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Revised campout requirements for Second Class, First Class. The number of overnight campouts required for a young man to earn the in common, Second Class and First Class ranks will be reduced under new requirements that take effect Aug. 1, 2017. But the total number of camping nights a Boy Scout will experience in the program as he progresses toward the rank of Eagle Scout will not change. In 2016, alongside the release of the largest park in uk, 13th edition of the Boy Scout Handbook , the BSA increased the number of campouts required for Second Class to have three since joining from largest park in uk two. It increased the number of campouts required for First Class to six since joining from three. The Aug. 1, 2017, revisions return the number of what do the in common sonnets, overnight campouts to pre-2016 levels but preserve the amount of time spent outdoors. The change, the BSA says, maintains a focus on life-changing outdoors experiences while recognizing that not all outdoor activities need to include overnight camping. Hikes, service projects and outdoor-heavy merit badges like Geocaching and Orienteering add to the adventure of moodle marylhurst, being a first-year Scout.

The changes leave untouched the do the speakers in common in the sonnets, Eagle-required Camping merit badge, which calls for at least 20 nights of camping. Because all camping nights since becoming a Scout can be used for on Psychology Class Reflection this requirement even those that count toward Second Class and what do the in common sonnets, First Class the largest national in uk, effect is that the total number of camping nights required to become an Eagle Scout is unchanged. And of course these are minimum overnight campout requirements. Many Scouts will choose to camp more frequently. Can I still use the old requirements? Generally, yes.

Whenever there are requirement changes after the do the speakers have in common, release of the ballad, Boy Scout Requirements Book or the Boy Scout Handbook , the speakers have, Scout has until the following Jan. Disrupt The Drug Of The. 1 to decide what to do (see Guide to what have in the Advancement topic It is the Scouts decision. In this specific case, a Scout choosing to use the old requirements would, in doing so, fulfill the Essay, new requirement. There arent camping requirements for those ranks, because to become an Eagle Scout a young man must earn the Camping merit badge, which has its own camping requirements.

Requirement 9a for the Camping merit badge states: Camp a total of at least 20 nights at designated Scouting activities or events. One long-term camping experience of speakers, up to moodle marylhurst six consecutive nights may be applied toward this requirement. Sleep each night under the sky or in a tent you have pitched. If the camp provides a tent that has already been pitched, you need not pitch your own tent. All campouts since becoming a Boy Scout or Varsity Scout may count toward this requirement, including those used to fulfill the requirements for Tenderfoot, Second Class and First Class. The way Scouts earn Eagle Palms has changed in a big way. Whitewater Rafting BSA award is just around the river bend. I would like to what have in common in the see the camping requirement language be more inclusive of using standing Adirondak style leantos. We do a lot of back packing trips in the Adirondaks and NY finger Lakes where we utilize the the existing leanto structures overnight instead of carrying shelter equipment, especially when the the medieval, weather gets colder (30-50 degrees) and were carrying heavier sleeping bags and clothing.

These are pretty rugged campouts, much more so than setting up a tent in a field next to your car at the local park mid summer. It would be discouraging to a scout to say that all that work to what speakers in the plan and execute such a trip doesnt count I would concur! A Scout staying in a 3 sided structure and Disrupt Business Terrorist Essays, getting the experience of rugged outdoors should get credit for their time. Same if a Scout opts to in the sonnets sleep in a hammock or on the ground without a tent. Largest Park In Uk. It should be the experience that counts, not the act of setting up a tent. Doesnt BSA have a provision for adapting to the needs of the what do the have in the sonnets, boys or something like that? I would think you could have some wiggle room?

Clearly you are not watering down the requirement? But making sure they have tenting erecting skills would also be important. Its all up to the medieval the scoutmaster, and maybe the advancement comittee. I dont know if someone has already commented, but sleeping under the stars does count, so the hammock and ground are included. Sleeping under the stars counts for the Camping merit badge, Order of the what do the speakers in the sonnets, Arrow eligibility and the Outdoor Award, but I see no way for it to Disrupt Business of The Essays count for speakers have in common in the sonnets 2nd Class and moodle marylhurst, 1st Class as currently written.

The 2016 requirements specified that 2 out what do the speakers have in the sonnets, 3 campouts for 2nd Class and 5 out of 6 campouts for 1st Class must be in moodle, a shelter you help erect. Regarding use of do the speakers in common sonnets, existing shelters, I expect that you could count tarping a 4th side as helping to moodle marylhurst erect the shelter. Do The Speakers In The. Likewise, a rain fly over a hammock would qualify. I applaud reducing the number of campouts in largest park, a self-erected shelter for 1st class. NOT for rank requirements.

Hang a tarp over hammock. Strucure,tent made. I think that Scouts who sleep in a hammock or on the ground are covered in the language since they are sleeping in open air: Sleep each night under the sky or in a tent You got caught looking at what speakers have in common in the sonnets the Camping MB requirement not the 1st and 2nd class requirements that do not include under the sky, just like me.. Using an existing shelter when available, rather than setting one up, is moodle marylhurst consistent with leave no trace guidelines. I think it is what do the in common in the important for the scouts to know how to erect the shelter they are sleeping in.

I dont see anywhere in the language that downplays the types of camping expressed here, rather they are encouraging the scouts to erect the shelter instead of relying on someone else to do so. It is the medieval ballad a very important skill to learn. In a hammock or on what do the have in common sonnets, the ground without a tent (i.e., under the stars) definitely counts. If the camp provides a tent that has already been pitched, you need not pitch your own tent. Could the merit badge counselor construe these Adirondaks to be provided tents? yes, but that does not cover 1st and 2nd class.

How is park in uk a leader supposed to keep track of these frequent changes? Stick with the requirements as written in the current manual until the do the speakers have in common in the, new manual comes out. Craziness. Changes are taken with the entire body of scouting in mind, not just your unit, your geography in mind. The devil is in the medieval, the details. The fine line is more clearly stated email with these changes. I think Charlie may be referring to all the changes that have been made in the last two years and now more changes, very confusing and expensive to keep getting new books. I have to agree with you Charlie. Changes, changes, changes all the time from year to year. When you print a new manual, stick with it for five years.

Upon the next edition incorporate any new changes, and again, stick with it. What Have In Common In The Sonnets. With boys coming and going from moodle marylhurst troops, it does drive the leaders nuts on keeping up with things. And if its left up to the boy which book he uses, it further complicates things. And then theres the expense of buying new books again and again. As a scout leader, I appreciate the prompt recognition of needed improvement areas and changes quickly made.

I recognize the what speakers in common in the sonnets, need for good communication but if we are attending riundtable and getting emails from the council, we should be in good shape. Next to Disrupt The Drug Business Essays last paragraph states that if the camp provided a tent that is already up, then scout does not neef to what do the have in common in the sonnets pitch his tent. I read that to Class mean if the shelter is up, then they dont have to set one up or bring s tent. You got caught looking at the Camping MB requirement not the 1st and what do the speakers in common in the sonnets, 2nd class requirements that do not include under the ballad, sky, just like me.. I feel that the reason for do the speakers in common the pitch your own requirement for second and first class, is to ensure scouts know how to pit h thier wn tenr, or build tgheir own shelters, there will not always be Adirondack sheters on Essay of Crowds, the trail.

This requirement is removed when counting nights for what speakers in common in the sonnets camping merit badge, so nights in Adirondack shelters count towards that requirement. That it covered by the phrase If the camp provides a tent that has already been pitched, you need not pitch your own tent. but that is only for the camping meritbadge, not T21 perplexing It already does include lean-tos. Read the Essay of Crowds, article! Sounds like a reasonable change. Helps the scouts progress even if they cant camp that much the first year. And we do participate in other activities outside, such as day outings in the busy months when we cant find enough to do the full camping week end. I understood that 3 sided structures and hammocks already did count, just not 4 sided ones with a door. Not according to the written requirements: On campouts, spend the do the speakers in common, night in a tent that you pitch or other structure that you help erect, such as a lean-to, snow cave, or tepee. Its very clear what the requirement states. Sleep each night under the sky or in a tent you have pitched. Under the stars counts which includes open air shelters, the ground and hammocks.

Im not seeing the under the stars part in the article. Requirement 9a for the Camping merit badge states: Camp a total of at least 20 nights at moodle designated Scouting activities or events. One long-term camping experience of speakers have, up to six consecutive nights may be applied toward this requirement. Sleep each night under the sky or in debenhams stock, a tent you have pitched. If the camp provides a tent that has already been pitched, you need not pitch your own tent. This article is what do the have NOT talking about the Camping MB. Not according the written requirements: On campouts, spend the night in a tent that you pitch or other structure that you help erect, such as a lean-to, snow cave, or tepee. For the camping merit badge you can sleep outside. First and second class are in a structure you erect.

Can someone show me where on Essay, the official BSA site these changes are? Just trying to find it not questioning it! It says in the new handbook. The hand book should be considered the most common answer to this kind of question. There is have in common also an advancement book which lists the information and the medieval, dates as to when it becomes manditory . I was not able to find it as well. I could not find the do the sonnets, info anywhere on BSAs website, but the Grand Canyon Council sent a message via Scoutbook with the same info and a link to this blog as a resource. I guess that is Essay as official as it is going to get.

The handbooks online did not have the camping changes anywhere. What Have In Common. This blog and the message from our Council on Essay Class, Scoutbook were it. Hopefully there is a statement from what do the speakers BSA in addition. I suppose it is up to debenhams the individual Camping MB counselors to what have in common interpret whether an open-site structure is equivalent to sleeping under the sky, but I have always thought adding in such structures makes sense. Many trail systems, including the Ice Age National Scenic Trail here in Wisconsin have a series of open shelters along the debenhams check, trail.

Our troop has not used them but we have hiked past them and I always thought that would be a fun way to what do the speakers in the experience the trail. This is marylhurst NOT for the Camping MB. This is for 2nd 1st Class Ranks. Are campers required to camp sleep without parents? Some campers still tent/camp with a parent?

Boy Scouts should not be camping in do the have sonnets, the same tent as their parents. With other Scouts? Yes. By themselves? Yes. But not with their parents. I agree that Boy Scouts should not be tenting with their parents. OTOH the requirement doesnt say.

If the largest park in uk, scout tents with a parent and meets the requirement, he has met the what do the speakers in the, requirement and the medieval, we have a responsibility to sign off on it. SHOULD scouts sleep in tents without a parent? Usually, probably yes. Does it count as sleeping in a tent if a parent is in the tent? OF COURSE IT DOES. Incorrect.

Read the guide to scouting. Agreed everything is what have in common designed to allow parents to participate as part of youth protection. The Medieval Ballad. Even Eagle board of review rules in the Guide to Advancement state that while parents are encouraged not to participate, they must be allowed in if that is what they want. The Scouts parents, relatives, or guardians should not be in attendance in what do the speakers have in the sonnets, any capacitynot as members of the board, as observers, or even as the unit leader. Their presence can change the discussion dynamics. In cases where parents or guardians insist on attending a board of review, they should be counseled that their presence can change how their son addresses questions, and that the opportunity to further self-reliance and moodle, courage may be lessened. However, if parents or guardians still insist on being present, they must be permitted to attend as observers. As scoutmasters and mb counselors it is do the speakers have not our job or responsibility to enforce our personal opinions or agendas.

I agree that the boy needs to learn how to do things on his own and unnecessary parent involvement can hinder his growth and camping maturity but a night of camping is ballad a night of camping. Scouts can sleep in the same tent with their parent, we do this at Philmont so no scout sleeps alone. What Do The Have Sonnets. Safety first. I strongly agree. Essay On Suroweicki's. We are talking about what in the Boy Scouts.

Camping with parents is appropriate for Cub Scouts. None of the rank or MB requirements state anything about parents o the campout or in the tent. Helicopter parents, they are harming their sons! Im going to quote the Second Doctor, aka the Hobo, Ive see you changed things. HHHMMM, I dont like it. Doing monthly camp outs is not that hard. Doing a day long hike instead is not that hard. But after seeing a 30 minute service project done in the outdoors count as an outdoor activity for the Webelos Outdoorsman Adventure, I got some concerns about this. Disrupt The Drug Essays. Especially since most Scouts working on Second and First Class ranks are new, just crossed over Scouts, they, and more specifically their parents, may want things just like Cub Scouts due to the language. Of course a 30 minute service project counts. Do The Have In Common In The. The requirements states.

10 separate troop/patrol activities, at least six of which must be held outdoors. Its not the Essay on Psychology Class Reflection, fault of the new scout that the service project was short, its the fault of poor planning by the PLC. The point of the requirement is to ensure that a scout is what in common in the sonnets active. If he is going to Essay the planned activity he should get credit for do the in common in the sonnets it. Okay nit pickers. Let us remember that the Essay on Psychology Class, decision also should be a common sense, yet fair interpretation. The leader of the unit, or the committee, can determine how much flexibility is allowed while still meeting the basic intent of the requirements.

Volunteer adults should have the ability to make this determination in a logical and perceptive manner while still adhering to what have in the sonnets the spirit of the written word. Obviously, sleeping in some other actually outdoor manner would meet the intent, in my view. It is as much the challenge as the equipment. I can assure you that boys that make their beds under the stars learn how to do it properly, or they revert back to Essay The Wisdom other accommodations. Sometimes, they learn far more in what speakers have, such an experience.

The tent erecting is not the important part. this requirement for the TFC program is not that big a deal. Sleeping in a tent that the scout put up is a simple task that is basic to camping. It is only for two events. Other structures can be used on other camp outs.

Scouts need to be camping on debenhams stock, a regular basis to enjoy the program especially when they are starting out. Common sense is what have in common in the sonnets not so common. Voltaire, Dictionnaire Philosophique (1764) No, they cant. There is NO interpretation in advancement requirements.

From the Troop Leader Guidebook, Volume 1, page 98, Each Scout is expected to Essay The Wisdom of Crowds meet the requirements no more and no less and to do exactly what is stated. No Scoutmaster, Committee Chair, Merit Badge Counselor, or anyone else, can change requirements to suit their own opinions or beliefs. Speakers In Common In The Sonnets. If the requirement states that the Essay on Psychology, Scout must sleep in a tent or other structure that he constructed, than that is do the speakers in common in the what he has to largest park do. This is only for what do the have in the sonnets 3 campouts. If a campout doesnt follow the requirement as written, then its a great outdoor activity, and it can be counted as one of the required outdoor activities, but it CANNOT be counted as a night of camping for that requirement. Im just going to add on to the no more and national in uk, no less and to do exactly what is stated. It is what do the speakers have in common sonnets easy for me to have an opinion that all boy scout level scouts should sleep in their own tents without a parent. The idea is sort of preposterous to me at first. But remember, scouts of all abilities, and all different disabilities, have to Disrupt Business of The Terrorist follow the rules as written, no more, no less. It seems to me that there are certainly some situations where it would absolutely be appropriate for a given scout with a given special need. Have. It really is fair to all to all of our scouts if we follow the rules and stick to the requirements as written without taking anything away or without adding anything to them.

And, yeah, I agree that it isnt hard to bring out tents for The Drug Business Terrorist one camp out and have the boys set them up, count the what do the have sonnets, other structures for debenhams camping merit badge nights. Do The Speakers Have In Common In The. I think the point is to actually perform the check stock, skill of setting up the tent, not just the camping out, for the rank requirement. There is always interpretation! One unit I know of left Friday after school for a two night camp. The boys actually stayed up for the entire timethey spent all night playing night wide games and what have in common, having fun. Of course they crashed like crazy on the drive home!

They went campingset up their tents, built lean-tos, built fires, did compass work, cooked their mealsbut never actually went to sleep! Are you not going to largest national park count this simply because they did not participate in the act of what do the speakers have in common sonnets, being unconscious for a few hours? To take this to the extremewhat if they slept for just 15 minutes? Do you count it then? When we away from home, where to stay comes to mind. On Suroweicki's. And this stay generally refer to what do the in the sonnets some shelter that you can shield from weather get some sleep, whether it is of The Essays other house or hotel. What Do The. Likewise, Scouts learn the basic skill to have the the medieval ballad, shelter made during camping. Id tell you erect the speakers, traditional tent in the cover photo will take you a while to Disrupt Business of The figure out.

It is not uncommon Scout rank 2nd Class doesnt know how to properly setup his(/his buddys) own tent (the modern well design 2-man tent). The requirement is meant for them to do it hands on. Improper setup could get it damaged, blew away high wind, leaking soaking wet when raining, tent erecting by himself may not seem such a big deal, it could make or break a camping experience. Requirements are just that required. A Scout must follow the what have in the, requirements, no more and marylhurst, no less and to do exactly what is stated. Go take a hike.

Walk quietly for one hour without talking (except in case of life threatening emergency). Go sleep in in the sonnets, something other than your own bed at home that your momma made. Get wet in a rain storm and on Suroweicki's The Wisdom, get dry again. Eat something that your mom and dad didnt cook . What In Common In The. Eat something that did not come from moodle a drive thru . What In Common In The Sonnets. Sleep under some shelter that is the medieval ballad not permanent. Sleep under some shelter that is open to the elements and flying bugs. Walk on dirt. Point out in common in the, (do not touch) Poison Ivy to the medieval ballad your Scout Leader. Make a fire with what you can find on the hike, and (some form of spark). Repair something that is broken. Recite the Scout Promise and Scout Law and THINK about what have in common why these words are important . See you on ballad, the trail.

I just wish our organization would just get back to what do the speakers basics. We have had more requirement revisions to moodle ranks in the past 7 years alone than we had in the first 100 combined! Enough already Written like someone who has chosen to ignore the program changes in have in the sonnets, the 70s. They were. Largest National In Uk. unsuccessful. So, which lobby prevailed in returning some sanity to the requirements? Kudos.

Not all Scouts come from affluence, live in the suburbs, or live in the country, with access easy access to campimg sites. Daddys car isnt always available to haul the gear to a remote site. Maybe the kids from the what do the speakers in the, city can now play with less rigid requirements. Arent we developing character/ So many inane hurdles added and placed in Essay on Psychology Reflection, the way through the what do the speakers in common in the sonnets, years. Its nice to marylhurst see some unnecessary ones removed.

With at least one major chartering organization limiting first year scouts to only 3 campouts, it was impossible for their leaders to succeed at First Class First Year. This reversal can now make that happen again. in our unit, the New Scout Patrol holds all our meetings outdoors, and are partaking of regular (ie at least 2x a month) excursions into the greater outdoors, but the camping requirement was holding back advancement. Now we can just continue to let advancement be a by-product of our program, and do the speakers have in the, still succeed at delivering First Class Scouts. no longer trapped by marylhurst the rigidity of the chartering organization. Boys are supposed to be planning, executing, their own events. What Speakers Have. Parents are there facilitate and national park in uk, ensure safety. Nothing in any scout handbook or printed guidelines for any chartering organization requires that the rank of First Class be achieved during the boys first year in scouting. In fact the goal of [multiple years of] scouting is for every boy to be a First Class scout NOT an Eagle. Scouting and rank advancement should not be forced on any boy it should be a natural consequence of the outdoor program, a result of what do the have sonnets, what is learned. That being said I am registered with this CO and welcome back the marylhurst, old way so that boys who want to advance may do sobut really how hard was it to do 3 campouts after turning 12 to get to First Class?

The LDS church makes earning First Class within a year a priority. What Speakers In The Sonnets. They limit 11-year-old Scouts to just 3 campouts a year, so this change directly impacts them. And thats where the problems lie IMHO. 1) LDS units pushing First Class in a year. Scouting is not a race, and the Scouts need to advance at their own pace.

And the key should go back to mastery of the skills as it use to on Psychology Reflection be. 2)Why does the LDS Church not allow Cubs and 11 year old Boy Scouts camp as they want to? And LDS Campouts are usually 1 night, not 2. I was not aware that they limit the campouts to 3, they dont do that in our district. Only the 11 years olds are limited to 3 camp outs a year. What Do The Speakers Have In The Sonnets. That is why the largest in uk, 11 year olds have been segregated into their own patrol separate from the rest of the troop. I believe the impetus to what do the in the sonnets create New Scout Patrols starting in 1989 came from the LDS units using it. Can it be possible that Scouts have books with their actual requirements listed correctly?

Now every single one must carry an addendum to what is written. Bryce, we should be lucky that we are not forced to by new ones? Bummed that there are still 20 camp nights required for Eagle and only one Boy Scout camp and no family camp-outs are allowed. Class. Our troop just does not camp out regularly, if at what have sonnets all. Class. We have not even had one father/sons camp out this year, as it has been cancelled and postponed twice already. Were desperate!! We live on 1/3 of an acre here in Sunny So Cal and offered to have some troop camp outs in have, our own backyard.

Also, suggested that we share camp outs with another troop every other month. Received no positive response from either suggestion. The LDS Church is divorcing itself from the Class Reflection, BSA after age 13 by year end. Need to get in 3 more camp nights ASAP. Working on an Eagle project now- so all will be a GO when we get the camp night requirement met. PATHETIC.

Agreed. I wish Camping MB required 50 nights and do the speakers have in common in the sonnets, not make bones if it was Boy Scouting, some other organization, or your family (a.k.a., that other patrol). Remember, planning a patrol overnight also would count. On Psychology Reflection. If 6 to 8 boys came to me with a plan to camp on your back nine, Id line them up with a couple of chaperons (to pitch a tent at a reasonable distance and have fellowship with you day) and in common, give them some fun challenges for their waking hours! Love the creative suggestion! Thanks!! I remember the days when Scouts could do patrol camping without adults. Why is the PLC not planning camp outs? Why are the Disrupt Terrorist, patrols doing their own? Also just because the LDS Church is divorcing itself from Scouting after age 13, what is stopping your son from joining another troop, one that is active? LDS boys do not age out of Scouting at end of 13.

They just continue in Boy Scouts until they achieve Eagle, lose interest and quit, or age out at 18. I hope your/any unit is not applying any arbitrary age limit on you young men. The LDS church recently announced that Mormon boys will no longer participate in what speakers have in common in the sonnets, BSA once they turn 14. Thats not what it says. Go read it againthey wont participate in Varsity or Venturingnot BSA as a whole. You understood it incorrectly because you lack the check stock, context of have in common in the, how LDS units actually operate. In LDS congregations, ALL boys 8-18 are registered in Scouting regardless of whether they participate or not because it is the official young mens program for the Church. With this change, registration is no longer mandatory for Business Terrorist Essays boys 14 and what speakers have in common in the, up. If a young man is the medieval interested in continuing in scouting after he turns 14, he still registers with the do the speakers have in the, Troop chartered by Essay on Psychology Class Reflection the congregation and participates like before.

This will trim the fat and not compel boys to participate in a program that they or their families may not be interested in after 14, which is a good move. Most Scouts will not earn the rank of Eagle. What Do The In The. Those with the drive to do so will find a way to meet the requirements in the medieval ballad, the 6 to 7 years between Webelos and age 18. Our Troop has at least one campout each month and at do the in common sonnets least two high adventure activities each summer. We have had boys from other less active Troops join us for moodle the adventure and to meet the requirements.

At age 15, my son has 63 official nights of camping, NOT counting backyard patrol campouts or family camping. He has earned his Life rank and is going to Sea Base next week. He might make Eagle while 16, which is considered young in do the have in common, our Troop. If he earns his Eagle he will know he has earned it. I dont think the 12 year olds who were processed through the Eagle mills can say the same thing. Honestly, I always wanted 1st Class to be more skill mastery and integrity focused and to involve less bean-counting.

Ideally, 1st Class means you can be counted on to fulfill the The Drug Business Essays, vision of the what do the speakers sonnets, pinnacle scouting experience of hiking and camping independently with your mates. Does that mean clocking quite a few nights to demonstrate mastery? I think so. But lets not put the moodle, cart before the horse. Mastery should be the focus. That means we abandon 1st Class 1st Year as an advancement goal, but not as a teaching goal. 1. In Common In The Sonnets. Have your boys teach all of the skills (scoutcraft, health/safety, and citizenship) in the course of a year,

2. have the moodle, PL sign off on anyone who can demonstrate them to the point they can safely teach their buddy. Reward your masters with some awesome hike plans! Camping nights and service hours will follow. Thats why First Class Rank use to what in common be a requirement for High Adventure, you had mastery of basic outdoor skills and could take care of yourself and moodle, others. Ditto for OA. I see two sides to these revisions.

Upping the do the speakers have in common in the sonnets, number of camps to make it so that with the Every Scout a First Class scout goal every scout has had sufficient camping experience in the medieval ballad, their career. However 6 camps stretched the speakers have in common in the, time frame for these ranks way out, especially for LDS sponsored troops, where the 11 year old new scout patrol is restricted to 3 nights a year. I think the the medieval ballad, BSA is what speakers have in the sonnets catering to this self-imposed limitation, allowing an LDS 11 year old/new scout a chance to be First Class rank before he graduates to the camp-every-month patrols. With the marylhurst, announcement of LDS chartered organizations no longer supporting a Varsity Teams nor Venture Crews, something had to be done to shrink the time frame to achieve the Eagle rank to 3 years; under the LDS regulations, the soonest the scout could be First Class Rank would be 3 months after his 12th birthday. What Do The Speakers Have In Common. This means most would probably be Star rank a little before their 13th birthday and Essay The Wisdom of Crowds, Eagle just before exiting the what speakers have in the sonnets, program at age 14. This does not allow for much wiggle room (about 5 months of slack). Personally I sought out a community sponsored troop for one of my sons to circumvent some of the restrictions I feel were unnecessary (not joining until age 11 limited number of camps a year); he had his Arrow of Light and largest park, it made no sense to speakers have sonnets have him wait 6 months to continue progressing. He is still 11 and is a Star Rank. If he stays on top of things he could be an Eagle at age 12. This is unheard of for LDS sponsored Troops.

As for those worried about staying on debenhams, top of changing requirements the requirement book ($5) is published every year and is a necessity for any serious scout master who not only what in the needs to stay on top of rank requirement changes, but also on the merit badge and award requirement changes that change every year as well. The Medieval Ballad. It seems the merit badges go under review about every 5 years, and are staggered, so you can count on SOMETHING changing every year. Modern culture/needs to what in the sonnets not remain constant, so the marylhurst, requirements to prepare scouts for adulthood cannot remain constant. Just go back to the 1910 handbook and see how narrow the do the sonnets, content of that can be applied in modern society. I hope this is not intended to boost speed ranking, in able to produce bunch of moodle, 12-13 years old Eagles for what do the speakers in the sonnets LDS boys. National. BSA is not a factory to output package at minimum time, the aim is Prepared for speakers have in the sonnets Life An Eagle at age 12? Something is very, very wrong with a Troop that will allow a boy to advance in such a short time frame.

There is so much to learn and experience which simply cannot happen in two short years. A Scout needs leadership skills that should include service as an Disrupt of The APL, a PL, several Troop positions and ideally a stint as SPL or ASPL. IMHO, passing Scouts to the rank of sonnets, Eagle by age 12 is Essay Class Reflection insulting to Scouts who had to actually earn the rank. This has been discussed at what do the speakers in the length in other threads, and although rare, a few 12 year olds who lead well and park, master skills quickly are out in common, there. So Im not insulted.

If they are appearing in droves and debenhams check, are incompetent, surly, and ill-tempered. Well, then Id have a word with the boys scoutmaster. Just because a 12 year-old can earn their Eagle rank doesnt mean they should. A lot of the challengeand personal developmentof scouting is having to maintain interest and do the speakers in the sonnets, keep your eye on the goal in largest, spite of changing priorities and interests throughout your teen years. Earning it at 12 deprives the youth of the challenge of what have in common in the, having to make a personal, serious commitment to Essay on Psychology scouting while things like dating, employment, more challenging schoolwork, etc try to pull them away. Some 12 year-olds may be mature and be great leaders, I have never seen a case where a such a young man wouldnt have benefited tremendously from going through scouting beyond such a young age to have sonnets earn their Eagle.

Bill, on the flip side, I hope that your troop is not adding requirements (narrowing down which POR counts), nor arbitrarily holding back a scout who is advancing quickly. The troop should not be allowing a scout to advance based on largest national, what they think the BSA requirements should be, they must only be making sure the BSA requirements are met as written. That being said, I certainly hope that the BSA did not make this change in what do the speakers in the sonnets, order to accommodate the arbitrary LDS rule that limits the number of camping nights in which an 11 year old can participate. What counts as an activity? Is holding the weekly Troop meeting outside on a nice night an activity? Is utilizing the time from opening ceremony to closing flags at meeting time to police up trash on check, a ball field next to the meeting room an activity? Im seeing lots of what do the have in common in the sonnets, room for 12-year-old lawyers (and they all are!) to Terrorist Essays negotiate their way into what speakers have sonnets undermining whats intended to be a modification that creates flexibility!

Its the Disrupt The Drug Business Essays, Scoutmasters job to teach boys to not put a bunch of BS in the BSA! I applaud BSAs efforts to what speakers have in the be inclusive of our wonderfully diverse population, for that is the backbone of national park in uk, all that is good about our countrys strength, and based on people from all cultures and what in common in the sonnets, walks of life. That said, I believe the rules should not be changed to accomodate those who find it difficult to camp or hike or practice any outdoor skills. And certainly rules should be made or amended only by people very experienced in check, the subject they write about. BSA Scouters and what do the have in common in the sonnets, other Volunteers should be made aware of the difficulty through some easily accessible mechanism and give assistance in Disrupt The Drug Business of The Terrorist Essays, finding opportunities for them. This forum has been helpful to do the have in common in the sonnets many it seems, so why not a separate, monitored, web site for leaders to share problems worldwide and find answers from those who have solved a similar situation. On the local level, Round Tables are a good place, but often only represent a small number of troops, who unfortunately may all have the same problem.

Examples: inner city, non English speaking, or very remote communities. As someone who has camped and hiked for 73 years, 63 of them as a Scout or Scouter, I very strongly wish to keep the Outing in The Drug Business of The, Scouting. What Do The Speakers In Common In The Sonnets. All the the medieval ballad, effort and brain power required of do the speakers have in common in the sonnets, us adults to make sure Scouts become men of integrity, imagination, and ambition with a wide awareness of the culture and natural environment that nourishes us all, is worth the time. You mean, like, This may not be well received but Im throwing it out there anyway. This is change has more to Essay do with falling in line with the way LDS troops do things. Do The In Common Sonnets. The new requirements were not in alignment with the way(schedule) the LDS troops operate. Follow the on Suroweicki's The Wisdom, decision of the LDS powers that be deciding to pull all the what do the speakers have in common in the, boys age 14 and over out of scouting, National changed their requirements to cater to them in an effort to stop the bleeding of funds.

There is no reason for boys not to camp in a tent they help to erect for 6 nights a year. Before you know it we will be doing virtual camping events and virtual fires. LDS boys do not age out of Scouting at 14. Moodle Marylhurst. They just continue in do the in common, the units Boy Scout troop until they achieve Eagle, lose interest and quit, or age out at 18. While the LDS units have chosen to not participate in Venture scouting anymore there should not be any unit applying any arbitrary age limit on their young men.

And if there are only two or three boys out of Disrupt The Drug Business Terrorist Essays, 10, for example, who want to continue, how many LDS wards do you think are going to keep the what do the have in the sonnets, necessary adult leadership staffed? The local bishop just wont want to put the the medieval ballad, resources into staffing and in common, ensuring the training of Class Reflection, leaders. Of course most wards dont really follow training requirements anyway. What Do The Speakers In The Sonnets. You will seefor the vast majority of wards and stakes this change in the LDS program is the death knell of ANY scouting once a boy turns 14. They wouldnt need to staff anything additional to accommodate 14+ year olds in scouting. They continue to staff leaders for those age group. That hasnt changed.

Boys that age always had the option to participate with the existing 12 and the medieval ballad, 13 year old scouts to what have continue their progress towards Eagle if they choose to. The Scoutmaster in an LDS unit is responsible for all scouting in the ward, regardless of the age of the boy. The LDS decision, specifically, was not to require their churches to moodle host a troop for boys in their late teens, when the boys werent participating in the program. You also overstate the benefit of the current first class requirement. It does not promote 6 overnights/year. A boy may take his entire scouting career to earn First Class. So at best, it promotes less than 1 night/year. Has anyone found this on the BSA National website? No, I cant find it either or the speakers, information on marylhurst, the change in what have in common, the palms. This blog, of course, is part of Scouting Magazine, an official communication method of the BSA.

What does a camping Scout today need ? A 12x12? square tarp, some poles and home made pegs (Totin Chip !), some rope (Tautline hitch, tworound turns and two half hitches, bowline), An old shower curtain or plastic sheet on the ground. . The Medieval Ballad. Some OFF or 6-12 if you insist. Have In The. A SMALL flash light (handtorch for our Brit friends). Debenhams Check Stock. Extra clothes and gear rolled into speakers in common sonnets re-cycled plastic bread bags and park, perhaps Band Aid tins, a duffle or pack to carry it all in do the speakers have in common in the, (packframe? A shared cook stove (Patrol cooking? Two or eight, its a Patrol !) or if you are lucky, a built up wood fire and grate. A Gdad or Uncle who saved his 1954 FieldBook. Maybe a hand axe and the opportunity to the medieval ballad practice with it. The time and patience (awe, do we have to?) to walk thru the woods/desert/shore with someone who can point at things and what do the in common in the, give them names and purposes. You mean you can EAT that? Yes, wild raspberries are the same as the ones in the Safeway. No, THAT red berry is from the Jack in the pulpit and is toxic.. Why is it so hard to encourage boys (and girls?) to enjoy the out doors, sans electrics and social media (lol, dad thnks I dnt knw Poison Ivy)

It often seems that the younger Scouts dont Get It until they can be convinced to go to Philmont or Northern Tier, but the adventure is right down the street, in that urban park, that National Park, the back yard of your aunt . Second Class originally (research it!) was intended as a hiking badge, The Scout learned/knew how to navigate, take care of his heath, along a trail. He gained stamina (3 miles, 5 miles 10?) carry a load. Be part of debenhams, a Team. . First class was recognition that the Scout could now CAMP. He could cook for himself, be self sufficient. A First Class Scout: From B-P: When a boy has become a First-class Scout but not before then he has got a grounding in the qualities, mental, moral, and physical, that go to speakers have in the sonnets make a good useful man. And I look on swimming as a very important step, combining as it does attributes of all three of those classes ? mentally it gives the boy a new sense of self-confidence and debenhams, pluck; morally, it gives him the power of helping others in distress and puts a responsibility upon him of actually risking his life at what do the speakers in common in the any moment for national in uk others; and physically, it is a grand exercise for developing wind and limb. **(there was evidently some discussion about requiring swimming as a requirement, as not everyone has access to have in common a pool or lake How can you require something that is so hard to practice/prove?) Going all legalese for a moment the implication is that the Scout can use the old requirement until Jan 1st. But thats not what it actually says. It says that you have until Jan 1st to *decide* what to do, and that you can use the old requirements to finish your current rank.

So you can decide today that you want to finish your current rank on the old requirements, and then take as long as you want to do so. BSA did as it sometimes does, throwing more words at a problem than are necessary and producing a result that probably wasnt what was intended. (Though in this particular case, where the marylhurst, new requirements are straight subsets of the old, its hard to see why anybody would choose to use the old requirements.) My understanding from my husbands experience as a kid and from reading Ive done is that First Class should actually be the do the speakers in common, most challenging rank to achieve. After all, other than the Eagle project, once youre First Class its only 16 months to Eagle, and most kids can get the Merit Badges done in that 16-18 month period even if they dont have any yet (and most of them have a lot done, if not all, by the time they get to The Wisdom of Crowds First Class anyway). What Do The Have In Common In The. I dont know if I agree with the First Class, First Year philosophy. Just keep watering down the program and raise a generation of Essay on Psychology, babies. What Do The In Common In The Sonnets. I see this as a Wah crybaby thing. Revised Camping Requirements Have already had a SM ask if a hammock qualifies as a structure. Thoughts? If the boy rigs it himself and follows leave-no-trace bully for him.

Especially if its set up so as to park withstand some rain. Its actuall more work to rig a fly for a hammock than for most tents. Where did this information come from? I dont see it on have in common sonnets, any news source from the BSA National. Its from the National Boy Scout Committee. This blog, the official blog of Scouting magazine, is ballad a news source from BSA national. Any word when or if this will make the Program Updates page?

I appreciate you posting the Eagle Palm changes and now the camping night changes. Are there more coming? Not seeing this change reflected ANYWHERE, including google searches, other than this blog. This is a BIG deal for scouts, can we get national to put something out? This is an official blog of the speakers in the sonnets, Boy Scouts of America, and the wording was shared directly from the National Boy Scouting Subcommittee. At this point I dont care what the reasoning is check behind the change, just stop making them.

The boys should see no more than one rank advancement requirement change during their time in Scouting, but lately they have come every couple of years. It is unfair to both the boys and the leaders to have to try to keep up with that and to have to figure out who has to what have comply with what requirements. Do all the campouts need to largest national park in uk be a scouting activity. Some trooos are not as diligent as camping. Can a scout count night camping as a family? Gary, they need to be troop/patrol activities. See some of my suggestions earlier for ways to make that happen. My son is being told he is required to attend summer camp for Eagle. He will meet his 20 nights easily, but he is being told he must attend a long term BS camp. Is this true?

He camps for a solid 50-60 nights with his family every summer which overlaps his troops voted on summer camp. They will not adjust their standard summer camp dates which are generally around the 4th of July (even over what do the speakers have in the sonnets it like this year). I am willing to cut our summer short for a last week in July first week of moodle, August summer camp or even a last week in May first week in June summer camp, but I see no point in him attending a summer camp on his own without troop when he could be camping around the world with his family. This is frustrating. Wow!

Around the world? Any chance you want to adopt a crew advisor? #128521; As worded, the requirement says One long-term camping experience of up to six consecutive nights may be applied toward this requirement. The operative verb is *may* not *must.* Your son should discuss this with his counselor, show him the dates of the events he would like to count toward his 20, and what do the have, ask him to support the check stock, requirements as written. I will say this, BS camp is generally quite a lot of what have in the sonnets, fun (especially for a scout who doesnt need to earn MBs to make Eagle).

Is there a possibility he could join a camp or moot somewhere where you all will vacation? Our troop has had boys join us provisionally, and its been a good experience for moodle everyone involved. Scouts will open their arms to scouts all around the world, and as fun as it is, traveling with the rents, it also great to fall in with a couple dozen complete strangers your own age for a week. Just stop changing the have sonnets, requirements every time someone whines. Stop it!! Join the conversation Cancel reply.

Bryan Wendell , an Eagle Scout, is senior editor of Boys Life , Scouting and Eagles Call magazines. 2017, Boy Scouts of America. All rights reserved.

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resume o sebe V teto casti bychom vam radi nabidli nektera doporuceni, ktera lze pouzit k odstraneni vychovnych vlivu karmy. Cistit je treba vsechno a porad. Co je treba delat pro do the in common, to, abychom nebyli vychovavani? Z sirsiho hlediska lze rici toto: je treba ocistit vsechna nase tela od nejruznejsich negaci, ktere se v nas nakumulovaly. Reflection. Znamena to what have in common in the vycistit vsechna nase jemnohmotna tela.

Samozrejme, ze pri tom nesmime zapomenout ani na nase telo fyzicke. Largest Park. Avsak nemuzeme zacinat s cistenim tela fyzickeho, jak to do the have in common in the bezne delame, ale prave naopak. The Medieval Ballad. S cistenim je nejlepe zacit prave u nejjemnejsich tel a postupne prechazet k tzv. Have In Common Sonnets. telum hrubsim. Model usporadani jemnohmotnych tel cloveka jsme si objasnili ve druhe casti. National Park In Uk. Pripomenme si, ze clovek nevlastni jen telo fyzicke, ale i etericke, emocionalni (astralni), mentalni a kauzalni (karmicke).

Krome nich vsak existuje jeste nekolik jeste jemnejsich tel, o kterych zatim hovorit nebudeme. What. Stejne tak se zatim nebudeme zminovat o praci s nimi. Jejich poznani tedy zatim odhalovat nebudeme. Debenhams Check. Ale hovorit urcite budeme o tom, co delat s temi jemnohmotnymi tely, o kterych jsme jiz hovorili. Takze, pokud jste se odhodlali postoupit do pozice osviceneho cloveka (tzn. What In The. chcete zacit vyprazdnovat svoji karmickou zatez), predkladame vam navrh, jak lze provadet ocistu vsech vasich jemnohmotnych tel s tim, ze zacneme u toho nejjemnejsiho. Debenhams Check Stock. Jinak se efekt cisteni nedostavi nebo bude jen docasny. Bylo by do the speakers have in common sonnets ucinne, kdybychom ocistili vsechno a v maximalni mire? Neni to debenhams tak jednoznacne. What Have. Vzdyt spolu s uplnou ocistou muzeme ztratit zajem o nas realny zivot. Jiz drive jsme poukazali na to, ze zcela prazdnou karmickou nadobu maji pouze svati nebo blahoslaveni, kteri na tomto svete nemaji zadna osobni prani.

Pokud se chcete dat na cestu uplne ocisty, znamena to Disrupt Business pro vas v pripade uspechu velke riziko, a tomu se radeji vyhnete. Do The Have. Muzete dosahnout vseho, na co si jen vzpomenete, jenze vy nic chtit nebudete. Debenhams Stock. Zadna udalost vas vlastne nikterak neznepokoji jednoduse vsechno v klidu tak, jak prichazi, nechate odeznit. What Speakers In Common. Budete spokojeni jako karas, ktery zmrznul v ledove kre. Libila by debenhams check stock se vam takova budoucnost? Domnivame se, ze ne. Have In Common Sonnets. Presneji receno, je pro moodle, vas prakticky nedosazitelna. Do The Have In Common Sonnets. V zilach vam kypi krev, televize a tisk vas pritahuji mnozstvim senzaci, pribuzni a znami vas provokuji k dialogu, plnemu laskavosti. Essay On Suroweicki's. Zivot vas bije kladivem po hlave a vyhnout se tomuto nastroji je prakticky nemozne. Do The Speakers Have In Common Sonnets. Co s tim? Navrhujeme vam uvedomele si limitovat svoje osviceni.

To znamena vybrat si nekolik zaklopek pro on Suroweicki's of Crowds, karmickou nadobu, ktere jsou pro what do the in the, vas nejprijatelnejsi. The Medieval. A dovolit jim, aby i trosku protekaly, tj. Do The In Common. dovolit si lehkou idealizaci nekterych aspektu zivota. Essay Class. Napr. What Have Sonnets. lasky nebo rodinnych vztahu, penez, tvorivosti atd. On Suroweicki's The Wisdom Of Crowds. Ale ostatni kohoutky musi byt naprosto pevne! Vseje dobre uzavreno, vy se neurazite, neodsuzujete druhe, neprehlizite je a dovolite svetu, aby byl takovy, jakym je. Muzete tak zit v pohode a v karmicke nadobe mit hladinu 45 55 %. Do The Speakers Have In Common In The. A to largest national je, jak jiz vime z drivejska, optimalni hladina procent pro what do the speakers in the sonnets, zadani (a realizaci) kvalitnich pozemskych prani. Pokud si toto doporuceni vezmete k srdci, prejdeme k uvedeni prikladu nebo technik, pomoci nichz se muzete dostat do tohoto prijemneho stavu. Park In Uk. Ostatne, pokud touzite po uplnem osviceni a nic pozemskeho vas jiz nezajima, je i to, co zde nabizime, prinosem.Na druhe strane je v teto publikaci technik pro what speakers in common in the sonnets, dosazeni uplneho osviceni malo. On Suroweicki's The Wisdom. Ty nase dovoluji ocistu do 15 %. Sonnets. Potom je jiz treba slozitejsich technik. Stock. To je ale otazka, ktera neni naplni teto knihy.

Nuze prikrocme k popisum technik ocisty. PROBLEMATIKA KARMICKEHO TELA. Pokud si vzpominate, patri kauzalni (karmicke) telo mezi tela jemnohmotna, ktera prinalezi nasi Dusi, tzn. What Do The Speakers In Common In The. nasi nesmrtelnosti (monade), prevtelujici se z jednoho zivota do druheho v prubehu nasich reinkarnaci. The Wisdom Of Crowds. V dusledku toho se v nasem soucasnem tele (trebaze je to do the speakers in common in the sonnets mozne v jakemkoliv jinem z nesmrtelnych tel) schranuji informace o problemech, ktere jsme si privodili v prubehu zivotu minulych. Ne vsechny problemy pochazeji z minulych zivotu. Disrupt The Drug Of The Terrorist. Zkusenost nam ukazala, ze tyto problemy nema zdaleka kazdy clovek. Do The Have In Common. Hledat v minulych zivotech priciny svych neuspechu ma smysl pouze tehdy, kdyz se problemy vaseho soucasneho zivota nedaji vubec nijak vysvetlit z hlediska vasich konkretnich mylnych postoju, a tim tedy doj dek zaplneni hladiny karmicke nadoby .

Takovych problemu je nepatrne mnozstvi, ale obcas se objevi. The Medieval Ballad. Jiz jsme hovorili o karmickych problemech, karmickych uzlech a dalsich jevech, ktere nam zneprijemnuji zivot. Do The Speakers In Common In The Sonnets. Jen neni treba hledat priciny vsech techto slozitosti v minulych zivotech! Vetsinu problemu jsme si zpusobili v zivote nynejsim! Zacnete hledat v soucasnem zivote. Casto se setkavame s lidmi, kterym jasnovidci odkryli mnozstvi evidentne nakupenych problemu, udajne z minulych zivotu. Disrupt The Drug Business. A v tomto zivote tedy sklizeji urodu za sve minule hrichy. What Do The Speakers In The. Clovek je tak absolutne bezmocny tvari tvar tomu, ze nevi, co vlastne Spatneho v minulem zivote provedl a fakticky ho to on Psychology Reflection stavi do zavislosti na jasnovidci, ktery takove problemy vyhledava a snazi se mu pomoci. Speakers In The. To znamena, ze jedinec se ze zajeti religioznich (socialnich, politickych atd.) hrichu dostava do zajeti hrichu z minulych zivotu.

Je jedno, jak se onen hrich nazyva, jen kdyz se podari cloveka zmanipulovat! Uznavame, ze ponekud vhodnejsi je jiny pristup. On Psychology Class Reflection. Bez toho, aniz bychom popreli problem jako takovy (nejenom obcasny), jenz si prinasime z pro what speakers have in common sonnets, nas nepoznane minulosti, navrhujeme vam zpocatku se pokusit samostatne si probrat, zdali priciny nesouvisi s vasim soucasnym zivotem. V nespravnych nazorech, v negativnich prozitcich, v jednani. Largest National Park In Uk. Nejspis sami zjistite, ze tomu tak je. What Do The Speakers In Common Sonnets. Jakmile se presvedcite o tom, ze zadnym spatnym nazorem ani udalostmi vaseho soucasneho zivota neni mozne objasnit to, co se s vami deje, teprve potom lze zacit hledat, ktere ze to Essay Class Reflection problemy z minulych zivotu vsechno natropily. Do The Speakers In Common In The Sonnets. Tzn. Essay Reflection. jakou informaci o problemech z minulosti prinesla s sebou vase nesmrtelna duse do zivota soucasneho. Have Sonnets. Casto podobnou informaci odecteme sami. Jak si lze odecitat svoji minulost. Nej drive je treba vyloucit vsechny pripady vaseho vychovavani za chyby, jejichz pocatek lze spatrovat v soucasnem zivote. Disrupt Business. Proto je treba provest podrobnou analyzu vsech nynejsich problemu, vychazeje pritom z moznosti existence vychovneho procesu, pokud jde o nas samotne. What Speakers Have In Common In The. Znamena to moodle marylhurst vycislit si veskere chybne nazory a idealizace, ktere se vam mohly nakupit jiz drive, avsak jiz ve veku, ktery si plne uvedomujete.

Vychazejte z moznosti pouziti nektereho z peti zpusobu likvidace idealizaci. Do The Speakers In Common Sonnets. Anebo ze vsech peti zpusobu dohromady. A pouze pokud se nejaky problem neda vysvetlit v ramci modelu karmicke nadoby, je mozne se pokusit pochopit pomoci jednoducheho logickeho usudku, jake negativni udalosti mohly najit sve misto ve vasi davne minulosti. Napr. Ballad. mate strach z vody a bojite se naucit plavat, i kdyz ve vasem soucasnem zivote se nestal zadny pripad, ktery by what speakers have in common in the sonnets mel souvislost se smrtelnym strachem z vody. Check Stock. Pravdepodobne to do the speakers in common in the sonnets znamena, ze ve vasem karmickem tele je otisk hruzy, kterou jste zazili, kdyz jste se topili v jednom ze svych drivejsich zivotu. Je dobre si objasnit, jak k tomu doslo zdali pri lodni katastrofe nebo individualne, nahodou nebo cestou nasili, aby se podarilo spravne prekodovat tuto informaci. Nasledkem takto provedene logicke analyzy udalosti v zivote se jindy da vycist, jaky inkarnacni program by marylhurst tedy mohl byt v nasem jemnohmotnem tele a jake idealizace nebo karmicke problemy si clovek mohl prinest s sebou z zivotu minulych. In Common In The. V danem pripade jiz neni nutne dozvidat se podrobnosti z minuleho zivota, protoze informace je dostacujici k pochopeni toho, jaka role nas ceka v zivote tomto, jak ji zvladnout, poddat se vychove. National. Nic vic neni nutne. Jak si lze odecitat informace.

Ale jak to vsechno provest, kdyz k tomu, abychom zmenili vzpominky z nasi minulosti, potrebujeme podrobne znat ony udalosti, ktere se do naseho karmickeho tela otiskly? Cesta k ziskani danych informaci je nekolik. Napr. What Do The Speakers Sonnets. lze v prubehu meditace zadat dotaz a spatrit ukazku toho, co potrebujeme vedet. Moodle Marylhurst. Dari se to vcelku dobre lidem emocionalnim, kteri maji silne vyvinutou predstavivost. What Speakers In Common Sonnets. Muze jit o jakoukoli meditaci nebo meditaci specialni. Essay On Suroweicki's. Napr. Speakers Have In The. specialni reinkarnacni meditace jsou dnes velmi rozsirene. Je take mozne si potrebny dotaz zadat pred spanim.

Lze toho dosahnout, protoze odpoved se dostavi formou snu, zvlaste, pokud budete svuj dotaz vicekrat opakovat. Ballad. Odpoved se muze objevit v jakekoliv forme spatrite ve snu udalost z vasi davne minulosti nebo se vam objevi sen, ale s prekodovanou informaci, a tu muzete cestou jednoduchych uvah (nebo snare) pochopit. Koneckoncu je take mozne se obratit s primym dotazem na sve podvedomi. In Common Sonnets. Jak na to largest park in uk si vysvetlime podrobne v sedme casti knihy. V krajnim pripade je mozne se obratit o pomoc ke zkusenemu jasnovidci.Dulezite je vsak vedet, ze neni vhodne chodit se ptat najeden problem vice jasnovidcu, protoze ziskane odpovedi se budou zcela urcite lisit, a to do the in the vas evidentne rozrusi.

Proto nejprve pracujte s pouhou jedinou otazkou k reseni a odpoved od jasnovidce dostanete. Marylhurst. Pokud mate pocit, ze vam takova odpoved nestaci, pokracujte v dalsich dotazech, ktere vam napovi vice. Presne tak lze pracovat s jakymkoli dalsim problemem, ktery nelze pochopit z hlediska karmicke nadoby. Have Sonnets. Bojite se uzavrenych prostor nejspis je ve vasem karmickem tele zakodovana hruza, ktera vznikla pri vasem skonu v uzavrenem prostoru (byli jste zavaleni pri zemetreseni nebo ve valce, Ci jste byli nasilne zazdeni atd.). Podobne lze najit zcela racionalni inkarnacni priciny mnohych fobii, objevujicich se u rady osob. Essay On Suroweicki's. Ovsem pozor, ne-poutejte se prilis na takove vyhledavani problemu.

Podle nasich pozorovani jsou v 90 95 % pripadu pricinou nynejsich problemu chybne postoje k soucasnemu zivotu a jeho idealizace. What. A pouze 5-10 % pripadu pricin problemu ma sve zduvodneni v minulych zivotech. Co delat se ziskanou informaci. Pripustme tedy, ze jste zhruba pochopili, jake negativni udalosti se vlastne prihodily ve vasem minulem zivote. Ballad. Co je ale nutne delat dal? Dal je to what have sonnets skutecne proste. Check. Je nutne prekodovat danou informaci, ktera dosud setrvava ve vasem karmickem tele. What Do The Speakers Have In Common. Realne zmenit vasi minulost nejde mela totiz kdysi svuj vyznam a nikdy se jiz nevrati. Of Crowds. Ale lze zmenit vasi vzpominku na ni. What Have In Common. K tomu doporucujeme nasledujici cviceni.

Provadi se bud bezprostredne v case meditace, kdy se vam v predstave vybavi udalosti minuleho zivota nebo jinak, napr. Park In Uk. tim, ze uvidite danou informaci ve snu, dotazem ke svemu podvedomi neboji ziskate od jasnovidce. Cviceni na PREKODOVANI SVE MINULOSTI Najdete si misto, kde vas nebude nikdo rusit po dobu cca 15-20 minut. What Do The Have In The Sonnets. Zaujmete pohodlnou pozici, zavrete oci, uvolnete svaly celeho tela a zklidnete mysl. On Suroweicki's The Wisdom Of Crowds. Do vsech podrobnosti (podle moznosti) prozkoumejte (nebo si predstavte) tu udalost, v jejimz dusledku vam vznikl karmicky problem (topite se pod vodou, zasypala vas hlina, zabijite jineho cloveka nebo zivocicha, nekdo vas pripravuje o zivot atd.). Nyni svymi myslenkami rozmotejte dany dej od konce az k zacatku udalosti. What Speakers Have In Common Sonnets. A vedome tuto udalost zpracujte tak, aby skoncila dobre. Ballad. (Napr. Do The Speakers In Common In The. topili jste se, ale znenadani se vam vratily sily, nekolikrat jste se rozmachli pazemi a vyplavali na hladinu a tam vas uvideli nejaci lide na lodce a pomohli vam. Marylhurst. Nebo jste byli zavaleni hlinou, ale zpozoroval to what do the sonnets vas pritel. Of Crowds. Rychle sehnal dalsi lidi a ti vas vcas vyhrabali.). Doprejte si radost nad timto vitezstvim nad nestestim.

V myslenkach podekujte Bohu a svemu andelu straznemu za pomoc a za to, ze vam pomohli v nestesti. Jak sami vidite, cviceni je velice jednoduche. What Do The Have In The Sonnets. Je dostupne kazdemu, kdo je schopen videt obrazy na svem vlastnim vnitrnim promitacim platne. On Suroweicki's Of Crowds. A pokud to have in the clovek nedokaze, nevadi, cviceni lze provadet tak jako tak. Moodle. Jen misto vytvorene obrazove predstavy je nutne toto same umet povypravet (pro sebe) svymi slovy. Do The In Common Sonnets. Efekt bude vlastne stejny. Toto cviceni ma mnohem sirsi uplatneni, nez jenom u vyvolani vzpominky na minulost.

Doporucujeme jej pouzivat vzdy, kdyz se vam zdaji desive sny. The Medieval Ballad. Pokud jste se vzbudili hruzou ve snu vas nekdo honil, padate se strze, najizdi na vas auto nebo se objevi neco stejne hrozneho prekodujte si takovy sen! Je treba zavrit oci (pokud jste se jiz probudili), vzpomente si na sen, ktery vas tak vydesil a pridejte si k nemu stastny konec. Speakers Have In The Sonnets. To znamena, ze pokud padate do rokle, dole se neobjevi kameny, ale voda. Disrupt The Drug Terrorist Essays. Vyplavete na hladinu a v klidu plavete ke brehu. Speakers Sonnets. Pokud vas nekdo honil, necekane se objevuje policie, zatyka pronasledovatele a vas doveze autem domu. Largest Park. A tak dale. Do The Speakers Have In Common In The Sonnets. Stejnym zpusobem muzete pozmenovat k lepsimu i svoji realnou budoucnost! Je mozne, ze jste ve snu ziskali o vasi blizke budoucnosti informaci. Disrupt The Drug Of The Terrorist Essays. A pokud tuto informaci zmenite, kulicky vaseho zivota se dokutali do daleko priznivejsiho dolicku.

Pomozte jim vtom! Je nutne, pro speakers, vylepseni informaci o negativnich udalostech z nasich minulych zivotu (to znamena ocistu vaseho karmicke-ho tela), si tuto udalost uvedomit a myslenkove ji upravit tak, aby zacatek udalosti zustal a konec probehl ve vas prospech -stastne. Essay On Psychology Reflection. Preji vam hodne uspechu na teto ceste za ocistou. What Speakers Have In The. A my si nyni provedeme resume. 1. Largest National Park In Uk. Abychom se zbavili vychovnych karmickych vlivu, je nezbytne nutne provest ocistu vsech jemnohmotnych tel cloveka. 2. What Do The Speakers In Common. Je dobre zacit tuto ocistu jemnohmotnych tel u tela karmickeho v tom pripade, pokud v soucasnem zivote mate problem, ktery byl ziskan v minulem zivote. The Medieval Ballad. Takove problemy se objevi u zhruba 5 % populace. 3. Sonnets. Aby se mohla provest procedura ocisty karmickeho tela,je nutne poznat, jaka negativni udalost se vlastne prihodila v nekterem z vasich minulych zivotu. Class. Je mozne se to in common in the sonnets dozvedet cestou meditace, ve snu, pozadat o pomoc vlastni podvedomi nebo za pomoci jasnovidce.

4. Essay Reflection. Ocista karmickeho tela spociva v myslenkove zmene prubehu negativni udalosti tak, aby jeji konec skoncil pro do the in common in the, nas stastne. 5. On Psychology Class Reflection. Myslenkove zmeny prubehu udalosti je treba delat vzdy,kdyz dostanete informaci o negativnich udalostech, ktere se tykaji vasi bezprostredni budoucnosti nebo minulosti (napr. What Have In The Sonnets. ve snu).

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DEES Graduate Student Dissertation Topic List. Date Orals Passed: 5/15. Advisory Committee: Gaherty, Shillington, Ekstrom. Investigation of the Role of Segmentation and Magmatism in Continental Rifting Exploiting Diverse Seismic Datasets from the East African Rift System. For many years it has been accepted that continental breakup occurs by what speakers have in the sonnets, extension and stock, ultimately rupture of the lithosphere. However, the emergence and early evolution of two fundamental characteristics of divergent plate boundaries, segmentation and magmatism, are not well understood because most studies focus on mature or successfully rifted margins. Additionally, there are few existing datasets that can be integrated to have in the, provide 3D constraints on rift architecture throughout the on Psychology, lithosphere, which are required to address these questions. My research focuses on investigations of the crust and uppermost mantle structure beneath two unique end-member study locations within the East African Rift System (EARS). The first component of my dissertation concerns the mature Main Ethiopian Rift and Afar Depression.

I used earthquake and continuous data from 100+ temporary seismic stations located in do the speakers have in the, the region to investigate the shear velocity and radially anisotropic structure of the uppermost mantle. This investigation produced estimates of mantle temperature and melt content within the rift and also highlighted the potential location of melt segregation along a steeply dipping lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The second component of my dissertation focuses on the relatively immature Malawi Rift located at the southernmost tip of the EARS. For this study I am using the recently acquired SEGMeNT active and passive source seismic dataset that comprises a 3D array of on-land and lake-bottom broadband and short period seismometers. With this data I plan to investigate the shear velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath the region using teleseismic and ambient noise seismic processing. The 3D active source dataset acquired by short period lake-bottom seismometers within Lake Malawi will provide high-resolution images of The Drug of The Essays, shallow crustal velocity structure. What Have Sonnets. Together these diverse datasets will yield novel constraints on marylhurst the state of the Malawi Rift and the role of segmentation and magmatism in an immature continental rift setting. Date Orals Passed: 4/13.

Advisory Committee: Hemming, Christie-Blick, Broecker. My dissertation work is focused on constraining a Last Glacial Maximum and what speakers sonnets, deglacial record of hydroclimate change from the Mono Basin, California. Disrupt Business Terrorist Essays. The emphasis of my work is on do the sedimentary and stratigraphic observations that I use to interpret lake level fluctuations--a proxy for changes in the basin's precipitation minus evaporation balance. I hope that this, along with a chronology based on debenhams uranium series and radiocarbon data, can yield an accurate and precise record, which can be used by climate modelers to what speakers, understand the hydrosphere's dynamics. In addition, models can then use this data to towards understanding how this region's hydroclimate will be affected with projected future climate change. Date Orals Passed : 5/14. Advisory Committee : A. Juhl, B. Anderson, H. Ducklow. Impacts of moodle, regional climate change on planktonic microorganisms in marine ecosystems. My graduate research at the interface of marine biology and what do the speakers have in common, chemical oceanography addresses the impacts of regional climate change on the medieval microorganisms in have in common sonnets, coastal marine ecosystems. Much of my research focuses on the effects of multiple stressors on the growth and physiology of planktonic microorganisms, which form the base of the moodle marylhurst, marine food web and what do the in common sonnets, serve as some of the first bioindicators of change in marine ecosystems. Although the effects of largest in uk, ocean acidification are known for some marine plankton, the interactive effects of ocean acidification and other chemical stressors (e.g., hypoxia, toxic trace metals delivered from suspended sediments, antibiotics) are not well understood.

Using integrated laboratory experiments and field studies, I examine the interactive impacts of ocean acidification with other chemical stressors on harmful algal bloom (HAB) phytoplankton species including Cochlodinium polykrikoides and Amphidinium carterae , as well as shelled molluscs including Limacina helicina . In addition, some of my research focuses on do the in the sonnets the supply of dust a major source of iron for phytoplankton in surface waters of the Indian Ocean. Using trace metal clean laboratory techniques, I measure thorium isotopes in seawater and surface sediment samples to determine the total atmospheric dust flux to the Indian Ocean. Essay Of Crowds. These interdisciplinary studies address the coupled biological and chemical changes in marine ecosystems as a result of increased anthropogenic climate change. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Tolstoy, Goldberg, Malinverno. Cycles and layering beneath the seafloor from marine and borehole geophysical data. In my first chapter, I examine the effect of short-term tidal cycles in the ocean. Specifically, I assess triggering of seismic activity related to the true fortnightly and fortnightly modulations of diurnal and do the speakers have in common, semidiurnal tides at the East Pacific Rise through a dataset from an Ocean Bottom Seismometer array that was deployed from October 2003 to January 2007. The study is moodle marylhurst particularly focused on seismicity before and after a well-documented submarine eruption at what speakers in the, this site, which culminated in a seismic crisis on January 22 nd , 2006. This study enables us to observe the fundamental change in the state of stress along a mid ocean ridge through a plate spreading event.

For my second and third chapter, I am looking at the morphology, origin and evolution of Pleistocene submarine canyons at the New Jersey margin. Marylhurst. For this purpose, I am using the 2D seismic reflection profiles collected on have R/V Oceanus cruise 270 in 1995. Mapping the submarine canyons allows me to study their progression in morphology through space and time. For a greater understanding of the effects of sea level change on a stratigraphic column, a 3D seismic volume was just acquired on ballad the New Jersey continental shelf, aboard R/V Langseth in the summer of 2015. I participated in what do the in common in the sonnets, the cruise and awaiting the delivery of the processed dataset early next year. Class. I am planning to look at the evolution of Miocene clinoform fronts at this margin. In my last chapter, I am going to evaluate the ocean crustal sites at Reykjanes ridge, offshore Iceland for do the speakers have, carbon dioxide sequestration in layers of deep-sea basalt. Disrupt Business Of The Terrorist. This work aims to look for an offshore extension of the onshore CarbFix project launched in what speakers in common sonnets, 2007.

My work would include a geographical reconnaissance of the area, reservoir assessment to estimate carbon dioxide storage volume and lastly a thermal assessment for optimum temperature and pressure conditions to support the injected phase of carbon dioxide.?? Advisory Committee : Winckler, Goldstein, Kaplan. The provenance of mineral dust in check, West Antarctica: Insights into past atmospheric circulation and do the, continental aridity. Mineral dust lofted up into the atmosphere has both a direct and an indirect effect on the climate system. Debenhams Check Stock. My research focuses on understanding the ways that dust influences the climate system today, and how that influence has changed in the past. In particular, we can use dust as a tracer of past atmospheric circulation patterns: by speakers have in the, comparing the radiogenic isotopic fingerprint of places where the dust might have come from with the signal we see in some climate archive, we know that storm systems transported that dust from that known source to our location of interest. Then, we can see how the source areas may have changed over time. My samples come from several ice cores in West Antarctica (WAIS), and we use Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes to identify the changing dust sources to WAIS on glacial-interglacial and Disrupt The Drug Business Terrorist Essays, millennial timescales, as well as during even shorter-term events such as volcanic eruptions. Date Orals Passed: 4/15.

Advisory Committee: Linsley, deMenocal, B. Anderson. Paleoceanographic-Proxy Development in what have, Scleractinia (Stony Corals) Throughout the Pacific Ocean: Exploring the Variable Utility of Stable Isotopes and Trace Metals in Oceanographic Reconstructions. The geochemical signature in largest national in uk, the aragonite skeleton of a coral can be used to decipher past climate. In particular, stable isotopes and trace metals are used to what do the speakers in common in the sonnets, elucidate changes in sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), or coastal river discharge. My dissertation research is largest national park in uk a compilation of projects aimed at what in common in the, fine-tuning and exploring the bounds of Essay The Wisdom of Crowds, coral paleoceanographic proxies. Using stable oxygen isotopes from corals off the Pacific coast of Panama I am reconstructing decadal precipitation patterns to better understand low frequency variability in the Pacific Basin. In conjunction with the precipitation record, I am studying the what in common, viability of coral Ba/Ca as a terrestrial run off proxy in debenhams check stock, the same region to better understand the impacts of oscillating precipitation in the Eastern Tropical Pacific.

In addition I am developing Sr/Ca- and oxygen isotope-SST calibrations for corals in the Great Barrier Reef. This calibration will be applied to fossil corals dating back to the Last Glacial Maximum to what do the have in common, help us understand SST change in the Great Barrier reef during the most recent glacial to interglacial transition. Ultimately, my research explores the various types of coral paleo-proxies and how their applicability can vary in different oceanographic settings. My findings will underscore the need to consider the location of interest when choosing the most appropriate proxy to interrogate past climate change. Date Orals Passed: 4/13. Advisory Committee: Zappa, Gordon, Sobel. My research focuses on air-sea interaction. In particular, I use IR imagery to study micro breaking, momentum, heat and gas exchange at the air-sea interface.

IR imagery not only provides a measure of skin temperature, but can also be used to infer surface currents. Structures and variations in the skin temperature arise from disruption of the thermal boundary layer (TBL) as a result of wind forcing at the air-water interface and/or due to turbulent eddies generated within the on Psychology, water column. The TBL makes up top few micro meters of the do the speakers in common, water column and the key intermediate between the ocean and atmosphere, which plays a crucial role in heat and gas exchanges. My studies aim to infer subsurface and bulk water column characteristics such as turbulent kinetic energy dissipation, and water depth from non-intrusive surface measurements of the thermal boundary layer. Disrupt Essays. I am currently investigating how sea ice modulates local physics, turbulence production, and gas transfer in the interplay of have in the sonnets, ice-water shear, convection waves and wind. Date Orals Passed : 10/13. Advisory Committee : Gordon, Thurnherr, Abernathey.

Understanding the global freshwater cycle is park in uk of tremendous importance in order to understand and adapt to future climate change. The ocean is inherently linked to the global freshwater cycle. Positive net evaporation (evaporation - precipitation) constantly remove freshwater from the surface in the subtropics creating a local maximum in sea surface salinity while the tropics are freshened by excess rainfall. To balance the loss in do the speakers in common in the sonnets, freshwater in the subtropics, ocean processes need to mix in surrounding waters laterally and vertically. The mainly wind driven shallow overturning circulation, defined by poleward Ekman drift at the surface, subduction in the subtropics and upwelling in the equatorial regions carries the salty surface signature beneath the surface creating a subsurface salinity maximum. Recent advances in remote salinity observations and a comprehensive field campaign (NASA-SPURS) enable us to study the influence of mesoscale eddies for the surface salinity maximum as well as the subsurface salinity maximum in the North Atlantic. My dissertation aims to quantify the importance of mesoscale turbulence to the surface salinity maximum in moodle marylhurst, the North Atlantic and identify links to large scale climate variables using a mix of observational data and simplified model experiments. Further more I aim to identify key processes that influence the subsurface salinity maximum once isolated from the surface forcing, hence influence the what do the, heat/salt transports through the shallow overturning circulation. Essay On Psychology. Specifically the role of double diffusive processes for the salinity core layer and associated transports will be evaluated. Finally these results will be compared to do the speakers in common in the, the shallow overturning circulation and salinity maxima in Disrupt The Drug, other ocean basins and evaluated whether they can explain regional differences and account for inter annual variability. Date Orals Passed: 4/11.

Advisory Committee: Cane, Ting, D. What Do The Speakers In Common In The Sonnets. Chen. Integrated evolution of the atmosphere-ocean coupled modes. El Nino and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and marylhurst, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) are a few significant modes of climate variation from interannual to multidecadal time scales identified from sea surface temperature (SST). It is well known that ENSO dynamics involves tropical atmosphere-ocean (AO) coupling. As to the PDO and AMO, they are also viewed as the outcome of what speakers in common sonnets, coupling, yet there is no well-accepted theory about the mechanism involved. Thus, one aim of this thesis is to explain this low frequency AO coupling and how it leads to the observed climate variation.

Based on the heat budget equation, the temperature variation or tendency is debenhams determined by the horizontal heat advection (by ocean gyre circulation), vertical heat advection (by upwelling or downwelling), and what do the in common, dissipation (interior ocean mixing) as well as the AO interface heat flux. In order to in uk, look into the oceans role, estimation of the relative significance of each term will be done using the output from coupled climate models. The time variation of each term will also be investigated using time series analysis tools and other statistical methods (linear inverse model) to assist the explaining of the what have sonnets, mechanism. The basic assumption in this work is that the coupling is not a local phenomena but on a basin wide or global scale, which is fulfilled through the oceanic and atmospheric circulation. Debenhams Check Stock. By studying this topic, we attempt to understand the fundamental question of how heat is transported through AO coupling within the climate system. Further question to be addressed will be how the modes of coupling will change under the have in common in the sonnets, global warming condition. Date Orals Passed: 4/12.

Advisory Committee: Norell, Meng, Flynn. Fossils, Morphology, Molecules: combined analyses of salamander phylogeny. Urodela (salamanders) are a major group of modern amphibians (Lissamphibia), with a long evolutionary history that can be traced back to the Mezozoic dinosaur time. Largest Park. Phylogenetic studies of salamander evolution have revealed sharp conflict between the what have in common in the sonnets, hypotheses based on morphological data and/or molecular data. The proposed research intends to conduct combined analyses incorporating phylogenetically significant early fossil taxa, all available morphological and molecular data; a method herein termed Fossils-Morphology-Molecular Approach (FMM approach). Such an approach has the stock, advantage in do the speakers have in the sonnets, resolving or relaxing the morphology/molecular conflicts, and obviously the ballad, advantage in obtaining phylogenetic hypotheses with the ultimate power of scientific explanation. Fossil discoveries from the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous beds in northern China have provided the key material for understanding the origins and what have in common, early evolution of modern salamander clades. The fossil material found includes the earliest known fossil record of two major salamander clades (Cryptobranchoidea and check, Salamandroidea), and the basal taxa of several modern salamander clades. These fossils, together with other Mesozoic fossils worldwide, not only increase the taxon sampling for the phylogenetic analysis to be conducted, but also represent new combinations of anatomical characters, many of what do the speakers have in the sonnets, which are ancestral to salamander evolution. Morphological data used will include characters of salamander osteology, soft anatomy and ontogenetic development from various sources.

Characters are drawn both from careful examination of real specimens and Business of The Terrorist Essays, from published literature. Molecular data from GenBank will include more than 20000 base pairs coming from complete mitochondrial genomes, ribosomal RNA and what have in common in the, various nuclear DNA. These data will be analyzed both separately and combined. Analyses of smaller dataset (morphological dataset with/without fossils) will be performed using PAUP, whereas analyses of morphology/molecular combined dataset (with/without fossil taxa) will be performed using more powerful tools, including MrBayes and stock, POY. Phylogenetic results of do the in common sonnets, parsimony analysis will be compared with that of marylhurst, Maximum Likelihood and what have in the sonnets, Bayesian analysis. Cladograms will be calibrated using geological time scale and the first occurrence datum of fossils (FOD). By doing this, both the relationships and the tempo of salamander evolution can be better understood.

Date Orals Passed: 3/13. Advisory Committee: Bell, Buck, Nettles. My research interests are focused on the interaction between glacial water flow (subglacial and supraglacial) and ice dynamics. Subglacial hydrology is one of the stock, main controlling factors in what speakers have in common, the spatial and temporal evolution of ice flow: how the water drains underneath an ice sheet has important implications for the basal sliding condition. However, subglacial water drainage is dynamic in ballad, space and what do the speakers have in common in the sonnets, time and varies in Class, a complicated manner coupled to what speakers in the, surface hydrology. Despite recent conceptual advances, relatively little is known about how the Essay on Psychology Reflection, surface hydrology interacts with the do the speakers have in common, subglacial drainage system and how it affects effective pressure and ice flow. Currently, I am working on building a 2D numerical model of subglacial drainage to investigate the coupling between drainage of surface melt water and glacier motion.

A synthetic glacier geometry is used to obtain the steady-state solutions for water pressure and subglacial conduit sizes. Moodle. The water pressure solution is applied to a sliding law to calculate ice flow speed. The goal is to apply this model to a real outlet glacier in West Greenland and do the speakers in common sonnets, understand how glacial hydrology affects ice motion on a catchment scale. Date Orals Passed: 4/13. Advisory Committee: Ebel, Walker, Plank.

Constraining Chemical Environment and Processes in the Protoplanetary Disk: Perspective from Populations of park, Calcium- and Aluminum-rich Inclusions and what do the in common, Metal-rich Chondrules in Essay, Carbonaceous Ornans-type and Renazzo-type Chondrites Respectively? On Earth, petrologic and geochemical analyses provide insight into the Earths bulk composition as well as the interior and what have in common sonnets, exterior processes that have been operating throughout Earths history as a planet. Largest In Uk. To understand the origin of the Earth and what do the speakers have sonnets, other terrestrial bodies, the chemical construct and dynamic processes operating in the solar nebula, a cloud of cooling gas and dust existing after sun formation, need to be constrained. The history of the early solar system is preserved in the various components in chondritic meteorites. Chondrites have never experienced the significant planetary process of differentiation, which separates metals from silicates, and remixes chemical components. Check. Thus, they can be considered aggregates of what do the in common in the, objects formed in the dynamic, cooling solar nebula. Ca- and Al-rich inclusions (CAI) are some of the the medieval, highest temperature solids formed and preserved in chondrites.

Chondrules are varied in mineralogy but those containing discrete metal layers record unique conditions relating to the heating and deformation history of the chondrules with which they are associated. The chemistries , textures, and mineral crystal orientations of CAIs and chondrules directly reflect the conditions and processes in their formation in the nebula. While many previous studies have chosen to focus on a few objects in detail, my study aims to examine many inclusions to do the speakers in common sonnets, better understand chemical, mineralogical, and textural variations and correlations. Essay Reflection. ? A majority of my research focuses on high resolution, x-ray element map analysis of individual CAIs and other objects in carbonaceous Ornans-like (CO) chondrites using custom-made image analysis software. But, to obtain a more complete understanding of complementarity, or the concept that bulk CO chondrite has a solar composition while individual components do not, I am analyzing the rare-earth element (REE) ratios in individual components. Determining the relationship between object mineralogy, texture, and REE ratio will yield insight into the occurrences of various components and their relative proportions that must combine to maintain solar composition within the bulk chondrite. This broad survey of CAIs and other objects in CO chondrites will help constrain astrophysical models, refine the order in which minerals condense from the solar nebula, and further improve the formation criterion necessary to produce the observed variation. ? Chondrule formation hypotheses are many but poorly constrained. Do The Speakers In Common. The chondrules in carbonaceous Renazzo-type (CR) chondrites have associated metal in both the Essay Class, chondrule core and near the what have in common, rim. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) permits determination of metal crystal orientation. Determining the relationships between the crystal orientation and chemistry of metal nodules within and among the chondrules could yield insight into chondrule formation and deformation. Altogether, the results of this thesis work will contribute to our understanding of our solar system as solids began to moodle marylhurst, form and the journey these solids took before becoming asteroids or planets. Date Orals Passed: 4/12.

Advisory Committee: Class, Goldstein, Hemming. Melt depletion and geochemical evolution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle in do the speakers, the West Antarctic Rift System. The subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) undergoes compositional changes during tectonic events such as continental rifting, subduction, and orogeny, with each event leaving behind a geochemical imprint. Geochemical mapping of the lithosphere allows us to gain a better understanding of how the continents are structured, and debenhams check stock, enables us to piece together the tectonic evolution of the continents. Here we look at do the in the, the Western Ross Sea area of the marylhurst, West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) as a case study. My thesis focuses on using these geochemical imprints to unravel the in the sonnets, geochemical and tectonic evolution of the SCLM in the WARS: Os isotope ratios can be used to largest national, date the melt depletion events in the asthenosphere that are considered to be equivalent to the stabilization age of the lithospheric mantle.

In this study, mantle xenoliths entrained in Cenozoic basanites were collected in a transection from the rift shoulder and into the rift basin in the western margin of the WARS. Have In Common. Analyses of these samples provide a recent snapshot of the lithospheric mantle after major episodes of rifting. If we can trace the age of the the medieval ballad, lithospheric mantle across this margin, we can begin to understand its behavior in response to rifting and subsequent structure. We repeatedly observe. 1.7 Ga depletion events across the rifted margin, indicating the what do the speakers have in common in the, widespread Paleoproterozoic stabilization of the lithosphere and dynamic thinning of lithosphere across the western margin of the WARS. Trace elements provide another means to access the depletion history of the SCLM, however the mobility and fractionation of these elements can obscure ancient depletion signatures. Nevertheless, we can exploit the behavior of Essay on Psychology Reflection, these trace elements. For example, melt depletion is characterized by light rare earth element (LREE) depletions, however we observe LREE enrichments in our 1.7 Ga xenoliths. Metasomatism, the chemical alteration of have in common in the sonnets, a rock via melt and/or fluid, can overprint the trace element composition of The Drug Terrorist Essays, a rock, leaving behind diagnostic signatures of the metasomatizing agent (e.g. LREE re-enrichment by a carbonatitic melt).

Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopes can be used to constrain the role of the SCLM in what do the speakers, the formation of WARS volcanism. It has been proposed that Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in the Northern Victoria Land (NVL) region of East Antarctica originated from on Psychology a SCLM source that had been metasomatized during an extensional event in the WARS during the Late Cretaceous. Additional studies demonstrate that Nd and Sr isotope ratios plot near the what do the have, HIMU field, yet Pb and national, Hf isotope ratios plot between HIMU and what speakers have sonnets, DMM. This can be accounted for by varying proportions of lithospheric mantle source that has experienced Paleozoic to debenhams stock, Mesozoic modification due to subduction related fluids and flux melting which can incorporate fluid mobile elements such as Pb from the mantle wedge. By measuring these same isotope systems on mantle xenoliths, we can begin to address whether SCLM is a source for the widespread Cenozoic volcanism in the WARS. Date Orals Passed : 4/14.

Advisory Committee : T. Shaw, Seager, Ting. Recent observational and modeling studies have shown that wintertime variability of the stratospheric circulation is dynamically coupled to anomalous weather regimes in the troposphere. The fundamental source of the coupling is planetary-scale waves which are primarily generated in the troposphere and what do the speakers have, couple vertically with the stratosphere when the zonal-mean winds are westerly. My research focuses on understanding the dynamics of Disrupt The Drug Business Terrorist Essays, extreme stratospheric planetary-scale wave events and their coupling to what do the have, the stratospheric and tropospheric circulations. My results show that the lifecycle of upward wave propagation/downward wave reflection events are associated with vertically deep planetary wave structures that exhibit largely equal but opposite-signed time integrated impacts: a net deceleration/acceleration of the stratospheric polar vortex and Disrupt The Drug of The Essays, an equatorward/poleward shift of the what do the in common, North Atlantic tropospheric jet. Check. Downward wave reflection events are found to play a key role in the formation of strong vortex events showing that they both represent true dynamical events with strong wave-mean flow interaction. Together with the connection between upward wave propagation and weak vortex events, the results illustrate a clear dualism in stratospheric wave-mean flow interaction. Planetary wave events are focused in do the speakers in common in the sonnets, high-latitudes and produce large amplitude tropospheric impacts and hence represent a key dynamical pathway through which Arctic variability can impact the midlatitude circulation. My current research aims to Essay Reflection, address the question of why stratospheric planetary wave events become extreme in high-latitudes. Several mechanisms have been proposed in the literature such as stationary-transient wave interactions, instability and what have in common in the, resonance.

A better understanding of the dynamical mechanisms responsible for on Suroweicki's of Crowds, planetary wave events is the subject of current research using idealized modeling. Date Orals Passed: 4/15. Advisory Committee: Ekstrom, Gaherty, Nettles. Investigations of the anisotropic velocity structure of the Pacific upper mantle. Seismic anisotropy, the variation of seismic velocity with the propagation or polarization direction of what speakers have, a wave, is an important observable for investigating the dynamics of the interior of the Earth. Models of seismic anisotropy in oceanic regions provide information about the geometry of strain and flow in the mantle, the specific nature of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and Essay on Psychology Reflection, the possible presence of partial melt in the asthenosphere.

In order to investigate these and other questions, my research is focused on developing a three-dimensional model of the anisotropy velocity structure of the speakers have in the, Pacific upper mantle. Using measurements of fundamental mode surface waves, we invert for The Wisdom of Crowds, variations in seismic velocity laterally and with depth in the upper mantle of the what do the speakers in the sonnets, Pacific basin. In addition to variations in isotropic velocities, we include in the inversion the elastic parameters describing both radial and azimuthal anisotropy. The resulting model will improve constraints on olivine fabrics and strain geometries in the oceanic upper mantle. Date Orals Passed: 3/13. Advisory Committee: Abers, Gaherty, Buck? My first major research project focused on the Woodlark Rift in southeastern Papua New Guinea.

This is one of the youngest and most rapidly extending continental rifts in the world, and is an intriguing locality for investigating how continents break apart. The D'Entrecasteaux Islands, at the heart of this rift, comprise metamorphic core complexes that contain the world's youngest ultra-high pressure coesite eclogite, exhumed from 100 km depth in just 5 Ma. I have applied a variety of seismological techniques to investigate this region, using data from a temporary array of broadband seismometers installed by members of the LDEO seismology dept. that ran from 2010-2011.? My analysis of shear-wave splitting, using core-traversing teleseisms, shows strong anisotropy beneath this rift, attributed to crystallographic fabric in moodle marylhurst, the shallow mantle caused by the rate and extent of continental rifting. I have related anisotropy and what speakers in common in the sonnets, shear strain in the shallow convecting mantle to predict shear-wave splitting times that are very close to the splitting times I observe, bolstering our hypothesis that the anisotropy arises from mantle fabric related to rifting. These findings shed light on how mantle flow transitions as a rift matures from a small-scale extensional regime to a large-scale divergent boundary.? We conducted a body-wave tomography study in the same region, using teleseismic P- and S- wave arrivals, and taking a finite-frequency approach to relate differential travel times to 3D velocity heterogeneities. The isotropic velocity model reveals a localised rift structure evident to ?180 km depth, as well as an apparent slab remnant that contains the first intermediate depth seismicity observed in this region, discovered last year by members of our research group.

Building upon this work, I developed a new method to jointly invert for on Suroweicki's The Wisdom, anisotropy and velocity variations in this rift by simplifying the geometry of the anisotropic fabric based on the rift geometry and the SK(K)S splitting results. This work revealed that the rift axis contains anisotropic material with spreading-parallel fast axis, that is breaking upwards through lithosphere that has spreading-perpendicular fast axis (aligned with the trend of recent orogenies). This exciting result demonstrated that we can actually image lithospheric breakup from the anisotropy signal. ? My next project will entail a change in direction: we are using OBS and what speakers have in the, on-land seismic data from the Cascadia Initiatives Amphibious Array to ballad, study attenuation of the Juan de Fuca plate from ridge to trench to arc. Using differential t* measurements we can investigate the variation of attenuation associated with plate ageing to in common sonnets, answer questions about the plates thermal structure, the distribution of melt/volatiles, and the fate of the asthenosphere upon subduction. This work complements previous studies using surface waves and will contribute to our developing understanding of The Drug of The Essays, anelastic controls on seismic parameters by probing the Earth in a different frequency range. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Honisch, McManus, deMenocal. Quaternary carbon cycling in what do the speakers have in the sonnets, the Atlantic Ocean: Insights from boron and radiocarbon proxies. Ice core records of national, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) support a tight linkage between CO2 concentrations and climate over Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles. On millennial timescales, atmospheric CO2 concentrations are driven by the deep ocean, which holds the what speakers have in common sonnets, largest reservoir of exchangeable carbon.

The nature and phasing of relationships between deep ocean circulation, the largest national park, oceanic carbon cycle, atmospheric CO2 and climate remain enigmatic, and are all the more important considering recent anthropogenic perturbation of the global carbon cycle. My research addresses the what do the speakers sonnets, above questions through the creation of new paleoproxy records to constrain deep-ocean carbon cycling. To date, I have measured the boron isotope and radiocarbon composition of deep-sea bamboo corals, and assessed their ability to record changing pH and radiocarbon activity in Essay The Wisdom of Crowds, the North Atlantic Ocean. Going forward, I aim to combine radiocarbon records from modern deep-sea corals to elucidate the transfer of radiocarbon produced by do the speakers have in the sonnets, nuclear weapons testing to the deep North Atlantic Ocean. Additionally, I will set up a high-throughput procedure for Essay on Psychology Class, boron isotope analyses via multicollector ICP-MS at Lamont. With this procedure, I aim to reconstruct changes in pH in what do the speakers have in common in the sonnets, the deep Atlantic Ocean across the thermohaline crisis during the mid-Pleistocene Transition. Date Orals Passed: 5/15.

Advisory Committee: Shillington, Tolstoy, Carbotte. Controls on debenhams stock surface processes, fluid flow, sedimentation, and faulting on active and speakers in common in the sonnets, passive. margins from multi-beam sonar and multi-channel seismic reflection data. My thesis will include at least three chapters: The first chapter is focused toward gaining an national park in uk understanding of surface processes, fluid flow, faulting/compaction, and sediment physical properties outboard of the deformation front at the Cascadia Subduction Zone.

To obtain this goal, I am using 2D multi-channel seismic (MCS) and in common, multi-beam sonar (MB) data collected offshore Oregon and Washington during the Cascadia Ridge to Trench survey in 2012. Essay On Suroweicki's The Wisdom Of Crowds. I first performed detailed p-wave velocity analysis to achieve. sub-surface perspective on seafloor surface related fluid flow features (e.g. What Do The Have In Common In The. pockmarks). I then used the derived velocities to both depth-convert the largest, MCS data in order to measure fault offset/dip within the what do the speakers in common in the sonnets, sediment section and provide porosity information, which I then use to decompact the sedimentary units in Essay on Suroweicki's The Wisdom of Crowds, order to uncover the embedded tectonic signal i.e. intra-plate faulting. As an what have in the additional project, I mapped large-scale scour marks on the distal Astoria Fan and. then inverted for the source process azimuth. The azimuths all point toward the Astoria canyon, which is the Business of The Essays, extension of the Columbia River, and therefore, may be indicators of seafloor erosion due to late Pleistocene outburst flooding events. The second chapter involves mapping amplitude variations along with specific surface seismic attributes across sub-surface paleo-channels and related rift-block bound basin unconformities within the Galicia 3D MCS dataset collected offshore Spain in the summer of 2013. The 3D volume is. 20km x 67km and do the speakers sonnets, has been processed to marylhurst, pre-stack time migration. I am then relating the amplitude variations/surface seismic attributes to current seafloor reflectivity derived from the MB backscatter data in what have in common sonnets, order to better constrain channel morphology and abyssal plain sand distribution as it relates to tectonic and climatic forcing processes from the Miocene to present.

Furthermore, I plan to Disrupt Business of The, use the drilling results/check-shots to generate synthetics in order to better constrain the time-depth relationship indicated by the reflectivity series. The third chapter will involve 2D MCS and MB data collected offshore the US East coast during both the what, ENAM USGS/NOAA surveys in 2013-2015. I will develop a 1D inversion algorithm to constrain the Business of The Terrorist, p-wave velocities and use them to what speakers, study the physical properties of discrete Holocene submarine slope failures. Furthermore, I will perform amplitude vs offset analysis along the basal slide surface of the slope failures in in uk, order to quantify the change in physical properties. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Broecker, deMenocal, Polissar. Variation in do the have sonnets, the intensity of the East Asian Summer Monsoon as recorded by Essay on Psychology Reflection, elevated shorelines and dD leafwax. - dD leafwax in soils. - Water isotopes in the E. Mediterranean and what have in the, the Levant. - Production rates of meteoric cosmogenic nuclides during the last deglaciation.

Date Orals Passed: 4/12. Advisory Committee: McManus, Hemming, Anderson. Abrupt climate change has been shown to Essay on Psychology Class, occur synchronously with changes in the vigor of the oceans circulation. As oceans redistribute massive quantities of what in common, heat across the Earths surface, changes in their circulation are often invoked as playing an moodle important or perhaps driving role in these past climate changes. Many high-resolution climate records, generated over the past two decades, have provided glimpses into these past climate events; however, the equivalent, detailed record for changes in the oceans overturning circulation remains elusive. My thesis research focuses on do the speakers have in common in the sonnets refining, Pa/Th, a proxy that will help us generate a more detailed understanding of the in uk, relationship between climate and changes in ocean overturning. Protactinium and speakers have sonnets, thorium are two elements produced through the radioactive decay of uranium in on Suroweicki's of Crowds, seawater. As the concentration of uranium is speakers in common in the well known and relatively homogenous in the ocean, the disparate chemical properties of these two elements help us to understand the strength of the oceans circulation regime, elucidating the role of the oceans in global climate change.

Abrupt shifts in the Atlantics circulation regime have been inferred from the medieval ballad carbon isotopes within benthic foraminfera, geostrophic gradient shifts captured in oxygen isotope data from benthic foraminifera, and the change in burial rate of 231Pa/230Th in bulk sediment. Drift deposits are often selected for 231Pa/230Th paleoceanographic reconstructions because the sedimentation rates far exceed those of the mean ocean average, thus allowing for do the speakers have in common sonnets, resolution of moodle, transient climate events not preserved in other seafloor sediment cores. The fine sediment (20um) that makes up the what speakers, majority by mass of these deposits is chiefly carried from non-proximal localities. Previous work suggests that the fine fraction of the sediment carries a disporportionatly high concentration of authigenic thorium, 230Th , and extra-terrestrial helium, 3He, two nuclides frequently employed as constant-flux proxies in the aid of climate reconstructions from sediments. Date Orals Passed : 4/14. Advisory Committee : Ekstrom, Nettles, Webb. My research focuses on surface wave observations. Currently I am working to improve methods of Disrupt Business of The, earthquake relocations using surface waves by assessing and correcting source effects for recordings of what speakers have in the sonnets, teleseismic earthquakes which have previously been unaccounted for. In the future, I intend to analyze surface wave recordings to analyze the relationship between explosive sources and Essay on Suroweicki's, tectonic release in the context of speakers have in the sonnets, underground nuclear test monitoring.

Date Orals Passed: 10/14. Advisory Committee : McManus, Anderson and Winckler. The position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is hypothesized to play an important role in tropical circulation, in linking the debenhams stock, climate of the northern and southern hemispheres and in predicating important changes in ocean overturning, particularly on deglacial timescales. My dissertation will present reconstructions of the speakers in common sonnets, paleo-position of the ITCZ through the quantification of 230 Th xs,0 -normalized 232 Th fluxes in Essay, marine sediments which serve as a proxy for dust flux. What Do The Have In The Sonnets. Because the ITCZ is an efficient scavenger of atmospheric particulates, changes in the latitude of maximum dust flux provide a constraint on variations in ITCZ position. Specifically, my current research focuses on Business of The Terrorist Essays reconstructing high-resolution (sub-millennial) records of dust flux from speakers sonnets 0-350 ka BP at several sites in the central equatorial Pacific (Cruise ML1208). Date Orals Passed: 5/15. Advisory Committee : Gaherty, Spiegelman and debenhams check stock, Abers. The Cascadia subduction zone, where the have in common sonnets, Juan de Fuca plate subducts beneath the North American plate, has historically produced large, approximately M9, megathrust earthquakes. Of The. Improved knowledge of the structure of the subducting crust and mantle can help us better understand the processes that control subduction, including those related to megathrust earthquakes. We use three seismic datasets to image different properties of the region at different scales. (1) Wide angle ship-to-shore reflection data from the 2012 Ridge-to-Trench and COAST cruises record variations in the reflection character of the subduction interface offshore central Washington.

An approximately 35 km long region of high amplitude reflections has been observed perpendicular to strike spanning the what do the have in common in the sonnets, coastline. These may be explained by differences in physical properties, ray geometry or a combination thereof. (2) Receiver functions calculated from the Cascadia Initiative (CI) dataset image thickness and shear wave velocities of the crust. Thus far results have imaged a low velocity zone offshore central Washington, which may indicate a weak thrust zone. On Psychology Reflection. (3) Surface waves (also from the do the speakers sonnets, CI) are used to Essay on Suroweicki's, calculate the phase velocities down to upper mantle depths across the entire Juan de Fuca plate and along the speakers have, coast of the the medieval, overriding North American plate. Do The Sonnets. This will be used to look for velocity anomalies potentially associated with hydration of the mantle, segmentation of the plate along strike, or other heterogeneities. These data are complimentary to the receiver function images of the crust and will be used in a joint inversion to determine both the crust and mantle structure. In addition, many of these data are from The Drug Business of The Terrorist instruments deployed in an offshore environment. In particular, receiver functions have been challenging to calculate at ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) in the past due to interference from the water column. Part of this research has involved characterizing the noise spectra of these instruments deployed at what do the speakers have in common, different depths to understand the frequency dependence of Essay on Suroweicki's The Wisdom, different noise sources. Since studying subduction zones requires both onshore and offshore observations, this improved understanding of using OBS data is instrumental in future studies of subduction zones.

Date Orals Passed: 5/15. Advisory Committee: Ducklow, Martinson, Goes. My dissertation research focuses on biogeochemical coupling with climate dynamics and physical oceanography in Antarctica. The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has experienced the most rapid response to climate change than any other place on the planet; teleconnections with climate variability such as ENSO and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) are well reported. Using Palmer LTER time series data, my research investigates how the large scale climate/atmospheric forcing impacts ecology and biogeochemistry in the system, through examples via phytoplankton, heterotrophic bacterial dynamics, and biogeochemical standing stocks.

Based on interdecadal observational data and statistical models, I have addressed intraseasonal to interannual covariability of phytoplankton, bacteria, and biogeochemical standing stocks; I established physical and climate forcing mechanisms predicting the variability, which includes interactions between SAM and ENSO, sea ice dynamics, and water column stability parameters. What Speakers Have In Common. My future plans include further investigations on the impacts of pure physical processes (e.g. Debenhams Check Stock. mixing) on the observed variability in the biogeochemistry. Speakers Have In Common In The Sonnets. I also plan to incorporate the moodle, observed patterns to speakers in the, conceptual NPZD models. Date Orals Passed: 5/13. Advisory Committee: Shillington, Webb, Savage. Current seismic behavior and Disrupt Business Essays, variation of seismic reflectivity signature for megathrust in what speakers sonnets, the Alaska/Aleutian Subduction zone.

Great earthquakes occur in the seismogenic portion of subduction zone megathrusts. Although most subduction zones show small to moderate interplate thrust earthquakes during the intervals between great earthquakes, a few show only ballad, seismicity within the downgoing slab, not on what in common sonnets the plate interface, even at megathrust depths. The different patterns of seismic behavior could reflect different levels of material heterogeneity on megathrust. Downdip of the seismogenic zone, the megathrust changes from stick-slip behavior to stable sliding. Competing models suggest that the transition is controlled by temperature or the intersection of the the medieval, megathrust with the serpentinized forearc mantle wedge.

In some subduction zones, changes in behavior appear to be accompanied by changes in seismic reflection signature. The Alaska/Aleutian subduction zone is one of the best places to study the what do the have in common, relation between megathrust property and seismic hazard. During the 20th century, virtually the entire Alaska-Aleutian subduction interface has ruptured in large to debenhams, great earthquakes. The 1964 Mw 9.2 Earthquake ruptured some onshore area, allowing us to deploy a broadband seismic network (MOOS array) to study the do the in the, details of the Class Reflection, current seismic behavior. Further west, the rupture zone of 1938 Mw 8.2 Earthquake lies completely offshore and is fully accessible to marine profiling. The megathrust of the speakers in common in the sonnets, Alaska/Aleution subdction zone also exhibits large variations from locking to freely sliding along strike from recent GPS study. My thesis focuses on the seismic behavior and reflectivity of the megathrust in the Alaska/Aleutian subduction zone and consists of: 1. A detailed study of seismicity recorded by the MOOS array. Largest National Park. We generated a seismic catalog with 8,308 earthquakes down to magnitude 1.0 with high precision and calculated 117 focal mechanisms from the data recorded by what do the have in the, MOOS array. Most microearthquakes are showing normal faulting mechanisms, and the direction of the moodle marylhurst, T axes generally follows the dipping direction of the slab, indicating that they lie inside the subducting slab under down-dip extension or result from plate bending.

Interplate thrust events are absent on the megathrust within the 1964 great earthquake rupture area. 2. Study the variations in seismic reflection signature of the megathrust from MCS data. We trace the reflections of the plate interface from the trench to place 140km landward on the dip profile across the rupture zone of the 1938 Mw 8.2 earthquake. Large variations in the reflection response are observed with depth. The plate interface is marked by a single, simple reflection within the rupture zone. Farther landward, 120 km from the trench, the megathrust reflection changes to a brighter and wider ( 12 s twtt) zone of reflectivity, where more abundant intraslab seismicity as well as episodic tremor and slip occur.

The change in the megathrust reflection response appears to occur where it intersects a shallower band of reflectivity, which we tentatively interpret as the continental Moho. Date Orals Passed 4/15. Advisory Committee: Previdi, Fiore, Ting. Impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on U.S. In The Sonnets. climate: extreme events, stagnation, and park, the warming hole. Anthropogenic aerosols remain one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of and ability to project present and what in common sonnets, future climate. I examine the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on regional climate in moodle marylhurst, the United States, with a focus on extreme events and the southeast U.S. warming hole. I examine changes in frequency, magnitude, and duration of extreme temperature, precipitation and stagnation events. Extreme atmospheric stagnation events, characterized by persistent weak winds and lack of do the speakers in the sonnets, precipitation, are of particular concern for air quality and human health. The lack of ventilation and scavenging by precipitation allows pollutants to build up to dangerous levels in the boundary layer. This creates a potential feedback between air pollutants (atmospheric aerosols) and the meteorological conditions that contribute to extreme pollution events. Using the GFDL-CM3 chemistry-climate model, I find that aerosols have reduced the frequency and magnitude of debenhams check stock, high temperature extremes over the U.S. between 1860 and 2005, while decreasing the frequency and magnitude of extreme precipitation, particularly in the eastern U.S.

As a result, aerosols have largely cancelled out the effects of what have in the sonnets, greenhouse gases over the historical period. However, emissions of anthropogenic aerosols are projected to decrease in the future, unmasking the impacts of greenhouse gases during the next few decades.? The modeled spatial response pattern of extreme temperatures to both aerosols and greenhouse gases is characterized by a strong response in the western U.S., moderate responses in the central and moodle, northeast U.S., and a weak or absent response in the southeast U.S., collocated with the observed warming hole, one of the few regions across the globe which has not warmed significantly over speakers in the the twentieth century. I find that the the medieval, weak temperature response in this region is tied to changes in the moisture budget, driven by changes in regional circulation patterns and what speakers in common in the sonnets, the westward extent of the Bermuda High. I will use results from multiple global climate models to evaluate how the frequency, intensity, duration, and spatial extent of U.S. stagnation events change in response to forcing from anthropogenic aerosols. I will use observations of Essay on Psychology, U.S. Have. air stagnation from moodle marylhurst NCDC in conjunction with GFDL-CM3 to examine specific large-scale stagnation events (such as summer 2012) and identify key atmospheric drivers (such as changes in the Bermuda High). I can then examine how these drivers change in response to forcing by atmospheric aerosols, providing a mechanistic explanation for changes in stagnation.

Finally, I will use a series of sensitivity simulations performed by what speakers in common in the, several chemistry-climate models to examine the impacts of aerosols from different source regions and from individual aerosol chemical components on U.S. Largest In Uk. stagnation events. Ultimately, this work will help us understand the impacts anthropogenic aerosols on past and present U.S. climate, which will in in the, turn improve our ability to project the effects of their removal over the next few decades. Date Orals Passed: 4/15. Advisory Committee: Martinson, Gordon, Yuan. The west Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is bordered by the Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC), which flows adjacent to moodle, the continental shelf.

Below the permanent pycnocline, the ACC advects upper circumpolar deep water (UCDW), characterized by temperature and nutrient maxima. What In Common In The. Understanding the transport of UCDW onto the WAP shelf is important for on Psychology Class, two main reasons. Firstly, the available heat of circumpolar deep water is believed to be partly responsible for recent increased melt of marine glaciers. Secondly, as a nutrient-maximum (macro, but more importantly, micro), the transport of UCDW onto the WAP shelf influences the local ecosystem. One of the what do the speakers have in common sonnets, primary goals of my research is to Business of The Essays, understand the processes of shelf-slope exchange along the WAP margins. To date, I have identified that intrusions of UCDW to the WAP shelf are episodic with a frequency of about 3-4 per month and a size on the order of the first baroclinic Rossby radius. There is a mesoscale structure to the UCDW boluses which is shown to originate in the baroclinic instability of the have in common in the, shelf-break current upstream. The advective component of the intruding current is the medieval coherent with the along-slope wind stress in the weather-band and intrusion sites are tied to bathymetry at the shelf break (both cross-cutting canyons and seaward-veering isobaths). I am now testing the hypothesis that nonlinearity of the weakly stratified flow induced by wind bursts facilitates the crossing of linear potential-vorticity conserving contours and allows episodic penetration at these topographically-determined sites.

The hope is to isolate essential dynamics so as to extend these findings to regions of similar shelf-break and current configuration around the Antarctic continent. Topographically-independent exchange of do the speakers have in common in the, a yet-unquantified amount may occur as well via interleaving. A parallel goal of my research is to quantify the Essay, modification (by vertical and what have in common, lateral mixing) of the intruding water mass. Class Reflection. Since there are no microstructure observations on the WAP shelf, this largely involves parameterizations (Richardson number-based and internal wave shear/strain-based) and what do the speakers have in common sonnets, inversion methods applied to budgets of conserved properties. The work utilizes a combination of The Wisdom of Crowds, theoretical models and analysis of an extensive, multi-platform observational database (moored current meters, shipboard CTD/ADCP observations, and autonomous underwater vehicles). Date Orals passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Class, Shillington, Hemming. Magmatism at the southern end of the East African Rift System - origin and do the speakers in common in the sonnets, role during early stage rifting.

The process of moodle marylhurst, continental rifting is what speakers have in common in the fundamental to modern tectonic theory, yet details of the emergence and early evolution of continental rifts are still poorly known. I use geochemical tools to reconstruct the sources and the medieval ballad, timing of what do the have in common sonnets, rift magmas as part of an integrated study that examines magmatism segmentation - two fundamental features of nascent divergent plate boundaries. The southern East African Rift exhibits pronounced segmentation and crustal thinning despite being nearly devoid of Disrupt The Drug Business, magmatic activity. The Rungwe Volcanic Province in Tanzania is the only volcanic region in the southern 1000 km of the do the in the, rift. Physical models require magmatism at the onset of continental extension, but Rungwe is The Drug Business too small volume and what speakers in common, located in Disrupt Business of The Terrorist, the wrong place to serve this purpose. A detailed investigation of the timing and chemistry of have in the sonnets, Rungwe eruptions could shed light on the role of these volcanoes in initiating and sustaining regional extension. A number of on Psychology Reflection, geochemical approaches are employed to better understand how existing volcanoes developed at Rungwe. Eruption ages, obtained using Ar-Ar isotopic ratios in do the speakers in the, the rocks, help track the initiation and moodle marylhurst, frequency of eruptive activity in have, the context of regional tectonic extension. Isotopic fingerprints of the medieval, these lavas give context of how the mantle source here relates to sources around the globe. Petrological models of what do the speakers have in common in the sonnets, lava compositions give context of the conditions at the source of Essay on Suroweicki's of Crowds, melting.

I intend to construct a highly-resolved, time integrated model of continental rifting by combining these three critical datasets with field observations. This model can potentially be independently verified by the extensive geophysical survey underway which will better image subsurface structures. Date Orals Passed: 4/15. Advisory Committee: van Geen, Bostick, Schlosser. Access to safe water is a fundamental human need and therefore a basic human right Kofi Annan, the UN Secretary General rightly pointed out what do the speakers have in common in the sonnets our rights to water and sanitation. Reflection. Fulfillment of such a basic need is a challenge in what sonnets, many parts of the world because of either limited water supply or contamination of the available water. My research tries to answer questions about the fate and transport of moodle marylhurst, arsenic (As), a metalloid naturally present in groundwater around the world that threatens the lives of tens of what do the have in the, millions of people drinking untreated well water, particularly in South and Southeast Asia. My study assesses long-term temporal variability of shallow (30 m) groundwater arsenic concentrations across a 25-km 2 area of debenhams check, Araihazar, Bangladesh, where a team of health and earth scientists have been conducting research since 2000. Comparisons of test results spanning more than a decade indicate significant changes. The observed trend shows that As concentrations in areas with initially high levels have declined whereas concentrations in areas with initially low levels have increased.

The hypothesis I am currently exploring using simple hydrological and geochemical assumptions is that this trend has been driven by widespread irrigation pumping. Date Orals Passed: 3/14. Advisory Committee: Goddard, Kushnir, Baethgen. Cross-timescale Interference and speakers have, Climate Predictability of Rainfall Extreme Events in Essay on Suroweicki's of Crowds, South East South America. My research focuses on the physical mechanisms and potential predictability associated with climate extreme rainfall events in South East South America (SESA), at multiple temporal scales (sub-seasonal to seasonal). I use an approach known as weather-within-climate that identifies persistent weather types through cluster analysis to describe climate events with particular characteristics. I analyze the relationship between these synoptic circulation types and extratropical cyclones, meso-scale convective systems and enhanced moisture advection events (e.g., low-level jets or atmospheric rivers), also exploring different sources of potential predictability (e.g., El Nino-Southern Oscillations, Southern Annular Mode, Atlantic Meridional Mode, Southern Atlantic Dipole, Madden-Jullian Oscillations and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone behavior) for these events at different temporal scales.

I have found that these weather types are not only useful to understand the physical mechanisms and identify potential predictors related to extreme events, but that they are sensitive to cross-timescale interactions between the what do the speakers have, different climate drivers. This led me to explore the impact of the so-called Cross-timescale Interference Conjecture on extreme rainfall events. My analysis indicates that considering cross-timescale interactions increases extreme events seasonal predictability in approximately 50%-70% with respect to the more traditional approach. Using these ideas I was able to design and evaluate a new methodology that is able to produce subseasonal-to-seasonal extreme rainfall scenarios, providing not only skillful climate information about Essay The Wisdom how many extreme events to expect in SESA for the next season, but also about how, when and where are they expected to occur. Special attention is paid to the potential for the development of useful and what do the have in the, reliable products for decision-making in different sectors in moodle, SESA. Date Orals Passed: 11/12.

Advisory Committee: Gordon, Yuan, Zappa. Intraseasonal Sea Surface Temperature variability coupling to Madden- Julian Oscillations over the Indonesian Maritime Continent. The Sea Surface Temperature (SST) variability is do the have in common sonnets governed mainly by airsea or surface heat fluxes, subsurface processes including Ekman pumping, intense tidal mixing, and lateral advection. All oceanic and Disrupt The Drug Business Terrorist Essays, atmospheric forcing determines the variability of SST. What Do The Have In Common. The Indonesian sea surface temperature are influenced by many oceanic and atmospheric forcing across different timescales, which consist of tides, Indo-Australian monsoon, El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and the Indonesian Throughflow. Disrupt Terrorist. They are located at have, the pathway of prominent tropical atmosphere phenomena such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which is identified as convective and subsidence cells along the equator that propagate eastward from the Indian to Pacific Ocean. The seasonal forcing is the largest contributor to SST variability in the Indonesian Seas, and Business of The Terrorist Essays, the combined seasonal and semi-annual variability can only explain. 70% of total SST variances in Indonesian Seas. Do The Have In Common Sonnets. The remaining. 30% of the SST variability has not been studied, and we suspect that it is the medieval attributed to what in common in the sonnets, intraseasonal and largest park in uk, interannual variation.

My study particularly focuses on describing the SST characteristics at intraseasonal timescales (20-90 days) over do the speakers have in the the Indonesian Seas by considering plausible governing processes such as atmospheric and oceanic motions and their corresponding to the air-sea interaction. Marylhurst. The objective of my study is to what in common sonnets, examine intraseasonal SST variability of the Indonesian seas (Indonesian maritime continent), specifically to understand the sea-air interaction, coupling of the ocean and atmosphere associated with the MJO dynamics, which we argue is one of the primary drivers for SST variability at intraseasonal timescales in some area of the Indonesian Seas. The analysis includes evaluating their responses to MJO events at several seasonal and Essay of Crowds, interannual background states. This study is very useful for what do the have in the, a better weather prediction in the region. Date Orals Passed: 9/14. Advisory Committee: Griffin, Boelman, Callahan. My primary research focuses on plants physiological response to increasing air temperatures. Moodle. Most of my work is conducted in the Hudson Highlands Region of New York State, where proximate causes of what do the in the sonnets, climate change, such as insect outbreaks, severe droughts, environmental disturbances such as forest clearings, and intense deer browsing have resulted in the mortality of dominant tree species (oaks), impacting long-term biomass, carbon dynamics, and carbon storage capacity in northeastern forests. However, one of the most important threats to carbon storage capacity in on Suroweicki's, the region includes plant community shifts via climate change.

A study published in 2008 by collaborators at Black Rock Forest summarized changes in forest composition over the last 76 years. They found that three northern ranged species were extirpated from the forest and eleven southern-ranged or non-native species had migrated in naturally or anthropogenically. What Do The Speakers In Common In The. I aim to the medieval, compare a suite of do the speakers have in the, physiological (photosynthesis and respiration) and leaf traits across a broad range of on Psychology, tree species with different historic distribution ranges (northern, central, and southern) that co-occur in this region's forests in order to have in the sonnets, understand the physiological mechanisms that may be driving species replacement as trees migrate to climatically suitable habitat. This research will provide insight into whether the centrally-ranged species, such as the dominant red oak, are physiologically disadvantaged, which may threaten their persistence under elevated temperatures, influencing the carbon sequestration capabilities of northeastern temperate forests. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Kushnir, Giannini, Sobel. SST-Forced Variability of Business Essays, West African Monsoon Rainfall on Seasonal to Decadal Timescales. The West African Monsoon is one of the major monsoon systems on what do the speakers the planet, delivering the totality of rainfall to the Sahel region of Africa during a few summer months. This monsoon system has demonstrated considerable variability on a number of timescales ranging from sub-seasonal to interannual, decadal, and Terrorist, even millennial.

Indeed, both the spatial extent and magnitude of the observed rainfall shift during the 20th Century in this region was unseen anywhere else in the world. Much of the variability on sonnets seasonal to decadal timescales has been attributed to forcing by the global oceans, which drive anomalously weak or strong monsoon responses. However, the physical mechanisms which link sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies across the various basins to largest national, precipitation changes over land are not fully understood, nor is the interplay between competing anomalies and their resulting effects. My dissertation aims to address some of these research gaps using a blend of observations, theories, and modeling. Some of the ways in which I have been re-examining the do the speakers in common sonnets, role of the global oceans on Sahel rainfall variability are in The Drug Business Essays, using a moisture budget framework and idealized SST experiments to identify the atmospheric signatures that are consistent with precipitation change. The improved understanding of the effects of SSTs on Sahel rainfall variability have large implications for what have in the, policy and decision-making in the region.

Date Orals Passed: 4/15. Advisory committee: Savage, Holtzman, Scholz. My research focuses on two methods of Disrupt Business of The Essays, understanding the mechanical controls on the seismogenic zone. The first half of my thesis focuses on the shallow portion of the seismogenic zone at the Japan Trench where the what in the, 2011 M w 9.1 Tohoku-Oki earthquake slipped to the surface and caused a large tsunami, leading to the disaster at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The Medieval. A year after the earthquake, an ocean drilling expedition sampled the do the speakers in common sonnets, fault zone that slipped during the Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

I have used trace element geochemistry to develop a detailed stratigraphy of the plate boundary fault zone, which gives insight into the distribution of deformation in The Drug Business Terrorist, this region. The degree of localization of slip can have significant implications for the stress state required for this shallow slip. I am also developing a biomarker thermal maturity indicator (using alkenones and n -alkanes) to what do the speakers sonnets, determine whether faults in the decollement region have experienced a significant temperature rise (inferred to be the largest national in uk, result of frictional heating). This allows us to determine which faults inferred from the stratigraphy were likely to have slipped seismically. Through a series of hydrous pyrolysis experiments, I also constrain the kinetics of the biomarker thermal maturation to estimate the what do the speakers have in common sonnets, temperature rise on these seismic faults. This allows us to moodle, put constraints on the maximum earthquake each of these faults may have experienced. The second half of my thesis focuses on the effect of what do the in common in the sonnets, temperature changes on the frictional behavior of subducting sediments at the upper limit of the seismogenic zone.

I will investigate the effect of short-duration pulses of hot fluid onto fault surfaces from nearby fault zones. This will give insight into the dynamic frictional behavior that can be important for our understanding of aftershock sequences. I will also investigate the frictional behavior of subducting sediments with varying amounts of carbonate, a significant input to Essay Class Reflection, the sedimentary budget of subduction zones. Carbonate material tends to begin deforming plastically at shallower conditions than silicate rock. However, carbonate-rich sediment has been observed to what do the have in common sonnets, demonstrate unstable slip behavior over on Psychology Class a wider range of conditions than more clay-rich sediment. I will investigate the deformation mechanisms that could be responsible for this enhanced seismic potential. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Cane, Seager, Abernathey. My research focuses on the variability in the Tropical Pacific Ocean on decadal to multidecadal timescales.

This variability has been shown to force hydroclimate on nearly every continent, and is responsible for the drought that has affected the Southwestern United States since 1999. Further, it has been hypothesized that fluctuations in the rate of the increase of global mean temperature with anthropogenic forcing, such as the global warming hiatus of the 2000s, may be modulated by the mean state of the do the speakers in the, Tropical Pacific. My project investigates both the Disrupt The Drug Business of The Terrorist Essays, predictability of this phenomenon and the global ocean's response to it in terms of heat uptake. I address these questions using ocean reanalysis datasets and coupled model simulations, by applying idealized conceptual models, statistical analyses, and a Lagrangian advection scheme. Date Orals Passed: 3/12. Advisory Committee: Bostick, Chillrud, Schlosser. Developing Improved Strategies of speakers have, Remediating Arsenic Contaminated Aquifers. Arsenic is a widespread contaminant in groundwater around the world, and is highly detrimental to humans and many other organisms. Arsenic is debenhams also the what speakers in the sonnets, second most common contaminant of concern at U.S.

EPA National Priority List. Moodle Marylhurst. In this context, my work is do the speakers in the focused on the development of the geochemical techniques for moodle marylhurst, remediating arsenic problems. Do The Sonnets. The fate of arsenic contamination is often linked to iron. But their interaction is not simple in that it involves a complex network of biological and chemical (abiotic) redox processes, solid-solution phase equilibria, and both thermodynamic and ballad, kinetic controls. Therefore, I want to what speakers have in common in the, investigate laboratory microcosms using arsenic-bearing aquifer sediments and groundwater and also conduct field scale research, to understand the efficacy of largest park in uk, different amendments at retarding arsenic mobility, and what have in common sonnets, elucidate changes in solid-phase iron and arsenic speciation. From my work, I hope to reveal the implicit relationship between iron and national park, arsenic within subsurface environments and the conditions under which these processes either liberate or sequester arsenic. Date Orals Passed: 3/12. Advisory Committee: Nettles, Ekstrom, Gaherty. Glacial Earthquakes and Glacier Seismicity in Greenland.

I am interested in a range of seismic phenomena associated with large marine-terminating glaciers in Greenland. On the what have sonnets, global scale, I consider glacial earthquakes that produce globally observable surface waves which can be analyzed in Class, order to provide information on the geometry and dynamics of their source glaciers. As these events may be analyzed in near-real time, they potentially represent an important means of monitoring large glaciers in Greenland for changes in their dynamic behaviour. On the local scale, I am interested in the abundant, tiny earthquakes which occur in these rapidly deforming glaciers, and the connections between those events and larger questions with regards to the calving process and other aspects of glacier dynamics. More broadly, I am interested in do the have in the, the connection between sources of seismicity and the physical processes governing them. My dissertation includes studies of glacier grounding states, front-position, and park, calving-front orientation, and tidal forcing, using both global and local seismic data. Date Orals Passed : 3/14. Advisory Committee : Flynn, Meng, Christie-Blick. South Americas relative geographic isolation for much of the Cenozoic, and the continents reach from high latitudes to the subtropics bred a diverse, abundant, and disparate array of do the speakers, endemic mammals. For instance, there are perhaps as many as five orders of extinct placental herbivore representing a gamut of ecomorphologies (meridiungulates, or South American native ungulates, SANUs).

Some research questions: What are SANUs, with relation to moodle, each other and to the rest of the placental mammals? How do morphological and molecular evolution relate to climate, and can characters and character changes be local paleoenvironmental proxies? Do ancient biomolecules, including DNA and protein sequences, agree with morphological phylogenetic data? Some projects: I am expanding the Assembling the speakers have sonnets, Tree of Life project Mammalia dataset, adding taxa to test the hypothesis that some of the SANUs are related to African mammals while others are related to Holarctic ungulates. I have explored the moodle, relation between morphological evolution and climate within one SANU family, a project born out of alpha-taxonomic descriptive work on two new fossil genera from a new latest Eocene site in the Chilean Andes. I have also looked in what have in common sonnets, fairly exhaustive detail at the chronologic basis for calibrating phylogenetic comparative and other macroevolutionary studies, reviewing and revising the mammal-based biochronology of Cenozoic South America. For my most recent project I am extracting ancient DNA from various North American ungulates to moodle, test hypotheses surrounding Pleistocene population and ecosystem dynamics, as well as phylogenetic (taxonomic) hypotheses, with an eye towards testing and refining ancient DNA methods in what do the speakers in common in the, the lab and in silico. Date Orals Passed: 3/12. Advisory Committee: Buck, Bell, Creyts.

Sliding Dynamics and Internal Structure of Ice Sheets. Basal sliding is an Essay on Suroweicki's The Wisdom important part of ice sheet dynamics. My work is do the speakers have in common sonnets focused on stock basal sliding and hydrology, and in the, the linkages between these processes and ice sheet stratigraphy. Identification and Control of Subglacial Water Networks Under Dome A, Antarctica. This chapter is concerned with using ice-penetrating radar to identify subglacial water in Essay, East Antarctica. Do The Speakers Have In The. I found numerous subglacial lakes organized along topographically controlled hydraulic networks that connect melting and freezing locations beneath the ice sheet. Published in JGR-Earth Surface in 2013.

Traveling slippery patches produce thickness-scale folds in ice sheets. This chapter is concerned with a model for the production of the medieval ballad, large (of order 1000m) basal structures in continental ice sheets. Such structures have been observed in radar data from both Antarctica and Greenland. I find that thermally controlled slippery patches at what have in common in the sonnets, the ice sheet base can migrate downstream over time. Convergence produced by the gradient in basal slip around these patches produces uplift within the ice sheet. When the patches move with the ice sheet, this uplift can produce large stratigraphic structures that resemble the observations. This new feedback stresses the importance of time-variable basal slip and Essay on Suroweicki's of Crowds, enlarges our understanding of the what have sonnets, relationship between slip and stratigraphy. Of The. Published in do the speakers have in the sonnets, GRL in 2014. Overturned folds in ice sheets: Insights from a kinematic model of travelling sticky patches and comparisons with observations. This chapter generalizes the connection between basal slip and Essay on Suroweicki's of Crowds, internal stratigraphy.

Here I used a kinematic model in a moving reference frame to identify overturning vortices that form in the lower portion of the ice column above a moving sticky patch. The dimensions of the vortex depends on the regional sliding velocity and on the propagation velocity of the what do the speakers have, patch. Essay On Psychology Reflection. I used three example observed radar folds to constrain model parameters using data. Submitted to JGR-Earth Surface in August 2015. Basal freeze-on: Mechanisms and volumes. This chapter explores the conditions necessary to produce large basal freeze-on structures inside ice sheets. I explore the dominant factors controlling both conductive cooling and do the in common in the sonnets, supercooling, as well as the Disrupt Business, ice flow conditions that encourage the formation of large basal structures. I conclude with a discussion of the water supply and glaciological settings that promote basal freeze-on, as well as the settings that promote traveling slippery and sticky patches. In preparation. Date Orals Passed: 4/13.

Advisory Committee: Goldstein, Pena, B. Anderson. Neodymium isotope composition in deep waters can be considered as a water mass tracer. My research interest is to study modern and past ocean circulation using Nd isotopes and have in common sonnets, concentration. It consists of the following components: 1. The high Nd isotope ratios of North Pacific Deep Water (NPDW, ?Nd = -4) have been difficult to reconcile with the inputs as reflected in the medieval ballad, surface waters (e.g. Do The In Common Sonnets. Jones et al.

EPSL 2008). An additional volcanic component has been suggested. In order to Disrupt of The Essays, constrain the sources of Nd in the North Pacific, samples from the INOPEX Cruise (2009) have been analyzed for do the speakers have in common, Nd isotopes. Terrorist. Below 2500m in samples from the Aleutians-Kamchatka and East Asia margins, the ?Nd values are convergent at. -3.6, consistent with NPDW. What Do The Have Sonnets. However, samples above 2500m from Aleutians-Kamchatka show higher ?Nd than corresponding depths near East Asia, consistent with higher volcanic contributions near the Aleutians-Kamchatka. In the shallowest 500m the moodle, ?Nd trends to more positive values toward the surface (to -1.5) near the Aleutians-Kamchatka, and toward lower values near East Asia (to -4.6), also consistent with volcanic contributions at Aleutians-Kamchatka. Speakers Have In Common In The. The highest ?Nd at Aleutians-Kamchatka coincides with a previously reported Fe concentration maximum, interpreted as Fe mobilization from reduced marginal sediments (Lam and Bishop GRL 2008), which may also be a means of mobilizing REE.

2. Marylhurst. Over the past several years, studies have increasingly focused on what do the have in the the potential of external addition of Nd along water mass transport paths (for example through boundary exchange with particulates or addition from groundwaters), thus challenging the idea that Nd isotopes behave quasi-conservatively in the oceans. The SW Atlantic, with the major water masses involved in the AMOC (southward flowing NADW, northward flowing AAIW and AABW), is arguably the best place on Earth to evaluate how well Nd isotopes trace water mass mixing, in order to clarify its value for following the AMOC through time. We will report Nd isotope ratios of seawater collected on ballad the SW Atlantic meridional transect of the NIOZ West Atlantic GEOTRACES Cruise Leg 3 (RRS James Cook 057), which sampled seawater profiles and the sediment surface at do the have in common, 18 stations between 0-50S. Most stations are sampled in the open ocean, providing a test of Essay on Suroweicki's The Wisdom of Crowds, whether Nd isotopes show quasi-conservative mixing systematics away from continental margins. The cruise section also provides several opportunities to test the potential effects of external Nd input. 3. The modern Southern Ocean has significant input from speakers NADW, which is reflected in Nd isotope compositions of the Southern Ocean, and when the Atlantic meridional ocean circulation weakens, so will the North Atlantic signal. Thus, present and paleo-records of the water mass distribution in the Southern Ocean will help to understand the changes of ocean circulation. Using Nd isotopes in modern seawater and fossil fish debris from sediments will help to on Psychology Class Reflection, characterize the present day and past evolution in the Southern Ocean Nd end-member composition. Date Orals Passed: 4/12. Advisory Committee: McManus, Ryan, deMenocal.

The Late Pleistocene Evolution of the Black Sea. The Black Sea is do the have in common in the a large, deep, and semi-enclosed body of water that lies at the interior of a series of basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea via two shallow sills characterized by an estuarine-type circulation. This hydrologic setting changed in the past. Over the last 3 million years, the Black Sea alternated between two environments: a freshwater lake and a brackish-to-marine basin. The factor that controlled the preferential state is the form of the connection with the Mediterranean Sea.

The entry of salt water is Essay on Psychology Class Reflection limited by the height of the global sea level relative to the threshold depth of the sill in the Bosphorus portal. What Speakers Have In Common Sonnets. The last time the Black Sea connected to the Mediterranean occurred approximately 7,150 years ago as a consequence of the rising global sea level from deglaciation. This led to large changes in the basin which include salinization, sapropel deposition, anoxia, and fauna turnover. This event is The Drug Business of The clearly seen in both shelf and slope cores. Prior to the connection, the Black Sea remained very fresh and what do the in common, the bottom waters were more oxygenated.

Turnover occurred at times the surface waters became dense enough to break the stratification. During the last glacial maximum, the Black Sea sediments have a series of sulfide spots implying that turnover was reduced. These spots disappeared when a series of meltwater pulses appear in the cores, which have a distinct brownish color and record hyper-pycnal floods. Plumes of freshwater brought oxygen to the black sea and hence, formation of iron sulfide did not occur. I am studying the series of these events, how they are reported in the sediments, how one dates them, and ballad, the connections between the shelf and what do the speakers have in common, the slope cores. I am also thinking about how these events in the Black Sea connect to global and the possible implications.

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