narrator is not the victim of a terrifying universe represented by Ligeia, of what is he the victim? The most immediate answer would seem to be that he is the dilemma victim of his desire for My Mother's Paramount Influence, assurance of his soul's immortality. He has attempted to imagine a victory over mortality, but the vision he has achieved is dilemma examples, a horror. To the horror already evoked by the failed quest on the supernatural level is Paramount, added the failure of Art of Psychotherapy Essay imagination on the psychological level. The reader witnesses the spectacle of a sensitive mind unable to imagine an escape from an oppressive world order, an order that refuses to grant transcendental assurances and that perverts or defeats the imagination by Paramount Influence, making it a mocking torture to its possessor. A key phase in the reader's shift from the first to the second level of meaning is this moment when the great differences between the narrator's world and the reader's world disappear while the mozambique tourism bonds between their minds remain. The narrator becomes a fellow sufferer seeking certainty and power in an unsympathetic universe.

Distance does open up between reader and narrator when the reader begins to suspect that the narrator is a murderer or a psychotic, but the critics who prefer such readings are perhaps too quick to leap that distance, for such readings are more properly later developments in My Mother's Influence, a reader's experience, products of a further turning over Essay of the tale in the mind. Once one begins to doubt the narrator, one is My Mother's Influence, bound to see the possibility of reversing one's moral judgment of him. Since the reduction of distance between the reader and the text intensifies the epic similes reader's terror, it will be a natural reaction for readers to increase their distance from the text by revising their judgments of the narrator. As we have seen, the motives one then attributes to the narrator can vary widely. Paramount Influence Essay! He may be a megalomaniac murderer, a man destroyed by his commitment to the ideal, a frustrated lover, or a frustrated seeker after the unknowable. Essay Revolution! That so many possibilities can be cogently argued may indicate that the text is indeterminate at just the point where many readers might wish it to Influence Essay, be determinate. Sidney Moss believes Ligeia is ultimately indeterminate. Noting sketchily a supernatural and a psychological reading, Moss asserts that they cannot be reconciled. These two conflicting readings force the reader to confess that the tale's meaning is indeterminable, . Epic Similes! we can say hardly anything about what is really happening . and nothing at all about its meaning, except that . it is inexplicable (Poe's Apocalyptic Vision, pp. 48 - 49). Moss does not elaborate his argument, but it seems clear he is incorrect in so far as he asserts the incompatibility of the two readings; so one must conclude if, as has been argued here, there is a natural movement in the reader's experience from the supernatural to the psychological level.

But Moss does emphasize two significant facets of the story. First, as the continuing controversy over which of the two levels is primary demonstrates, the move to a psychological level is only possible, not certain. My Mother's Essay! The text encourages such a move but does not insist on its finality, so Halliburton, for example, can move back from the second to the first level (see note 11). On this point, the text does not seem determinate. Epic Similes! Second, Moss believes this story demonstrates his thesis that for Poe, Man is totally helpless in a universe he has abandoned all hope of understanding. All that man really knows, all he can experience, is terrible torment (p. My Mother's! 47).

While it is narrative, probably incorrect that this story is My Mother's Paramount Influence, designed to Psychotherapy, teach any lesson, it is true that Ligeia confronts the reader at some point with such a world and Paramount Essay the struggles of a sensitive soul to make himself a place in it. Ligeia is indeterminate not only with regard to the primacy of the first two levels but also with regard to the narrator's motives on the second level. This indeterminacy is profoundly disturbing; it propels the reader who successfully exercises negative capability to Thompson's third functional level, that ironic level at which the epic similes story mocks the My Mother's Influence Essay reader. Following the lead of Clark Griffith, 15 Thompson argues several ways in epic similes, which Ligeia satirizes its readers, but satire is less productive of terror than are the ways in which the text mocks the reader's attempts to know it. Paramount Essay! 16 Discovering the narrator's possible unreliability and being forced to explore the implications of this possibility is an unnerving experience for the reader even though it may be mitigated by the excitement of discovery as new possibilities emerge from the text. Essay! But what happens when, in the unsettled excitement of this discovery, the story explodes into multiple possibilities? It may be somewhat like reading the more convincing interpretations and being convinced by each in turn over and over again into eternity. The story refuses to be known. It resists one's attempts to settle on an evaluation of the narrator. Furthermore, it becomes apparent that each choice is a temptation to be done with the tale, to escape the terrifying world in which one must remain so long as one attends to Influence Essay, the story.

What world is this? Precisely the world in Essay, which the narrator finds himself, a world that will not yield to his attempts to know it. Even when the narrator imagines an ideal order, a world without death, that image turns back on him, mirroring the My Mother's Influence Essay terrifying nightmare of Ligeia's poem. Is the world diseased or is his mind his enemy? In either case, the result for the narrator is the same. As the world is to the narrator, the story is to the reader. Stephen L. Essay! Mooney's definition of My Mother's Poe's doctrine of effect seems to apply as well to Ligeia: . the calculation of the artist to involve the reader in the life of the fiction, so that an narrative, experience of reality would be forged in the consciousness, fully and Influence Essay permanently . Poe is a spiritual aggressor. He moves in upon consciousness like an invading army. If the effect of reading him is rather like going through a war, we may be sure that it was the effect he intended. The reader does not forget. He knows that Poe has been there.

17. To read this story faithfully is to submit to imprisonment in a terrifying and, in Art of Essay, some ways, inescapable fictional world and, therefore, to experience terror as intensely as may be possible for a reader of a fiction. My Mother's Paramount Influence! The reader is threatened with becoming like the narrator. Such a threat may stimulate still further the reader's desire to know the unknowable narrator in order to narrative douglass, more fully understand the narrator's true relation to the reader. To attempt such a knowing in this state is to prolong one's terror. Ligeia is designed to arouse intense terror in My Mother's Paramount Influence Essay, its readers. Dilemma Examples! The greater the attention a reader gives to the story, the Influence more intense will be his experience. In fact, it appears that a careful reading in which this intensity reaches a maximum will move through stages roughly parallel to the stages through which critical interpretation of the story has moved and almost exactly parallel to the ascending functional levels Thompson has seen in Poe's Gothic tales. It is not difficult to understand why such a reading of Ligeia might arouse skepticism. We have seen that horror is thought to be of dubious literary value as an end.

Worse still, this reading asserts that Ligeia's end is to terrorize the epic similes reader. Furthermore, by accepting the reading, one is forced to consider a most vexing question: why would anyone want to My Mother's Essay, read a story that has such an effect? It would appear that many readers do not want to read such a story, for if, as I have implied, this reading includes and partially synthesizes most earlier readings, then those who insist on the finality of one earlier reading are either denying or attempting to mitigate the tale's terror. 18 I would argue that this story produces in the reader terror as an end rather than a means and that normal people read and reread the story precisely because they enjoy such experiences. To give some credibility to the latter half of that statement, let us take two steps: first a consideration of the technical means by which a story can terrorize a reader and, second, a consideration of how the reader might find pleasure in experiencing such a story. Without the example of Ligeia before us, it would be difficult to assert the possibility of a reader being terrorized by a fiction. Such an effect may entail the breakdown of the psychical distance that Edward Bullough argues is essential to an aesthetic experience. Bullough defines psychical distance as the separation of the object and its appeal from one's own self by putting it out of gear with practical ends and needs.

19 If a story terrorizes a reader, it must somehow deliberately reduce or even eliminate psychical distance. Bullough uses an example of a fog at sea to explain the effect of tourism distance. A sea fog is usually frightening; however, during such a fog one can experience a turning of My Mother's Paramount attention in which practical concerns of safety fade away and the fog becomes an object of aesthetic contemplation. This turn opens the fog to Essay on Revolutionized Revolution, a new kind of perception in Influence, which its danger may become a part of the Essay on Revolutionized experience of its beauty because now the danger is not felt as a practical danger to oneself (p. 755). The proper approach to a story is to open oneself to the aesthetic turn and to Influence Essay, enter easily into an attitude of psychical distance that the author, with technical skill, attempts to Essay Eyed-Man, manipulate in order to encourage the reader, in Roman Ingarden's terms, to form one aesthetic object from among all the possible concretizations of the text. Paramount Essay! 20 Once the The One Eyed-Man reader has entered the story and accepted its projections of narrator and My Mother's Essay world, Ligeia begins to attempt deliberately to reduce and, perhaps, finally eliminate psychical distance, to move the reader out of his aesthetic attitude and into a quite particular practical attitude.

In Ligeia, the practical attitude is mental terror. This effect violates Bullough's antinomy of narrative of frederick douglass distance:what is, therefore, both in appreciation and production most desirable is the utmost decrease of distance without its disappearance (p. 758). In Ligeia, Poe tries to My Mother's Influence Essay, make distance disappear. Even though Bullough would tend to blame a loss of epic similes distance either on the artist's failure or on the reader's, he does make it clear that loss of distance is My Mother's Influence, possible. Tragedy, he asserts, trembles always on the knife - edge of a personal reaction, and sympathy that finds relief in tears tends almost always towards a loss of distance (p. 763).

If the loss is possible, then it is also possible that authors might attempt to exploit the potential of deliberately destroying psychical distance, of switching readers out of the aesthetic attitude. It may be that all or most horror stories seek to terrorize readers at mozambique, least mildly. My Mother's Paramount Influence Essay! Even the explained Gothic of narrative Ann Radcliffe, terrorizes to some extent though the distance between reader and terrifying objects is maintained by many technical features of the work, such as the orderliness of the fictional world, the remote settings, the concentration of the horrors on a sympathetic victim clearly separated from the reader, and the conventional reliable narration. One can observe a trend in My Mother's Paramount Influence Essay, Lewis, Maturin, Poe and down to mozambique, Lovecraft and the twentieth century horror film, of increasing exploration and exploitation of universally terrifying objects. A catalog readily comes to mind: all hostile manifestations of supernatural agency; nearly everything associated with death; the violation of the most basic moral laws against incest, torture, and cannibalism; and attempts to Paramount Essay, harm the individual soul. Douglass! The vivid portrayal of such horrors is likely to reduce most readers' distance from the portrayal and to threaten them directly. Perhaps a major difference between Maturin or Lewis and Poe is Influence, that the former maintain conventional distance while Poe seems to have discovered ways to epic similes, reduce or eliminate such distance and, thereby, to intensify the reader's terror. G.R.

Thompson notes that Melmoth theWanderer teases the My Mother's Essay reader in a way that points toward the ambiguity of Essay on Revolutionized Poe (Gothic Fiction and the Romantic Age, p. 21). However, the Influence terror (as opposed to the horror) of the reader arises only as a direct response to the horrors that characters suffer. The degree of that direct response depends on how sensitive the particular reader is to the depicted horror. Peter Penzoldt, in tourism, his chapter on The Pure Tale of Terror has inadvertently demonstrated the degree to which sensitivities can vary. He finds the tales of Crawford, Machen, and My Mother's Influence Lovecraft too repulsive to be really good, yet he marvels at dilemma examples, how the tales he thinks uncommonly bad are most often anthologized. 21 One direction of refinement the tale of terror seems to have taken is toward techniques, situations, and images that, in Henry James' words, will catch those not easily caught. the. jaded, the disillusioned, the My Mother's Paramount Influence Essay fastidious. 22.

It becomes more plausible to think that Poe might have written at least one story in which he experimented with the destruction of the aesthetic attitude when one reflects that such experimentation was in the air, especially in nineteenth century America, that the theoretical possibility had been present at least since Burke's definition of the sublime as involving terror in an essential way, and that experiments in didactic fiction, at least as early as Candide had cultivated an Revolution, interest in Paramount Influence, using the delights of fiction in the service of practical ends. The attempt to appropriate the pleasures of art to practical moral ends is Essay on Eyed-Man, as old as aesthetic thought and needs no documentation here. One need only notice that with the rise of mass readership and the accompanying extension of concern about the relation of Influence Essay art and Essay on public morality, novelists could be expected to seek ways of moving readers into, then out of an aesthetic attitude, to seek ways of telling stories to arouse energies that might then be directed to My Mother's, virtuous action. 23 While it may not be possible to make stories that will have precisely this effect, the attempts to do so, especially those of major Gothic writers such as Radcliffe, Lewis, Brown, Shelley, and Maturin, brought to examples, the fore questions about the aesthetic value of terror and attendant problems of distance. Most discussions of My Mother's Paramount Essay these questions, according to Samuel Monk, derived from Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and on Beautiful, published in 1757. 24. Burke explains how terror is involved in the sublime: Whatever is Influence Essay, fitted in on Revolutionized, any sort to excite the ideas of pain, and Paramount Influence danger, that is to say, whatever is in any sort terrible, or is conversant about terrible objects, or operates in a manner analogous to terror, is a source of the sublime; that is, it is productive of the strongest emotion that the mind is capable of feeling . When danger or pain press too nearly they are incapable of giving any delight, and are simply terrible; but at certain distances, and with certain modifications, they may be, and they are delightful, as we every day experience (1, 7; Quoted in Monk, p. 91). Implied in this explanation is the possibility that the tourism aesthetic attitude toward a terrifying object might break down. My Mother's Paramount Essay! Monk also presents Knight's argument that Burke has confused the practical and the aesthetic: To the Essay man who sees the danger in the storm and who does not fear, the Paramount Essay phenomenon is sublime; but the moment that it becomes terrible, the moment that fear comes into the experience, all sympathy with the cause that produced it, and consequently, all relish for the sublimity of narrative it, is at Influence, an end.

Practical considerations have destroyed the capacity of regarding the tempest aesthetically (The Sublime, p. 162). In Burke and in subsequent discussions of the sublime is the epic similes possibility, undesirable but always present, that someone might find a value in deliberately eliminating the distance essential to harnassing terror's energy to the sublime. That experiments with distance were in the nineteenth century air is demonstrated by a few familiar examples. Crossing Brooklyn Ferry is a calculated attempt to eliminate distance between speaker and reader. In The White Heron, Sarah Orne Jewett attempts the imaginative union of narrator, character, landscape, and reader. As Richard Poirier has argued, American writers have long been interested in Essay, inducing visions in their readers. 25 But for the purposes of this essay, a useful example is the eighteenth chapter of dilemma examples The House of the Seven Gables, Governor Pyncheon. In that chapter, Hawthorne approximates the Influence movement we have seen in Ligeia in such a way as to reveal the springs of the tale's ability to attract and please readers. Like Ligeia, Governor Pyncheon captures the reader and provides a terrifying vision of the abyss, a vision virtually the opposite of that offered by mozambique, Whitman and Jewett. This chapter begins in a tone of mockery as narrator and Paramount Essay reader play the game of pretending the dead judge is alive in order to judge him for his sins and to twit him for his inability to carry out his ambitious and greedy projects. But as we mock the judge, time passes.

The twilight comes glooming upwards out of the corners of the room. 26 We are left in utter, deathlike darkness. An infinite, inscrutable blackness has annihilated sight! Where is Essay, our universe? All crumbled away from us; and we, adrift in chaos, may harken to the gusts of homeless wind, that go sighing and murmuring about, in quest of what was once a world (p.241)!

We have been captured in our game and the mockery has turned back upon us. The narrator identifies us with the homeless wind, for Essay, we have experienced something like death and now are spirits without a world. We are transformed and entrapped. While time is no longer of importance to the judge (so we agreed as we mocked him), now we experience it as unendurable duration: Would that we were not an attendant spirit here! It is of frederick douglass, too awful! This clamor of the Paramount Influence Essay wind through the lonely house; the tourism judge's quietude as he sits invisible; and Paramount Influence Essay that pertinacious ticking of his watch (p. Epic Similes! 242)! When the moon restores some light, the narrator lightens the tone by mentioning the ghost legends of the house.

However, we are again entrapped by his efforts to make a little sport with the legends. My Mother's Paramount Influence Essay! His vision assumes a life of its own and reveals more than we know, that the judge's heir is also dead. Essay! The intended relief intensifies terror and entrapment, We needed relief .. from Paramount Influence Essay our too long and exclusive contemplation of that figure in the chair . yonder leaden Judge sits immovably upon our soul. Will he never stir again? We shall go mad unless he stirs (p. 245)! Several distancing factors, including a certain playfulness in the narrative voice, prevent the degree of reduction of distance in Art of, this chapter that one experiences in Ligeia. Still, it is clear that Hawthorne seriously intends to terrorize the reader to My Mother's Paramount, some extent, perhaps in order to evoke a deeper understanding of the sufferings of Psychotherapy Essay others, especially Clifford and Hepzibah, that the judge lacked during his life and, perhaps, to explore the world implied by My Mother's Essay, the judge's values.

This chapter of The House of the Seven Gables helps to demonstrate that Poe's contemporaries were experimenting with the possibilities of reducing psychical distance and Art of Essay provides one example, in addition to Ligeia, of a movement toward dissolving a previously created aesthetic attitude. Paramount Influence! This example is useful to the further extent that it is specific about what means it intends to use for terrifying the reader. There is an attempt to Psychotherapy Essay, entrap the reader in the fictional situation, to render that situation frightening via the presence of threatening objects, agencies, and events, and to transform the reader psychologically. The threats of Paramount entrapment, confrontation with the threatening, and transformation are familiar because they are primary means by which the villains of Gothic Romance terrorize their victims. Epic Similes! However, Hawthorne and Poe have introduced a new factor. Elizabeth MacAndrew points out that in eighteenth - century critical thought, the misery of innocent suffering was thought to My Mother's Influence, call forth the reader's benevolence on behalf of the sufferer (pp.39 - 40). Presumably, when the victim is terrorized, the epic similes reader may feel an intensity of pity as a part of the suspense that such threats evoke. These effects are often associated with melodrama and are familiar in the films of Alfred Hitchcock; consider, for example, the intensity of suspense and fear for any character in Psycho who enters the house alone. MacAndrew also discusses John and My Mother's Paramount Essay Anna Aiken's puzzling over what they saw as gratuitous horrors in Essay Eyed-Man, Gothic fiction.

For them, as for Burke, terror became functional only in evoking the sublime, a response valuable in itself (MacAndrew, pp. 41 - 2). However, when Hawthorne mildly but directly threatens the reader and when Poe makes the reader an actual victim of Gothic terrors, neither of My Mother's Influence Essay these explanations is adequate. For horror to intensify the reader's sympathy and for Essay, terror to serve the sublime, distance is essential. When a tale sets out to terrorize the reader directly, it must do so by drawing the reader into an aesthetic attitude; then it must quite deliberately move toward destroying that attitude in such a way as to threaten the reader. This new factor subverts the My Mother's Paramount old aims. To understand why Poe may have thought the narrative experience of terror might be pleasurable to readers, it is helpful to look somewhat closely at how fictional characters are made to react to terror. In the Gothic Romance, heroines often undergo a sequence of events that includes entrapment, a confrontation with some threatening circumstance, and a threatened or actual transformation. For example, in C.B.

Brown's Wieland, Clara Wieland experiences progressive isolation and multiple physical entrapments that contribute to psycholocigal entrapment in a repulsive social identity. During the physical entrapments she is subjected to Paramount Influence, physical threats such as rape and murder and Art of Psychotherapy Essay the psychological threats of transformation of social identity and, eventually, of personality. When she witnesses her brother's transformation into a madman, she experiences a profound threat that she will be similarly transformed even should she escape all the other threats. By observing how she reacts to these threats, we may gain insight into what sort of reactions one might expect from a reader threatened in parallel ways by a tale. The central effect of Clara's entrapment in threatening circumstances is the My Mother's Paramount Influence deterioration of her rational powers; a separation of reason and will precedes the disordering of reason.

Alone in her house, Clara has heard from within her closet a voice plotting her murder. Yet on a later night, after she dreams of being murdered, she decides to enter that closet in defiance of a rational evaluation of her position. In her closet she meets a man who says his intentions were to rape her. 27 Like Arthur Gordon Pym, when he is trapped in the hold of a ship, Clara loses control of her will and partially loses her self - possession. Poe's novel is even more instructive on this point; Pym, as a result of entrapment, experiences debilitation and loss of orientation. He imagines threatening agencies and, eventually, loses virtually all control over body and mind. The sequence, from entrapment through transformation, causes a progressive disordering of dilemma rational faculties in the victims of Gothic Romance. When Clara understands the nature of her brother's transformation, she reflects, I wondered at my brother's condition.

Now was I stupified with tenfold wonder in contemplating myself. My Mother's Paramount Essay! Was I not likewise transformed from rational and human into a creature of nameless and fearful attributes (Brown, p. 205)? Following this train of thought to a conclusion, she realizes that her sanity must appear madness to her brother, who has actually heard the voice of God commanding him to slay those he loves. Epic Similes! How can she be certain that he has not heard God's voice? Her rationally ordered world crumbles away leaving her hoping for the comfort of an early death (Brown, pp. 205 - 7). The central Gothic horrors constitute an assault on the integration of the My Mother's Paramount Influence Essay victim's personality. Elizabeth MacAndrew has argued that Ann Radcliffe's novels involve tests of their heroines.

For example, in The Mysteries of Udolpho , Emily's travels are symbolic journeys between different worlds that represent different states of Essay Revolution mind she must confront and understand, whether they are in herself or in My Mother's Paramount, others . Brought up surrounded by tourism, goodness . Paramount Essay! Emily . makes out of human wickedness, cruelty, greed, and desperation, a nightmare Gothic world of supernatural evil. Mozambique! This Gothic view is hers, not Ann Radcliffe's. Before she can escape, she must first recognize that Montoni is not a human monster but a bandit. (MacAndrew, pp. 132 - 3) Perhaps a story could attempt to subject a reader to My Mother's Paramount, a direct approximation of this kind of test. That Ligeia is intended to try its readers seems plausible.

It is a trial to withstand and deal with a story that leaps over the normal distance between fiction and reader in order to Essay on The One, attack the Paramount Essay reader. The story may give pleasure because successfully reading it is Eyed-Man, a test of one's ability to hold together in the face of a world that refuses to surrender to one's powers of integration. All literature offers, among its many pleasures, those of Paramount Influence Essay exercising peculiarly human faculties and capabilities: verbal mastery, the power of forming mental images, sympathy, intensity and variety of emotional response, moral judgment, and, perhaps also, the sense of having the strength to maintain the integration of one's chosen personality. Personality is epic similes, chosen, not only in the sense that we commit ourselves to values and My Mother's Influence Essay actions that contribute to our identities, but also in the existential sense of tourism moment by moment choice to be one personality (sanity) as opposed to My Mother's Paramount Influence, surrendering to alternate possible selves (psychosis). Entrapment, confrontation with horrific threats, and transformation suggest three major psychological threats: claustrophobia and related spatial fears, paranoia, and narrative of frederick douglass schizophrenia. Ligeia may be seen as giving the reader some sense of My Mother's Paramount how these psychotic states feel. To the degree that Ligeia succeeds at douglass, threatening its reader with these psychoses, it must test that reader's ability to resist such states. It is possible that readers will feel greater pleasure in the exercise of their faculties of integration as the threats they withstand are more direct and intense. My Mother's Paramount! And, if the mozambique tourism threats prove too intense, the normal reader has available the usual defenses, flight and repression. The pleasure of reading a tale that to some degree attempts a direct attack of terror on the reader derives from the reader's successful exercise of his faculties of personal integration in Essay, resistence to the threats posed by that story. Even though this hypothesis about the pleasure of terror has the value of suggesting that the modern taste for Essay, the mental terror that fiction can arouse may not be a disease, it is, nevertheless, certain - to evoke skepticism.

Perhaps the best way of enhancing the credibility of the hypothesis would be to My Mother's Essay, analyze a number of texts with similar effects, but to do so would make this essay too long. However, with the help of other scholars and mozambique critics, it is My Mother's Influence Essay, possible to tourism, suggest that there are other works like Ligeia which to some degree terrorize their readers, that the effect of terror in such works centers on threats to the reader's personality, and Paramount Essay that the pleasure that attracts readers to such works derives from exercising the on Revolutionized personality's integrative faculties to master those threats. The possibility that other works function in ways similar to Ligeia is strengthened if not demonstrated by recalling the critical histories of two other major terror tales, The Fall of the House of Usher and The Turn of the Screw. Each has gone through the same three stages of interpretation from literal supernatural readings, through the discovery of psychological ambiguity, to Paramount, a proliferation of explanations of the ambiguity that seems to suggest that in both works a potentially terrifying indeterminacy emerges from the most attentive readings. 28 Works that attack readers in other ways have a long history and seem, in contemporary fiction to have increased in number. Philip Thomson demonstrates how since ancient times the technique of the grotesque has produced in examples, readers an unresolvable clash of incompatibles. 29 Mathew Winston has argued that contemporary Black Humor concerns itself with unsettling readers, by deliberately disorienting them, in order to Paramount Influence Essay, achieve various effects.

30 David I. Grossvogel believes that the modern mystery story attempts to achieve a kind of open-endedness that will make the text into a mystery; the text offers itself as a deciphering, as another form of the obdurate otherness at whose shifting limits the probing continues. 31 He further argues that The Purloined Letter is designed, as we have seen that Ligeia is designed, to entrap or captivate those of its readers who attempt to mozambique, attend to it fully. The more closely The Purloined Letter is read, the more stubbornly does it refuse to yield itself. This story confronts the close reader with an experience of Essay reality (Grossvogel, pp. 93 - 109). Tourism! S.S. Prawer indicates that he and others have been terrorized by horror films. He attempts to explain how the terror works and suggests some ideas about why such an experience may be pleasurable. 32.

In Caligari's Children, Prawer attempts an analysis of the fascination of fear which seems to support our hypothesis. He lists and describes the My Mother's Paramount Influence fears to which horror films have spoken. He recognizes the general fear of entrapment (pp. 77 - 8) and threatening agencies. The fear of threatening agencies may include: fear of douglass being possessed (p.

5 1), of invasion of privacy (p. 52) and of being manipulated against one's will (p. 57), fear of those who have defied human limitations (p. My Mother's Paramount Influence Essay! 56), of the dead (p. Of Frederick! 68), and of encounters with hostile non - humans (p. 52). He also recognizes the fear of being transformed; among the other fears he mentions, those related to transformation are: of being possessed (again), of the escape of one's inner animal nature (p. 53), of the loss of wholeness of personality (p.

55) and. fear of loss of a rational world (p. 81). Such a list makes clear one point that might easily be misunderstood; the categories of entrapment, threatening objects and agencies, and transformation are neither mutually exclusive nor guaranteed to be all - inclusive. Barton Levi St. My Mother's Influence Essay! Armand underlines this point in The Roots of Horror in the Fiction of H.P. Lovecraft. 33 According to St.

Armand, Lovecraft finds the experience of viscosity terrifying because he associates it with the Essay on The One Eyed-Man primal slime from Essay which life emerged: To become a part of that (primal) sea without losing consciousness was the ultimate horror of Lovecraft's landlocked world. It was the triumph of viscosity, the triumph of filth, the triumph of all alien mixtures, and especially, the triumph of Essay Revolution alien blood (St. Armand, p. 63). Contained in the concept of viscosity are all three general categories: entrapment in a physical process of deterioration in which one is My Mother's, powerless before the force that transforms one into an alien substance. Narrative Of Frederick Douglass! This image of viscosity suggests that the key to the mental terror of My Mother's Paramount Essay fiction is the threat of transformation, for this threat presupposes entrapment and confrontation with a power that is perceived as alien whether it arises from within or from Essay without.

The threat of transformation seems aimed directly at the personality of the victim just as the My Mother's Influence Essay mental threats of psychosis that Ligeia makes are aimed at the personality of the reader. In the words of Lovecraft's Randolph Carter, Merging with nothingness is peaceful oblivion; but to be aware of existence and yet to know that one is no longer a definite being distinguished from other beings - that one no longer has a self - that is the nameless summit of agony and dread. 34. Prawer speaks more directly than does St. On Eyed-Man! Armand to the problem of the reader's or the Influence viewer's pleasure in the terror of a fiction.

He goes beyond the usually unexamined assertions that horror or films are somehow thrilling, for he recognizes the narrative problem of explaining why a thrill of terror should be pleasurable. In his conclusion, Prawer suggests that viewers somehow perceive that horror is good for Paramount Influence, them: terror - films articulate not infrequently terror at the order we have created or help to uphold as well as the anarchic desires that oppose such order (p. 270). He also says, . the terror - film responds to a need one can also observe in any fairground: the need to be safely frightened, the need to test and objectify and come to grips with one's terrors in a setting of ultimate security, where one can tell oneself at any moment: 'It is only a film; these are only actors; this isn't even my own dream, I can get up and leave the darkened cinema to step into a more familiar world at any moment' (p. Narrative! 48). While it may be true that one is ultimately safe in that one can physically escape the My Mother's mental terror of a film, it is not certain that one is very safe. The viewer must make his own distance. And because the threats are mental, once one has taken in the images, they must be dealt with. Prawer comments on the degree to which distance may be reduced in the cinema (pp. 65 - 6) and, still more interesting, he tells of his own daughter's loss of on Revolutionized distance from 7he Exorcist: Age - old fears that alien forces may enter and take over our very bodies help to explain the Paramount Influence undoubtedly disturbing effect that Friedkin's The Exorcist had on a number of susceptible viewers - including my teenage daughter, who had the screaming heebie-jeebees for weeks after seeing that film, but who seems now to have come to narrative of frederick douglass, terms with the terrors it articulated for her (p.

51). Influence! When a work of terror succeeds in erasing the barrier of epic similes distance, it becomes positively threatening to its reader or viewer. My Mother's Essay! But, as another of Prawer's personal experiences suggests, this threat may be just what the examples reader or viewer sought in the first place. He describes his reaction upon first seeing. White Zombie when he was fourteen: the whole added up to an encounter with deep - seated fears from which I felt I emerged with credit. I remember the experience with gratitude as a liberating and exhilarating one. Paramount Essay! (p. On Revolutionized Revolution! 202). Prawer is not speaking here of being safely frightened, but of being really frightened. He is not speaking of the thrills of terror, even though he most likely felt emotions that could be so named, but rather of his own mastery of the terror that the film evoked. Prawer may not wholly agree with these derivations from Paramount Influence Essay his presentation, but his experiences seem to confirm the idea that the pleasures of epic similes terror arise from the successful exercise of faculties of personal integration in resistance to the mental terrors of the work.

For his more susceptible daughter, the process of mastery extends over Paramount Influence Essay some time after viewing the film. One is safe from such a film only because it will end; therefore, if one cannot master its terrors, one can only reassert some form of distanced relation to those terrors either during or after the film. The latter response is probably much less pleasurable than the former. If the rewards of enduring the disappearance of distance that leads to psychological terror include the liberation, the exhilaration, and Art of Psychotherapy the self - praise that Prawer describes, then, surely, tales of terror are valuable. They have not only the ethically valuable effect of helping us to master our terrors, but also the essential artistically valuable effect of pleasing us. 35 Without the latter, there would be no readers or viewers to benefit from the former effect.

Normal people are attracted to terror in literature and film because it legitimately pleases them. In order to be pleased by terror, they must exercise their uniquely human faculties, not only Paramount, all those faculties that are necessary for the arts of reading and understanding, but also those special faculties for maintaining an integral personality. Inevitably, in the pleasurable exercise of those various faculties, those people who are terrorized are also humanized. The pleasures of terror are humane pleasures. 1 Quoted by Elizabeth MacAndrew, The Gothic Tradition in Fiction (New York: Columbia Univ.

Press, 1979), p. 41. Her source is the third edition of John Aikin and Anna Laetitia Barbauld, Pleasure Derived from narrative of frederick douglass Objects of Terror, Miscellaneous Pieces in Prose (London, 1792), p. 120. There are slight textual variations in the first (1773) and second (1775) editions. 2 Joseph M. Paramount Essay! Garrison, Jr., The Function of Terror in the Work of Edgar Allan Poe, American Qu arterly, 18 (1966), 137. 3 D.P. Varma, The Gothic Flame (London: Baker, 1957), chapters five and six. 4 Ann Radcliffe, On the Supernatural in Poetry, New Monthly Magazine, NS 16 (1826), 145 - 50. 5 The critical response to Hawthorne's works is well known and can be reviewed in B. Bernard Cohen, The Recognition of Nathaniel Hawthorne (Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1969). For attacks on the morality of Sanctuary see H.S.

Canby, Seven Years Harvest (Murray Hill, New York: Farrar and narrative douglass Rinehart, 1936), pp. My Mother's Influence Essay! 79 - 82, Oscar Cargill, Intellectual America (New York: Macmillan, 1941), p. 378; and W. Lewis, A Moralist with a Corncob, Life and Letters, 10 934), 312 - 28. For a pair of less than satisfactory attempts to treat the novel as allegory, see Richard Chase's discussion of George Marion O'Donnell's account of Sanctuary, 7he American Novel and Its Tradition (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1957), pp. Dilemma Examples! 237 - 41. For a discussion of Sanctuary as a Gothic novel, see Robert D. Hume, Gothic vs. Romantic: A Reevaluation of the Gothic Novel, PMLA, 84 (1969), 288. 6 Stuart and My Mother's Susan Levine, eds., The Short Fiction of Edgar Allan Poe (Indianapolis: Bobbs - Merrill, 1976), and Eric W. Carlson, Poe's Vision of Man, R.P. Veler, ed., Papers on Poe (Springfield, Ohio: Chantry Music Press, 1972), pp.

7 - 19. 7 David Halliburton, Edgar Allan Poe: A Phenomenological View (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1973), pp. 217 - 18, brings the horror of the narrator's defeat back into Revolution the story as subordinate to the victory of transcendent vision. 8 Sidney P. Moss, Poe's Apocalyptic Vision, R.P. Veler, ed. Essay! Papers on Poe, pp. 42 - 53 and G.R. Thompson Poe's Fiction (Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1973), pp.

77 - 87. For a discussion of the views of Carlson, Moss, and Thompson, see G.R. Thompson, Poe and Nineteenth - Century Poetry, in Eyed-Man, J:A. Robbins, ed. American Literary Scholarship 1972 (Durham, North Carolina: Duke UP, 1974), pp. 212 - 14. 9 Joel Salzberg, The Gothic Hero in Transcendental Quest: Poe's 'Ligeia' and My Mother's Influence James' 'The Beast in the Jungle,' ESQ , 18 (1972), 113. 10 These definitions of dilemma terror and horror derive from Essay modern usage, not from Ann Radcliffe's distinction in On the Supernatural in Poetry. It will be useful to notice that, according to the definitions I use in this essay, terror will vary according to the immediacy and intensity of the Essay threat.

Horror will vary according to the moral deserts and the intensity of Paramount Influence suffering of the dilemma victim. Horror tends to become terror, or to mix with it, when the psychological distance between oneself and My Mother's the victim decreases. 11 Roy P. Basler began the examples controversy in his 1944 College English essay The Interpretation of Ligeia, reprinted in My Mother's Essay, R. Regan, ed., Poe (Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey: Prentice - Hall. 1967). pp. 51 - 63. Arguments from various points of mozambique view for My Mother's Influence Essay, a supernatural reading include James Schroeter, A Misreading of Poe's 'Ligeia,' PMLA, 76 (1961), 397 - 406; Edward Wagenknecht, Edgar Allan Poe (New York: Oxford UP, 1963), pp.

248 - 49, John Lauber 'Ligeia' and on Revolutionized Its Critics: A Plea for Literalism. Studies in Short Fiction. 4 (1966).28 - 32: E..W. Carlson. My Mother's Paramount Influence! Poe on the Soul of Man . ( Baltimore: The E.A. Poe Society and Psychotherapy the Enoch Pratt Free Library. My Mother's Influence Essay! 1973). Narrative Of Frederick Douglass! pp. 14 - 17. David Halliburton reads the story as both supernatural and My Mother's psychological in Edgar Allan Poe , pp.207 - 18.

12 G. R. Thompson, ' Proper Evidences of Madness': American Gothic and the Interpretation of 'Ligeia,' ESQ , 18 (1972), 3049, and Daniel Hoffman. I Have Been Faithful toYou in My Fashion: The Remarriage of Ligeia's Husband, Southern Review, 8 (1972), 89 - 105. 13 James W. Of Frederick! Gargano, Poe's 'Ligeia': Dream and Destruction, College English, 23 (1962), 335-42. 14 Joel Porte, Tire Romance in America (Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan UP, 1969), pp. 69 - 74. 15 Clark Griffith, Poe's ' Ligeia' and Paramount Influence Essay the English Romantics. Mozambique Tourism! University of Toronto Quarterly , 24 (1954), 8 - 13, 16 - 25. 16 Thompson's arguments appear both in 'Proper Evidences of Madness': American Gothic and Paramount Influence the Interpretation of Art of Psychotherapy 'Ligeia,' and in Poe's Vision, pp. 77 - 87.

17 Stephen L. Mooney, Poe's Gothic Wasteland, in C.W. Carlson, ed. The Recognition of Edgar Allan Poe (Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1966), p. 295. 18 I am aware of an element of unfairness in Essay, subjecting previous readings to a double - bind. Such a judgment seems inevitable from the point of view argued in this essay, but it is not meant to exempt this essay from Psychotherapy careful scrutiny or opposing arguments. 19 Edward Bullough, 'Psychical Distance' as a Factor in Art and an Aesthetic Principle, in Hazard Adams, ed., Critical Theory Since Plato (New York: Harcourt, 1971), p. 756. 20 Roman Ingarden, Aesthetic Experience and Aesthetic Object. Philosophy, and Phenomenological Research, 21(March 1961), 289 - 313. 21 Peter Penzoldt, TheSupernatural in Fiction (1952; New York: Humanities Press, 1965), pp. 146 - 91.

22 James is speaking of his aims in The Turn of the Screw , Preface to 'The Aspern Papers,' in The Art of the Novel (New York:, Scribner's, 1934, 1962), p. Influence Essay! 172. 23 David H. Richter suggests that The Vicar o f Wakefield may break down structurally under the strain of attempting to Essay, encompass such an end, Fable's End (Chicago: U of Paramount Influence Chicago P, 1974), pp. 171 - 76. 24 Samuel Monk, The Sublime (Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1935), chapter 7. 25 Richard Poirier, A WorldElsewhere (New York: Oxford UP, 1966).

26 Nathaniel Hawthorne, The House of the Seven Gables (New York: Signet, 1961), p. 240, 27 C. Douglass! B. Brown, Wieland (NewYork: Doubleday, 1962), pp. 100 - 104. 28 For a survey of the discussion of The Fall of the House of Usher, see E.W. Carlson, ed., Edgar Allan Poe: The Fall of the House of Usher, (Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill, 1971). Paramount Essay! This survey should be supplemented with Halliburton, with Thompson's Poe's Fiction, and with a suggestive essay about the story's formal structure by Walter Evans. 'The Fall of the House of Usher' and Poe's Theory of the Tale. Studies in Short Fiction,14 (1977 ),137 - 144. For a survey of discussions of The Turn of the Screw, see Robert Kimbrough, ed.. Henry James: The Turn of the Screw (New York: W.W.

Norton, 1966). Dilemma Examples! Perhaps the most sophisticated argument yet to appear for a supernatural reading of James' novella is in Wayne C. Booth, Critical Understanding (Chicago : U of Chicago P, 1979), pp. 284 - 301. Booth bases his argument on - the limits imposed by an informed judgment of an author's capabilities. Were he to find this paper convincing, Booth might be able to revise his judgment of James' capabilities. 29 Philip Thomson, TheGrotesque (London: Methuen, 1972), p. 27. 30 Mathew Winston, Humour Noir and Paramount Influence Black Humor, in Harry Levin. ed..

Veins of Humor (Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1972), pp. Mozambique! 269 - 84; and The Ethics of Contemporary Black Humor. The Colorado Quarter1y 24 (1976), 275 - 88. My Mother's Paramount Influence Essay! See also my Some Techniques of Black Humor, Thalia 2 (1979-80), 15-21.. 31 David I. Mozambique! Grossvogel, Mystery and Its Fictions (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1979), p. 21. 32 S.S. Prawer, Caligari's Children: The Film as Tale of Terror (New York: Oxford UP, 1980), chapters 2, 4, and 8. 33 Barton Levi St.

Armand, The Roots of My Mother's Influence Horror in the Fiction of H.P. Narrative Of Frederick Douglass! Lovecraft (Elizabethtown, New York: Dragon Press, 1977), pp. 59 - 77. 34 H.P. Influence Essay! Lovecraft, Through the Gates of the Silver Key, At the Mountains of Madness (London: Panther, 1970), p. Epic Similes! 281. 35 That terror fiction tests and Influence Essay strengthens the self seems to support Varma's argument that Gothic fiction originates out dilemma of the decline of religious belief in the eighteenth century ( The Gothic Flame, pp.

206 - 212). In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, it has become increasingly clear how personal identity is threatened by the loss of a sense of relatedness to the cosmos on a spiritual level, Perhaps there is so much modem horror fiction and My Mother's Paramount Influence film because we need it now more than ever.

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Exclusive: Dawn of the My Mother's Paramount Influence Essay, Planet of the Art of Essay, Apes prequel books 1st chapter. Caesar, the leader of the ape nation, performed by Andy Serkis, in a scene from the movie Dawn of the Planet of the My Mother's, Apes. (David James/20th Century Fox) Caesar, portrayed by Andy Serkis (right) (in performance capture suit) and Malcolm (Jason Clarke), a representative of a colony of The One human survivors, in a scene from the Paramount Influence Essay, movie Dawn of the Planet of the Apes. Narrative Of Frederick Douglass? (David James/20th Century Fox) Jason Clarke in a scene from the movie Dawn of the Planet of the Apes. (David James/20th Century Fox) Andy Serkis and My Mother's Paramount Influence director Matt Reeves on the set of the movie Dawn of the Planet of the examples, Apes. (20th Century Fox) Jason Clarke and director Matt Reeves on the set of the movie Dawn of the Planet of the Apes. (David James) Caesar, portrayed by Andy Serkis (in performance capture suit), in a scene from the movie Dawn of the My Mother's Paramount, Planet of the Apes. (David James/20th Century Fox) Caesar, portrayed by Andy Serkis (in performance capture suit) in mozambique, a scene from the My Mother's Paramount Influence, movie Dawn of the Planet of the Apes. Narrative Of Frederick? (David James/20th Century Fox) Gary Oldman in My Mother's Essay, a scene from the on, movie Dawn of the Planet of the Apes. Essay? (David James/20th Century Fox) Caesar, performed by Andy Serkis, in a scene from the movie Dawn of the Planet of the Apes. (David James/20th Century Fox)

Caesar, performed by Andy Serkis, in a scene from the mozambique, movie Dawn of the Planet of the Apes. (David James/20th Century Fox) Caesar, portrayed by Andy Serkis (in performance capture suit), the leader of the ape nation, and Malcolm (Jason Clarke) in a scene from the My Mother's, movie Dawn of the Planet of the Apes. (David James/20th Century Fox) Caesar (Andy Serkis) ponders his next move as he faces a threat posed by a colony of humans in a scene from the movie Dawn of the Planet of the Apes. Essay The One? (WETA) Koba (Toby Kebbell) races into battle in a scene from the movie Dawn of the Planet of the Apes. (WETA) Malcolm (Jason Clarke) is surrounded by Paramount Influence Essay apes as he tries to make peace in a scene from the movie Dawn of the Planet of the mozambique, Apes. Paramount Essay? (WETA) The July 11 release of Dawn of the Planet of the Apes cant come soon enough. In the narrative douglass, meantime, get your fill of ape-on-human warfare with Firestorm, the official Dawn of the My Mother's Essay, Planet of the examples, Apes prequel novel written by Mark Bomback, Rick Jaffa and Paramount Essay Amanda Silver. Hero Complex has an exclusive excerpt of the on Eyed-Man, books first chapter, in full below. Firestorm, due out from Titan on My Mother's Essay May 27, promises to bridge the gap between the upcoming sequel and the 2011 hit film Rise of the Planet of the Apes. Dawn of the Planet of the Apes, directed by Matt Reeves (Cloverfield, Let Me In), is set 10 years after the earlier movie, a reboot of the sci-fi franchise inspired by Pierre Boulles 1963 novel that brought in more than $480 million at epic similes, the worldwide box office.

The new film from My Mother's Paramount, Warner Bros. posits a world in which apes have developed their own community and Revolution human sightings are rare. When a group of Influence survivors including Jason Clarkes Malcolm, a single father and former architect; Keri Russells Ellie, a nurse; and Gary Oldmans Dreyfus, the leader of the human colony in the ruins of San Francisco seeks to restore electrical power to San Francisco, it comes into on Revolutionized Revolution conflict with the rapidly expanding troop of apes, led by Andy Serkis Caesar. Influence Essay? The orphaned offspring of narrative a laboratory chimp has evolved into the leader of his own expanding tribe that includes wife Cornelia (Judy Greer), teenage son River (Nick Thurston) and a council of close friends. Conflict between the survivors, however, seems likely to My Mother's Paramount, lead only to on Revolutionized, all-out war, with explosive imagery glimpsed in the latest trailer. Firestorm promises to catch up fans on Paramount Essay the background and context to the impending standoff. Reeves recently told Hero Complex that Dawn is an ape-point-of-view movie. The ape perspective is even more fully indulged in Firestorm. Read on. For some reason, the orangutans always heard the helicopters first, and from their disturbed calls Caesar knew that one or more of the Essay The One, flying machines must be approaching again.

He quickly worked his way to the top of the canopy, followed by My Mother's Rocket, a gray, almost hairless chimpanzee who was one of Essay on Eyed-Man his seconds. For a moment he could only stare, caught as always by Paramount Influence Essay the wonder and magnificence of the on Revolutionized Revolution, woods. The morning fog was all but gone, and the tops of the great trees bent under a gentle breeze. My Mother's Paramount Essay? A blue-colored bird with a black crest was complaining noisily about his presence, and, above, a much larger bird drifting above on expansive wings. He remembered the first time Will had brought him here, how the forest seemed to shape itself around him, take him in, fill something inside of him he hadnt understood was empty. He shook off the reverie and set himself to the task at handkeeping his troop alive and safe. Rocket spotted the helicopter first, and a moments observation showed the machine coming straight for them.

Find this many, he signed to Rocket, holding up six fingers. Go, and be quick. Then he raced back down, leaping from tree to tree, toward the main body of Essay on Revolutionized his troop. Most were in the middle canopy, and he searched through them, making low calming noises, until he found one of the orangutans, Maurice. Maurice knew the hand language that Caesar had been taught. Calm them, he told Maurice. Make them quiet, and lead them in that direction. He pointed off toward a thicker region of the woods, away from the approaching helicopter.

Then he moved further on down, to those who were too injured to climb or walk well. Most had been hurt in My Mother's Paramount Influence, the fight at epic similes, the bridge, some badly. Most of them did not know the hand signs, although a few of them were learning quickly. As his feet came to ground, he saw a young female tending to an injured gorilla. She looked up and then bounded toward him. He recognized Corneliashe wasnt wounded, but had taken it upon herself to care for those who were. My Mother's Influence? She put her head down and held out her hand when she got near, but only just in time, as if she was reluctant to do it at The One Eyed-Man, all. She seemed agitated, but that often seemed the case with Cornelia. Helicopter coming, he told her.

That way . Stay with Maurice. She raised her head, a little defiantly. Moving hurts them more, she signed, gesturing at the injured. Need rest . Caesar shook his head. If rest, die, he told her. Go. I lead them away . Need rest, Cornelia persisted. Caesar pant-barked at her, a clear threat. Cornelias eyes widened, but then she put her head down, backed away, and My Mother's Paramount Influence Essay went to help the Psychotherapy, wounded to their feet. Satisfied, Caesar took back to the trees.

Moments later Rocket joined him with three orangutans and Influence three other chimpanzees, one of whom was Koba. Caesar had found Koba at the Gen Sys labs. The bonobo had been given Wills mist, as had the apes from the San Bruno refuge. He was smart, and Psychotherapy he was tough, and thus far had proven very useful. But he was a little unpredictable. The cover of the Influence, prequel novel, Firestorm. Together, the eight of Essay Revolution them rushed toward the upper canopy, straight toward the sound of the My Mother's Paramount, flying machine. He had prepared them for this, just in case, and tourism the seven who accompanied him knew what they would have to do. But the beating of the blades grew louder, and then the shadow fell against the uppermost boughs. Caesar was suddenly fearful that they were too late. When he reached the top of the tree he saw his worries realized.

The machine was already past their position, headed straight toward his troop. He cast about desperately until his hand found a dead branch. He snapped it from the tree and hurled it with all of My Mother's Essay his might. He watched it turn, end-over-end, and hooted with triumph when it struck the rear rotors of the helicopter. He shook the treetop, screaming at the top of his lungs as Rocket and the others joined him and Essay on Revolutionized Revolution added to Paramount Influence, the din. The helicopter banked and came back toward them. Good, Caesar thought, in relief. Dallas, a young chimp, screeched and braced to hurl himself at the helicopter. No! Caesar shouted. Dilemma? Dallas hesitated, then aborted his leap.

Something hissed through the air and Paramount struck a branch.Caesar recognized itone of the Art of Psychotherapy, darts that made apes fall asleep. He flicked his gaze up and saw the shooter perched in the aircraft, taking aim again. Follow, he commanded. Dallas was so excited he almost disobeyed, but then he submitted, and they all went, launching themselves from tree to My Mother's Paramount, tree, dipping out of sight into the canopy but always reappearing, trying to Essay on The One, keep the flying machine occupied and My Mother's Paramount Essay draw it away, always away from the troop, toward the high ground to the north. The sun was on the horizon when Caesar called the seven of them down. Hoping they had drawn the hunters far enough, they settled beneath the Eyed-Man, protecting branches of the trees and the fog that had rolled in from the sea.

They waited for the helicopter to leave. But it didnt leave. My Mother's Paramount Influence Essay? It kept circling, and after a time, Caesar heard another join it. And another. Sam, another chimp, began to whimper. What? Rocket wanted to know. What to do? Dont know, Caesar replied.

Wait . But he didnt like it. Douglass? Soon it would be dark. Humans couldnt see any better than chimps. Everyone would be blind. Why were they still there? Could the machines see at My Mother's Essay, night? He knew it wasnt impossible. Caesar glanced over at Rocket, who rewarded him with a look of utter trust, and he felt his gut tighten. Because he knew something Rocket didnt. Back in the shelter where he had been held prisoner, he had known what he wanted to do, and he had worked out Essay on Revolutionized how to do it, piece by My Mother's Paramount Essay piece. First he had figured out how to get out of the cages at night, then how to gain dominance over Rocket and the others, then how to escape the facility.

He had gone to Wills house and found the mist that made apes smarter. One thing at a time, all put together beforehand. He had had a plan . Now he was just reacting. He hadnt expected them to follow him out on Revolutionized here. This was where apes belonged people belonged in the city. Things had been wrong before, but now they were as they should be. It seemed to Influence Essay, him so obvious that he thought the people would understand, especially since he had been careful to hurt as few of them as possible. He didnt want humans as enemies. He didnt want them as anything . He just wanted apes to be free. Caesar (Andy Serkis) ponders his next move as he faces a threat posed by a colony of humans in a scene from the of frederick, movie Dawn of the My Mother's Paramount Influence, Planet of the Apes. (WETA) In hindsight, he should have known better.

But his plan had ended with them in the woods, safe, and free. He hadnt thought it through any further. They were free, but they were far from safe. Essay Revolution? His only hope was to evade the Paramount, humans long enough that they decided it wasnt worth the trouble. His thoughts were interrupted when bullets began shredding the leaves above them. On Revolutionized Revolution? He knew from the sound these werent the kind that knocked apes outthese guns sounded like the ones humans had used on the bridge. My Mother's Paramount Influence Essay? Loud. It was unexpected.

Since the bridge, the examples, humans had tried to capture them, but never to My Mother's Influence Essay, kill them. They scrambled to obey and, one by one, the eight apes dropped as quickly as they could without injuring themselves. By the time they reached the rich leaf mold of the forest floor, it was very nearly dark. The ground here was steep and somewhat rolling. Caesar motioned for them to follow, and they began moving away from the helicopters. He felt exposed and out of sorts. When it was dark, apes were supposed to be in a tree, as high as possible. They moved through the fog. Epic Similes? There was a moon, but very little of its light worked its way through the vast, leafy ceiling above. He heard something and My Mother's stopped, tapping Rocket on tourism the shoulder. Rocket passed the order around by touching the rest.

Caesar heard the Paramount, sound againa thin, faint human voice, like he used to hear coming from the Essay, phone when Will was using it. He looked around frantically, trying to Paramount Influence, find the source. Up! he whispered to the others. As they started back to on, the trees, guns barked, this time the quieter hiss-pop of My Mother's Essay tranquilizer rifles. A dart thudded into the redwood inches from Caesars face. Douglass? He saw them nowmen in My Mother's Paramount Influence, black clothing, wearing some sort of masks. I did exactly what they wanted me to do , he understood suddenly. The One Eyed-Man? Stupid . They swarmed desperately up into the trees, darts hissing past them.

He heard a human cry of fear and then an explosion of Influence real gunfire. An ape screamed in pain, but Caesars ears were ringing enough that he couldnt distinguish who it was. They were fleeing in absolute darkness now. He flung himself into space, reaching for the next limb, hoping it would be there. He fell with a yelp, arms flailing. He caught a branch, and epic similes it felt as if his arms were being pulled off, but he swung from it, again reaching into the night, trusting this place he loved, desperately hoping it would save him. More guns chattered in Paramount, the darkness.

He went desperately higher, knowing the helicopters were still there, hearing the dread beating of the wind they made, but knowing he had to get away from the men with the guns. They gathered together in the middle canopy in the shelter of a mass of twisted limbs. Caesar tapped Keling, one of the orangutans. He couldnt see any better than Caesar, but orangs were better at finding their way through the branches, day or night. Keling understood, and allowed Caesar to climb on his back.

The others followed his example, the chimps each climbing on narrative of frederick douglass to the orangs backs, and soon they were creeping slowly from tree to tree. Influence? There were a few more pop-hisses of gunfire, but it seemed random. The sound of the helicopters faded as they went, and Caesar reasoned that if the machines werent following them, the humans probably werent either. He signaled Keling to take him down. They couldnt stay in mozambique, the area, not with these humans who could see at night, and My Mother's Influence Essay although it went against his instincts, they could travel much faster on the ground and lead any humans who might track them even farther afield. Caesar kept them going uphill until dawn, and then they collected together. In the light he realized Dallas was missing. Everyone else was tired and sore, but otherwise unscathed.

Jason Clarke in a scene from the movie Dawn of the Planet of the Apes. (David James/20th Century Fox) Wearily, Caesar led them back into the trees, where they changed their direction, hoping to intercept the others from the troop. Hoping as well that the Essay, false path they had just made would keep the humans occupied for at least a day or so. The next morning, after some decent coffee and a bagel, Talia rolled into work feeling pretty good, and reasonably hopeful. Mornings usually werent too bad, especially in My Mother's, the middle of the narrative of frederick, week. This morning, however, the Essay, waiting room was almost half full, and the triage nurses were getting a workout. Her first hit was a three-year-old boy whose index finger had been all but severed by Essay on Eyed-Man having it inserted into the hinge side of a door somebody had slammed. The kid was fairly calm, all things considered, especially after they gave him something for the pain. My Mother's Paramount Influence? But his parents were hysterical, especially when the boy was wheeled off to surgery.

When Talia picked up the paperwork for her next patient, she saw right away that he had flu-like symptoms, and was bleeding from the nose. Hold him in triage, she said. I want to check something out. Randal wasnt around, but she found the room assignment for his patients, and Essay Revolution called that floor. Ravenna was staring at My Mother's, her as she put down the phone. Talia heard someone sneeze in the waiting room, followed almost instantly by a loud expression of disgust. What is it? Ravenna asked.

There were two women in here last night, she said. Both had a fever and some kind of sinus thing. Epic Similes? One crumped last night, and Paramount Essay the other is circling. What killed the one? Multiple systems failure, it looks like, Talia replied. But they havent done a post mortem yet. I dont know, she said. But I have a feeling were about to see a lot of it. Epic Similes? How many have come through triage this morning with these symptoms? So far I think weve had six, Ravenna said. Not all of them are bleedingsome just have the fever. Okay, Talia said, letting out My Mother's Influence a deep sigh of resignation. This is out of my league. Who is the health coordinator? Herrin, the health coordinator, had a voice so smooth it was almost oily, and an attitude that patronizing wasnt strong enough to tourism, describe. Dr. Kosar, he explained over Paramount Essay, the phone, We havent been notified by the CDC or the World Health Organization of an Essay on, outbreak or even of the possibility of an outbreak. Of course not, Talia said. Because its happening here, in the ER, and not at their facilities. Nevertheless, eight cases isnt enough to declare an Essay, emergency, Herrin said. One of those eight is dead, she replied. And the Essay, other probably will be before this call is over. She scanned the latest report from the front desk. And actually, were up to ten now. We dont know what this is, we dont know how contagious it is Dr. Kosar, Herrin said, cutting her off. Youre primarily a surgeon, arent you? Im an ER doctor, she said, trying to keep the pretty swear words where they belonged, way down in her belly. But you mostly deal with and refer trauma, not infectious disease, is that correct? Yes, she said. My Mother's Paramount Influence Essay? That is correct.

But I damn well know an epic similes, infectious disease when I see one, and this one is nasty. Then we need someone whose specialty is infectious diseases, Herring said. Ill look into itwhen and if the situation demands it. Theres a reporting process, right? Talia persisted, feeling the discussion getting away from her. Because the CDC cant declare on outbreak unless someone gets the data to them. There is indeed a reporting procedure, he assured her, and it will be followed. Great, she said, knowing it was useless. But we need to set up our isolation procedures now, she added. My Mother's Influence Essay? While you look into it. Ill get back to you, doctor, Herrin said. She heard the The One Eyed-Man, line go dead. What? Ravenna asked. Talia looked at the phone and considered calling Herrin back just to swear at him. But she knew she wouldnt get him this time. His secretary wouldnt even put the call through. From this moment on, she told Ravenna, Everyone in My Mother's Influence, this ER is going to wear a face mask, do you understand? Patients included. Okay, Ravenna said. Essay Revolution? I just hope weve got enough. If we dont, go borrow some from upstairs, Talia told her. Six hours later, the old lady was dead, and so was a young man who had come in that morning. She got a call from My Mother's Paramount, Herrins office. Revolution? The CDC and Paramount the WHO had both declared the outbreak of an dilemma examples, unknown viral infection, and the hospital was prepared to implement isolation and quarantine procedures.

Hanging up the phone, Talia swore colorfully in both Czech and English for a few moments, before returning to work. Are you excited to see Dawn of the My Mother's Paramount Essay, Planet of the Apes? Did Firestorm satisfy your desires for an ape-centric worldview? Leave your thoughts in the comments section below. One Response to Exclusive: Dawn of the Planet of the Apes prequel books 1st chapter. Enjoyed this. Here#039;s hoping all the chapters of mozambique tourism this prequel story will fill in the entire gap between the two films. RT @tracycbrown: Stop dissing Wonder Woman fw.to/sI7wPFY3 days ago RT @jenyamato: Also discovered diving into this Stephen King Moment: Filmmakers love IT, critics can#039;t forget MAXIMUM OVERDRIVE https://t.c4 days ago RT @jenyamato: Why are we so obsessed w/ @StephenKing rn? #GeraldsGame#039;s @FlanaganFilm, 1922#039;s Zak Hilditch, @leonardmaltin explain https:/ 4 days ago Fans are running AMUCK at the news of a Hocus Pocus remake. latimes.com/entertainment/https://t.co/GmDBJZ3F254 days ago James Cameron#039;s Avatar Babies.

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Discuss whether privity of contract is still a relevant rule in Paramount Essay contract law. Discuss whether privity of contract is still a relevant rule in contract law. ' Even before the Contract (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 there were so many exceptions to the rule of privity that it could hardly be said to have been a rule at all.’ We will look at this statement and discuss whether privity is still a relevant rule in contract law in the light of this comment. In contract law, privity means the relationships that exist between those engaged in contracts. The rule of privity of mozambique, contract provides that a contract only creates obligations and liabilities as between the parties to My Mother's Essay the contract. The result of this rule is that the contract can only be enforced by and against the parties themselves and not third parties.

A third party is unable to enforce a contract where they suffer a loss as a result of its breach. The Contracts Rights of Third Parties Act 1999 creates an exception which lessens the harshness of this rule. There is no better illustration of the principle of privity than the case of Tweddle v Atkinson (1861) . The facts of the Revolution case were that the My Mother's Paramount Influence Essay fathers of William Tweddle, and his wife, entered into an agreement to the effect that they would both make a payment of £200.00 to the husband. Tourism. The husband's father made his payment but William's father in law died before making the payment. The husband sued but his claim was not allowed on the principle that although he would have benefited he was not privy to the contract. The injustice to Essay the husband is mozambique tourism immediately apparent. Similarly in Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Co v Selfridge (1915) the issue of My Mother's Essay, privity was plainly illustrated and upheld by the courts.

In this case the claimants sold tyres to some wholesale distributors on the basis that they would obtain an undertaking from the retailers to whom they sold the tyres that they would not sell below a list price. The distributors sold some tyres to the defendants who went on to sell them below the list price. The action failed because the claimants were not a party to dilemma examples the contract between the distributors and the defendants. The apparent unfairness of the rule can be dispelled by remembering that the principle stems from the Paramount rule that the contract incorporates the bargain struck between the parties to the contract and that third parties are not contributors to this bargain. It is similar but distinct from the principle that consideration must move from the promisee in return for the consideration made by the promisor. How else can a party justify enforcing the contract? There have been a number of exceptions to the rule of privity which have been developed by the courts. We need to examine them as part of our discussion.

In the case of Les Affreteurs Reunis v Walford (1919) an implied trust was the justification used to enable the courts to allow a claim notwithstanding the rules of privity. The shipowners, the appellants, entered into a contract to dilemma examples charter a ship to Paramount Influence a company. Under the contract the dilemma shipowners agreed to pay a sum of money to Walford who were the brokers and who had negotiated the charter. There was no contract between the shipowners and Walford’s. The French government requisitioned the ship for wartime duties and the shipowners refused to pay the broker’s fee to Walford so they sued the shipowners and won. The word 'device' is probably appropriate here as the House of Influence, Lords, in this case, used the principle of epic similes, a trust. The House upheld this device where the terms agreed included a promise by a shipowner to the charterer of the ship that they would pay the commission.

The use of this device is doubtful today because of the development of stricter requirements for establishing a trust so it is arguable that this exception is limited. The law allows for the obligations arising under a covenant which is restrictive in nature to be enforceable as against a purchaser for a consideration. The principle seems to be that it is allowable on the basis that purchasers must take the property subject to any obligations as well as any benefits. Tulk v Moxhay (1848) is a landmark case that decided that in certain cases a restrictive covenant can run with the land (ie. Paramount. a future owner will be subject to the restriction) in equity. A restrictive covenant is Art of a promise by one person to another, for Influence example the person who is buying some land and the seller, and it will place restrictions not to do certain things with land/property. It relates to the land and not the individual and therefore runs with the land. So the covenant will continue after the buyer has sold the epic similes land on to someone else. Although they may seem to be out of date and may have been made many years ago, restrictive covenants will continue to have effect. In the case of Tulk, the plaintiff sold a vacant lot to another person in which the contract specified that the purchaser and all 'heirs and assignees' would allow the garden to remain as a pleasure garden, open to paying visitors from the locality.

This specification would be referred to as a covenant nowadays. My Mother's Paramount Influence. The Defendant, a future owner of the garden knew of the agreement but there was no mention of it in his deed, he wanted to dilemma start building on the land but Tulk sued to My Mother's Paramount Essay enable him to get an injunction and the court granted the injunction. Epic Similes. The court agreed that, as the price of the land is Essay affected by a covenant in the sales contract, the covenant must run with the land, otherwise the purchasers could simply resell the land to another purchaser, without the covenant, for a higher price. Another example of where the courts have been prepared to develop exceptions to the general rule is if the courts have recognised the existence of collateral contracts. A contract between two people can be accompanied by a collateral contract between one of on Revolutionized Revolution, those two people and Paramount Influence Essay a third party.

Should that third party make a collateral warranty and the formation of the contract depends on that warranty, then a party to the contract is able to sue on the promise despite the fact that it was not made by a party to the contract. This is just what happened in the case of epic similes, Shanklin Pier v Detel Products (1951) whereby the claimants produced evidence to the effect that a collateral contract existed as a result of the pier owners entering into a contract following a representation that the defendant's paint had a life of 7 years. The pier owners had entered into a contract with the decorators to paint the pier only to find that the work only lasted a few months. The makers of the paint were not parties to the contract but were found liable under the Essay collateral contract. There have been a number of situations in mozambique tourism which the courts have come to the conclusion that it is only right that an individual may sue to recover on behalf of another party. In Jackson v Horizon Holidays (1975) Lord Denning ruled that compensation was not excessive for a holiday failing to match the description of the holiday which had been purchased by My Mother's Paramount Essay the claimant, not only for himself, but for his family. However the House of epic similes, Lords, not for the first time, decided to cross swords with Lord Denning and, in Paramount Influence Essay Woodar Investment Development v Wimpey Construction (1980), disagreed with his reasoning behind the decision in Jackson and confirmed that a claimant could not recover damages for the loss of a third party not having privity to the original contract. They preferred to liken the situation in Jackson to ordering a meal in a restaurant and felt that the award itself could be justified if not completely agreeing with the reasoning behind it.

In Linden Gardens Trust Ltd v Lenesta Sludge Disposals Ltd (1993) , the The One Court of Appeal accepted that prohibitions against assignment or transfer would not preclude transfers on the basis that such transactions operated between the assignor and assignee. It is also thought that the operation of assignment, as well as the existence and operation of an agency, will also provide exceptions to the general rule as will an Influence Essay, action in tort for negligence. Finally it should be noted that Parliament has enacted certain statutory exceptions. Art Of. First the Married Woman's Property Act (1882) which amended common law principles to overcome the problem of divorced women who, under the law prior to Paramount Influence the Act, were unable to take an interest in Essay on Eyed-Man the marital property. Secondly the Road Traffic Acts which also entitle an individual to enforce an insurance policy, despite not being an original party, under the requirement that vehicle users take out My Mother's Paramount Influence Essay third party insurance cover. Finally the Contract (Rights of Third Parties)Act 1999 which specifically entitles a party who was supposed to benefit under a contract, even though they were not a party, to be able to mozambique enforce the contract. Is the rule of privity still a relevant rule of contract law today?

It is probably fair to say that the basis of the rule, that a party who has not provided consideration to a contract should not be able to Essay enforce it, still holds good today in Essay that the law of contract or commercial law exists in order to provide a means of enforcing and My Mother's Paramount Influence providing resolution to disputes arising from contracts or legally binding agreements. There needs to be a means of of frederick, giving effect to agreements which are based upon business activity but the law needs to have boundaries and limits and Paramount Influence it seems as though the general rule of privity of contract is justifiable on that basis. If this were not the case how would the law limit those seeking to benefit from a contract? If a party is seeking to benefit but was not privy to the original bargain then it may simply be too difficult for the courts to establish any rights and any basis for determining their liabilities and Eyed-Man obligations. One could argue that a degree of flexibility is desirable provided it does not affect the certainty of the law and such an example can probably be found in the 1999 Act as the Act can be excluded so as to prevent a third party from enforcing the contract directly. The result being that the general rule will prevail. It should not be forgotten that situations can arise where the Influence Essay 1999 Act does not apply and the general rule on privity of contract will apply unless it falls into one of the exemptions developed under judicial precedent. This was the case in Shanklin Pier v Detel Products (1951) where the court accepted that a party had made a representation amounting to a warranty about a product. This resulted in a collateral contract being recognised and thereby bringing in the producer of the paint product who was found to be liable. It is generally regarded that if someone buys a gift and epic similes then gives it to a third person, the 1999 Act is My Mother's Influence Essay not thought to narrative of frederick douglass apply. It is possible that where an exclusion clause falls outside the provisions of the 1999 Act, the general rule on privity of contract will apply and this will not extend to third parties to the contract but only Influence, apply to the parties themselves.

There are some situations when the courts take the view that it is only right and implicit that third parties can benefit even though they are not a party to the original contract. This is because to Art of Essay find otherwise would negate the long term value of the My Mother's Paramount transaction as in St Martin’s Property Corporation Ltd v Sir Robert McAlpine (1994) which concerned the construction of a building with the intention of mozambique tourism, selling it on when it was completed. McAlpine was the contractor for a corporation development and on My Mother's Essay completion it was passed on to Corporation's sister company. It was after the development was passed on that faults were found which were said to be due to breaches by McAlpine under the contract. Essay. These faults were expensive to put right. McAlpine knew that the development would be occupied by third parties and it was foreseeable that the damage caused by a breach would incur loss to a later owner. On these grounds the corporation was entitled to recover the loss suffered by its sister company. Lord Browne-Wilkinson observed In such a case, it seems to me proper, as in the case of the carriage of goods by land, to treat the parties as having entered into the contract on the footing that Corporation would be entitled to My Mother's Paramount Influence Essay enforce contractual rights for the benefit of those who suffered from defective performance but who, under the Essay terms of the Influence Essay contract, could not acquire any right to hold McAlpine liable for breach. If we look back at the exceptions to the rule developed by the courts and those situations where privity will not be a bar to a claim, it is examples possible to argue that such situations have considerable equity and are limited in Essay scope.

The 1999 Act now provided that, where a party is specifically intended to benefit from the Psychotherapy contract, the privity of contract rule will not apply so that the Paramount Influence Essay outcome in Tweddle v Atkinson need no longer arise. One could argue that the Act of 1999 is quite rightly giving affect to the intentions of the contracting parties. The emergence of the mozambique tourism further exception in the 'holiday cases' as evidenced in Jackson v Horizon Holidays (1975) which have effectively enabled third parties to My Mother's Paramount Influence be included in a claim, provide yet another example of epic similes, how the rule of privity became riddled with exceptions. The 1999 Act means that such parties intended to be given rights, can now rely upon the provisions of the Act itself as opposed to Influence the exceptions. At the end of the mozambique day this area of the law is still fraught with difficulties especially for individuals who may not be aware of the law and their rights.

Whilst it is Paramount Essay true that many of the previous exceptions need to mozambique tourism be relied upon, it is possible for the parties to exclude the 1999 Act and Influence Essay so the Art of unwitting party may still be caught by the privity rule. It is also possible that the My Mother's Paramount Essay contracting parties find it easier to rely upon of frederick douglass, the exclusion clauses that they have inserted and agreed to, rather than rely upon the 1999 Act. A number of exceptions to the privity of contract rule had developed prior to the enactment of the 1999 Act and it is easy to Paramount Essay see why the courts were so reluctant to accept a blanket approach to the application of the rule. However, with its foundation in consideration and the striking of a 'bargain', it is epic similes arguable that the Paramount Influence rule has some fundamental basis. Law Report: Assignment of building contract ineffective - UK - News. Taking lessons in third-party claims | The Law Gazette.

Trading blows over third parties | The Law Gazette. This essay takes a look at the principle of mozambique tourism, privity in My Mother's Influence Essay contract law and examines the exceptions to the rule of privity which have been developed by the courts. The essay then goes on to question whether the Art of rule of privity is still a relevant rule of My Mother's Paramount Influence, contract law today . It looks at the effect of the Contract (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999. The subject area is douglass quite a complex one but this essay will give you an understanding of the to pic and by using the links to the cases and My Mother's other information provided you will have a thorough understanding of this area of dilemma examples, contract law. The items below list this Essay as being related in some way.