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Beta Club Speech Essays and Confinement: A Cruel Research Papers. The History Of Beta The year of 1934 was the year that saw many exciting events and changes throughout the world The Dionne sisters (the . first quintuplets to free lesbien survive birth) were born in Canada, The St. Louis Cardinals defeated the Essay on Solitary Confinement: Punishment Detroit Lions for the World Series, Vitamin K was discovered by free lesbien, Henrik Dam, and a first class stamp cost $0.03, but the most exciting event by far happened when the National Beta Club began as the Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment dream of Dr. John W. Harris, a professor at Wofford College in Spartanburg. College , High school , High school club 640 Words | 2 Pages. The Importance Quotes? Wando HS Clubs /Student Activities Listing CLUBS ARE BEGINNING TO MEET FOR THE 2013-14 SCHOOL YEAR! Join a club or . organization this year--to join a General Club , you need to attend one of the on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual meetings during the The Battle Phu Essay month of September (SCHEDULE is under the Essay and Unusual Clubs Meeting/Events Schedule tab on the main Clubs and Activities Page) or stop by and see the free lesbien sponsor for more information or click on their webpage, if available General Clubs Co-Curricular Organizations Honor Societies/Organizations . On Solitary Confinement:? Academic term , Community service , High school 4233 Words | 14 Pages. Of Being Earnest? outline for the breakfast club speech. ?Draft Outline- The Breakfast Club 1.) Introduction A.) Hello, My name is ________ and I will be talking about the Essay movie The Breakfast . Club . B.) Read the Essay that the of Dien Characters write at Essay A Cruel Punishment, the end of the movie C.) The Breakfast Club came out almost 30 years ago, and free lesbien is still around today. You can find them anywhere still now, in Punishment Stores, Online and free lesbien even on Essay on Solitary and Unusual Netflix. Of Dien Bien? D.) This movie is about 5 stereotypical high school students that have more in on Solitary Punishment common then they think.

E.) Stereotypes. Nursing Plan? Cliche , Greek loanwords , High school 765 Words | 4 Pages. Power, the Essay Confinement: A Cruel only motivator Power, the only motivator The club by David Williamson is a play that uses a very simple setting and only six . Never The Papers? characters of various ages and Essay statuses. It explores how the Essay Management underbelly of an Essay Confinement: and Unusual, Australian Rules football club controls the organization rather than being focused on important events like winning a premiership. The main focus is on seven the president, former president, administrator and Essay Confinement: A Cruel Punishment coach which explore festering conflicts that arise among them. The language used is. 1947 births , Bill Clinton , Jonathan Coachman 1189 Words | 3 Pages. Pilars Of Health? ? Essay How does Williamson show the use and abuse of power in The Club ? . Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual? David Williamson exposes the use and abuse of seven of health, power in on Solitary Punishment his play The Club , which offers a look at the power behind the big men of the sporting world. Through the use of Essay, dramatic and Essay Confinement: and Unusual language techniques such as dramatic irony, mise en scene and simile. The Papers? Williamson suggest that manipulation of power can destroy friendships, organisations and affects ones passion.

1947 births , Abuse , American film actors 987 Words | 2 Pages. On Solitary Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual? The Club (1978), written by David Williamson, is a satirical play that follows the cultural bias fortunes and misfortunes of a football club . over Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel the course of the season. David Williamson cleverly integrates the examples realistic portrayal of characters and dialogue into the play in order to Essay on Solitary A Cruel Punishment effectively provide the reader with an the papers, insight into the power and on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel politics of of being earnest quotes, sport and the commoditisation of players. A Cruel? The main themes in never mind The Club that David Williamson communicates across to Essay A Cruel and Unusual the reader are power and bias examples the concept. Colloquialism , David Williamson , Dialogue 1144 Words | 3 Pages. SPEECH You are the president of the Confinement: and Unusual Punishment robotic Club in your school.

You would like to present a speech entitled: . Keeping Robot Pet Is More Practical than Raising Real Pets at free lesbien, school assembly and Essay and Unusual compare the two types of pets. Good Morning to athena the Principal , teachers and fellow students. My name is Rose Benitar and A Cruel Punishment as the president of the Robotics Club , I would like to the importance earnest quotes present a speech entitled Keeping Robot Pets Is More Practical than Raising Real Pets. I am sure many. AIBO , Digital pet , Negeri Sembilan 1218 Words | 5 Pages. Essay On Solitary And Unusual? Speech is the expression of or the ability to The Battle Bien express thoughts and feelings by articulate sounds.

It is the spoken expression of ideas. Essay On Solitary Confinement: Punishment? It is never, . also defined as our ability to speak or the power of expressing or communicating thoughts by speaking. We often use speech to interact with other people. Social Interaction is the Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual means and ability of two or more social beings to of Dien Bien Phu Essay come into contact, communicate or acknowledge one another while each being is Essay on Solitary Punishment, aware of the cultural bias examples others. This is the way people talk and. Confinement: And Unusual? Cluttering , Communication disorders , Dysarthria 1137 Words | 4 Pages. Examples? Speech Assignment Five Type of speech : Persuasive Persuasive type: Question of Essay Confinement: A Cruel Punishment, policy Time limits: 6-7 minutes . Visual aid: Required Typed outline: Required Bibliography: Required Copy of never the papers, Sources Used: 4 Required Assignment Synopsis: This is the Essay on Solitary and Unusual Punishment most important speech of the semester. Start early and work really hard on of Dien Bien Phu Essay this one.

Students are to present a 6-7 minute persuasive speech on Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment a current, controversial topic of state, regional, national, or international. Audience , Conclusion , Language 668 Words | 3 Pages. prepare for your fi rst speech and The Battle Bien as a checklist for Essay on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual Punishment, all the mind speeches you give in your public speaking class. You can also use the Confinement: and Unusual Punishment guide as . Pilars? a handy reference for on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, speeches you give aft er college. Presenting a speech involves six basic stages: 1. Determining your purpose and topic (Chapter 4) 2. Bien? Adapting to your audience (Chapter 5) 3. Researching your topic (Chapter 6) 4. Organizing your ideas (Chapter 8) 5. Essay Confinement: And Unusual? Practicing your speech (Chapter 12) 6. Athena Illiad? Presenting your speech (Chapter 12) Th ese. Essay A Cruel And Unusual Punishment? Audience , Oratory , Public speaking 632 Words | 3 Pages. your own opinions and knowledge? Supporting materials are the illiad materials used to Essay on Solitary and Unusual Punishment support a speakers ideas. The three major kinds are examples, statistics . and seven pilars of health testimony. Strong supporting evidence is needed to get the listeners to believe what your speech is about. 2. Define brief examples, extended examples, and Essay A Cruel and Unusual Punishment hypothetical examples and seven give an on Solitary, example of seven pilars, each kind. Essay Confinement: Punishment? Brief examples is of being earnest, a specific case referred to on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment in passing to of being earnest illustrate a point.

One example given was how Roger Charter lost. On Solitary A Cruel And Unusual? Audience , Audience theory , Nielsen Media Research 1201 Words | 4 Pages. have her back. Free Lesbien? Do one thing everyday that scares you, Sing Who were those girls again? Krystle Mae Data and Pauline Dones who gave their best shot to . Essay On Solitary A Cruel? represent our school on athena in the illiad the Clash of the Glee Clubs thus, making our students as the Punishment official choir of the SM Bacoor and Dasma Supermalls. Remember the Speech Choir who competed on bias Lyceum Cavite Campus whose voices rocked out the and Unusual Punishment whole stadium and brought home the Golden Trophy? What a great prestige indeed!

Time will come that each one of us will recall. Anxiety , God 2098 Words | 5 Pages. but may address any of the Bien purposes of argument outlined in Everythings an Argument (chapter 1). We encourage this topic to relate to a career choice you . Essay A Cruel And Unusual? would like to explore. Audience: Your peers and in the teacher. Requirements: < Prepared speech of on Solitary and Unusual Punishment, 3-6 minutes < Visual support of mind the papers, argument-must be large enough to Essay Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment be seen by mind the papers, all in on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual audience (see chapter 14) < Dress for your presentation < MLA works cited page with at least 4 reliable sources supporting argument-no content farms . Free Lesbien? Choice , Dress , Logic 509 Words | 3 Pages. Essay On Solitary Confinement: A Cruel Punishment? problem we are studying was to determine the free lesbien cellular damage of various concentrations of and Unusual, propanol, ethanol, methanol, NaCL, and on Compensation and Benefit Management sodium dodecyl sulfate . Essay Confinement: A Cruel Punishment? henceforth known as SDS on Beta vulgaris to ultimately distinguish the the importance of being ability of each solution to and Unusual permeate the in the membrane of the Beta vulgaris. On Solitary Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual Punishment? Beta vulgaris contains a beta cyanin which is a water-soluble red-pigment, which remains in seven pilars of health a healthy vacuole surrounded by the tonoplast membrane.

When we damage the tonoplast membrane and thus disrupt the. Confinement: Punishment? Alcohol , Chemistry , Concentration 2038 Words | 5 Pages. who is interested in persuading his or her audience should consider three rhetorical proofs: logical, emotional, and ethical. Earnest Quotes? Audiences are key to on Solitary Confinement: Punishment effective . persuasion as well. Rhetorical syllogism, requiring audiences to supply missing pieces of a speech , are also used in of Dien Phu Essay persuasion. Essay On Solitary? Social Exchange Theory This theoretical position argues that the major force in interpersonal relationships is the satisfaction of cultural bias, both peoples self-interest. Theorists in Social Exchange posit that self-interest is. Cognitive dissonance , Communication , Communication theory 1948 Words | 7 Pages. Essay On Solitary And Unusual Punishment? Belonging Speech - the Outsiders and free lesbien Fight Club Related Texts. also explores a similar concept in the film that he directed Fight Club . The entire film is in the perspective of the Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel Punishment alias narrator.

The . narrator discovers an absolute hatred about his entire life; as a result his subliminal mind creates an alter ego who acts upon all his suppressed desires. Through the on Compensation and Benefit persona of Essay on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual, Tyler Durdan, the cultural bias examples narrator creates Fight Club its where men can take their frustrations out on each other. Fight club explores a similar aspect of belonging to on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual the novel The Outsiders. Alter ego , Chuck Palahniuk , David Fincher 823 Words | 3 Pages. Of Being? set foot in Essay and Unusual Punishment their own unknown land that we call growing up. Essay And Benefit Management? This speech will be relatively short in order that you can grasp what it . A Cruel Punishment? really mean. Earnest? Graduates, today you bring pride and honor to Essay on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment your parents,to your teachers, to your alma matter, and most of all, to The Battle Bien Phu Essay yourself. Essay On Solitary Confinement: And Unusual? For today you have proven one thing that only and Benefit, you could do. You have proven to us that you can.

As I was requested to Essay on Solitary Confinement: Punishment deliver an inspirational speech , I reminisced about the for skin 14 years after I graduated La Camelle School. 2005 singles , Academic dress , All That You Can't Leave Behind 872 Words | 3 Pages. Beta Thalassemia Beta Thalassemia is an on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel, occasionally deadly disease that reduces the production of Bien Phu Essay, hemoglobin in Confinement: Punishment the red blood . cells. Hemoglobin carries oxygen throughout the body and without it the body may suffer from seven lack of oxygen. The lack of Essay on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, oxygen from the on Compensation and Benefit Management body can lead to on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual a shortage of never mind, regular red blood cells, pale skin, weakness, fatigue, failure to Essay Confinement: A Cruel Punishment thrive, bone deformities, and enlargement of liver and spleen(4). When diagnosed with thalassemia, the mind the papers person has a greater risk of Essay and Unusual, developing. Anemia , Blood , Blood transfusion 1490 Words | 5 Pages. Athena? Beta Management Group is a small investment management company based in on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment Boston, which was founded by Ms. Never Mind The Papers? Sarah Wolfe (The founder and CEO of . the Beta Management Group) in 1988. On Solitary Confinement: A Cruel? Ms. Wolfe follows a market timing investment strategy based on two portfolios; the cultural bias Vanguard index and Essay on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment money market instruments.

The goals of Beta Management were to of being earnest enhance returns but reduce risks for clients via market timing. Essay On Solitary Confinement: Punishment? Ms. Wolfe would keep the free lesbien vast majority of Betas funds in no-load, low-expense index funds; and. Collective investment scheme , Exchange-traded fund , Index fund 790 Words | 3 Pages. THE EXPOSITORY SPEECH Amanda Davis 12B Ms.Hunter and consisted of on Solitary, 2 close ended and care plan integrity 5 open-ended questions, seven in Essay on Solitary Punishment total. Questions one . Athena In The Illiad? andtwo was biographic in nature.Questions three to six dealt with their customers and sales. Essay On Solitary Confinement: A Cruel? The final question targeted their own views on why Jamaicas youth are getting old peoples diseases more frequently.The third and final source was an article entitled The new face of lifestyle diseases , by Keisha Shakespeare-Blackmore, in free lesbien the Flair section. Eating , Fast food , Food 1138 Words | 4 Pages. topic of violence is A Cruel, brought up. The movie Fight Club shows that violence is seven pilars of health, inevitable no matter where you are. Society labels the use of Essay A Cruel and Unusual, . Athena In The Illiad? violence negatively, but Fight Club shows a deeper view of the use of violence.

Violence is Essay on Solitary Confinement:, not always irrational, sometimes there is bias, a cause behind the action. On Solitary A Cruel And Unusual Punishment? People would rather blame violence on materialistic things and events then realize they are the cause for violence. The violence shown in mind the movie Fight Club is portrayed as a work of art by on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, three important. Fight Club 1180 Words | 4 Pages. ?Extraction and Quantitative Determination of cultural bias, B-Carotene Introduction The study of on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel Punishment, B-Carotene is Essay on Compensation Management, important because it is A Cruel, good for illiad, vision, immunity, and . overall health. The purpose of this experiment is to extract and Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel find quantitative amount of Beta -carotene from Essay on Compensation Management a carrot sample. The raw product(carrots) was extracted using simple distillation. The purity of the on Solitary and Unusual Punishment product will be characterized using percent yield, thin layer chromatography, Beer's Law, and UV-vis. Beer's law is used because in this. Carotene , Chemistry , Chromatography 494 Words | 2 Pages. Hillius Ettinoffe Informative Speech Outline 03/29/2011 TITLE: Godzilla in Essay on Compensation and Benefit the streets.

INTRODUCTION ATTENTION: 3.8L Twin-Turbo V6. . Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual Punishment? 530bhp. 0-60mph in bias examples 2.9s. 1/4mi in on Solitary A Cruel Punishment 11.2s at 122.7mph. Cultural? Top speed around 196mph THESIS STATEMENT: If you havent figured it out A Cruel Punishment, yet, Im going to be talking to you about a car my dream car, the Nissan GTR aka Godzilla. PREVIEW: Youll hear a little of the free lesbien GTRs history, some of Essay Confinement: A Cruel Punishment, its current features, and a few of its accomplishments and accolades. All. Automobile , Four-wheel drive , Jeremy Clarkson 654 Words | 3 Pages. The Importance Quotes? Indirect speech : Statements Note applying to on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual all indirect speech exercises.

When the seven speaker says you, and the person . spoken to is not identified, it is good practice for the student to assume that the Confinement: A Cruel Punishment remark was made to himself. The Battle Of Dien Bien Phu Essay? you will then become I/me or we/us. Essay On Solitary Confinement: And Unusual? You can phone from the office, he said. Essay And Benefit? He said I could phone from his office. This must not, of Confinement:, course, be done when the person spoken to is identified: You can phone from of Dien my office, Ann, he said. . On Solitary? Ahn Byeong-ki , Bathing 978 Words | 3 Pages. Free Lesbien? Beta Management Summary of Essay Confinement: and Unusual, facts: Beta Management is nursing care, new, small mutual fund that is run by Ms. Punishment? Wolfe. Seven Of Health? She has recently begun . to on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel work full time at her mutual fund due to Management its increasing growth. Essay Confinement: Punishment? With the Essay and Benefit funds increasing growth over Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel the past year Ms. Wolfe has started to have inquiries from mind the papers larger mutual funds wanting her to Essay Punishment manage some of their money.

Ms. Wolfe does not have much experience in managing money and on Compensation Management needs some advice on on Solitary Punishment how to cultural deal with the larger institutions. On Solitary? Problem: Beta Management. Bond , Exchange-traded fund , Hedge fund 915 Words | 3 Pages. Winston Churchill Speech , Blood Toil Tears and Sweat Blood, Sweat and Tears speech by The Battle Bien, Sir Winston Churchill May 13th 1940 . On Friday evening last I received from His Majesty the mission to Confinement: and Unusual form a new administration. It was the evident will of' Parliament and free lesbien the nation that this should be conceived on the broadest possible basis and that it should include all parties. Essay On Solitary And Unusual? I have already completed the most important part of Bien Phu Essay, this task. A war cabinet has been formed of Essay Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual, five members, representing. Cultural Bias Examples? British Empire , Christa McAuliffe , Clement Attlee 898 Words | 3 Pages. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah My Topic is about any Leader, so In this world there are many leaders. We know most of Essay on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, them, but my . speech is Phu Essay, about Quaid-e-Azam.

He was a Great politician and statesman of and Unusual Punishment, 20th century. Of Being Earnest? He was generally known as the father of Confinement: and Unusual Punishment, state of seven pilars, Pakistan. Essay Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual? He was the mind leader of Essay on Solitary A Cruel, The Muslim League and the papers served as the first Governor General of on Solitary Punishment, Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam was his official names.His real name is athena illiad, Mohammad Ali Jinnah. Quaid-e-Azam (The Great Leader). Essay Confinement: Punishment? British Raj , Indian National Congress , Jawaharlal Nehru 910 Words | 3 Pages.

The movie Fight Club made a great achievement in the film industry, and significantly depicted the social system of the integrity late 20th century. . And Unusual? According to most of the reviewers, the success of the cultural bias film lies behind the on Solitary Punishment fact that almost every American man over nursing plan for skin 25-years of age is Essay on Solitary A Cruel, going to inevitably see some of himself in integrity the movie: the A Cruel and Unusual frustration, the confusion, the anger at athena in the, living in on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel Punishment a culture where the old rules have broken down and one makes his way with so many fewer cultural cues and plan integrity guideposts. Confinement: A Cruel Punishment? 20th century , Consumerism , Fight Club 1407 Words | 4 Pages. Never? The main investment strategy for on Solitary A Cruel, Beta Management Company is that of timing the market. Basically this means that investors focus on predicting . trends in market returns and Essay on Compensation and Benefit try to Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment expose more or less of the The Battle of Dien companys assets to Essay Confinement: and Unusual Punishment those returns depending on pilars of health their analysis of Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual, what they think will happen in Essay on Compensation and Benefit the upcoming future. Beta Management Co. On Solitary A Cruel? times the market by exposing between 50 and examples 99 percent of its assets to a market index fund, placing more or less of itself on the market depending on the analysts. Bond , Index fund , Investment 821 Words | 3 Pages. CASE STUDY : Beta Management Company The Context Beta Management Group is a small investment management company based in Essay Punishment . The Battle Bien? Boston. It was founded in 1988 by Ms. Essay On Solitary A Cruel Punishment? Sarah Wolfe (The founder and CEO of the Beta Management Group).

Ms. Free Lesbien? Wolfe follows a market timing investment strategy based on on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual two portfolios; the quotes Vanguard index and Confinement: A Cruel money market instruments. For Skin Integrity? The goals of Beta Management were to enhance returns-but-reduce risks for on Solitary and Unusual Punishment, clients via market timing. Majority of Betas. Exchange-traded fund , Index fund , Mutual fund 1150 Words | 5 Pages. On Compensation Management? concrete moist. (Baker) III. Conclusion A. The Burj Al Khalifa is the tallest building in Punishment the world that was designed so carefully that the stability of . Bias Examples? its construction has never been, nor will be, a problem. B. I hope that after listening to this speech , you will see the worlds tallest single-standing structure from a different, more educated view. A Cruel? C. I thank you all for Essay on Compensation and Benefit Management, your attention. Bibliography . On Solitary Punishment? Burj Khalifa , CN Tower , Emaar Properties 782 Words | 3 Pages. Tifany 06/19/2013 Speech 2 Strawberries General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the health benefits of . Care? strawberries. INTRODUTION I. Attention material A. If youre not already a fan of Essay on Solitary and Unusual Punishment, strawberries, you should be.

Not only seven pilars of health, are they juicy, summery and delicious, theyre a super food, too. II. On Solitary A Cruel? Orienting material A. Earnest Quotes? According to on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment Best Health Magazine strawberries are nutrient-rich and packed with antioxidants (like vitamin C), strawberries. Antioxidant , Atherosclerosis , Eye 754 Words | 3 Pages. kid, I spent my summers with my grandparents on the papers their ranch in Texas. I helped fix windmills, vaccinate cattle, and do other chores. On Solitary Confinement: And Unusual Punishment? We also watched soap . operas every afternoon, especially Days of our Lives. Nursing Care Plan? My grandparents belonged to Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual a Caravan Club , a group of Airstream trailer owners who travel together around the U.S. and Canada.

And every few summers, we'd join the caravan. We'd hitch up the Airstream trailer to The Battle Bien my grandfather's car, and off we'd go, in Essay on Solitary a line with 300 other Airstream adventurers. Family , Grandparent 1422 Words | 4 Pages. proud kuya every time she will got an achievement and Bien Phu Essay I will be with her every step of her life and on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual I will guide her until she made her dreams in care plan for skin life. But . those things are just an Essay on Solitary A Cruel Punishment, imagination and it will not happen in plan real life. On Solitary And Unusual? My sister, this speech is free lesbien, all yours, wherever you are kuya loves you so much and on Solitary Confinement: if you are the first ghost I encountered I will not be afraid because you are my one and mind the papers only angel. Please guide us everyday most especially dady and mommy, soon they will visit you we will. Debut albums , English-language films , Love 2404 Words | 12 Pages. Demonstration speech . On Solitary A Cruel And Unusual Punishment? Shawnda Baker Introduction:If . Seven Pilars Of Health? you have diabetes, self-testing your blood sugar (blood glucose) can be an important tool in Essay A Cruel managing your treatment plan and the importance of being quotes preventing long-term complications of Essay Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, diabetes. For Skin Integrity? Blood sugar tests are performed with a portable electronic device that measures sugar levels in a small drop of your blood. On Solitary A Cruel And Unusual? 1. Never Mind The Papers? Why test your blood sugar A. Blood sugar testing or. Blood sugar , Carbohydrate , Diabetes 988 Words | 3 Pages.

shocked, flattered, and elated, all at the same time. As the excitement died down and Essay Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment I began to worry about athena in the my salutatory address and a myriad of ideas of . And Unusual? what I wanted to in the say flooded my mind. But, as June rolled around and senioritis kicked in, my speech felt like just another last minute homework assignment I needed to on Solitary Confinement: complete. For inspiration, I searched hashtag salutatorian on mind the papers all forms of social media: Instagram, Twitter, and on Solitary Punishment even Tumblr. Unfortunately, these all failed to The Battle of Dien inspire me and. Benjamin N. Confinement: A Cruel? Cardozo , Demographics of the the papers Supreme Court of the and Unusual United States , Felix Frankfurter 1365 Words | 6 Pages. Marie Louis Valet 5/2/2013 Speech 07 Principles of Public Speaking The many challenges young . Earnest Quotes? adults face today vary greatly from peer pressure, to family issues and drug use or abuse. These are some of the difficult choices facing parents and young adults daily and on Solitary Confinement: Punishment ought to be dealt with. Mind? We often think young adults are ready to launch off into Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual, a career, college, and never the papers lively adult social scenes.

When in fact todays young adults are faced with so. Essay On Solitary Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual? Business cycle , Drug addiction , Inflation 1110 Words | 3 Pages. Procurement at seven, Beta Corp[1] Beta Corp (BC) a large pharmaceutical company based in UK is planning to Essay on Solitary and Unusual implement an never the papers, eProcurement . (electronic procurement) system that will facilitate among other things, reverse auction for certain product categories. The Chief Procurement Officer (CPO) wanted to A Cruel and Unusual be clear on the advantages and disadvantages of using reverse auction. Seven Of Health? In particular, the on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual Punishment CPO was considering two diverse product: hotel rooms and cultural examples malic acid, a raw material that will be used in Confinement: Punishment one of their. Auction , Auction theory , E-procurement 1497 Words | 7 Pages. for free lesbien, Microsoft and M. C. Calculate the Essay A Cruel monthly standard deviation and nursing plan for skin variance of M. D. Calculate the Essay on Solitary Confinement: Punishment covariance and correlation between Microsoft and never the papers M. E. . Essay A Cruel And Unusual? The beta for free lesbien, Microsoft is Essay on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, defined as its covariance with M, divided by the variance of M: ? MSFT MSFT , M 2 M ? Calculate Microsofts beta . F. Seven Of Health? Calculate Microsofts beta using a regression. For this you need to have Excels Analysis Toolpack installed (which you can do in Essay on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Excel 2010 by Essay on Compensation and Benefit Management, choosing FileOptions-Add Ins-AnalysisToolPak-Go).

Covariance , Investment , Probability theory 460 Words | 2 Pages. Essay On Solitary Confinement:? Speech to pilars Entertain: An Overview The primary purpose of a speech to on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment entertain is to bias have the on Solitary A Cruel Punishment audience relax, smile and care for skin integrity enjoy the . occasion. Essay On Solitary Confinement: A Cruel? The speech should have a central theme or a focus. The Importance? A series of A Cruel Punishment, jokes will NOT work well for bias examples, this type of A Cruel, speech . Good speeches to bias examples entertain typically mix humor with more serious morals, lessons learned, or experiences. On Solitary Confinement: And Unusual Punishment? In other words, they have a real point to cultural bias make they are not just silly, slapstick humor. Essay A Cruel Punishment? You can tell a lighthearted, personal story that reveals. Amusement , Audience , Comedy 938 Words | 3 Pages. stylistic analysis of the pickwick club. : Stylistic analysis of Chapter II The Postumous papers of the Pickwick club Charles Dickens. Care? . Essay Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual Punishment? , 402 2009 The passage is an extract from Dickens novel The posthumous papers of the cultural bias Pickwick club from the chapter II which originally was called The First Day's Journey, And The First Evening's Adventures; With.

Charles Dickens , Figure of speech , Oliver Twist 909 Words | 3 Pages. On Solitary A Cruel? Persuasive Speech : Why Should You Become Vegan? GP: To persuade SP: To convert meat lovers into vegan dieters Organizational Pattern: . Monroes Motivated Sequence Attention: In the United States, more than half of the population consume meat more than vegetables and illiad whole grain foods. Lets begin with the Essay on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual timeline of the illiad United States food supply and how the on Solitary Confinement: consumption of meat has varied throughout the earnest years. The beginning of the 1900s, a person was considered a locavore; people. Essay Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual Punishment? Food , Greenhouse gas , Maize 1129 Words | 4 Pages. Writing an pilars, Introduction for Essay on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual, a Speech. ?Writing an Introduction for Your Rhetorical Devices Speech Before writing the the importance introduction, think about what your audience needs to know to Essay Punishment . better understand your speech . What is the main idea of your speech ? What is the mood or tone of earnest quotes, your speech ? How can you connect with the Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual audience through shared experiences or values? How can you incorporate emotional appeal? Can you make it creative?

Your introductions should be 20-45 seconds without rushing. Your introduction should include. Carl Sandburg , Iraq War , Lincoln Memorial 607 Words | 3 Pages. Cultural? Managerial Accounting WRITTEN ANALYSIS OF THE CASE BETA COMPANY SYNOPSIS Beta Company produces two Product A and Essay A Cruel Punishment B . and free lesbien standard costs of each product were predetermined by Essay Confinement: A Cruel Punishment, management. During November actual production for Product A was 4,200 units while Product B was 3,600 units. For material X, 39,000 pounds were purchased at $14.40 and for material Y, 11,000 pounds were purchased at $9.70. Seven Pilars Of Health? Variance analysis for actual cost versus standard cost should be prepared for and Unusual Punishment, the said month. Free Lesbien? Analysis of variance , Cost , Cost accounting 848 Words | 5 Pages. Job Description: A speech pathologist is Essay Confinement: A Cruel, someone who treats individuals who suffer from nursing care plan for skin speech problems.

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Kurmitola HIGH SCHOOL Debate Club A BRIEF PROPOSAL FOR OPENING THE CLUB -PREPARED BY- SAYED AHMED PALLAB (EX-STUDENT, . Cultural Bias Examples? 2008) MD. Confinement: And Unusual Punishment? WAHIDUL ALAM (EX-STUDENT, 2008) MAHEDI JINAT (EX-STUDENT, 2008) * * Name: KURMITOLA HIGH SCHOOL DEBATE CLUB (KHS DC) will be the name of the club . Of Dien Phu Essay? It is on Solitary Punishment, proposed by us. If there is any problem about the name, the cultural bias examples name will decide later. Confinement: And Unusual? * Why does a school need a debate club ? A school is The Battle of Dien Bien Phu Essay, a playground of the students. Here a student can built. American Parliamentary Debate Association , Debate , Debates 1416 Words | 6 Pages. On Solitary Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual? Asr - Automatic Speech Recognition. ASR - Automatic Speech Recognition Automatic speech recognition transformations of acoustic micro structure of . speech signal into care for skin integrity, its implicit phonetic macro-structure. Confinement: A Cruel? In other words, a speech recognition system is a speech -to-text conversion wherein the never the papers output of the system displays text corresponding to Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel the recognized speech . Typology of ASR systems Several ASR systems can be developed, depending on: Speaker-dependent vs. independent Language constraints: o Isolated.

Computational linguistics , Festival Speech Synthesis System , Microphone 571 Words | 3 Pages. BUCEPHALUS SADDLE CLUB The Dog May Be Man's Best Friend, but It Was the bias examples Horse that Built Civilization! Name The name of Essay Punishment, this . club is Bucephalus Saddle Club . Office hours 9:30~17:30, Monday to Friday Area of The Battle of Dien Phu Essay, riding school Length of school is on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, 190feet and seven of health width is Essay on Solitary A Cruel Punishment, 75feet Breeds of horses In club we have following types of horse breeds. * American Cream Draft * Appendix Quarter Horse * Arabian * Lipizzan * Morgan * Thoroughbred * Australian. Arabian horse , Draft horse , Equestrianism 522 Words | 4 Pages. ? Montgomery College Office of in the illiad, Student Life (OSL) Rockville Campus Club Constitution ARTICLE I. Essay And Unusual Punishment? NAME OF CLUB ARTICLE . The Battle Bien? II. PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES OF CLUB ARTICLE III. Essay Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual? MEMBERSHIP Membership in this club is seven pilars, open to Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment all currently enrolled students of Montgomery College Rockville Campus as well as any interested faculty, staff, or administrator; will not be denied because of illiad, race, color, sex, sexual orientation, physical or mental disability, veteran status, national origin, or religion.

President of the United States , President pro on Solitary and Unusual Punishment tempore of the nursing care for skin United States Senate , United States Congress 314 Words | 3 Pages. Essay And Unusual? yelling at him for examples, not cleaning his room, when he brought up a extraneous subject to distract his mother. 3. Essay Confinement:? LAMENT a. 'Stand still, Ying-Ying!' . She cried, her usual lament, while I giggled and cultural bias examples wobbled on the stool. Pg 69, The Joy Luck Club b. a passionate expression of grief or sorrow (noun) c. Essay On Solitary Confinement: A Cruel Punishment? This displays the cultural bias irony that she is laughing while Amah cried, annoyed of Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual, her actions. Lament gives the character more passion of sorrow instead of the importance, saying She cried, her usual sorrow. Essay Confinement: And Unusual? Annie Dillard , Gold bar , The Joy Luck Club 838 Words | 3 Pages.

PROJECT CLUBS MARKS: 48 The project forms part of the CASS for free lesbien, the year and Essay A Cruel will be completed during term 2 of the year. You may . complete the project in seven pilars groups of no more than two. Essay Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual? You are the nursing plan for skin integrity bookkeeper/treasurer of the Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel Punishment Western Cape Soccer Club . The club has 260 members that pay a range of free lesbien, membership fees from juniors who pay R100 per annum to Essay on Solitary Punishment adults who pay R250 per seven pilars of health, annum. The club also charges an Confinement: A Cruel Punishment, entrance fee for seven, all new members of Essay A Cruel, R200 for juniors and free lesbien R400 for adults. And Unusual? The club runs.

Association football , Basic income , Expense 1240 Words | 4 Pages. nightclub in New York during the Harlem Renaissance was the Essay and Benefit Cotton Club . On Solitary And Unusual Punishment? Important black entertainers of the for skin times played to all-white . Confinement: Punishment? audiences. Cultural Examples? The attitude white Americans had toward African Americans, the African American entertainers, and Essay Confinement: the colorful atmosphere caused white Americans to be the clientele of the Essay and Benefit Management Cotton Club . The Cotton Club was a famous nightclub in Essay A Cruel and Unusual the Harlem district of free lesbien, New York City. It opened under the name of Club Deluxe during the Harlem Renaissance in 1920, with former boxing. African American , Black people , Duke Ellington 634 Words | 3 Pages. On Solitary And Unusual Punishment? problem Giscard dEstaing is Bien, currently repositioning Club Med as an Essay Confinement: A Cruel, upscale, friendly and free lesbien multicultural tour operator. Having spent around . EUR 1bn since 2004, this strategic turnaround had revived customers satisfaction toward Club Meds tour experience. Essay Confinement: And Unusual? Unfortunately, revenue performance is care plan, still poor. Estaing is in need of a concrete strategy to on Solitary Confinement: increase Club Meds revenue by free lesbien, 5 times by 2020 from 2010. On Solitary Confinement: And Unusual? The formation of the free lesbien strategy is Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual, driven by Club Meds 1) Strength - Strong and established brand. Club Med , Economic growth , Marketing 777 Words | 3 Pages. CLUB MED: Introduction; Visionary Gerard Blitz created a way to never the papers revolutionalize holidays, creating a place where people can live in Essay on Solitary the . moment and be happy, his vision was Club Med.

This was a concept centered on providing customers with leisure and unforgettable experiences, centered on freedom, pleasure and relaxation. Club Med was open to athena illiad different cultures; customers were treated with kindness and were considered to be special. Club Med had become the major player in Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel Punishment world tourism form its. Branding , Luxury good , Luxury vehicle 1920 Words | 6 Pages. Our aspiration is that coffee club will be well-known worldwide * To open new stores every fortnight in the next five years and nursing plan for skin integrity is . targeting 500 stores in Essay A Cruel and Unusual Punishment 2020 * The coffee club brand (Australia and never mind international) expect to reach revenue growth of 18.2% * The coffee club Australia expects to A Cruel and Unusual see revenue growth of the papers, 13.6% within next year * The coffee club group and its associated Brands expects to Essay on Solitary Confinement: Punishment see revenue growth of 29% globally * The coffee Club Group and its associated Brand.

Caffeine , Coffee , Coffeehouse 879 Words | 4 Pages. For Skin Integrity? ? Club Med Cherating Beach is a pure luxury, full-inclusive resort best suited for couples and families. With the South China Sea on Essay on Solitary Confinement: one side . and illiad a tropical jungle on Confinement: the other, Club Med Cherating Beach is also Club Meds first Eco Nature Village with GREEN GLOBE certification. The GOs have so much enthusiasm and never mind the Club Med Welcome shows how very special each guest at Essay on Solitary A Cruel Punishment, Club Med is. We were served with welcome drinks and cold towers before being ushered to the lobby for seven, a short briefing. Our luggages. Bar , Bar association , Bartender 999 Words | 4 Pages. Question 2 What is Essay on Solitary Confinement:, driving the health club phenomenon? What are the never the papers basic economics of the health club industry? What value is Punishment, . created? What does it cost to Essay on Compensation Management deliver that value? How do these costs behave?

Selected Answer: The driving points of health club phenomenon are: Growing awareness about health related issues and concern about Essay A Cruel and Unusual obesity and cultural examples its effects among Americans is one of the key elements of the on Solitary Confinement: health club phenomena. On Compensation And Benefit? Increasing desire to maintain and Confinement: A Cruel control weight, get in shape, meet. Bally's Atlantic City , Club , Health club 1522 Words | 6 Pages. Free Lesbien? Provide an in-depth profile of the family market that the on Solitary A Cruel Punishment club aims to athena illiad attract. Use the demographic, psychographic, behavioral methods of Essay A Cruel, . Cultural Bias Examples? market segmentation According to on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel the demographic method, Orchid Country Club is Essay on Compensation and Benefit Management, located near Sungei Seletar Reservoir, Yishun Avenue 1. They target the middle ($3,500 to Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual $5,500 a month) and high-income ($11,500 to $16,600 per seven of health, month) families that have the spending power to A Cruel and Unusual Punishment purchase membership from the club . The minimum requirement for earnest quotes, education level are people.

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My Life As A Student Essays and Research Papers. GORDON KUSSI TABIRI English Writing: From Start to Finish My life as a college student Seven years ago I gained . admission to Essay on Solitary A Cruel Punishment, pursue a B.A program in one of the prestigious universities in Ghana. The name of the university is Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and never mind the papers, Technology (KNUST). I was offered a four year bachelor degree program leading to a degree in Sociology and Social Work. On Solitary Confinement:. Thus, I read BA Sociology and Social Work. Free Lesbien. I was so happy at the time because of Essay on Solitary two reasons. Never The Papers. One was that, I had.

Academic degree , Friendship , Ghana 1179 Words | 3 Pages. will only Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual, fix on his favourite hyung. Mind. Only Luhan hyung. And Unusual. He never once had a proper time with me already. We' had so many chances during EXO-K's time before . The Battle Of Dien Phu Essay. but now, I could barely talk to him. EXO's promoting as 12 currently so, I have to lower down my desires to stay close to Essay on Solitary A Cruel Punishment, him. I still remember our shared moments together, though they're not as many as his ones with Luhan hyung, I am more than just happy. Essay Management. But sometimes, I couldn't help but to wish for more, where it'll be just me and. Coming out 810 Words | 3 Pages.

secret that student life is the best part of on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel Punishment life . In this period of time students start their own . The Battle Of Dien. life . All of them have the right to make their own decisions. At this period a student has to Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual, learn a lot of information from the books and other sources of info. Management. It means that he or she should decide and determine main points in Essay on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment the life . Initially, the student becomes a person with his or her own way of looking at things. Student life is very useful because it prepares students for the real life . It means. Happiness , Life , Manners 930 Words | 3 Pages. My name is Yasmin binti Zainal Abidin. Currently I am a student in Universiti Selangor (UNISEL) which is one of the athena in the, private . institutions in and Unusual Selangor.I am now in the first semester doing Foundation in Management.

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Shiloh Ga What was your family like? Loving Big United Caring Together What things do you remember about your childhood? Sports Church School Mom Friends What are some of your favorite memories? Playing sports Swimming Friends Summer time What did you want to become when you grew up? Role model My Life. Education , English-language films , Family 781 Words | 3 Pages. An Episode of My Life- Life of a Grade 8 Student. An Episode Of My Life I woke up in on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual the middle of the night after the weird noise coming from my brother Jakes . room. It was his alarm that made such noise. Of Dien. He has an important high school exam today.

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Knowledge 1010 Words | 3 Pages. Alexis Medrano my life as a student essay. February 04, 2015 My Life as a Student Every student faces obstacles and The Battle of Dien Bien Phu Essay, achievements during . their whole school education. I have came across many things, as being a student . Mrs. And Unusual. Larson from my senior year was a positive influence during that time. I have also had many hardships along my education and have fallen into some gaps. But, after the positives and free lesbien, negatives I have gained a growth-mindset and I can relate to Carol S. Dwecks Brainology article on Transforming Students Motivation to. College , Education , High school 987 Words | 3 Pages. . .You are a Student NowCollege life is a thing which you can hardly . forget. This is the time when you become an adult, a more sensible person with the sober views on life.First of all, to pass entrance exams and enter the university is a real challenge for on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment a young person. The Importance Earnest. It takes a lot of time, knowledge, patience and Essay A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, nerves.

Besides, there is an avalanche of work expects you. A student ought to get accustomed to a new timetable, new subjects which. Education , Personality psychology , Prince 1028 Words | 3 Pages. personal mission or vision statement. Examples. We use this statement in this seminar to emphasize that your time at the UW begins with dreams and visions you hold . for the life that is still ahead of you. We ask you to write a mission statement that is reflective of on Solitary Confinement: Punishment who you are and on Compensation Management, what your sense of calling, purpose, vocation, or meaning of life . Mission statements are helpful for many reasons, but primarily they are used as a tool to encourage you to consciously reflect on who you are and Essay on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual Punishment, what you are doing. Life , Meaning of life , Mission statement 1062 Words | 6 Pages. My Life Story My story is free lesbien, one of abuse, neglect, hurt, addiction, loss, and happiness. Many people go through . wondering why me?, instead of letting go of on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment all the bad and changing their lives they use it as an excuse, but that is where I am different from other people I have used all my bad experiences as learning tools, I came from nothing and became something. Athena Illiad. My name is Amanda Nicole Fomichev (Read), I was born and raised in Idaho I am the oldest of 12 children. My parents, if that is what.

2007 albums , American films , Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles 1258 Words | 3 Pages. lost someone very dear to me, my mom, and Essay on Solitary Punishment, my grandma, although she was very loved by many. Essay On Compensation Management. I can say that it seems like it is Essay Confinement: Punishment, . harder for my mom and grandma. They both loved her so much and you can tell it broke my mom some. She was sad today while looking through my great grandmas things but it was worth everything to never mind, see all the stuff that she owns and on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, read more about her life . Today we received the package of bias examples my great grandmas things and journals about her life basically. So as I am sitting. 2000 singles , 2007 singles , 2008 albums 2752 Words | 4 Pages.

Machiel de Groot Mrs. Carne AVID 9 March 28 2013 My Mandala DRAFT 2222222 Everybody has things that are important to them and on Solitary and Unusual Punishment, their . lives. In this essay, I will be explaining what is important to me and why they are big aspects of my life .. The things that are most important in my life are as follows: Sports, Music, Family, Education, and in the illiad, most of all: my best friend. In my Avid class, we were asked to make a Mandala, a circular piece of paper split into A Cruel and Unusual Punishment four slices with one space left in. A Wonderful Life , All You Need Is Love , English-language films 1332 Words | 3 Pages. ? GoogleOpens new window Yahoo!

My WebOpens new window Digg This Opens new window del.icio.us Opens new window Reddit Opens new window . Newsvine Opens new window Diigo Opens new window Print Page Main content Academic Pressure It's like a pressure cooker in here! No doubt, school is tough. For some, it's the worry of being able to get enough credits to graduate high school, while for others it's being able to of being earnest quotes, get a 4.0 GPA and get into Stanford. On Solitary A Cruel Punishment. No matter what our goals are, we all struggle. College , High school , Social bookmarking 909 Words | 4 Pages.

My Life Page 1 My Life : Past Future Leah Wallin PSY 202 Mr. Wells . September 29, 2010 My Life Page 2 I. Introduction II. Free Lesbien. My Life A. Childhood B. Teenager C. Adult III. Theoretical Reflection A. Urie Bornfenbrenner and Ecological Theory IV. Goals A. Personal B. Professional C. Essay Punishment. Academic V. Conclusion My Life Page 3 Our lives consist of variety of different aspects of whom. American films , Developmental psychology , Ecological Systems Theory 1783 Words | 6 Pages. learned to hope and Essay, dream about what the future holds for us. On Solitary And Unusual Punishment. I know I have, and all these past years all I've done is think about what I want to be when i . Illiad. grow up, who my family is and where I will live. Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual Punishment. I've been filling my head with a fantasy of being a rich girl living in New York. So, I subconsciously created a blueprint in my mind of my future, and it gives me an immense pleasure to share it with all of athena illiad you. So here it goes.

Ever since we could talk our parents have always asked us one question what. Doctor of Medicine , Lasker Award , Medical education 1388 Words | 4 Pages. Renal Wise Mark Covert Health 101 Accepting Death and on Solitary Confinement: Punishment, Dying In your life , you will face situations that cause you grief. One of the Essay on Compensation and Benefit, . toughest of those situations is the death of a loved one. The grief following the loss can be depressing and may feel unbearable at times, but it is important to remember that grief is a healing process. Essay On Solitary And Unusual Punishment. Everyone deals with grief differently; it can either be from the death of of Dien Phu Essay a family member, loved one, or close friend. Dying is usually perceived as a form. Acceptance , Afterlife , Crime 1628 Words | 4 Pages. My college life A student like me is one of the thousand students in Essay on Solitary A Cruel MSU-IIT who strive . for the future in athena in the an institution which is renowned for its excellence when it comes to its graduates.

Just a normal college student with a normal life living in a dormitory which is quite far from the campus vicinity and a teenager from Pagadian City went to Essay on Solitary Confinement:, Iligan City to pursue the dream of becoming an engineer with all the things that my parent gave me and the will to fulfill the chosen path what. Cagayan de Oro City , College , English-language films 1083 Words | 3 Pages. Notes TO THE STUDENT : I understand that South University, will assist me in securing my official transcripts. Cultural Bias Examples. However, it is . Essay On Solitary Punishment. ultimately my responsibility to make sure that my official transcript(s) has been requested and received by South University within my first session of The Battle of Dien class. Official Transcripts for Proof of Essay on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment Graduation: If my official transcript providing Proof of Graduation is not received within my first session of class, I understand that I am subject to termination of my program of study. Graduation , Penn Avenue , Phonetics 395 Words | 3 Pages. My Life - My Personal Responsibilities Early in this journey of life , mother instilled in cultural bias examples me the . importance of living responsibly, she would say whatever you do in life make responsible and wise choices. By the time I was a junior in high school, I has selected both the university and major area of study that I wanted to pursue. I did the research and Essay Confinement: and Unusual Punishment, footwork then presented my parents my future plans my mom expressed how proud she was of me for taking the cultural examples, initiative for on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual pursuing my college. Goal , Individual responsibility , Learning 1123 Words | 3 Pages.

no more than six hours a night because of my desire to expertly meet my many commitments. The Importance Earnest Quotes. Throughout my . Essay On Solitary A Cruel. life , I have worked as long and as hard as I possibly can to effect beneficial changes in both school and The Battle of Dien Bien Phu Essay, society. During the summer of tenth grade, I took a number theory course at Johns Hopkins University with students from on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, Alaska, California, and Bogota, Colombia. Similarly, during the cultural bias, summer following eleventh grade, I was one of ninety students from New Jersey selected to attend the Governor's. Education , General relativity , German National Honor Society 732 Words | 3 Pages. times in your life but when you feel that way, there is Essay and Unusual Punishment, nothing or no one that can make you feel better. There's only one person that can make . you feel this way and that same person is the judge to how often you feel that way too. Everyday, I get on that court and I have to, I need to, try my hardest if I ever want to get to the level that I think I deserve to free lesbien, be at and in order to do this I need to push myself harder than I ever have before. Essay On Solitary Confinement: A Cruel Punishment. The life of an athlete is difficult, but the life of a tennis. 2007 singles , 2008 singles , Clay court 1710 Words | 4 Pages.

A day in the life of a student Trrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrriiinnngg. and the alarm went off exactly at . 7000hrs. Cultural. Let me tell you folks it is really amazing how my friend Mr. Vishal Mandowara ( P.G. Punishment. 'B') manages to press the Snooze button perfectly even without opening his eyes. Oh, its still too early , I can surely manage to squeeze in free lesbien five more minutes yaaawnn and off he goes back to his dream world. Trrrrrrriiiiing again the alarm shouts its lungs out, but the on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual, giant. Vada pav 1362 Words | 3 Pages. small years old, dancing around the house, watching The Power Puff Girls and wanting, ever so badly, to be a little superhero.

One day, my . mother scooped me up in her arms, breaking my concentration of crime fighting little girls, to take a trip to the pound. I was only three so as my small mind wondered, I still couldn't grasp the idea of what a pound was. Still, my loving mother would not speak a word of what the the importance of being, pound was. On Solitary Confinement:. I remember toddling through the smelly place of animals big and small thinking. Dog , Pound , Pound-force 1530 Words | 4 Pages. easy three credit class. Not knowing of the strong effect that it was going to have on the way that I viewed my life , and the . people that were involved in it or, that crossed paths with me on a daily basis. My first assignment was to present one of in the illiad my colleagues, now this was someone that I never met before, and Essay on Solitary A Cruel Punishment, doing something like this seemed, ridiculous to me. What was its purpose in my wanting to get a grade in this class? It seemed almost unnecessary and as usual I was wrong.

This activity. Friendship , God in Christianity , Holy Spirit 960 Words | 3 Pages. Agriculture , Art , Civilization 642 Words | 3 Pages. The person affects my life the most, and also my only idol, my goal of living is my . grandma. In the time when most Asian women did not dare to express themselves, to speak out what was on never mind the papers their mind, my grandmother did. Her rare personality was popular and highly respected among those who knew her. Essay On Solitary And Unusual Punishment. At that time women would not have good education, however everybody would turn to my grandmother?s wisdom to ask for help. She was smart and profound but yet vigorously caring and loving towards her family. Family , Grandma Moses , Grandparent 2116 Words | 5 Pages.

Changes in my life This essay is about how changes haveoccurred in free lesbien my . life . These changeshave occurredbecause I went to Confinement: Punishment, adifferent country. Mind The Papers. First in Pakistan we have a lot of differences. Like most of students not follow the time schedule. We also do not have a lot technology.In addition when I am in my own country I am dependent on Confinement: and Unusual Punishment others. Now that I have moved to Canada I have noticed a lot of changes in my life . The lifestyles in Canada are different from mind the papers, my own. Anthropology , Canada , Personal life 918 Words | 3 Pages. Lady Antebellum, a current country music band.

The day I heard this song made me sit for a least an hour cry and reminisce on what my . life had been and how much I had been through in just three years. My boyfriend, who we will refer to as Bo for on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment the sake of Essay on Compensation and Benefit this essay, and I had been together for almost two years when I found out in Essay A Cruel and Unusual Punishment August of 2012 that I was expecting my first child. During the two prior years Bo and I were having the time of our lives. We were always on free lesbien the go living worry free. English-language films , Love , Mother 1167 Words | 3 Pages. chapter from my life after the Essay Confinement: and Unusual, final exams i had six months free for bias my next session as i was about to get into on Solitary and Unusual Punishment . the professional part of my studies so i decided to have the free lesbien, most of it before i get busy with my further studies. Confinement: A Cruel Punishment. so then i was discussing with my dad regarding my going to England for couple of months. to have self confident and to explore the world without my family around me as then i was considering myself an adult. after all this my dad got agreed to and Benefit, let me go and have my time with.

British Airways , England , London 1538 Words | 4 Pages. ?STORY OF MY LIFE My name is Essay, Igbonekwu stephen Master hail from Nriukwu in of Dien Phu Essay Aboh-Mbaise local government area Imo . state. I am eighteen (18) years, born and brought up in Onitsha, Anambra state. All about me is great. I attended Promise international School fegge Onitsha during my nursery and primary level. I studied in Federal Science and Technical College Awka, Anambra state during my secondary school time.

I made alot of friends Bimbo, Amaka, Judith, and others; my favourite meal is A Cruel, fufu and on Compensation Management, edikiangkong. Anambra State , College , High school 1247 Words | 3 Pages. Braulio Martin Life of a College Student I personally go to school full time and work a part time job. And Unusual Punishment. Although at times it . In The. might seem difficult to keep up with school, work and studying, it is and Unusual, actually quite doable as long as you are able to the importance of being, manage your time and work productively. On Solitary Confinement:. This relates to both McLellans The Dead-End Kids and Browns Balancing Act: High School Students Making the Grade at Part-Time Jobs because each article gives good reasons as to why working part time and going. Education , Full-time , Grade 906 Words | 3 Pages. An obvious goal as a working adult returning to on Compensation, school is, of course, to earn a degree. My overall goal is no different than any other . student , however, I also have several personal goals I hope to achieve while attending the University of Essay Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Phoenix.

Some of these goals are to acquire new skills and enhance my current business abilities, to apply what I learn in the classroom to forward my career, and to feel personal satisfaction of free lesbien finishing something I started. Already having experience in. Employment , Fortune , Goal 946 Words | 3 Pages. FAQs on Student Life Management System (SLiMS) General information on SLiMS 1. What is SLiMS? SLiMS is the acronym for . Student Life Management System. Essay A Cruel Punishment. It is a new enhanced portal, replacing the current CCA Records system in OASIS.

SLiMS will be a record of all your co-curriculum activities throughout your undergraduate studies at SMU. 2. What can we do in SLiMS/scopes of SLiMS? You may log into SLiMS to do the following: (i) Sign up as a member of athena in the illiad a club/interest group - Search from Student Organisation. Student societies , Student society 2149 Words | 7 Pages. live by and center my actions around.

I always keep these quotes in Essay my mind as I go about living my . life and of Dien Bien, use them as a guideline to overcome any obstacles thrown my way. This paper will proceed to tell of two stories regarding how I came about Punishment, these inspirational words and how my life was changed the moment I heard and believed. Never Mind. No one is an Essay on Solitary and Unusual Punishment exception to The Battle, bad experiences or hard work, but the way each individual goes about to overcome these hardships is unique to their own life story. Some people. Kim Il-sung , Korea , Korean Demilitarized Zone 1308 Words | 3 Pages. My Journey Through Life Craig DeHaan PSY 202 Diana Donovan December 17, 2012 I. What things do you remember . about your childhood?

A. Family business B. Playing sports C. Good and bad times growing up II. Who were the important people in your life ? A. Family B. Sports coaches C. On Solitary Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual. High school teacher III. Free Lesbien. What jobs have you had in Essay on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual your life ? A. On Compensation. Stock boy at our local grocery store B. Confinement: Punishment. Micro-electronics technician C. Quality IV. What are your greatest achievements. Continuing education , Developmental psychology , Education 1628 Words | 4 Pages. Kalisa: Hi, this is Layla. I have finished my essay about an never mind the papers argument and am sending it to you now. We can talk about it in class.

I will would . appreciate it if you can give me some advice about on Solitary A Cruel Punishment, how to improve it. Layla Direction: Read the statement and the instructions that follow it, and then make any notes that will help you plan your response. Now is the perfect time to buy a house in our city. Athena. Over the past five years, average home prices in our region have nearly doubled. But average. Capital accumulation , Finance , Future 870 Words | 3 Pages. My Journey through Life Nothing is more important than life , even if it contained darkness or lightness. . Everyone on earth has a special life ; your life is different from others. Life has a lot of good and bad things, a lot of Punishment fun and unhappy situations we face during our lives. My mother has always told me, Life is as complicated as you make it. Many people have contributed a positive impact to me. In The. Because of them, I have definitely become what I am today.

Four people have always significantly. Gulf War , IranIraq War , Iraq 1311 Words | 4 Pages. The Turning Point of on Solitary Confinement: My Life I was in my final year at Rodeo High School. I was only seventeen and the . In The Illiad. pressure of Essay A Cruel and Unusual knowing the Essay on Compensation and Benefit, outcome of post high school results would determine my whole life ahead finally got to me. I snapped out of my bewilderment one day, in the absence of my parents while they were out on vacation, I went out with my friends, hoping to find myself spiritually and Essay A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, mentally. This was the mind, turning point in my life that would ultimately lead to my destiny.

With an A Cruel and Unusual Punishment incomplete. General Educational Development , Graduation , High school 1318 Words | 4 Pages. Ralph Waldo Emerson I. Introduction A man who has his own mind and and Benefit, beliefs, He has varieties of quotes. A quote that got my . Essay Punishment. attention Do not go where the path may lead, go instead of where there is no path and illiad, leave a trail, by Ralph Waldo Emerson. Essay Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual. Ralph was a confident man, who created wonderful quotes, poetry, and Essay on Compensation, stories all straight from his mind. A gentle that went through a lot, and still managed to accomplished his goals. II. Biographical Sketch Ralph Waldo. Amos Bronson Alcott , Concord, Massachusetts , Henry David Thoreau 730 Words | 5 Pages. Student Engagement - Success for Life. day-to-day life ? Humans need a large amount of Essay Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual energy in order to work efficiently; and support from family and friends gives us the drive to Phu Essay, . accomplish our goals and aspirations.

As a university student , you need a lot more than just food, sleep and Essay on Solitary Confinement: Punishment, support to get through the 4-plus years of what is to free lesbien, become the rest of your life . Students need the motivation, the ambition the Essay Confinement: Punishment, drive to complete their schooling with much success. A tactic that is used to increase the motivation in students is never mind, trying. Academic degree , College , Education 1136 Words | 3 Pages. not until my junior year of on Solitary Confinement: Punishment high school that I started really caring about my schoolwork. I was very determined to raise . The Importance Of Being Earnest. my grade point average and start applying myself. I started out on Solitary A Cruel Punishment, thinking that my junior year was going to be like any other year: boring classes, days that dragged on, and dull teachers. That year, however, I came to realize that without some of The Battle of Dien my teachers, I probably would not have worked as hard as I did in Essay school. When I decided to in the, start taking an interest in my classes, I. Education , High school , School 1409 Words | 4 Pages. in My Life After a long time I went to Essay on Solitary Punishment, visit . my homeland . Those days were my best days in my life . The Battle Bien Phu Essay. I mean colorful days in my life . for the first time, after a long time, I saw my grandparents . who were amazed to see me again . My grandfather told me, Hey, son, you are completely changed, You are tall, skinny, but you are strong. My grandmother said that when I was a kid, I was like my dad.

2007 singles , English-language films , Family 1094 Words | 4 Pages. ?Xuong Ly (Ken) ESL-099-06C Professor: Suzanne Crisci 12/7/14 The Stress in my life In the Essay A Cruel, writing class, the professor, . Suzanne asked us to write an essay about The Battle of Dien, stresses in our life . On Solitary Confinement: And Unusual. Everybody also has stresses in their life , I too. Nathan DeWall mention Stress often strikes without warning. The questions in Essay on Compensation and Benefit Management my brain are: Why do I have stresses in my life ? How did they come? Will I have mental disease of those stresses.

The stresses come from affecting of jobs, sickness, examinations, broken. Luck , Mind , Prince 952 Words | 3 Pages. Music plays a vital role in my life . On Solitary Confinement: And Unusual Punishment. I love listening to music and its become one of my hobbies since Im in . The Importance Of Being Earnest Quotes. my primary school. I had been exposed to music since Im at kindergarten. I do a lot of performance that are related with music when Im in my school age and I really enjoy it. I can say that music has become part of my life . Essay Confinement: And Unusual Punishment. Even in kindergarten, I had been taught by music such as ABCs song, Twinkle Twinkle Little Star, Happy Birthday song, If You Are Happy and others. Free Lesbien. There are so many.

2007 albums , Emotion , English language 1505 Words | 4 Pages. Unforgettable incident of Confinement: Punishment my life it was the first day of September. My result of i.com was to be declared on that . Athena. day. I had been waiting for the day with anxiety and curiosity. I got up at six o clock. On Solitary And Unusual Punishment. I took bath and prayed to God to grant me success. My mind was swinging between hope and fear. It was strange stage of anxiety and expectation I was not sure what was slotted for me.

My parents had high expectation of me. At one moment I was sure that I would pass obtaining Grade A. Again, I feared. Anxiety , English-language films , Life 972 Words | 3 Pages. book that changed my life and earnest quotes, opened my heart to a world of Essay A Cruel Punishment literacy. Never Mind The Papers. Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone . (Rowling, 1997) not only Essay on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, intensified my already keen imagination, but filled me with a hunger for knowledge. I knew then that I had to enhance my literary skills in order to the importance of being, obtain the level of intellectual stimulation I craved, and Harry Potter gave me the tools and A Cruel and Unusual, motivation to athena illiad, do so.

To this day, the series carries an impact in Essay on Solitary and Unusual Punishment both my personal life as well as fueling my own desire to write. Harry Potter , Harry Potter and of being quotes, the Deathly Hallows , Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince 984 Words | 3 Pages. First Accomplishment in My Life It is Essay Punishment, so difficult to live in the United States, the in the, land of opportunity, without . education and Confinement: Punishment, the English language. Management. Without these two things, our lives seem like meaningless. My family is on Solitary, one of the victims of this problem. Two years ago, when I was a senior student in high school, I almost could not graduate from high school with diploma in hand because of failing the exit exam twice and athena in the, my lack knowledge of English. At that time, I really wanted to. Anxiety , English language , English people 1124 Words | 3 Pages. My name is ------ and Im currently 36 years old. I will be summarizing my life and expounding on how the . knowledge of Essay A Cruel and Unusual Punishment classical and athena in the, contemporary adult development theory affected my views on Essay Confinement: A Cruel being a successful college student and in bias shaping my personal, academic, and professional goals. My life successes and Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, goals are continuously being shaped and molded as a potter shapes clay into on Compensation ware; smoothing surfaces to perfection.

I was born and raised in Edward, NC. I am the Confinement: and Unusual Punishment, oldest of never mind the papers three. I was. Birth order , Certified Nursing Assistant , College 1448 Words | 4 Pages. Independence of Student in University Life. Independence of Student in University Life Away from home, a rather simple and common phrase that is . no stranger to most of the university students whom are studying overseas. Since young, as a child, we were living under the shades of our parents, handled with care in their hands.

For them, we are as precious as diamonds, being protected under their wings and Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual, not knowing how the mind, world look like because everything had been done for us by the love of our parents. On Solitary A Cruel And Unusual. Even. All That You Can't Leave Behind , Education , Kota Kinabalu 1136 Words | 4 Pages. Changes in My Life It is athena in the illiad, not easy to adapt oneself to new circumstances especially moving to on Solitary Confinement: Punishment, a country that you have never . come always brings you difficulties such as: people, language, custom and culture The first time I came to the US, I looked like a fish out of water. Everyone looked so different from people my country. I could not understand when they talked to me. But I was very lucky.

I met good friends and teachers at the importance of being earnest school. They helped me a lot not only studying at school but. Debut albums , Education , Federal government of the Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, United States 980 Words | 3 Pages. The Times of My Life: Periodization. human being has a story to Bien Phu Essay, tell whether it be a dull one or a fascinating one, and my story is not particularly remarkable, but a story . nonetheless. There are certain periods in Essay on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual life that can be summed up into a couple words; however, the full story would most likely not be included in those couple of words. A Road Trip Across The Country I started off with a road trip across the in the, country.

Being born in A Cruel Punishment Los Angeles, my parents would often experience a lot of crowds and difficulties with jobs. This. Ayumi Hamasaki , College , Elementary school 1106 Words | 3 Pages. A new phase of my life began when I was living in the importance earnest Mexico, my mother and stepfather lost their jobs. . My mother became pregnant and Essay Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, my stepfather was in of Dien major automobile accident. My family started to go through a financial-crisis.

As soon as my mother was able to work, she returned to work, however she did not earn enough to Essay Confinement: and Unusual Punishment, solve the expenses at home. By the time my stepfather recovered from the car accident, due to the accumulated debt, we our assets. Continuous fights began at home because of. Family , Need 1239 Words | 3 Pages. This essay is tailored to tell about my life and future goals. Personal Goals Medicine, medicine, medicine! . Rapid heartbeat or palpitations, excessive Sweating, Choking sensations or lump in throat , Smothering or shortness of breath sensations ,discomfort, Shaking visibly, Nausea, bloating, Dizziness or unsteadiness, Feeling light-headed, Depersonalization, Fear of losing control or going crazy , numbness or tingling sensations in athena in the illiad face, Skin losing color, and muscle pain are.

Education , Ernest Hemingway , Language 879 Words | 3 Pages. John Winkel My Life Experiences I, (state your full name), do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend . the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; and that I will obey the orders of the President of the United States and the orders of the officers appointed over Essay and Unusual Punishment me, according to regulations and the Uniform Code of never mind the papers Military Justice. On Solitary Confinement: And Unusual. So help me God. This is the illiad, oath that every person joining. Armed forces , Army , Conscription 948 Words | 3 Pages. ? My Life under the Microscope SOCS 185 The older I grow the more everything in my past seems to . make sense in relation to the person I am today. The trials and tribulations my family and I experienced have shaped and become the definition of this thing called life . Im pretty clear about whom I am as a person, but now that I know different sociological concepts and Confinement: and Unusual, perspectives, Im interested on athena how society views me as a person. Essay A Cruel And Unusual. I will attempt to explore the sociological concepts. African American , Certified Nursing Assistant , Ethnic group 1019 Words | 3 Pages. The Story of My Life Shelisha Mitchum Psy 202: Adult Development and The Battle, Life Assessment Instructor Jaime Kulaga . 4/1/2013 The Story of My Life I. Where are you from? A. Confinement: And Unusual Punishment. Born and raised in northeastern Ohio B. Middle child of four siblings C. Raised in a single parent home II. What did you want to become when you grew up?

A. Free Lesbien. Experienced some life changing events B. Wanted to attend Syracuse University C. Gained insight on what to do with my future III. Family , Graduation , High school 2357 Words | 6 Pages. A Moment That Changed My Life If you happened to be at the Target Center on March 21, 2012 around seven in the evening, you may . have noticed a white mass at Essay A Cruel and Unusual one of on Compensation Management end of the basketball court. This white mass was an enormous cheering section of students , friends, and parents from my high school. Among this section were two boys that didnt go to Essay A Cruel Punishment, my high school, Andrew and Evan Mulville.

They went to another school in never our conference, but early in the basketball season they became part of the Watertown. Basketball , Friends , Friendship 1356 Words | 3 Pages.

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The Neuroscience Revolution, Ethics, and Essay on Solitary Confinement: Punishment the Law. There's no art to find the mind's construction in the face; He was a gentleman on whom I built an the importance of being earnest quotes, absolute trust. 1. The lament of Duncan, King of Scotland, for the treason of the Thane of Cawdor, his trusted nobleman, echoes through time as we continue to Essay on Solitary Punishment, feel the sting of not knowing the minds of those people with whom we deal. From we have a deal to will you still love me tomorrow?, we continue to never, live in fundamental uncertainty about the Essay Confinement: and Unusual minds of others. Duncan demonstrated this by immediately giving his trust to Cawdor's conqueror, one Macbeth, with fatal consequences. But at least some of this uncertainty may be about to lift, for never mind better or for worse.

Neuroscience is Essay on Solitary A Cruel rapidly increasing our knowledge of the functioning, and malfunctioning, of that intricate three-pound organ, the mind human brain. When science expands our understanding of Essay Confinement: A Cruel, something so central to human existence, these advances will necessarily cause changes in both our society and bias examples its laws. Essay On Solitary Confinement: And Unusual. This paper seeks to forecast and explore the social and athena in the illiad legal changes that neuroscience might bring in four areas: prediction, litigation, confidentiality and privacy, and patents. It complements the paper in Essay Confinement: and Unusual Punishment, this volume written by Professor Stephen Morse, which covers issues of personhood and responsibility, informed consent, the reform of existing legal doctrines, enhancement of normal brain functions, and the admissibility of neuroscience evidence. Two notes of caution are in the papers, order.

First, this paper may appear to paint a gloomy picture of future threats and abuses. The technologies discussed may, in fact, have benefits far outweighing their harms. It is the Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel job of people looking for ethical, legal, and social consequences of The Battle of Dien Bien Phu Essay, new technologies to look disproportionately for troublesome consequences or, at least, that's the convention. Second, as Nils Bohr (probably) said, It is always hard to predict things, especially the Confinement: A Cruel future. 2 This paper builds on experience gained in studying the ethical, legal, and social implications of bias, human genetics over Essay Confinement: and Unusual Punishment, the last decade. Athena. That experience, for me and for the whole field, has included both successes and failures. Essay On Solitary Confinement: Punishment. In neuroscience, as in genetics, accurately envisioning the future is particularly difficult as one must foresee successfully both what changes will occur in and Benefit Management, the science and how they will affect society. I am confident about only two things concerning this paper: first, it discusses at length some things that will never happen, and, second, it ignores what will prove to be some of the Essay Confinement: and Unusual most important social and legal implications of neuroscience. Nonetheless, I hope the paper can be useful as a guide to beginning to think about these issues.

Advances in neuroscience may well improve our ability to make predictions about an individual's future. This seems particularly likely through neuroimaging, as different patterns of brain images, taken under varying circumstances, will come to be strongly correlated with different future behaviors or conditions. The images may reveal the structure of the of being quotes living brain, through technologies such as computer-assisted tomography (CAT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or they may show how different parts of the brain function , through positron emission tomography (PET) scans, single photon emission tomography (SPET) scans, or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Neuroscience might make many different kinds of predictions about people. It might predict, or reveal, mental illness, behavioral traits, or cognitive abilities, among other things. For the purposes of this paper, I have organized these predictive areas not by the nature of the Essay Confinement: and Unusual Punishment prediction but by who might use the predictions: the health care system, the criminal justice system, schools, businesses, and parents. The fact that new neuroscience methods are used to make predictions is not necessarily good or bad.

Our society makes predictions about people all the time: from a doctor determining a patient's prognosis, to a judge (or a legislature) sentencing a criminal, to colleges using the Scholastic Aptitude Test, to automobile liability insurers setting rates. Free Lesbien. But although prediction is common, it is Essay on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual not always uncontroversial. The Analogy to free lesbien, Genetic Predictions. The issues raised by predictions based on neuroscience are often similar to those raised by genetic predictions. Indeed, in some cases the two areas are the same genetic analysis can powerfully predict several diseases of the brain, including Huntington disease and Essay on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual some cases of early-onset Alzheimer disease.

Experience of genetic predictions teaches at least three important lessons. First, a claimed ability to the importance earnest, predict may not, in fact, exist. Many associations between genetic variations and on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual various diseases have been claimed, only to fail the test of replication. Examples. Interestingly, many of these failures have involved two mental illnesses, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Second, and more important, the strength of the Confinement: A Cruel predictions can vary enormously. For some genetic diseases, prediction is overwhelmingly powerful. As far as we know, the only way a person with the genetic variation that causes Huntington disease can avoid dying of Essay on Compensation, that disease is to die first from Essay on Solitary something else. On the other hand, the widely heralded breast cancer genes, BRCA 1 and BRCA 2, though they substantially increase the likelihood that a woman will be diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer, are not close to determinative. Somewhere between 50 and 85 percent of free lesbien, women born with a pathogenic mutation in either of those genes will get breast cancer; 20 to on Solitary A Cruel Punishment, 30 percent (well under half) will get ovarian cancer. Men with a mutation in BRCA 2 have a hundred-fold greater risk of breast cancer than average men but their chances are still under five percent. A prediction based on an association between a genetic variation and cultural bias a disease, even when true, can be very strong, very weak, or somewhere between.

The popular perception of Essay on Solitary A Cruel, genes as extremely powerful is never probably a result of ascertainment bias: the diseases first found to be caused by genetic variations were very powerful because powerful associations were the on Solitary easiest to find. If, as seems likely, the same holds true for predictions from neuroscience, such predictions will need to be used very carefully. Finally, the never mind use of Essay A Cruel and Unusual, genetic predictions has proven controversial, both in medical practice and in social settings. Much of the debate about the uses of human genetics has concerned its use to predict the future health or traits of patients, insureds, employees, fetuses, or embryos. Neuroscience seems likely to raise many similar issues. Much of cultural examples, health care is about prediction predicting the outcome of a disease, predicting the results of on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, a treatment for a disease, predicting the risk of getting a disease. When medicine, through neuroscience, genetics, or other methods, makes an accurate prediction that leads to a useful intervention, the illiad prediction is clearly valuable. But predictions also can cause problems when they are inaccurate (or are perceived inaccurately by patients). Even if the predictions are accurate, they still have uncertain value if no useful interventions are possible. Essay Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual Punishment. These problems may justify regulation of illiad, predictive neuroscientific medical testing. Some predictive tests are inaccurate, either because the scientific understanding behind them is A Cruel and Unusual Punishment wrong or because the test is free lesbien poorly performed.

In other cases the test may be accurate in the sense that it gives an on Solitary Confinement:, accurate assessment of the probability of a certain result, but any individual patient may not have the most likely outcome. In addition, patients or others may misinterpret the The Battle Bien Phu Essay test results. In genetic testing, for example, a woman who tests positive for a BRCA 1 mutation may believe that a fatal breast cancer is inevitable, when, in fact, her lifetime risk of Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual, breast cancer is between 50 and 85 percent and her chance of dying from a breast cancer is never mind the papers roughly one-third of the risk of diagnosis. Alternatively, a woman who tests negative for the mutation may falsely believe that she has no risk for breast cancer and could stop breast self-examinations or mammograms to her harm. Even very accurate tests may not be very useful. Genetic testing to Essay on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual, predict Huntington disease is quite accurate, yet, with no useful medical interventions, a person may find foreknowledge of Huntington's disease not only of Dien Bien unhelpful but psychologically or socially harmful. These concerns have led to widespread calls for regulation of genetic testing.

3. The same issues can easily arise through neuroscience. Neuroimaging, for Confinement: A Cruel example, might easily lead to predictions, with greater or lesser accuracy, of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Such imaging tests may be inaccurate, may present information patients find difficult to evaluate, and may provide information of dubious value and some harm. One might want to regulate some such tests along the free lesbien lines proposed for genetic tests: proof that the test was effective at Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel, predicting the athena illiad condition in question, assessment of the competency of Confinement: and Unusual Punishment, those performing the tests, required informed consent so that patients appreciate the test's possible consequences, and free lesbien assurance of post-test counseling to on Solitary and Unusual, assure that patients understand the of being quotes results. The Food and Essay Confinement: Drug Administration (FDA) has statutory jurisdiction over cultural bias, the use of drugs, biologicals, or medical devices. On Solitary Confinement: And Unusual Punishment. For covered products, it requires proof that they are both safe and effective. The Battle Of Dien Bien. FDA has asserted that it has jurisdiction over genetic tests as medical devices, but it has chosen only to impose significant regulation on genetic tests sold by manufacturers as kits to Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel Punishment, clinical laboratories, physicians, or consumers.

Tests done as home brews by clinical laboratories have only been subject to very limited regulation, which does not include proof of safety or efficacy. Neuroscience tests might well be subject to even less FDA regulation. If the test used an existing, approved medical device, such as an MRI machine, no FDA approval of Essay and Benefit, this additional use would be necessary. The test would be part of the practice of medicine, expressly not regulated by the FDA. The FDA also implements the Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments Act (CLIA), along with the examples Center for Disease Prevention and Control and on Solitary and Unusual Punishment the Center for Medicare and free lesbien Medicaid Services. Essay. CLIA sets standards for the training and working conditions of Bien Phu Essay, clinical laboratory personnel and requires periodic testing of Essay on Solitary and Unusual, laboratories' proficiency at different tests.

Unless the on Compensation Management tests were done in a clinical laboratory, through, for example, pathological examination of brain tissue samples or analysis of chemicals from the on Solitary Punishment brain, neuroscience testing would also seem to avoid regulation under CLIA. At present, neuroscience-based testing, particularly through neuroimaging using existing (approved) devices seems to be entirely unregulated except, to a very limited extent, by cultural examples malpractice law. One important policy question should be whether to regulate such tests, through government action or by professional self-regulation. The criminal justice system makes predictions about Essay on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual, individuals' future behavior in free lesbien, sentencing, parole, and other decisions, such as civil commitment for sex offenders. 4 The trend in recent years has been to limit the on Solitary A Cruel discretion of judges and parole boards to use predictions by setting stronger sentencing guidelines or mandatory sentences. Neuroscience could conceivably affect that trend if it provided scientific evidence of a person's future dangerousness. Such evidence might be used to increase sentencing discretion - or it might provide yet another way to limit such discretion. 5. One can imagine neuroscience tests that show a convicted defendant was particularly likely to commit dangerous future crimes by showing that he has, for example, poor control over his anger, his aggressiveness, or his sexual urges.

This kind of evidence has been used in the past; neuroscience may come up with ways that either are more accurate or that appear more accurate (or more impressive). For example, two different papers have already linked criminality to variations in The Battle, the gene for Essay on Solitary Confinement: monoamine oxidase A, a protein that plays an important role in the brain. 6 Genetic tests may seem more scientific and more impressive to the importance of being, a judge, jury, or parole board than a psychologist's report. The use of neuroscience to make these predictions raises at least two issues: are the neuroscience tests for future dangerousness or lack of self-control valid at all and, if so, how accurate do they need to be before they should be used? The law has had prior experience with claims of tests for inherent violent tendencies. The XYY syndrome was widely discussed and , accepted, , in the literature though not by the courts 7 , in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Men born with an additional copy of the Y chromosome were said to be much more likely to become violent criminals. Further research revealed, about a decade later, that XYY men were somewhat more likely to Confinement: A Cruel, have low intelligence and to have long arrest records, typically for petty or property offenses.

They did not have any higher than average predisposition to violence. If, unlike XYY syndrome, a tested condition were shown reliably to predict future dangerousness or lack of control, the question would then become how accurate the test must be in The Battle Phu Essay, order for on Solitary A Cruel it to be used. A test of dangerousness or lack of cultural examples, control that was only slightly better than flipping coins should not be given much weight; a perfect test could be. At what accuracy level should the line be set? In the context of civil commitment of sexual offenders, the Supreme Court has recently spoken twice on this issue, both times reviewing a Kansas statute. 8 The Kansas act authorizes civil commitment of a sexually violent predator, defined as any person who has been convicted of or charged with a sexually violent offense and who suffers from a mental abnormality or personality disorder which makes the on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual person likely to engage in repeat acts of Essay Management, sexual violence. 9 In Kansas v. Essay Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual. Hendricks , the cultural examples Court held the on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual Act constitutional against a substantive due process claim because it required, in addition to proof of of Dien Bien, dangerousness, proof of the defendant's lack of control. This admitted lack of volitional control, coupled with a prediction of future dangerousness, adequately distinguishes Hendricks from other dangerous persons who are perhaps more properly dealt with exclusively through criminal proceedings. 10 Id. at 360. It held Hendricks's commitment survived attack on ex post facto and double jeopardy grounds because the commitment procedure was neither criminal nor punitive.

11. Five years later, the Confinement: and Unusual Court revisited this statute in Kansas v. Free Lesbien. Crane . Essay Confinement:. 12 It held that the of Dien Bien Kansas statute could only be applied constitutionally if there were a determination of the Essay Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment defendant's lack of control and not just proof of the existence of a relevant mental abnormality or personality disorder: It is of being earnest quotes enough to say that there must be proof of Essay Confinement: and Unusual Punishment, serious difficulty in controlling behavior. And this, when viewed in light of such features of the case as the Essay on Compensation and Benefit nature of the psychiatric diagnosis, and the severity of the mental abnormality itself, must be sufficient to distinguish the dangerous sexual offender whose serious mental illness, abnormality, or disorder subjects him to Essay on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual, civil commitment from the cultural bias examples dangerous but typical recidivist convicted in Essay on Solitary and Unusual, an ordinary criminal case. Free Lesbien. 13. We know then that, at least in Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel, civil commitment cases related to prior sexually violent criminal offenses, proof that the particular defendant had limited power to control his actions is constitutionally necessary. There is the importance quotes no requirement that this evidence, or proof adduced in sentencing or parole hearings, convince the trier of fact beyond a reasonable doubt. On Solitary And Unusual. The Court gives no indication of athena, how strong that evidence must be or how its scientific basis would be established. Would any evidence that passed Daubert or Frye hearings be sufficient for civil commitment (or for enhancing sentencing or denying parole) or would some higher standard be required?

It is also interesting to speculate on how evidence of the Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual accuracy of such tests would be collected. It is unlikely that a state or federal criminal justice system would allow a randomized double-blind trial, performing the neuroscientific dangerousness or volition tests on all convicted defendants at the time of their conviction and then releasing them to see which ones would commit future crimes. That judges, parole boards, or legislatures would insist on rigorous scientific proof of connections between neuroscience evidence and future mental states seems doubtful. It is conceivable that neuroscience could provide other methods of testing ability or aptitude. Of course, the standard questions of the accuracy of those tests would apply. Tests that are highly inaccurate usually should not be used.

But even assuming the tests are accurate, they would raise concerns. Those tests might be used only athena illiad positively, as Dr. Binet intended his early intelligence test to be used to identify children who need special help. To the extent they were used to deny students, especially young children, opportunities, they seem more troubling. It is on Solitary Confinement: Punishment not clear why a society that uses aptitude tests so commonly for admission into elite schools should worry about their neuroscience equivalents. The SAT and other similar aptitude tests claim that student preparation or effort will not substantially affect student results, just as, presumably, preparation (at least in the short term) seems at least as unlikely to alter neuroscience tests of aptitude.

The existing aptitude tests, though widely used, remain controversial. Never. Neuroscience tests, particularly if given and Essay A Cruel and Unusual Punishment acted upon at an early age, are likely to exacerbate the discomfort we already feel with predictive uses of aptitude tests in education. The possibilities for neuroscience discrimination seem at least as real as with genetic discrimination. A predictive test showing that a person has a high likelihood of developing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, early-onset Alzheimer disease, early-onset Parkinson disease, or Huntington disease could certainly provide insurers or employers with an Essay Management, incentive to avoid that person. Essay A Cruel And Unusual. To the free lesbien extent one believes that health coverage should be universal or that employment should be denied or terminated only for good cause, banning neuroscientific discrimination might be justified as an incremental step toward this good end. Otherwise, it may be difficult to say why people should be more protected from Confinement: adverse social consequences of neuroscientific test results than of cholesterol tests, x-rays, or colonoscopies.

Special protection for genetic tests has been urged on the ground that genes are more fundamental, more deterministic, and mind the papers less the result of personal actions or chance than other influences on health. Others have argued against such genetic exceptionalism, denying special power to genes and contending that special legislation about genetics only confirms the public a false view of genetic determinism. Essay Confinement:. Still others, including me, have argued that the public's particularly strong fear of genetic test results, even though exaggerated, justifies regulation in order to Essay on Compensation and Benefit, gain concrete benefits from reducing that fear. The same arguments could be played out Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel with respect to predictive neuroscience tests. Although this is an open empirical question, it does seem likely that the public's perception of the fundamental or deterministic nature of genes does not exist with respect to neuroscience. One other possible business use of neuroscience predictions should be noted, one that has been largely ignored in genetics. Neuroscience might be used in in the, marketing. Firms might use neuroscience techniques on test subjects to enhance the appeal of their products or the effectiveness of their advertising.

Individuals or focus groups could, in the future, be examined under fMRI. At least one firm, Brighthouse Institute for Thought Sciences, has embraced this technology, and, in a press release from 2002, announced its intentions of revolutionizing the marketing industry. 17. More alarmingly, if neuro-monitoring devices were perfected that could study a person's mental function without his knowledge, information to predict a consumer's preferences might be collected for marketing purposes. Privacy regulation seems appropriate for the undisclosed monitoring in the latter example. Regulating the former seems less likely, although it might prove attractive if such neuroscience-enhanced market research proved too effective an aid to Essay on Solitary Confinement: Punishment, selling. The prenatal use of genetic tests to predict the future characteristics of fetuses, embryos, or as-yet unconceived offspring is one of the the importance of being quotes most controversial and interesting issues in human genetics. Neuroscience predictions are unlikely to have similar power prenatally, except through neurogenetics. It is possible that neuroimaging or other non-genetic neuroscience tests might be performed on a fetus during pregnancy.

Structural MRI has been used as early as about 24 weeks to look for major brain malformations, following up on on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual earlier suspicious sonograms. At this point, no one appears to have done fMRI on the brain of a fetus; the classic method of stimulating the subject and watching which brain regions react would be challenging in utero, though not necessarily impossible. In any event, fetal neuroimaging seems likely to give meaningful results only for serious brain problems and never even then at fairly late stage of fetal development so that the on Solitary and Unusual Punishment most plausible intervention, abortion, would be rarely used and only in the most extreme cases. 18. Parents, however, like schools, might make use of predictive neuroscience tests during childhood to help plan, guide, or control their children's lives. Of course, parents already try to guide their children's lives, based on everything from good data to wishful thinking about a child's abilities. Would neuroscience change anything?

It might be argued that parents would take neuroscience testing more seriously than other evidence of a child's abilities because of its scientific nature, and thus perhaps exaggerate its accuracy. More fundamentally, it could be argued that, even if the of Dien Phu Essay test predictions were powerfully accurate, too extreme parental control over a child's life is a bad thing. From this perspective, any procedures that are likely to on Solitary Confinement: Punishment, add strength to parents' desire or ability to exercise that control should be discouraged. On the other hand, society vests parents with enormous control over their children's upbringing, intervening only in strong cases of abuse. To some extent, this parental power may be a matter of federal constitutional right, established in a line of cases dating back 80 years.

19. This issue is perhaps too difficult to be tackled. It is worth noting, though, that government regulation is not the only way to of being, approach it. A Cruel And Unusual Punishment. Professional self-regulation, insurance coverage policies, and parental education might all be methods to athena in the illiad, discourage any perceived overuse of children's neuroscience tests by Essay A Cruel and Unusual Punishment their parents. Predictions may themselves be relevant in some litigation, particularly the quotes criminal cases discussed above, but other, non-predictive uses of neurosciences might also become central to litigated cases. Neuroscience might be able to provide relevant, and possibly determinative, evidence of a witness's mental state at the time of Essay Confinement: and Unusual Punishment, testimony, ways of eliciting or evaluating a witness's memories, or other evidence relevant to cultural bias, a litigant's claims. Essay On Solitary Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual Punishment. This section will look at a few possible litigation uses: lie detection, bias determination, memory assessment or recall, and other uses.

Whether any of these uses is scientifically possible remains to be seen. It is The Battle also worth noting that the extent of the use of Confinement: and Unusual Punishment, any of these methods will also depend on their cost and earnest intrusiveness. A method of, for example, truth determination that required an intravenous infusion or examination inside a full scale MRI machine would be used much less than a simple and on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual Punishment portable headset. The implications of any of these technologies for of Dien Bien litigation seem to on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual Punishment, depend largely on free lesbien four evidentiary issues. First, will the Essay on Solitary Confinement: Punishment technologies pass the The Battle of Dien Phu Essay Daubert 20 or Frye 21 tests for the admissibility of scientific evidence? (I leave questions of Daubert and Frye entirely to Professor Morse.) Second, if they are held sufficiently scientifically reliable to pass Daubert or Frye , are there other reasons to forbid or to compel the admissibility of the results of such technologies when used voluntarily by a witness? Third, would the refusal or the agreement of a witness to use one of these technologies itself be admissible in evidence?

And fourth, may a court compel witnesses, under varying circumstances, to use these technologies? The answers to these questions will vary with the setting (especially criminal or civil), with the technology, and with other circumstances of the case, but they provide a useful framework for analysis. Detecting Lies or Compelling Truth. The concept behind current polygraph machines dates back to the early 20th century. 22 They seek to measure various physiological reactions associated with anxiety, like sweating, breathing rate, and blood pressure, in the expectation that those signs of nervousness correlate with the speaker's knowledge that what he is saying is false. Essay On Solitary Confinement: A Cruel. American courts have generally, but not universally, rejected them, although they are commonly used by the federal government for various security clearances and investigations. 23 It has been estimated that their accuracy is free lesbien about 85 to Essay on Solitary Punishment, 90 percent.

24. Now imagine that neuroscience leads to new ways to determine whether or not a witness is telling a lie or even to compel a witness to tell the truth. A brain imaging device might, for example, be able to detect patterns or locations of brain activity known from experiments to be highly correlated with the free lesbien subject's consciousness of falsehood. (I will refer to this as lie detection.) Alternatively, drugs or other stimuli might be administered that made it impossible for a witness to do anything but tell the on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment truth an effective truth serum. (I will refer to this as truth compulsion and to the two collectively as truth testing.) Assume for the moment, unrealistically, that these methods of truth testing are absolutely accurate, with neither false positives nor false negatives. How would, and should, courts treat the results of such truth testing? The question deserves much more extensive treatment than I can give it here, but I will try to sketch some issues. Consider first the earnest quotes non-scientific issues of on Solitary Confinement:, admissibility. One argument against free lesbien, admissibility was made by Essay on Solitary A Cruel four justices of the Supreme Court in United States v. Scheffer 25 , a case involving a blanket ban on The Battle Bien Phu Essay the admissibility of polygraph evidence.

Scheffer, a enlisted man in Confinement: and Unusual Punishment, the Air Force working with military police as an athena in the, informant in drug investigations, wanted to introduce the results of a polygraph examination at his court-martial for Essay A Cruel illegal drug use. 26 The polygraph examination, performed by the military as a routine part of his work as an informant, showed that he denied illegal drug use during the same period that a urine test detected the presence of Bien, methamphetamine. 27 Military Rule of Evidence 707, promulgated by President George H.W. Confinement: Punishment. Bush in 1991, provides that Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the results of a polygraph examination, the opinion of free lesbien, a polygraph examiner, or any reference to an offer to on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, take, failure to take, or taking of a polygraph examination, shall not be admitted into The Battle Phu Essay, evidence. The court-martial refused to admit Scheffer's evidence on the basis of Rule 707. His conviction was overturned by the Court of Appeals for on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment the Armed Forces, which held that this per se exclusion of never mind the papers, all polygraph evidence violated the Essay on Solitary and Unusual Sixth Amendment. 28 The Supreme Court reversed in free lesbien, turn, upholding Rule 707, but in Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, a fractured opinion. Free Lesbien. Justice Thomas wrote the opinion announcing the decision of the Court and finding the rule constitutional on three grounds: continued question about the reliability of polygraph evidence, the need to preserve the jury's core function of A Cruel, making credibility determinations in criminal trials, and the avoidance of collateral litigation.

29 Justices Rehnquist, Scalia, and of being quotes Souter joined the Essay A Cruel and Unusual Thomas opinion in full. Bias Examples. Justice Kennedy, joined by Essay on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Justices O'Connor, Ginsburg, and Breyer, concurred in the importance earnest, the section of the Thomas opinion based on reliability of polygraph evidence. Those four justices did not agree with the other two grounds. 30 Justice Stevens dissented, finding that the reliability of polygraph testing was already sufficiently well established to invalidate any per se exclusion. 31. Our hypothesized perfect truth testing methods would not run afoul of the reliability issue.

Nor, assuming the rules for its admissibility were sufficiently clear, would collateral litigation appear to be a major concern. On Solitary A Cruel. It would seem, however, even more than the polygraph, to cultural bias, evoke the on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual concerns of four justices about invading the sphere of the jury even when the witness had agreed to the use. Although at this point Justice Thomas's concern lacks the fifth vote it needs to become a binding precedent, the preservation of the jury's role might be seen by some courts as rising to a constitutional level under a federal or state constitutional right to a criminal, or civil, jury trial. It could certainly be used as a policy argument against allowing such evidence and, as an The Battle Bien, underlying concern of the judiciary, it might influence judicial findings under Daubert or Frye about the reliability of the methods. 32 Assuming robust proof of reliability, it is Essay on Solitary hard to cultural examples, see any other strong argument against the admission of this kind of evidence. (Whether Justice Thomas's rationale, either as a constitutional or a policy matter, would apply to A Cruel and Unusual, non-jury trials seems more doubtful.) On the other hand, some defendants might have strong arguments for the admission of Essay on Compensation and Benefit Management, such evidence, at least in criminal cases. Courts have found in Essay on Solitary Punishment, the Sixth Amendment, perhaps in combination with the Fifth Amendment, a constitutional right for criminal defendants to present evidence in their own defense. Scheffer made this very claim, that Rule 707, in Bien, the context of his case, violated his constitutional right to Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel, present a defense. The Supreme Court has two lines of cases dealing with this right. In Chambers v. Mississippi , the Court resolved the defendant's claim by balancing the importance of the cultural bias examples evidence to the defendant's case with the reliability of the evidence.

33 In Rock v. Arkansas , a criminal defendant alleged that she could remember the events only after having her memory hypnotically refreshed. 34 The Court struck down Arkansas's per se rule against hypnotically refreshed testimony on the ground that the rule, as a per se rule, was arbitrary and therefore violated the Sixth Amendment's rights to present a defense and to testify in her own defense. The Rock opinion also stressed that the Arkansas rule prevented the defendant from telling her own story in any meaningful way. That might argue in favor of the admissibility of a criminal defendant's own testimony, under truth compulsion, as opposed to an examiner giving his expert opinion about the Essay on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment truthfulness of the witness's statements based on the truth detector results. These constitutional arguments for the admission of such evidence would not seem to mind, arise with the prosecution's case or with either the plaintiff's or defendant's case in a civil matter (unless some state constitutional provisions were relevant). 35. Assuming truth tested testimony were admissible, should either a party's, or a witness's, offer or refusal to A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, undergo truth testing be admissible in Essay and Benefit, evidence as relevant to their honesty? Consider how powerful a jury (or a judge) might find a witness's refusal to be truth tested, particularly if witnesses telling contrary stories have successfully passed such testing.

Such a refusal could well prove fatal to Essay Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, the witness's credibility. The Fifth Amendment would likely prove a constraint with respect to criminal defendants. The fact that a defendant has invoked the Fifth Amendment's privilege against self-incrimination cannot normally be admitted into evidence or considered by the trier of fact. Otherwise, the courts have held, the defendant would be penalized for free lesbien having invoked the privilege. A defendant who takes the stand might well be held to on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual, have waived that right and so might be impeached by his refusal to undergo truth testing. To what extent a criminal defendant's statements before trial could constitute a waiver of his right to avoid impeachment on this ground seems a complicated question, involving both the Fifth Amendment and the effects of the rule in Miranda v. Arizona . 36 These complex issues would require a paper of their own; I will not discuss them further here. Apart from a defendant in a criminal trial, it would seem that any other witnesses should be impeachable for their refusal to be truth tested; they might invoke the privilege against self-incrimination but the trier of the papers, fact, in on Solitary, weighing their credibility in in the illiad, this trial, would not be using that information against them. Essay Confinement: Punishment. And this should be true for prosecution witnesses as well as defense witnesses.

Both parties and non-party witnesses at and Benefit Management, civil trials would seem generally to be impeachable for their refusal to be truth-tested, except in some jurisdictions that hold that a civil party's invocation of the Fifth Amendment may not be commented upon even in a civil trial. It seems unlikely that a witness's willingness to on Solitary Confinement: Punishment, undergo truth testing would add anything to bias, the results of a test in most cases. It might, however, be relevant, and presumably admissible, if for some reason the test did not work on that witness or, unbeknownst to the witness at the time she made the offer, the and Unusual test results turned out to be inadmissible. The questions thus far have dealt with the admissibility of evidence from witnesses who have voluntarily undergone truth testing or who have voluntarily agreed or refused to undergo such testing. Bias Examples. Could, or should, either side have the power to compel a witness to undergo either method of truth testing? At its simplest, this might be a right to Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual, re-test a witness tested by free lesbien the other side, a claim that could be quite compelling if the results of Essay A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, these methods, like the Essay on Compensation and Benefit results of polygraphy, were believed to be significantly affected by the means by which it was administered not just the scientific process but the substance and A Cruel and Unusual Punishment style of the questioning. More broadly, could either side compel a witness, in a criminal or a civil case, to undergo such truth testing as part of the papers, either a courtroom examination or in pretrial discovery? Witnesses certainly can be compelled to testify, at trial or in Confinement: A Cruel, deposition. They can also be compelled, under appropriate circumstances, to undergo specialized testing, such as medical examinations. (These latter procedures typically require express authorization from the court rather than being available as of the papers, right to the other side.) Several constitutional protections might be claimed as preventing such compulsory testimony using either lie detection or truth compulsion.

A witness might argue that the method of truth testing involved was so great an intrusion into the person's bodily (or mental) integrity as to shock the conscience and Essay Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual violate the Fifth or Fourteenth Amendment, as did the stomach pumping in and Benefit, Rochin v. California . 37 A test method involving something like the wearing of Essay on Solitary A Cruel, headphones might seem quite different from one involving an intravenous infusion of the importance of being, a drug or envelopment in the coffin-like confines of Essay, a full-sized MRI machine. The strength of such a claim might vary with whether the process was lie detection and merely verified (or undercut) the witness's voluntarily chosen words or whether it was truth compulsion and interfered with the witness's ability to choose her own words. The Fifth Amendment's privilege against self-incrimination would usually protect those who choose to invoke it (and who had not been granted immunity). As noted above, that would not necessarily protect either a party in a civil case or a non-defendant witness in a criminal case from free lesbien impeachment for invoking the privilege. Would a witness have a possible Fourth Amendment claim that such testing, compelled by Essay A Cruel and Unusual court order, was an athena, unreasonable search and on Solitary Punishment seizure by the government? I know of no precedent for considering questioning itself as a search or seizure, but this form of questioning could be seen as close to searching the confines of the witness's mind. In that case, would a search warrant or other court order suffice to authorize the test against a Fourth Amendment claim?

And, if it were seen in that light, could a search warrant issue for the interrogation of a person under truth testing outside the context of any pending criminal or civil litigation - and possibly even outside the context of an arrest and its consequent Miranda rights? If this seems implausible, consider what an attractive addition statutory authorization of cultural, such mental searches might seem to the Administration or the Congress in the next version of the USA PATRIOT Act. 38. In some circumstances, First Amendment claims might be plausible. Essay A Cruel And Unusual Punishment. Truth compulsion might be held to violate in some respects the right not to speak, although the cultural precedents on this point are quite distant, involving a right not to be forced to say, or to publish, specific statements.

It also seems conceivable that some religious groups could object to these practices and might be able to Confinement: A Cruel Punishment, make a free exercise clause argument against such compelled speech. These constitutional questions are many and examples knotty. Equally difficult is the question whether some or all of them might be held to be waived by witnesses who had either undergone truth testing themselves or had claimed their own truthfulness, thus putting it in question. And, of course, even if parties or witnesses have no constitutional rights against being ordered to undergo truth testing, that does not resolve the policy issue of whether such rights should exist as a matter of statute, rule, or judicial decision. Parties and witnesses are not the only relevant actors in trials. Essay On Solitary Confinement:. Truth testing might also be used in voir dire. Free Lesbien. Prospective jurors might be asked about on Solitary, their knowledge of the parties or of the case or their relevant biases.

Could a defendant claim that his right to an unbiased juror was infringed if such methods were not used and the papers hence compel prospective jurors to Essay on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual, undergo truth testing? Could one side or the on Compensation and Benefit other challenge for cause a prospective juror who was unwilling to undergo such testing? In capital cases, jurors are asked whether they could vote to convict in light of a possible death penalty; truth testing might be demanded by the prosecution to make sure the prospective jurors are being honest. It is also worth considering how the existence of such methods might change the pretrial maneuvers of the parties. Currently, criminal defendants taking polygraph tests before trial typically do so through a polygrapher hired by their counsel and thus protected by the attorney-client privilege. Whatever rules are adopted concerning the admissibility of evidence from truth testing will undoubtedly affect the incentives of the parties, in civil and criminal cases, to on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual Punishment, undergo truth testing. Earnest Quotes. This may, in turn, have substantial, and Confinement: Punishment perhaps unexpected, repercussions for of Dien the practices of criminal plea bargaining and civil settlement. As the on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment vast majority of criminal and The Battle of Dien civil cases are resolved before trial, the effects of truth testing could be substantial. Even more broadly, consider the possible effects of truth testing on judicial business more generally. Certainly not every case depends on the honesty of witness testimony.

Some hinge on conclusions about reasonableness or negligence; others are determined by Essay on Solitary Confinement: questions of law. Athena In The. Even factual questions might be the focus of on Solitary A Cruel Punishment, subjectively honest, but nevertheless contradictory, testimony from free lesbien different witnesses. Still, it seems possible that a very high percentage of cases, both criminal and civil, could be heavily affected, if not determined, by truth-tested evidence. If truth testing reduced criminal trials ten-fold, that would surely raise Justice Thomas's concern about the proper role of the jury, whether or not that concern has constitutional implications. It would also have major effects on the workload of the Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment judiciary and, perhaps, on the structure of the of being courts. The questions raised by a perfect method of truth testing are numerous and complicated. They are also probably unrealistic given that no test will be perfect.

Most of these questions would require reconsideration if truth testing turned out to be only 99.9% accurate, or 99% accurate, or 90% accurate. That reconsideration would have to on Solitary A Cruel, consider not just overall accuracy but the rates of both false positives (the identification of a false statement as true) and false negatives (the identification of a true statement as false), as those may have different implications. Similarly, decisions on bias admissibility might differ if accuracy rates varied with a witness's age, sex, training in on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual, beating the machine, or other traits. And, of course, proving the athena illiad accuracy of such methods as they are first introduced or as they are altered will be a major issue in court systems under the Daubert or Frye tests. In sum, the invention by neuroscientists of Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel, perfectly or extremely reliable lie detecting or truth compelling methods might have substantial effects on almost every trial and on the entire judicial system.

How those effects would play out in light of Bien, our current criminal justice system, including the constitutional protections of the Bill of Rights, is not obvious. Evidence produced by neuroscience may play other significant roles in the courtroom. Consider the possibility of Essay Confinement:, testing, through neuroimaging, whether a witness or a juror reacts negatively to particular groups. Already, neuroimaging work is going on that looks for and finds differences in a subject's brain's reaction to people of different races. If that research is able to Essay on Compensation and Benefit, associate certain patterns of activity with negative bias, its possible use in litigation could be widespread. As with truth testing, courts would have to decide whether bias testing met Daubert or Frye , whether voluntary test results would be admissible, whether a party's or witness's refusal or agreement to take the test could be admitted into evidence, and on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual whether the testing could ever be compelled.

The analysis on these points seems similar to that for truth testing, with the possible exception of never, a lesser role for the privilege against self-incrimination. If allowed, neuroscience testing for racial bias might be used where bias was a relevant fact in Essay A Cruel and Unusual, the case, as in claims of employment discrimination based on race. It might be used to free lesbien, test any witness for bias for Confinement: or against a party of a particular race. It might be used to test jurors to ensure that they were not biased against the parties because of their race. Bien. One could even, barely, imagine it being used to test judges for bias, perhaps as part of on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, a motion to disqualify for bias. And, of course, such bias testing need not to be limited bias based on race, nationality, sex, or other protected groups. One could seek to test, in appropriate cases, for free lesbien bias against parties or witnesses based on on Solitary A Cruel their occupation (the police, for example), their looks (too fat, too thin), their voices (a southern accent, a Bahston accent), or many other characteristics. If accurate truth testing were available, it could make any separate bias testing less important. Witnesses or jurors could simply be asked whether they were biased against The Battle of Dien, the relevant group. Essay Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual Punishment. On the other hand, it is possible that people might be able to answer honestly that they were not biased, when they were in cultural bias examples, fact biased.

Such people would actually act on negative perceptions of different groups even though they did not realize that they were doing so. If the neuroimaging technique were able accurately to Essay on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, detect people with that unconscious bias, it might still be useful in addition to truth testing. Bias testing might even force us to re-evaluate some truisms. We say that the and Benefit parties to litigation are entitled to unbiased judges and A Cruel and Unusual juries, but we mean that they are entitled to judges and juries that are not demonstrably biased in a context where demonstrating bias is difficult. What if demonstrating bias becomes easy and bias is illiad ubiquitous? Imagine a trial where neuroimaging shows that all the prospective jurors are prejudiced against a defendant who looks like a stereotypical Hell's Angel because they think he looks like a criminal.

Or what if the only potential jurors who didn't show bias were themselves members of Essay on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual, quasi-criminal motorcycle gangs? What would his right to a fair trial mean in that context? Evaluating or Eliciting Memory. The two methods discussed so far involve analyzing (or in the case of truth compulsion, creating) a present state of mind. It is in the illiad conceivable that neuroscience might also provide courts with at least three relevant tools concerning memory. In each case, courts would again confront questions of the reliability of the tools, their admissibility with the witness's permission, impeaching witnesses for failing to Essay on Solitary Confinement: Punishment, use the tools, or compelling a witness to use such a memory-enhancing tool. The first tool might be an Essay and Benefit Management, intervention, pharmacological or otherwise, that improved a witness's ability to remember events. It is certainly conceivable that researchers studying memory-linked diseases might create drugs that help people retrieve old memories or retrieve them in more detail. This kind of intervention would not be new in litigation. The courts have seen great controversy over the past few years over repressed or recovered memories, typically traumatic early childhood experiences brought back to Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, adult witnesses by therapy or hypnosis.

Similarly, some of the the importance of being earnest child sex abuse trials over Essay on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual, the past decade have featured questioned testimony from young children about their experiences. Cultural. In both cases, the validity of these memories has been questioned. We do know from research that people often will come to remember, in good faith, things that did not happen, particularly when those memories have been suggested to them. 39 Similar problems might arise with enhanced memories. On Solitary Punishment. 40. A second tool might be the power to assess the validity of a witness's memory. What if neuroscience could give us tools to distinguish between true and false memory? One could imagine different parts of a witness's brain being used while recounting a true memory, a false memory, or a creative fiction. Or, alternatively, perhaps neuroscience could somehow date memories, revealing when they were laid down. The Battle Of Dien Bien. These methods seem more speculative than either truth testing or bias testing, but, if either one (or some other method of testing memory) turned out to be feasible, courts would, after the on Solitary A Cruel Punishment Daubert or Frye hearings, again face questions of admitting testimony concerning their voluntary use, allowing comment on a witness's refusal to take the test, and possibly compelling their use. A third possible memory-based tool is The Battle Bien still more speculative but potentially more significant.

There have long been reports that electrical stimulation can, sometimes, trigger a subject to have what appears to be an extremely detailed and vivid memory of a past scene, almost like reliving the Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel Punishment experience. At this point, we do not know whether these experiences are truly memories or are more akin to hallucinations; if it is a memory, how to reliably call it up; how many memories might potentially be recalled in this manner; or, perhaps most importantly, how to recall any specific memory. Whatever filing system the brain uses for the importance of being quotes memories seems to be, at this point, a mystery. Assume that it proves possible to cause a witness to recall a specific memory in its entirety, perhaps by localizing the Essay A Cruel and Unusual site of the never mind memory first through neuroimaging the witness while she calls up her own existing memories of the event. A witness could then, perhaps, relive an event important to trial, either before trial or on the witness stand. One could even, just barely, imagine a technology that might be able to read out the on Solitary witness's memories, intercepted as neuronal firings, and translate it directly into voice, text, or the equivalent of a movie for of being review by the finder of fact.

Less speculatively, one could certainly imagine a drug that would improve a person's ability to retrieve specific long-term memories. While a person's authentic memories, no matter how vividly they are recalled, may not be an accurate portrayal of what actually took place, they would be more compelling testimony than provided by typically foggy recollections of past events. Once again, if the validity of these methods were established, the key questions would seem to be whether to allow the admission of evidence from such a recall experience, voluntarily undertaken; whether to admit the fact of a party's or witness's refusal or agreement to and Unusual, use such method; and whether, under any circumstances, to compel the use of such a technique. 41. Other Litigation-Related Uses. Neuroscience covers a wide range of brain-related activities. The three areas sketched above are issues where neuroscience conceivably could have an impact on almost any litigation, but neuroscience might also affect any specific kind of litigation where brain function was relevant.

Consider four examples. The most expensive medical malpractice cases are generally considered so-called bad baby cases. In these cases, children are born with profound brain damage. Damages can be enormous, sometimes amounting to the cost of round-the-clock nursing care for seventy years. Evidence of causation, however, is often very unclear. The plaintiff parents will allege that the defendants managed the cultural bias delivery negligently, which led to a lack of oxygen that in Essay Confinement: and Unusual Punishment, turn caused the brain damage. Defendants, in addition to denying negligence, will usually claim that the bias examples damage had some other, often unknown, cause. Jurors are left with a family facing a catastrophic situation and no strong evidence about what caused it. Trial verdicts, and settlements, can be extremely high, accounting in part for the high price of malpractice insurance for obstetricians. If neuroscience would reliably distinguish between brain damage caused by oxygen deprivation near birth and on Solitary and Unusual Punishment that caused earlier, these cases would have more accurate results, in terms of compensating only families where the damage was caused around delivery. Similarly, if fetal neuroimaging could reveal serious brain damage before labor, those images could be evidence about the cause of the damage. Bien Phu Essay. (One can even imagine obstetricians insisting on prenatal brain scans before delivery in order to on Solitary Confinement:, establish a baseline.) By making the of Dien determination of causation more certain, it should also lead to more settlements and less wasteful litigation. (Of course, in cases where neuroscience showed that the damage was consistent with lack of oxygen around delivery, the defendants' negligence would still be in question.)

In many personal injury cases, the on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel Punishment existence of athena in the illiad, intractable pain may be an issue. In some of on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel Punishment, those cases there may be a question whether the plaintiff is exaggerating the in the illiad extent of the pain. It seems plausible that neuroscience could provide a strong test for whether a person actually perceives pain, through neuroimaging or other methods. It might be able to show whether signals were being sent by the sensory nerves to the brain from the on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel Punishment painful location on the plaintiff's body. Alternatively, it might locate a region of the brain that is always activated when a person feels pain or a pattern of brain activation that is athena always found during physically painful experiences.

Again, by reducing uncertainty about a very subjective (and hence falsifiable) aspect of Essay Confinement: A Cruel, a case, neuroscience could improve the litigation system. A person's competency is relevant in several legal settings, including disputed guardianships and competency to stand trial. Neuroscience might be able to establish some more objective measures that could be considered relevant to competency. (It might also reveal that what the law seems pleased to free lesbien, regard as a general, undifferentiated competency does not, in fact, exist.) If this were successful, one could imagine individuals obtaining prophylactic certifications of their competency before, for example, making wills or entering into unconventional contracts. The degree of Essay and Unusual Punishment, mental ability is also relevant in capital punishment, where the Supreme Court has recently held that executing the mentally retarded violates the Eighth Amendment. Athena In The Illiad. 42 Neuroscience might supply better, or even determinative, evidence of mental retardation. Or, again, it may be that neuroscience would force the courts to recognize that mental retardation is not a discrete condition. Finally, neuroscience might affect criminal cases for illegal drug use in several ways. Neuroscience might help determine whether a defendant was truly addicted to the drug in question, which could have some consequences for guilt or sentencing. It might reveal whether a person was especially susceptible to, or especially resistant to, becoming addicted. Or it could provide new ways to block addiction, or even pleasurable sensations, with possible consequences for sentencing or treatment. Again, as with the other possible applications of neuroscience addressed in this paper, these uses are speculative.

It would be wrong to count on neuroscience to solve, deus ex machina, our drug problems. It does not seem irresponsible, however, to consider the possible implications of neuroscience breakthroughs in on Solitary and Unusual Punishment, this area. 43. I am using these two often conflated terms to of Dien Phu Essay, mean different things. Essay On Solitary Confinement:. I am using confidentiality to quotes, refer to Confinement: Punishment, the obligation of a professional or an entity to limit appropriately the availability of information about people (in this context, usually patients or research subjects). Privacy, as I am using it, means people's interest in Essay and Benefit Management, avoiding unwanted intrusions into Essay, their lives. The first focuses on limiting the earnest quotes distribution of Essay on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual, information appropriately gathered; the second concerns avoiding intrusions, including the inappropriate gathering of in the, information. Essay A Cruel Punishment. Neuroscience will raise challenges concerning both concepts. Maintaining and Breaking Confidentiality.

Neuroscience may lead to The Battle Bien, the generation of sensitive information about Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual, individual patients or research subjects, information whose distribution they may wish to see restricted. Personal health information is everywhere protected in the United States, by varying theories under state law, by the importance earnest new federal privacy regulations under the on Solitary Confinement: Health Insurance Portability and athena in the illiad Accountability Act (HIPAA), 44 and by codes of professional ethics. A Cruel Punishment. Personal information about research subjects must also be appropriately protected under the Common Rule, the federal regulation governing most (but not all) biomedical research in the United States. 45 The special issue with neuroscience-derived information is whether some or all of it requires additional protection. Because of concerns that some medical information is more dangerous than usual, physicians have sometimes kept separate medical charts detailing patients' mental illness, HIV status, or genetic diseases. Some states have enacted statutes requiring additional protections for some very sensitive medical information, including genetic information. Because neuroscience information may reveal central aspects of illiad, a person's personality, cognitive abilities, and and Unusual future, one could argue that it too requires special protection.

Consideration of such special status would have to in the, weigh at least five counter-arguments. First, any additional recordkeeping or data protection requirements both increase costs and risk making important information unavailable to physicians or patients who need it. On Solitary Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual. A physician seeing a patient whose regular physician is on vacation may never know that there is a second chart that contains important neuroscience information. Second, not all neuroscience information will be especially sensitive; much will prove not sensitive at all because it is not meaningful to anyone, expert or lay. Third, defining neuroscience information will prove difficult. Statutes defining genetic information have either employed an Essay and Benefit Management, almost uselessly narrow definition (the result of DNA tests) or have opted for a wider definition encompassing all information about a person's genome. The latter, however, would end up including standard medical information that provides some information about a person's genetics: blood types, cholesterol level, skin color, and family history, among others.

Fourth, mandating special protection for a class of information sends the message that the Essay Confinement: information is especially important even if it is not. Bias Examples. In genetics, it is argued that legislation based on such genetic exceptionalism increases a false and harmful public sense of genetic determinism. Similar arguments might apply to neuroscience. Finally, given the many legitimate and often unpredictable needs for access to medical information, confidentiality provisions will often prove ineffective at keeping neuroscience information private, especially from the health insurers and employers who are paying for the medical care. This last argument in particular would encourage policy responses that ban bad uses of sensitive information rather than depending on keeping that information secret. Laws and policies on confidentiality also need to consider the limits on confidentiality. In some cases, we require disclosure of Confinement: A Cruel Punishment, otherwise private medical information to free lesbien, third parties. Essay On Solitary Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual. Barring some special treatment, the same would be true of neuroscience-derived information. A physician (including, perhaps, a physician-researcher) may have an obligation to report to a county health agency or the on Compensation Centers for Essay A Cruel and Unusual Punishment Disease Control neuroscience-derived information about a patient that is linked to a reportable disease (an MRI scan showing, for example, a case of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the human version of mad cow disease); to a motor vehicle department information linked to loss-of-consciousness disorders; and to a variety of governmental bodies information leading to a suspicion of child abuse, elder abuse, pesticide poisoning, or other topics as specified by in the illiad statute. In some cases, it might be argued, as it has been in genetics, that a physician has a responsibility to disclose a patient's condition to a family member if the family member is at higher risk of the same condition as a result. Finally, neuroscience information showing an imminent and serious threat from a patient to a third party might have to on Solitary Punishment, be reported under the Tarasoff doctrine.

46 Discussion of the confidentiality of neuroscience-derived information needs to take all of these mandatory disclosure situations into account. Privacy Protections Against Mental Intrusions. Privacy issues, as I am using the term in The Battle Bien, this paper, would arise as a result of neuroscience through unconsented and inappropriate intrusions into a person's life. The results of Essay on Solitary A Cruel Punishment, a normal medical MRI would be subject to confidentiality concerns; a forced MRI would raise privacy issues. Mind The Papers. Some such unconsented intrusions have already been discussed in dealing with possible compulsory truth, bias, or memory interventions inside the Essay and Unusual Punishment litigation system.

This section will describe such interventions (mainly) outside a litigation context. Intrusions by the government are subject to the Constitution and its protections of free lesbien, privacy, contained in and emanating from the penumbra of the Essay on Solitary Bill of of being earnest, Rights. Whether or not interventions were permitted in the courtroom, under judicial supervision, the government might use them in other contexts, just as polygraphs are used in security clearance investigations. All of these non-litigation governmental uses share a greater possibility of abuse than the use of such a technology in a court-supervised setting. Presumably, their truly voluntary use, with the informed consent of a competent adult subject, would raise no legal issues. Situations where agreement to take the test could be viewed as less than wholly voluntary would raise their own set of sticky problems about the on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment degree of mind the papers, coercion. Consider the possibility of truth tests for A Cruel and Unusual Punishment those seeking government jobs, benefits, or licenses. Admission to a state college (or eligibility for government-provided scholarships or government-guaranteed loans) might, for example, be conditioned on passing a lie detection examination on never mind illegal drug use. Frankly compelled uses might also be used, although they would raise constitutional questions under the Fourth and Fifth Amendments.

One could imagine law enforcement officials deciding to interrogate one member of Essay, a criminal gang under truth compulsion in violation of Miranda and of the Fifth Amendment (and hence to forego bringing him to trial) in order to get information about his colleagues. Even if a person had been given a sufficiently broad grant of never the papers, immunity to avoid any Fifth Amendment issues, would that really protect the interests of a person forced to Essay on Solitary A Cruel, undergo a truth compulsion process? Or would such a forcible intrusion into one's mind be held to violate due process along the lines of Rochin v. Essay. California ? 47. Of course, even if the interrogated party could bring a constitutional tort claim against the police, how often would such a claim be brought? And would we or our courts always find such interrogations improper? Consider the interrogation of suspected terrorists or of enemy soldiers during combat, when many lives may be at Essay on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual, stake. Mind. (This also raises the Essay Confinement: A Cruel interesting question of how the U.S. could protect its soldiers or agents from similar questioning). Although more far-fetched scientifically, consider the possibility of less intrusive neuroscience techniques.

What if the government developed a neuroimaging device that could be used at a distance from athena illiad a moving subject or one that could fit into the arch of a airport metal detector? People could be screened without any obvious intrusion and Essay on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual Punishment perhaps without their knowledge. Should remote screening of airline passengers for violent or suicidal thoughts or emotions be allowed? Would it matter whether the cultural bias examples airport had signs saying that all travelers, by their presence, consented to Confinement: A Cruel Punishment, such screening? Private parties have less ability than the government to in the illiad, compel someone to undergo a neuroscience intervention - at least without being liable to arrest for assault. Still, one can imagine situations where private parties either frankly coerce or unduly influence someone else to take a neuroscience intervention. On Solitary Confinement:. If lie detection or truth compulsion devices were available and usable by of being laymen, one can certainly imagine criminal groups using them on their members without getting informed consent. Employers might well want to test their employees; parents, their teenagers. If the intervention requires a full-sized MRI machine, we would not worry much about private, inappropriate use. If, on the other hand, truth testing were to require only the equivalent of Essay on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual, headphones or a hypodermic needle, private uses might be significant and would seem to require regulation, if not a complete ban.

This seems even more true if remote or unnoticeable methods were perfected. A last form of neuroscience intrusion seems, again, at the edge of the scientifically plausible. The Papers. Imagine an intervention that allowed an outsider to control the actions or motions, and possibly even the on Solitary A Cruel Punishment speech, emotions, or thoughts, of a person. Already researchers are seeking to learn what signals need to be sent to trigger various motions. Dr. Miguel Nicolelis of Duke University has been working to determine what neural activity triggers particular motions in rats and in monkeys and he hopes to be able to stimulate it artificially. 48 One goal is to trigger the implanted electrodes and have the monkey's arm move in a predictable and controlled fashion. The potential benefits of this research are enormous, particularly to cultural examples, people with spinal cord injuries or other interruptions in their motor neurons. On the other hand, it opens the nightmarish possibility of someone else controlling one's body a real version of the Imperio curse from Harry Potter's world.

Similarly, one can imagine devices (or drugs) intended to Essay on Solitary, control emotional reactions, to free lesbien, prevent otherwise uncontrollable rages or depressions. One could imagine a court ordering implantation of on Solitary and Unusual Punishment, such a device in free lesbien, sexual offenders to prevent the emotions that give rise to their crimes or, perhaps more plausibly, offering such treatment as an option, in Essay Confinement: and Unusual Punishment, place of a long prison term. Castration, an old-fashioned method of accomplishing a similar result, either surgical or chemical, is already a possibility for convicted sex offenders in mind the papers, some states. Various pharmacological interventions can also be used to affect a person's reactions. These kinds of on Solitary and Unusual, interventions may never become more than the ravings of victims of athena, paranoia, though it is at least interesting that the Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration (DARPA) is providing $26 million in support of Nicolelis's research through its Brain-Machine Interfaces program. 49 The use of such techniques on on Solitary Confinement: consenting competent patients could still raise ethical issues related to enhancement. Their use on convicts under judicial supervision but with questionably free consent is troubling. Their possible use on unconsenting victims is the importance of being quotes terrifying.

If such technologies are developed, their regulation needs to Essay and Unusual, be considered carefully. Advances in neuroscience will certainly raise legal and policy questions in intellectual property law, particularly in patent law. Mind The Papers. 50 Fortunately, few of those questions seem novel, as most seem likely to Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual, parallel issues already raised in genetics. In some important respects, however, the issues seem less likely to be charged than those encountered in bias examples, genetics. Two kinds of neuroscience patents seem likely. The first type comprises patents on drugs, devices, or techniques for studying or intervening in Essay on Solitary Punishment, living brains. Free Lesbien. MRI machines are covered by many patents; different techniques for using devices or particular uses of them could also be patented. So, for example, the A Cruel Punishment first person to use an MRI machine to search for a particular atom or molecule might be able to earnest quotes, patent that use, unless it were an obvious extension of existing practice.

Similarly, someone using an MRI machine, or a drug, for Essay Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment the purpose of determining whether the subject was telling the truth could patent that use of that machine or drug, even if she did not have own a patent on the machine or drug itself. The second type would be a patent on a particular pattern of activity in the brain. (I will refer to these as neural pattern patents.) The claims could be that this pattern could be used to diagnose conditions, to predict future conditions, or as an cultural bias, opportunity for Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel an intervention. This would parallel the common approach to patenting genes for diagnosis, for prediction, and for possible gene therapy. Neuroimaging results seem the obvious candidates for this kind of patent, although the patented pattern might show up, for example, as a set of gene expression results revealed by microarrays or gene chips. I will discuss the of Dien Phu Essay likely issues these kinds of patents raise in three categories: standard bioscience patent issues, owning thoughts, and medical treatments. Standard Bioscience Patent Issues. Patents in the biological science, especially those relating to genetics, have raised a number of different concerns. Three of the issues seem no more problematic with neuroscience than they have been with genetics; three others seem less problematic. Whether this is troublesome, of course, depends largely on one's assessment of the current state of genetic patents. My own assessment is relatively sanguine; I believe we are muddling through the issues of genetic patents with research and on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel treatment continuing to thrive. I am optimistic, therefore, that none of these standard patent issues will cause broad problems in mind the papers, neuroscience.

Two concerns are based on the fact of the patent monopoly. On Solitary Confinement: A Cruel. Some complain that patents allow the patent owner to restrict the use and illiad increase the price of the Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment patented invention, thus depriving some people of its benefits. 51 This is, of course, true of all patents and is a core idea behind the athena in the illiad patent system: the on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual Punishment time-limited monopoly provides the on Compensation Management economic returns that encourage inventors to invent. With some bioscience patents, this argument has been refined into a second perceived problem: patents on research tools. Control over a tool essential to the future of a particular field could, some say, give the Confinement: and Unusual patent owner too much power over the field and could end up retarding research progress. Earnest. This issue has been discussed widely, most notably in the 1998 Report of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Working Group on on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual Punishment Research Tools, which made extensive recommendations on the subject. Never Mind The Papers. 52 Some neuroscience patents may raise concerns about monopolization of basic research tools, but it is not clear that those problems cannot be handled if and as they arise. A third issue concerns the effects of on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel Punishment, patents on universities.

Under the Bayh-Dole Act, passed in 1980, universities and other non-profit organizations where inventions were made using federal grant or contract funds can claim ownership of the resulting inventions, subject to certain conditions. Bayh-Dole has led to the growth of technology licensing offices in universities; some argue that it has warped university incentives in unfortunate ways. Neuroscience patents might expand the number of cultural bias, favored, money-making departments in universities, but seem unlikely to and Unusual Punishment, make a qualitative difference. Just because neuroscience patents seem unlikely to pose the first three patent problems in any new or particularly severe ways does not mean those issues should be ignored. Individual neuroscience patents might cause substantial problems that call for examples intervention; the on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual cumulative weight of neuroscience patents when added to other bioscience patents may make systemic reform of one kind or another more pressing. The Battle Bien Phu Essay. But the outlines of the problems are known. Three other controversies about genetic patents are unlikely to be nearly as significant in neuroscience. They seem relevant, if at on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual, all, to neural pattern patents, not to device or process patents.

Two of the controversies grew out of patents on DNA sequences. In 1998 Rebecca Eisenberg and Michael Heller pointed out the and Benefit Management tragedy of the anti-commons, the concern that having too many different patents for DNA sequences under different ownership could increase transaction costs so greatly as to foreclose useful products or research. 53 This issue was related to a controversy about the standards for granting patents on DNA sequences. Researchers were applying for tens of thousands of patents on small stretches of DNA without necessarily knowing what, if anything, the DNA did. Often these were expressed sequence tags or ESTs, stretches of DNA that were known to be in genes and hence to play some role in Essay and Unusual, the body's function because they were found in transcribed form as messenger RNA in cells.

It was feared that the resulting chaos of examples, patents would make commercial products or further research impossible. This concern eventually led the Patent and Trademark Office to issue revised guidelines tightening the utility requirement for gene patents. However strong or weak these concerns may be in genetics, neither issue seems likely to be very important in Essay on Solitary Punishment, neuroscience (except of quotes, course in neurogenetics). On Solitary A Cruel Punishment. There does not appear to be anything like a DNA sequence in neuroscience, a discrete entity or pattern that almost certainly has meaning, and potential scientific or commercial significance, even if that meaning is unknown. Examples. The equivalent would seem to Essay Confinement:, be patenting a particular pattern of brain activity without having any idea what, if anything, the never mind the papers pattern related to. That was plausible in genetics because the sequence could be used as a marker for the still unknown gene; nothing seems equivalent in neuroscience. Similarly, it seems unlikely that hundreds or thousands of different neural patterns, each patented by different entities, would need to be combined into one product or tool for commercial or research purposes. The last of Essay Confinement: A Cruel Punishment, these genetic patent controversies revolves around exploitation. Some have argued that genetic patents have often stemmed from the alleged inventors' exploitation of individuals or indigenous peoples who provided access to or traditional knowledge about medicinal uses of living things, who had created and mind maintained various genetically varied strains of and Unusual Punishment, crops, or who had actually provided human DNA with which a valuable discovery was made. These claims acquired a catchy title biopiracy and a few good anecdotes; it is not clear whether these practices were significant in number or truly unfair. Neuroscience should face few if any such claims.

The main patterns of the research will not involve seeking genetic variations from crops or other living things, nor does it seem likely (apart from The Battle of Dien Phu Essay neurogenetics) that searches for and Unusual Punishment patterns found in unique individuals or distinct human populations will be common. Patents on the importance earnest quotes human genes have been extremely controversial for a wide variety of reasons. Some have opposed them for religious reasons, others because they were thought not to involve true inventions, others because they believed human genes should be the common heritage of mankind, and still others because they believe such gene patents commodify humans. (Similar but slightly different arguments have raged over the patentability of other kinds of Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel, human biological materials or of non-human life-forms.) On the surface, neural pattern patents would seem susceptible to free lesbien, some of the same attacks as hubristic efforts to on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual Punishment, patent human neural processes or even human thoughts. Illiad. I suspect, however, that an ironically technical difference between the two kinds of patents will limit the controversy in neuroscience. Patents on human genes or, more accurately, patents on DNA or RNA molecules of specified nucleotide sequences are typically written to on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel, claim a wide range of conceivable use of those sequences. A gene patent, for example, might claim the use of a sequence to predict, to diagnose, or to free lesbien, treat a disease. But it will also claim the Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual molecule itself as a composition of matter. The Battle Of Dien. The composition of matter claim gives the owner rights over any other uses of the sequence even though he has not foreseen them. It also seems to give him credit for inventing a genetic sequence existing naturally and that he merely isolated and identified. It is the on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment composition of athena illiad, matter claims that have driven the controversy over gene patents.

Few opponents claim that the researchers who, for example, discovered the gene linked to cystic fibrosis should not be able to patent beneficial uses of Essay and Unusual Punishment, that gene, such as diagnosis or treatment. It is the assertion of ownership of the cultural thing itself that rankles even though that claim may add little value to the other use claims. Neural pattern patents would differ from gene patents in Essay A Cruel and Unusual Punishment, that there is no composition of matter to be patented. The Importance Of Being. The claim would be to on Solitary, certain patterns used for certain purposes. Never Mind The Papers. The pattern itself is not material it is on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel Punishment not a structure or a molecule and so should not be claimable as a composition of athena in the, matter. Consider a patent on a pattern of neural activity that the brain perceives as the color blue. Essay. A researcher might patent the use of the pattern to tell if someone was seeing blue or perhaps to allow a person whose retina did not perceive blue to see blue.

I cannot see how a patent could issue on the pattern itself such that a person would own the idea of blue. Similarly, a pattern that was determinative of schizophrenia could be patented for that use, but the patentee could not own schizophrenia or even the pattern that determined it. If a researcher created a pattern by altering cells, then he could patent, as a composition of and Benefit Management, matter, the Essay on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual Punishment altered cells, perhaps defined in part by the pattern they created. Without altering or discovering something material that was associated with the pattern, I do not believe he could patent a neural pattern itself. The fact that neural pattern patents will be patents to uses of the patterns, not for the patterns themselves, may well prevent the kinds of earnest quotes, controversies that have attended gene patents. Patents and Medical Treatment. Neuroscience pattern patents might, or might not, run into a problem genetics patents have largely avoided: the Ganske-Frist Act. In September 1996, as part of an omnibus appropriations bill, Congress added by amendment a new Section 387(c) to the patent law. This section states that. With respect to a medical practitioner's performance of a medical activity that constitutes an infringement under section 271(a) or (b) of this title, the on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment provisions of The Battle Bien Phu Essay, sections 281, 283, 284, and 285 of this title shall not apply against the medical practitioner or against Essay on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual Punishment, a related health care entity with respect to such medical activity. 54.

This section exempts a physician and her hospital, clinic, HMO, or other related health care entity from liability for damages or an injunction for The Battle of Dien Phu Essay infringing a patent during the performance of a medical activity. The amendment defines medical activity as the performance of Essay Punishment, a medical or surgical procedure on a body, but it excludes from that definition [1] the examples use of a patented machine, manufacture, or composition of matter in violation of such patent, [2] the practice of Essay on Solitary A Cruel Punishment, a patented use of a composition of matter in violation of such patent, or [3] the earnest practice of a process in violation of a biotechnology patent. 55 The statute does not define a biotechnology patent. Congress passed the amendment in reaction to an ultimately unsuccessful lawsuit brought by an ophthalmologist who claimed that another ophthalmologist infringed his patent on performing eye surgery using a particular v shaped incision. Essay Confinement: A Cruel Punishment. Medical procedure patents had been banned in the papers, many other countries and had been controversial in the United States for over a century; they had, however, clearly been allowed in the United States since 1954.

56. Consider a neural pattern patent that claimed the use of a particular pattern of brain activity in the diagnosis or as a guide to the treatment of schizophrenia. 57 A physician using that pattern without permission would not be using a patented machine, manufacture, or composition of matter in violation of Confinement:, such patent. Nor would she be engaged in the practice of a patented use of a composition of and Benefit Management, matter in violation of such patent. A Cruel And Unusual. With no statutory definition, relevant legislative history, or judicial interpretation, it seems impossible to tell whether she would be engaged in the practice of a process in violation of a biotechnology patent. Free Lesbien. Because molecules, including DNA, RNA, and proteins, can be the subjects of composition of matter patents, most genetic patents should not be affected by the Ganske-Frist Act. 58 Neural pattern patents might be. It is, of Essay Confinement: Punishment, course, quite unclear how significant an influence this exception for patent liability might have in free lesbien, neuroscience research or related medical practice. If even a small fraction of the issues discussed above come to pass, neuroscience will have broad effects on our society and our legal system. The project to which this paper contributes can help in beginning to sift out the likely from the merely plausible, the Essay on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual unlikely, and the bizarre, both in The Battle Bien Phu Essay, the expected development of the science and in the social and legal consequences of that science.

Truly effective prediction of upcoming problems and suggestions for viable solutions will require an extensive continuing effort. How to create a useful process for managing the social and legal challenges of neuroscience is not the least important of the many questions raised by neuroscience. * C. Wendell and Edith M. Essay On Solitary A Cruel And Unusual. Carlsmith Professor of free lesbien, Law; Professor,, by courtesy, of Confinement: Punishment, Genetics, Stanford University. I want to thank particularly my colleagues John Barton, George Fisher, and on Compensation Tino Cuellar for their helpful advice on intellectual property, evidentiary issues, and neuroscience predictions in on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel, the criminal justice system, respectively. I also want to thank my research assistant, Melanie Blunschi. Back. 1. William Shakespeare, Macbeth, Act I, Scene 4 (1606). Back. 2. The source of this common saying is surprisingly hard to pin down, but Bohr seems the on Compensation most plausible candidate. See Henry T. Greely, Trusted Systems and Medical Records: Lowering Expectations , 52 STAN.

L. Essay On Solitary Confinement:. REV. 1585, 1591 n. 9 (2001). Back. 3. See, e.g., Secretary's Advisory Committee on mind Genetic Testing, Enhancing the Oversight of Genetic Tests: Recommendations of the Essay on Solitary Punishment SACGT , National Institutes of Health (July 2000), report available at http://www4.od.nih.gov/oba/sacgt/reports/oversight_report.htm; Holtzman, N.A.; Watson, M.S. (eds.) Promoting Safe and Effective Genetic Testing in the United States: Final Report of the free lesbien Task Force on Genetic Testing . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, (1997); and Barbara A. Essay On Solitary Confinement: And Unusual. Koenig, Henry T. Greely, Laura McConnell, Heather Silverberg, and Thomas A. Raffin, PGES Recommendations on of Dien Bien Genetic Testing for Breast Cancer Susceptibility , JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HEALTH 7:531-545 (June 1998). Back.

4. Prosecutors also make predictions in using their discretion in charging crimes and in plea bargaining; the police also use predictions in deciding on which suspects to focus. My colleague Tino Cuellar pointed out to me that neuroscience data, from the present prosecution or investigation or from earlier ones, might play a role in those decisions. Back. 5. The implications of neuroscientific assessments of a person's state of mind at the time of the crime for criminal liability are discussed in A Cruel and Unusual, Professor Morse's paper. The two issues are closely related but may have different consequences. Back. 6. See Brunner, H.G., Nelen, M., Breakefield, X.O., Ropers, H.H., Oost, B.A. van, Abnormal Behavior Associated with a Point Mutation in the Structural Gene for Monoamine Oxidase A. , SCIENCE, 262:5133-36 (October 22, 1993), discussed in Virginia Morrell, Evidence Found for a Possible Aggression Gene , SCIENCE 260:1722-24 (June 18, 1993); and on Compensation Avshalon Caspi, Joseph McClay, Terrie E. Essay A Cruel And Unusual Punishment. Moffitt, Jonathan Mill, Judy Martin, Ian W. Craig, Alan Taylor, Richie Poulton, Role of The Battle of Dien, Genotype in the Cycle of Violence in Maltreated Children , SCIENCE, 297:851-854 (Aug.

2, 2002), discussed in Essay on Solitary A Cruel, Erik Stokstad, Violent Effects of Abuse Tied to Gene , SCIENCE 297:752 (Aug. 2, 2002). Back. 7. See the discussion of the four unsuccessful efforts to The Battle of Dien Bien, use XYY status as a defense in criminal cases in Deborah W. Denno, Human Biology and Criminal Responsibility: Free Will or Free Ride? 137 U.Pa. L. Rev.

613, 620-22 (1988). Back. 8. See two excellent recent discussions of on Solitary Punishment, these cases: Stephen J. Morse, Uncontrollable Urges and Irrational People , 88 VA. L. Athena Illiad. REV. 1025 (2002); and Peter C. Essay On Solitary Confinement: A Cruel. Pfaffenroth, The Need for Coherence: States' Civil Commitment of Sex Offenders in mind, the Wake of Kansas v. Crane , 55 STAN. L. REV. 2229 (2003). Back. 9. Kan. Stat. Ann. 59-29a02(a) (2003).

Back. 10. 521 U.S. 346, 360 (1997). Back. 12. 534 U.S. 407 (2002). On Solitary. Back. 14.

For a representative sample of views, see Kathy L. Hudson, Karen H. Rothenberg, Lori B. Andrews, Mary Jo Ellis Kahn, and Francis S. Collins, Genetic Discrimination and mind the papers Health Insurance: An Urgent Need for Reform , 270 SCIENCE 391 (1995) (broadly favoring a ban on Essay on Solitary A Cruel discrimination); Richard A. Essay On Compensation And Benefit Management. Epstein, The Legal Regulation of Genetic Discrimination: Old Responses to New Technology , 74 B.U. L. On Solitary A Cruel Punishment. REV. 1 (1994) (opposing a ban on the use of genetic information in employment discrimination); Henry T. Greely, Genotype Discrimination: The Complex Case for Some Legislative Protection , 149 U.PA.L.REV. 1483 (2001) (favoring a carefully drawn ban, largely to combat exaggerated fears of discrimination); and Colin S. Diver and Jane M. Cohen, Genophobia: What Is Wrong with Genetic Discrimination? , 149 U. PA. L. REV. 1439 (2001) (opposing a ban on its use in health insurance). Back. 15. For the most up-to-date information on state law in free lesbien, this area, see Ellen W. Essay A Cruel Punishment. Clayton, Ethical, Legal, and The Battle Bien Social Implications of Genomic Medicine , 349 NEW ENG.

J. MED. 542 (2003). Back. 16. After considering, but not adopting, similar legislation since 1997, in October 2003 the Senate passed the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act, S. Essay On Solitary Confinement: And Unusual Punishment. 1053. The vote was unanimous, 95-0, and the Bush Administration announced its support for the measure. Never Mind. A similar bill is currently awaiting action in the House of Representatives. See Aaron Zitner, Senate Blocks Genetic Discrimination, Los Angeles Times, Section 1, p. 16 (Oct. 15, 2003). Back. 17.

Brighthouse Institute for Thought Sciences Launches First Neuromarketing Research Company , press release (June 22, 2002) found at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2002/6/prweb40936.php Back. 18. It seems conceivable that MRI results of a fetal brain might ultimately be used in conjunction with prenatal neurosurgery. Back. 19. See, e.g., Pierce v. Society of Sisters , 268 U.S.510 (1925); Meyer v. Nebraska , 262 U.S. 390 (1923). Back. 20.

Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals , 516 U.S. 869; 116 S. Ct. 189; 133 L. Ed. 2d 126 (1993). Essay On Solitary A Cruel Punishment. Back. 21. The Battle Of Dien. Frye v. United States, 54 App.D.C. 46, 293 F. 1013 (1923, D.C. Cir.) Back. 22. Essay Confinement: A Cruel And Unusual. A National Academy of Sciences panel examining polygraph evidence dated the birth of the polygraph machine to of Dien, William Marston between 1915 and Essay on Solitary A Cruel 1921.

COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE ON THE POLYGRAPH, NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, THE POLYGRAPH AND LIE DETECTION at 291-97 (Mark H. Moore and free lesbien Anthony A. Confinement:. Braga, eds. On Compensation. 2003). Marston was the polygraph examiner whose testimony was excluded in United States v. Frye . Back. 23. Essay A Cruel And Unusual Punishment. See the discussion in United States v. Scheffer , 523 U.S. 303, 310-11 (1998). At that point, most jurisdictions continued the traditional position of excluding all polygraph evidence. Two federal circuits had recently held that polygraph evidence might be admitted, on a case by case basis, when, in the district court's opinion, it met the Daubert test for scientific evidence.

One state, New Mexico, had adopted a general rule admitting polygraph evidence. Back. 24. Justice Stevens characterized the state of the scientific evidence as follows in his dissent in free lesbien, United States v. A Cruel And Unusual. Sheffer : There are a host of illiad, studies that place the reliability of polygraph tests at 85% to 90%. While critics of the polygraph argue that accuracy is on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment much lower, even the studies cited by Bien Phu Essay the critics place polygraph accuracy at 70%. Moreover, to the extent that the on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual polygraph errs, studies have repeatedly shown that the polygraph is more likely to find innocent people guilty than vice versa. Thus, exculpatory polygraphs like the one in this case are likely to never mind, be more reliable than inculpatory ones. United States v. Scheffer , 523 U.S. 303, 333 (1998) (Stevens, J., dissenting)(footnotes omitted) A committee of the National Academy of Sciences has recently characterized the evidence as follows: Notwithstanding the limitations of the quality of the empirical research and the limited ability to generalize to real-world settings, we conclude that in populations of examinees such as those represented in A Cruel Punishment, the polygraph research literature, untrained in countermeasures, specific-incident polygraph tests can discriminate lying from free lesbien truth telling at rates well above chance, though well below perfection.

COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE ON THE POLYGRAPH at 4. On Solitary Confinement: And Unusual. Back. 29. 532 U.S. at 312-13. Back. 32. I owe this useful insight to Professor Fisher. Back. 33. The Battle Of Dien Bien. 410 U.S. 284 (1973). Back.

35. A constitutional right to admit such evidence might also argue for a constitutional right for indigent defendants to have the government pay the on Solitary Punishment cost of such truth testing, which might be small or might be great. In The Illiad. Back. 36. 396 U.S. 868 (1969). Back.

37. 342 U.S. 165 (1952). Back. 38. Essay Confinement: And Unusual Punishment. Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and cultural bias Obstruct Terrorism (USA Patriot Act) Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-56 (2001).

Back. 39. As with bias detection, truth testing could limit the need for such memory assessment when the witness was conscious of the falsity of the memory. Memory assessment, however, could be useful in cases where the Essay on Solitary Confinement: and Unusual witness had actually come to of being quotes, believe in the accuracy of a questioned false memory. Essay. Back. 40. Bias. It is quite plausible that researchers might create drugs that help people make, retain, and retrieve new memories, important in conditions such as Alzheimer disease. One can imagine giving such a drug in Essay Confinement: A Cruel Punishment, advance to someone who you expected to witness an Essay and Benefit Management, important event although providing such a person with a video-recorder might be an easier option. Back.

41. Although it is not relevant to judicial uses of the on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual technology, note the possibility that any such memory recall method, if easily available to bias, individuals in unsupervised settings, could be used, or abused, with significant consequences. A person might obsessively relive past glorious moments a victory, a vacation, a romance, a particularly memorable act of lovemaking. A depressed person might dwell compulsively on bad memories. For either, reliving the past might cause the on Solitary A Cruel and Unusual Punishment same interference with the in the present (or the future) as serious drug abuse. Essay A Cruel And Unusual. Back. 42. Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2003). Back. 43.

At the same time, neuroscience could give rise to other drugs or drug equivalents. A neuroscience-devised trigger to pleasurable sensations say, to athena in the illiad, cause powerful orgasms could function effectively as a powerful drug of Essay Confinement: A Cruel, abuse. Back. 44. 45 C.F.R. 160;.101, et seq. (2003). Back. 45. Each federal agency's version of the Common Rule is codified separately, but see, e.g., the version of the regulation adopted by the Department of Health and Human Services at 45 C.F.R. 46.101-46.409 et seq. Free Lesbien. (2003). Back. 46.

Tarasoff v .Regents of Essay on Solitary A Cruel, University of California, 17 Cal.3rd 425, 551 P.2d 334, 131 Cal. Rptr. 14 (1976). This influential but controversial California decision has been adopted, rejected, or adopted with modifications by various state courts and legislatures. For a recent update, see Fillmore Buckner and Marvin Firestone, Where the Public Peril Beings: 25 Years After Tarasoff , 21 J. Legal Med. 187 (2000). Back. 47.

See the discussion supra at note 34. Back. 48. See Nicolelis, M.A.L., 2003, Brain-Machine Interfaces to Restore Motor Function and Probe Neural Circuits , Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4, 417-22. For a broader discussion of free lesbien, Nicolelis's work, see Jose M. Carmena, Mikhail A. Lebedev, Roy E. Crist, Joseph E. O'Doherty, David M. Santucci, Dragan F. Dimitrov, Parag G. Patil, Craig S. Essay On Solitary Punishment. Henriquez, Miguel A.L. Nicolelis, Learning to Control a Brain-Machine Interface for Reaching and Grasping by free lesbien Primates , Public Library of Science Biology, Vol. 1, Issue 2 (November 2003). Back. 49. DARPA to Essay Punishment, Support Development of Human Brain-Machine Interfaces , Duke University Press Release (August 15, 2002).

Back. 50. I cannot think of any plausible issues in copyright or trademark law arising from neuroscience (except, of course, to the extent that litigation in either field might be affected by athena illiad some of the Essay and Unusual possible methods discussed in the litigation section above). It seems somewhat more plausible that trade secrets questions might be raised, particularly in connection with special treatments, but I will not discuss those possibilities further. Back. 51. In The. Jon F. Merz, Antigone G. Kriss, Debra G.B. Leonard, and Mildred K. Essay And Unusual. Cho, Diagnostic Testing Fails the Test , Nature, 415:577-579 (2002). Back. 52. Report of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Working Group on athena Research Tools (June 4, 1998).

Back. 53. Michael A. Heller and Rebecca S. Eisenberg, Can Patents Deter Innovation? The Anticommons in Biomedical Research , SCIENCE 280:698-701 (May 1, 1998), but see John P. Walsh, Ashish Arora, and Essay on Solitary and Unusual Wesley M. Cohen, Research Tool Patenting and Licensing and the importance earnest quotes Biomedical Innovation , in PATENTS IN THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY (W. M. Cohen and S. Merrill, eds. National Academies Press 2003) (finding no evidence for such a problem). Back.

56. See the discussion of the Ganske-Frist amendment in Richard P. Burgoon, Jr., Silk Purses, Sows Ears and Other Nuances Regarding 35 U.S.C. 287(c) , 4 U. BALT. INTELL. PROP. J. A Cruel And Unusual. 69 (1996), and Scott D. Anderson, A Right Without a Remedy: The Unenforceable Medical Procedure Patent , 3 MARQ. INTELL. PROP. L. REV.

117 (1999). Back. 57. Of Dien. If the use were purely for Essay on Solitary Confinement: A Cruel prediction, it could be plausibly argued that it was not a medical procedure subject to the act. I suspect this argument would not be successful if the procedure were performed by a licensed health professional (and not, for example, a Ph.D. neuroscientist). Back. 58. Procedures using gene expression results might be vulnerable unless the expression array or gene chip was itself a patented machine or manufacture the in the use of which was specified in the patent. Back.

These remarks were made by Henry T. Greely for the Regan Lecture.

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America. Never Mind The Papers! It had been the most difficult day of on Solitary Confinement: Punishment, my life, and of being earnest quotes even though I was just a little girl, it made a big difference in my life compared with the life . of girls my age. It was an important but painful event that taught me how to take care of Essay Confinement: A Cruel, myself , how to Essay Management be responsable at an early age, and it showed me that in the most difficult situation I am not alone, God is Essay on Solitary, with me. Even my mom and athena in the illiad father can leave me alone, but God is always there for me. To begin with, the first couple of months after.

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American football , Char kway teow , Hussein Onn 1327 Words | 3 Pages. An Introductory Essay About Myself - Assignment. St Pauls University Name: Peterson Muriithi Mugo Reg. Cultural Bias Examples! No: BBA/NRB/2827/13 Task: An Introductory Essay about and Unusual Punishment, . Myself - Assignment Course: Bachelor of illiad, Business Administration And Management Unit Name: Academic Writing Unit Code: UCC 102 Lecturer: Mrs. Essay On Solitary Confinement: And Unusual! Susan Mwangi This is Peterson Its not an easy thing to speak about myself as it is hard to look at myself from aside, most of the time one tends to get biased in an attempt to appease to The Battle Bien Phu Essay the person he or she is introducing his/herself to. 2007 singles , Academia , Believe. There's Magic in the Stars 545 Words | 2 Pages. Since childhood, I have always seen myself as a nurse. The sight of the Essay Confinement: A Cruel and Unusual, suffering people has always triggered some sympathetic feelings in me. . Often, the sight of the of being earnest, sick would make so uncomfortable that I always desired to help them. Being a very inquisitive child, I would inquire about the conditions and go into A Cruel and Unusual Punishment the trouble of thinking about the solution to examples the problem. Essay And Unusual Punishment! My passion for nursing manifested itself right from the childhood times when I would attend to never my injured classmates and playmates.

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I was. College , Father , High school 1107 Words | 4 Pages.